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Slope

Slope
Parte I Theory & Tools 1
1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 1 2 Program Installation ................................................................................................................................... 1 3 Registration ................................................................................................................................... 3 4 Program Tools ................................................................................................................................... 4
Status Bar .......................................................................................................................................................... 5 Snap ......................................................................................................................................................... 5 Object Draw......................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Language & Units ................................................................................................................................... 7 6 Technical Notes ................................................................................................................................... 7 7 Seismic parameters ................................................................................................................................... 11

Parte II Tutorials

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1 Conventions ................................................................................................................................... 11
Screen Tips .......................................................................................................................................................... 11

2 Project Modelling ................................................................................................................................... 12
Containm ent .......................................................................................................................................................... 13 Works Define Piles ......................................................................................................................................................... 14 Define Anchors ......................................................................................................................................................... 14 Define Walls ......................................................................................................................................................... 15 Reinforced......................................................................................................................................................... 16 Earth Resource File ......................................................................................................................................................... 17 Stratigraphy .......................................................................................................................................................... 18 Soil Type DB ......................................................................................................................................................... 18

3 Zoom ................................................................................................................................... 19 Functions 4 Vertex Management Graphic ................................................................................................................................... 20 5 Vertex Management Numeric ................................................................................................................................... 21 6 Graphic Print Preview ................................................................................................................................... 22 7 Report Print Preview ................................................................................................................................... 22

Parte III Cartesian Coordinates Parte IV Program Menus

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1 File Menu ................................................................................................................................... 23 2 Edit Menu ................................................................................................................................... 24 3 View Menu ................................................................................................................................... 24 4 Tools ................................................................................................................................... 25 Menu 5 Numeric Input Menu ................................................................................................................................... 26
Exam ples attached .......................................................................................................................................................... 27 Free Form Surface (non circular) .......................................................................................................................................................... 27 Default .......................................................................................................................................................... 28 General Param eters .......................................................................................................................................................... 28 © 2010 GeoStru Software

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Surface Colour .......................................................................................................................................................... 30 Layer Geotechnics .......................................................................................................................................................... 30

6 Graphic Input ................................................................................................................................... 32
Centres' Grid.......................................................................................................................................................... 33 Display safety factor ......................................................................................................................................................... 34 Slope Profile .......................................................................................................................................................... 34 Loads .......................................................................................................................................................... 35

7 Computation Menu ................................................................................................................................... 36
Analysis Options .......................................................................................................................................................... 37 Calculation m .......................................................................................................................................................... 37 ethods Calculation Sum m ary .......................................................................................................................................................... 38 Stress Graphic .......................................................................................................................................................... 39 One Point .......................................................................................................................................................... 39

8 Export Menu ................................................................................................................................... 40 9 Preferences Menu ................................................................................................................................... 41
Configurations .......................................................................................................................................................... 41

10 Help Menu ................................................................................................................................... 42

Parte V Bibliography Parte VI Calculation of the Yield Moment Parte VII Accelerogramm integration Parte VIII Contact Parte IX Slope/MRE

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1 Standards ................................................................................................................................... 50 2 Internal verification ................................................................................................................................... 51
Reinforcenets spacing .......................................................................................................................................................... 52 Reinforcem ents' traction forces .......................................................................................................................................................... 52 Effective lengths .......................................................................................................................................................... 53 Traction resistances .......................................................................................................................................................... 55 Tieback & Com pound .......................................................................................................................................................... 55

3 Global verification ................................................................................................................................... 55 4 General data ................................................................................................................................... 56 5 Geometrical data ................................................................................................................................... 57 6 Loads................................................................................................................................... 58 7 Reinforcements' position ................................................................................................................................... 58 8 Soil materials ................................................................................................................................... 60 9 Safety................................................................................................................................... 60 factors 10 Analysis ................................................................................................................................... 61 11 Results ................................................................................................................................... 61

Parte X Qsim

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© 2010 GeoStru Software

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Slope

© 2010 GeoStru Software

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Minimum configuration Windows 95/98/2000/XP/Vista or NT operating system.2 Program Installation Package contents The package should contain a CD–ROM. For Optimum configuration. Seismic analysis. The calculation method adopted can perform non-linear analysis with redistribution of stress states. the hardware key. a grid. Differentiation between flexible and rigid retaining structures. anchors.) (Preferences). Load types: Distributed and point loads (load lines). See also Technical notes. and terracing may be specified. Stability analysis of submerged slopes. Bishop. Manuals can be downloaded from our web site. on soil or rock terrains. (Preferences) The program’ s measurement units may be set at any user determined combination (in. gravity and/or reinforced concrete bracing walls. cm. Safety factors are calculated automatically for all slip circles whose centres are so defined and whose circumference crosses the slope outline. geofabrics. A VGA screen with 16 Mb memory and 6 Mb free disc space. Spencer. the program’s usage license and optionally. the following are recommended: © 2010 GeoStru Software . Sarma. DEM enables movements and safety factors for every element in the slope to be derived. Analysis of irregular surfaces. whose intersections and rectangle centres are used as centres of the circles is defined. Janbu. For Freeform non circular surfaces the characteristics of all user defined slices are calculated. Bell. is included import of raster images. The program’ s operational language may be selected between English. and Bibliography. For circular surfaces. Reinforcements: Piles. External point or longitudinal loads. Italian or Spanish. lb. on either circular or non circular surfaces. Kg. ft. By using bound calculations subsets of these can be investigated. Morgenstern & Price and DEM (Element Discrete Method). 1. utilizing any of the following methods: Fellenius. m.1 Slope 1 1.1 Theory & Tools Introduction Slope stability Analysis of slope stability in both static and seismic states. Among input methodologies. etc.

XP operating systems. Geostru will respond by sending you a © 2010 GeoStru Software .” Uncheck this and file extensions will display in that folder. Click on HDD32. Hardware lock If you have purchased a hardware key you will need to install an additional item on the CD (or download library). (It is also possble to make this operative for all folders!) Installation requires the presence in your operating system of MS installer program. Many PCs are set up NOT to show these. If the installer is present. For WindowsNT 2click on instmsiw. On disk C: in the Programs folder a Geostru folder is created and a folder for the program being installed added to it. If this happens. see below under Version Update. Then select Folder options.Theory & Tools 2 64 Mb memory and 100 Mb free disc space. Otherwise Windows will open the ‘Open with’ window indicating that it does not recognise this extension.) between yourself and GeoStru Software S. ME. Installation loads the program (exe). however not inferior to 800 x 600. In the Start. For W95/98/NT.exe. installation will start.exe to do this. Programs menu a ‘GeoStru’ item is placed which expands to the programs installed. 2 click the msi extension file as indicated below. form must be loaded and expanded separately.exe.B. (If you do not know whether MS Installer is present in your system. (or if downloaded the files will be present in the download library).msi etc). On Win XP and similar Select Tools. On W98 and similar.: If you have previously installed the same program. No automatic loading occurs. in zip. Use Windows Explorer to view contents of the CD (or download library). the help file (chm). N. (check carefully) This installs the MS Installer program in your operating system. and example/auxiliary files. click on each file with extension msi. Small font size Installation Start computer and insert CD–ROM in drive. This is included in Windows 2000. Follow instructions displayed during program installation. When installing Textures a stand alone folder is created so that all programs may use it. View. It is not necessary to be able to see the file extensions but it is helpful. select View. You will send Geostru the control number in the ‘Registration’ window when the program is run. To actually install the program(s). The manual. For Windows 95/98 2click on instmsia.a. Cancel and add the MS Installer as stated above). Colour Palette: 65536 colours Screen Resolution: 1024 × 768 pixels recommended. Software lock The use of this system requires the exchange of information (Email or Fax etc. it must be added as a one-time requirement. You can alter this default from the MS Explorer window for the individual folder. and find the check box entitled “Hide file extension for known files.S. The file name is an acronym of the program name (slope.

When the user purchases the program the registration number necessary for full functionality may be obtained by sending GeoStru Software S. Be sure to make your choice positively then. Later when the older version is no longer required. In Demo mode. or Spanish interface language. Select Application Installation and chose remove against the program name. it may be removed from the control panel.3 Slope registration number to enter in this opening window.S.a.3 Registration The program is distributed both on CD. the Control Number to be found in the registration window. or as a download. Version Update When a version update is obtained. giving the control number. In the concrete case it will be clear why this is. Disintallation This may be achieved in control panel (Start. An alternative to this process is to obtain a hardware key (dongle) which when inserted in the parallel/USB port opens all the functions of the program. among which. Control panel). because whatever is selected on this occasion becomes the default (avoids asking repeatedly). The registration number is specific to the computer and if the program is to be loaded on another PC. The choice is presented when the program is run first time. some functions. will respond with the correct registration number. With some version updates. © 2010 GeoStru Software .S. With version update the previous registration number will remain valid. GeoStru Software S. Then proceed as above (2click msi file) to install the new one. This removes the previous version. a new registration number should be requested. print. This must however be present whenever the program should be used. 1. If you have failed to chose. thus demonstrating its capabilities. In such cases a new registration number will be required. click on the msi extension as above but as a first step. Settings. you can reset the default from the ‘Preferences/Preferenze/Preferencias’ menu under ‘Language’. this removal option is not presented and on installing the new version the previous version remains. The whole exchange may occur by Email quoting the license number. This opens the full functionality of the program. See Disinstallation above. select Remove. intentionally. in a demonstration mode. This may then be entered (one time operation) into the registration window field. Language Our programs offer the choice of English. which appears on that machine. and assignment of point coordinates is randomly altered while the other functions remain active. Italian. Until this is done the program operates in demonstration mode. export and save are suppressed.a.

slope.4 Program Tools The program supplies two main tools for the achievement of its objectives. it can be difficult to see the line of distinction as the drawing environment provides its own commands (move. with a number of panes.g. e. the function remains in operation until switched off. According to a Microsoft convention. is blank when the program is opened. in the text menu it gives font options. Ctrl+C to Copy and Ctrl+V to paste). commands can also be selected from the keyboard (without use of the mouse) by a combination of the key ‘Alt’ and the letter underlined in the command name (e. in a CAD inspired environment. Against some of the commands a ‘Ctrl’ + a letter is shown. If values that fall outside the screen are defined (extent/height of the terrain. may be drawn in scale.) the image may be zoomed to include these and renumerate the coordinates. Below the drawing window there is a so called status bar. which gives the area its name. barriers position etc. These are: A drawing window wherein the object. Within some functions a Floating Menu enable extra parameters to be given. A set of commands.Theory & Tools 4 1. which either determine the environment or cause computation and its results to be effected and displayed. zoom etc) and the commands also display results in the graphic environment worksheet. The command can be invoked directly by the use of that combination. File is called by Alt+F and New By Alt+F+N ). However the distinction clarifies the process of arriving at the desired result. This may occur automatically as it does with slope vertices © 2010 GeoStru Software . The Toolbar area displays a number of buttons with (hopefully) self explanatory icons.: The users attention is particularly drawn to the operation of certain menu and toolbar items as on/off switches that activate a function until switched off. Thus when insert slope profile function is activated.g. can be invoked by pressing the right hand mouse button. supports etc. Letting the mouse pointer rest on the button. N. While this is a real classification. The Menu bar consists of a number of menus from which (or from whose submenus) any of the commands of the program may be chosen by clicking on them with the mouse. profile. in which the worksheet is represented. Above the drawing window appear the Toolbar area and above it the Menu bar. The first pane is dedicated to the display of the exact coordinates of the mouse pointer. Individual toolbars can be shown or hidden by right clicking the toolbar area and checking the required ones. Many of these combinations are standardised such that they can be used in any program (e. These buttons are grouped into so called toolbars. which can be used to perform some of the more common commands. barriers.g.B. displays a short text (see Screen Tips in Conventions in Tutorials) that describes the function of the button. These are used to display various conditions. Around the top and left side of it are shown figures that represent the values of the ordinate and abscissa with reference to the zero points and are expressed in the selected units. The drawing window.

From left to right the following panes appear: The coordinates pane that shows the value of the coordinate at which the mouse pointer is located.1. 1. The Safety Factor pane which shows the coordinates of the centres grid centre.1 Snap Operates in connection with the establishment of a grid (qv) such that points selected on the screen are placed at an intersection of this grid.5 Slope when the right mouse button is pressed to indicate completion. but in some cases requires express action as there is otherwise no clear termination point. The show radii switch that shows the state of and controls the display of slip surface radii.4. Layer indicator: indicates the layer number currently pointed to. The show slices switch that shows the state of and controls the display of slices. 1. The Grid (display) switch which the state of shows and controls the display of the grid. While the function remains active this is indicated in the graphic of the menu and toolbar items. The function may be switched on or off by clicking the frame in the status bar (at the base of the window) that indicates its status by dimmed or normal text.1 Status Bar The status bar consists in a number of panes some of which are information panes and some of which represent on/off switches whose aspect shows the condition of the switch and lastly one that is a menu button.4. Pressing the button opens the Parameters (see General Parameters in Numeric Input Menu) window in which the seismic parameters may be assigned. The Vertex distance pane shows the distance of the mouse pointer from the nearest profile vertex or requested point to point (see Object Draw). © 2010 GeoStru Software . The snap switch that shows the state of and controls the application of snap function. the radius of the slip surface arc and the safety factor for that surface. The Seismic condition indicator that indicates if seismic acceleration is operative. The Units pane that may be used as a push button to recal the Units selection window.

With this tool activated select. Continue to record all vertices. A dialog window opens that allows the text itself. Right click to close the polygon (joining first and last vertices) and terminate. To draw a rectangular object. Click to record this point and draw the resulting rectangle. To draw a polygon object. The distance (D) is shown on the status bar (see Status Bar in Program Tools) in the distance pane. select the Polygon tool.Theory & Tools 6 1. select the Rectangle tool.e.: The drawing functions are activated by selecting the command and remain active until the command is selected again. Once drawn. Click on the first point of the line and drag to the end point. & texts This toolbar provides tools to draw on the worksheet at positions determined graphically by the user.B. select the Circle tool. Click to record this radius. drag to the other point and click. This will allow a text box to be defined within which the text will lie. If you wish to continue drag again to the next point and click. Drag to the next point and click to record it. N. Right click to terminate and draw he circle. one of the objects by clicking on one of the drag points. Click on the first point and drag to the opposite corner. Click at one diagonal point.4. The icon in depressed or raised aspect indicates the status. By pressing the right mouse button while pointing at the object. The distance tool enables point to point distances to be determined. not in respect to the slope profile or its components). a dialog window particular © 2010 GeoStru Software . Click OK to terminate. Overlooking deactivation can give rise to unexpected results! To draw a line object. Right click to terminate. Polygons. Click the point intended as the centre and then drag to define the radius. To insert a text object select the Text tool. select the Line tool. Click on the first point of the polygon. Click to record this point. To draw a circular object. When the object is selected the drag points appear. Right click to terminate. these objects may be amended or deleted. square. Alternatively with the mouse it can be dragged to another position or one of the vertices dragged to another position. For line. The move to foreground/background buttons operate on object(s) selected and only in respect of other objects (i. for text at the vertices of the text box.1. To do so select the Select tool (arrowhead).2 Object Draw Lines. drag the mouse to the opposite diagonal point and click again to record this point. its font type & size and colour to be entered. or polygons these are at the vertices. With the object selected it is possible to remove it by pressing the DEL key. for circles at the centre and at an encompassing square. When selected click on the first point.

which can only be reduced to monophase ones where terrain is dry or through analysis in drained conditions. Once selected these variables remain set until altered. Moreover it is practically impossible to define constituency rules of general validity in as much as terrains behave non linearly even in small deformations. Due to these difficulties it is the practice to introduce simplifying hypotheses. are anisotropic. Projects created under previous versions of the program are converted also as regards their units of measurement. When altered they cause the closing of the program and come to effect when next the program is opened.7 Slope to each object is opened where the various attributes. A slide is considered to be a state of instability that affects natural hillsides and involve considerable volumes of earth. 1. 1. For text object the text can also be amended. © 2010 GeoStru Software . including colour and line thickness can be altered numerically. it is assumed that the material's resistance be solely expressed by the parameters: Cohesion (c) and angle of resistance to shear (j). perfectly plastic). In the majority of cases one is in the condition of having to treat material which even if saturated is biphase. Introduction to stability analysis The solution of the problem requires consideration of the field equations and of the constituent bonds. Change in language affects the operation of the program rather than the project. Such equations become particularly complex in as much as terrains are multiphase systems. Existing projects ‘remember’ the units in which it was created and continues to use these. Measurement units however are a project attribute and a change cannot be imposed on an existing project (unit conversion). The first are of equilibrium the others describe the ground behaviour. but comes to operate on any new project after the change is invoked. ground constants. 1. and characteristics of the plastic state. and this renders the treatment of equilibrium equations particularly complex. and their behaviour depends not only on deviatory forces but also on normal ones.6 Technical Notes Definition A slope is understood to be a portion of a natural hillside the original profile of which has been modified in a manner of relevance for its stability. Thereafter Mohr-Coulomb's criteria of breakage are considered valid. Simplified constituency rules are introduced (rigid model.5 Language & Units Language and measurement units may be selected by the user in the Preferences menu.

While the equations are: Equilibrium equations Equilibrium equations Equilibrium equations Equations relative to In all 4n equations. at the horizontal displacement n. The degree of indeterminability is further reduced when it is assumed that Ni is applied at a mid point of the slice. From this comparison we derive the first indication of stability as the Safety Factor: F f / Among the various equilibrium methods some consider the total equilibrium of the rigid body (Culman). Sarma). such as the slope. Bishop. The problem is statistically indeterminate to the extent of: i 6n 2 4n 2n 2 of the n moments. From such equilibrium are calculated shear stress ( ) and compared to the available resistance ( f ) evaluated according to Mohr-Coulomb's break criterion. (n-1) tangential forces Xi acting on slice interface. n values of shear forces at the base of slice T i . (n-1) normal forces Ei acting on slice interface. Slice Method The volume affected by slide is subdivided into a convenient number of slices. In some cases equilibrium equations come to be only partially satisfied. arc of a circle. Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM) The limit equilibrium method consists in the study of the equilibrium between a rigid body. logarithmic spiral). an unknown safety factor F. (n-1) values of the coordinate that identifies the point of application of Xi . the break criterion n. while others divide the body into slices to cater for its non homogeneity and consider the equilibrium of each of these (Fellenius. If the number of these is n the problem presents the following unknowns: n values of normal forces Ni acting on the base of each. Spenser. The various methods that are based on equilibrium theory differ in the way in which the © 2010 GeoStru Software . n values of the coordinate that identifies the point of application of Ni . which is equivalent to assume the hypothesis that total normal tensions are distributed uniformly. Janbu. and of a slide surface of any shape (Straight line.Theory & Tools 8 2. In all the unknowns are (6n-2). Slice equilibrium methods are discussed below. at the vertical displacement n.

The equations used to resolve the problem are: Fv 0 . When non-circular slide surfaces are treated the arm of the forces changes (in circular forces it is constant and equal to the radius of the arc) and therefore it is more convenient to evaluate the moment equation at the angle of each block. Equations relative to the break criterion n. M0 0 Break criterion ci F= b i + (Wi . Safety factor F.u i bi + X i ) Wi tan sin sec i i i 1 tan i tan i /F Janbu (1967 ) Janbu has extended Bishop's method to Free Form surfaces. Unknowns are (2n+1).9 Slope (n-2) degrees of indeterminability are eliminated. © 2010 GeoStru Software .u i Wi sin i li ) tan i Bishop (1955) None of the contributing forces acting on blocks is ignored using this method that was the first to describe the problems of conventional methods. 1 equation of the global moments. Fellenius (1927) With this method (only valid for circular form slide surfaces) intra interface forces are ignored and thereby the unknowns are reduced to: n values of normal forces Ni n values of shear forces T i . The available equations are: Equilibrium equations at the vertical displacement n. F= ci l i + (Wi cos i .

According to the vertical and force equilibrium conditions for individual slices and the moment equilibrium condition for the whole sliding mass. solving for Fs and l is very complex since the equilibrium equations are highly nonlinear and in rather complicated form. However.). Zhu et al. Some sophisticated iterative procedures (Morgenstern and Price 1967.Theory & Tools 10 ci F= b + (Wi .S. circular potential slip surfaces are usually assumed and the Ordinary method (Fellenius 1936) and the simplified Bishop method (Bishop 1955) are commonly used. thereby rendering the problem determinate. When evaluating the stability conditions of soil slopes of simple configuration. a number of methods of slices can be used to accommodate the non-circular shape of slip surfaces (Janbu 1954. Search for the critical slide surface In the presence of homogeneous media there are no methods to identify the critical slide surface and it is necessary to investigate a large number of possibilities. Fredlund and Krahn 1977. Unfortunately. 2001) have been developed for such purposes. among which the which the Morgenstern-Price method (Morgenstern and Price 1965) is regard as the most popular because it satisfies complete the equilibrium conditions and involves the least numerical difficulties. Morgenstern and Price 1965. Although these procedures can give converged solutions to Fs and l. two equilibrium equations are derived involving the two unknowns the factor of safety Fs and the scaling factor l. Chen and Morgenstern 1983. Army Corps of Engineers 1967. © 2010 GeoStru Software . the actual failure surfaces are found to deviated largely from circular shape or the potential slip surfaces are predefined by planes of weakness in rock slopes. they are not easily accessible to general geotechnical designers who have to rely on commercial packages as a black box.u i bi + X i ) Wi tan tan i i 1 sec 2 i tan i tan i /F Morgenstern & Price ( 1965 ) Abstract of article in Canadian Geotechnical journal (2002): Slope-stability problems are usually analyzed using a variety of limit equilibrium methods of slices. all surfaces having the node m×n as a centre and a radius within determined range of values such as to cover values that are admissible within the defined slope profile. The basic assumption underlying the Morgenstern-Price method is that the ratio of normal to shear interslice forces across the sliding mass is represented by an interslice force function that is the product of a specified function f(x) and an unknown scaling factor l. and etc. In such cases. the latter being preferred due to its high precision. U. in many situations. Where circular form surfaces can be assumed the search simplifies in as much as after having positioned a grid of slide circle centres of m rows and n columns. Lowe and Karafiath 1960. Spener 1967.

Y values (slope elevation) must be ascending from left to right. Ground geotechnic characteristics of the constituent layers of the slope under analysis must be entered uppermost to lowermost in that order. This text is also available in a number of windows specifically those with abbreviations such as in table column headers.Y).11 Slope 1. Sections recorded with other reference systems may be mirrored by the function Mirror Image in the Tools menu. © 2010 GeoStru Software . They can also be calculated automatically by the software on the base of the maximum acceleration at site.1. The entry dialog is available from the Numeric Input Menu or from the Geotechnics toolbar button (see Screen Tips).1 Tutorials Conventions The program operates on the base of the following conventions and as such requires that these are followed: 1. 2. 2 2. The coordinates of the slope definition must lie within the positive quadrant of a Cartesian reference system (X.7 Seismic parameters Seismic parameters The values of the horizontal and vertical seismic coefficients can be manually assigned by the user.1 Screen Tips Note that toolbar buttons exhibit a short text string (in a small yellow textbox) that give a prompt as to the function of the button. 2. 3.

the intersections of which (and the centre of the cells) become the centres of the multiple automatically generated slip circles whose SF is evaluated in computation. Alternatively the results of penetrometric sampling from Geostru programs Static or Dynamic can be imported. cohesion etc. 2. A number of resource files and soil characterizing texture icons are diistributed with the program and may be extended / amended by the user. Selection of project properties: 1. See Loads in Graphic Input. textures and other graphic controls. For noncircular / freeform surfaces the user defines potential slip surface profiles in the Numeric Input menu. See also Vertex management. Soil properties (gamma. anchors. 5. and/or terracing may be introduced. Some calculation methods permit either. Some common soil properties are supplied in a soils DB.) are defined by the user in the Stratigraphy table. The division of slip surfaces into slices is automatic but may be influenced by © 2010 GeoStru Software . Slice parameters.txt) that can be extended / amended by the user. See General Parameters in Numeric Input Menu. 4. Selection in Numeric Input menu. See Containment works. Stabilizing structures such as walls. The slope profile should be defined or imported from a variety of sources. Bedrock. piles. See Centres' Grid in Graphic Input. nails. Water table profile and/or multiple piezometrics may be defined. Loads may be placed on the Slope. See Define Profile in Containment Works in Project Modelling. The calculation method is selected from the choices in Computation menu.2 Project Modelling Project modelling encompasses all the functions by which a representation of the object slope and its characteristics is achieved. Safety factor. See Preferences Menu. The analysis can be based on circular or non-circular slip surfaces. See above Resource Files. The DB is in a txt file (terreni_EN. Seismic parameters. SLU coefficients whether Rock or Soil slope. Numeric Input Menu or Graphic Input Menu. See Resource Files.. the layers must be declared.Tutorials 12 2. Setting Colours. Where soil is multi-layered. See Layer declaration. As such it may consist of some of the following operations. geotextiles. See File menu. For circular surfaces the user defines a grid. See Layer Geotechnics in Numeric Input Menu. See Calculation methods in Computation Menu. 3.

relocation or removal of instances of a support. See Calculation Summary in Computation Menu and the Bounds (see One Point in Computation Menu) tabbed windows. are checkboxes. text report is produced in a generic text format (RTF). In the upper half of the pane. one of the defined models is selected from a drop down list and is placed on the drawing by clicking with the mouse. Anchors and Geotextiles/Reinforced earth. The program applies a default limits and colour coding to six ranges of Safety factors (Automatic colour interval) for display of results. or is not. Anchors and Geotextiles/Reinforced earth may be clicked to open a relevant window that enables new models of that support work to be defined. their description/identity appears in the relevant drop down list. In the first. complete or condensed. Piles. Each checkbox controls whether that type of support work is made active or otherwise. its action is. Terracing is defined directly in a Graphic Input Menu item. in the second. For dynamic seismic state analysis accelerograms can be imported or simulated. The various Analysys Options (see Analysys Options in Computation Menu) in the tab window can be reviewed. The lower part of the window is used to activate functions for placement. See Computation menu. Against these texts. Insertion of containment works onto the slope profile in the worksheet cosists of two moments. Piles. Computation can be repeated on specifically selected aspects of the analysis. the texts Walls. See RTF Editor.13 Slope parameters given by the user in General parameters (above).2. © 2010 GeoStru Software . The types of works are: Walls. editable before printing. Graphic and textual output is produced. Qsim is an optional module that must have been purchased. taken into consideration in the subsequent calculation. See Preview and Stress Graphic in Computation Menu. See Project properties above and Qsim (see Qsim in Computation Menu). Computation can then be performed. 2. in the sense that after the support has have been placed in the slope profile. a model of the work is defined in an apposite window.1 Containment Works This Tab Card window enables definition and placement of containment support works. In Calculation Summary in Computation Menu tab window by unchecking this option the ranges and colours can be user tailored. and exportable in appropriate formats. An editable. Once support models have been defined. Terracing can also be defined.

Thereafter the icons beside the list activate respectively: Placement (+). as with other support works. 2. Length of pile: Value (m). Some practice in the use of these tools on trial projects. Relocation (±) or Removal (×) of that model of the support. must be defined before being used. The relative dialog window presents a table in which the different anchor models can be defined using the following characteristics: No: Progressive number of the typology © 2010 GeoStru Software . The relative dialog window presents a table in which the different pile models can be defined using the following characteristics: No: Serial number of Pile type. Once defined the pile models can be inserted in the slope profile with the tools in the Containment Works tab card (see Containment works in Project Modelling). Shear resistance: Weight per area value (Kg/cm²). as with other support works. is recommended. 2. Description: Text (identifier). that type can be made active or inactive by selecting the checkbox against the support name. Inclination of the pile in degrees (in respect to the horizontal): Value (°). Use the East/West arrows to move between fields.2. Diameter of the pile: Value (m).2 Define Anchors Anchor (tiebacks) models. must be defined before being used. it is initially necessary to identify the model by selecting it.1. Pile row axis separation: Interaxis separation (m). A colour may be selected for piles and a safety factor at limit load specified. Stabilization method: Select from drop down list. As noted above.1. after that support works have been placed.Tutorials 14 In order to operate on such a support on the profile worksheet. When placement or relocation are active.1 Define Piles Piles models. an additional pane tracks the coordinates of the work and this can be changed numerically to arrive at an exact placement. My: Section failure moment.2.

: 10/0. in the case of a series of anchors it is possible to insert the number and the step. Once defined the anchor models can be inserted in the Slope profile with the tools in the containment works tab card (see Containment works in Project Modelling). of series/Step: the typology can be made up of one or more anchors: in the firs case insert 1. the adjacent soil to reinforce not is stressed from his installation.5 is equivalent to a series of 10 anchors with a 0.3 Define Walls Support wall models. Passive anchor. In this last case the program generates a series of n anchors with the same characteristics. The relative dialog window has fields in which the characteristics of wall models can be entered and an image pane in which the model is drawn. Ex. The reinforcement system is a passive one.2. having the function of absorbing stresses that the soil alone couldn’t be able to support. The other items are necessary to define the geometry of the structural element. the resistant force of the work along the sliding plane is summed to the resisting forces. The different typologies are: Active anchor.5m spacing step between them.15 Slope Description: work description No. For every of these the work ultimate strength must be assigned. 2. the resistant force of the work along the sliding plane is subtracted from the Driving Forces For passive works. must be defined before being used. Consolidation using Soil Nailing technique The reinforcement technique of the soils using nails named “soil-nailing” consists of introducing reinforcements in the soil mass. Important notes Even if a series is intended. as with other support works. Nailing. it is always assigned the ultimate strength of a single anchor or nail. separated by the “/” character. Use the East/West arrows to move between fields. Strength: the pullout strength of the nails developed on the mortar-soil interface can be calculated using Bustamante method A colour may be selected for Anchors.1. © 2010 GeoStru Software . Note on works: For active works.

Specific weight : Enter value (kg/m³). Failing this. Base width: Enter value (m). as with other support works. A colour may be selected for Walls. Long Term Design Strength: Enter value (kg).4 Reinforced Earth Reinforced earth section/ Geotextile models.Tutorials 16 To define a set of characteristics for a wall model press on the New button. Wall models can be amended by altering the contents of the data on their window. must be defined before being used. In dialog window the different reinforced earth section/ Geotextile model can be defined using the following characteristics: Description: Description /Identifier of the type. For these flexible supports.1. The data is saved as it is being entered. must be considered flexible. Use the East/West arrows to move between fields.2. Selected type of geotextile from dropdown list A colour may be selected for reinforced earth section/ Geotextile. they are assigned a serial number. The models may be recalled by scrolling using the button Next. For rigid walls the corresponding intersecting surfaces are excluded from calculation and the only stabilizing effect is the weight of the wall. © 2010 GeoStru Software . Wall models may be named. Height overall of reinforced earth: Enter value (m). The insertion icon assumes the form of the wall model selected. Slip surfaces that intersect these flexible works will include this figure in their calculation. Once defined the wall models can be inserted in the slope profile with the tools in the containment works tab card (see Containment works in Project Modelling). The image is developed as this is done. 2. Once defined the reinforced earth section/ Geotextile models can be inserted in the slope profile with the tools in the containment works tab card (see Containment works in Project Modelling). a tangential tension value should be given in the chosen units. netcages etc. Reinforced Concrete works should be considered rigid while works such as stonework walls. During the recording of each type it is possible to assign it the property of being Flexible (0) or Rigid (1). Soil internal friction angle: Enter value (°). Grid separation: Enter value (m).

e. reconvert the table to text (using the same separator). Within each of these folder are stored a number of BMP files with the textures to display.txt files which contain tables of data to be used in the program.)). When editing a Word document the graphics for space. It is useful in this case. tab.txt. check All does this.txt for Italian. Spanish and English texts. Open a new Word document (or other equivalent text processor) Paste the file data into the document.en. The method entails doing the actual editing in a Word table. Convert to table after: 1. paragraph. (Ex: \Programs\Geostru\Slope). Editing of bmp.bmp. Check ‘adapt to content’. The menu: Tools. the situation may be restored.txt. Needless to say when applying changes to the files the original format and conventions should be retained. Within the parent folder are four folders for Cohesive. most typically to populate drop down selection lists. Select all the file (SHFT CTL END). 43. Before undertaking any amendment it is advisable to save the original file so that if any error occurs in the change. Identify the separator character (either tab or semicolon (. Notepad starts and displays the file content. and save. Textures Textures are also resource files distributed automatically with relevant programs but which may also be downloaded and installed in isolation. Typically the files are found within the program folder.bmp etc.txt could be done as described above. Open the file by clicking on it. When the table is created amendments or additions can be applied with ease. Textures are held in a folder: “Retini” within the Geostru folder. The amended file is now operative. These files are distributed as a help to data entry and as it is envisaged that users may have some more specific examples.5 Resource File Many GeoStru programs are distributed with . It is only necessary that the text files contain the names of the soils in the folder but for simplicity all soils are present in each file. 12. Options. 2.1. These are not always evident when the file is opened in Notepad or even Word Pad and therefore the following is suggested. Cohesionless. and bmp. page separator and many others are hidden. Copy the text and paste back into the Notepad file text. Copy the data. The textual description of the file is held in a text file named “bmp. bmp_es. they are available to the user for addition and amendment. to show them. The files are named with numbers i.2. Rocks. Display. However for international versions this one text file is replaced by three: bmp_it.txt”. Select all the data in the document. Set this as the operative separator. and in the authors opinion always. When all amendments have been applied and checked. These are the actual images used to ‘paint’ the object. replacing the original. Among the ones most widely used is the list of lithologic types and properties. and Others.17 Slope 2. 3. © 2010 GeoStru Software .

2. from the uppermost. Static/Dynamic Penetrometry The concept of ’Bedrock depth (see General Parameters in Numeric Input Menu) is used to delimit the depth to which slip circles are drawn. Layer boundary is the line bounding the lower surface of the layer above from the current one When entering the boundary line. Correction or elimination of individual vertices of each layer can be achieved by options on the Graphic input Menu. Both properties and colour may be altered as required afterwards. To model the make up of the slope under examination it will be necessary to ascertain the types of terrain. Clicking on this DB column opens a drop down list of soil type names and selecting one will fill the table with values and default soil type colour. Thereafter.Tutorials 18 2. A file with names and properties of some common soil types is distributed with the program. one may assign colours to the layer types. As well as specifying the geotechnic characteristics. their geotechnic characteristics and the form of these substrata. select the number of the layer above from the drop down list and then enter the boudary line vertices. downwards.2.2. Before the profiles of lines of layer separation can be drawn. at least the layer numbers (first column of the table) must have been entered in the Stratigraphy table. Alteration is likely to be needed when the positioning of the centres’ grid and the form of the profile will cause some slip circles to protrude below the base of the drawing. This may be altered by the user. The types and characteristics of soil layers may be recorded in a window (see Layer Geotechnics in Numeric Input Menu).2 Stratigraphy The Slope that is to be analysed commonly consists of different terrain type layers and these can be modelled in this program so that their characteristics can influence the analysis. as a series of layer types. Layers boundary lines must be drawn in order.2.1 Soil Type DB A file with names and properties of some common soil types is distributed with the program. reached from the Numeric Input Menu or from the toolbar. whether first to enter the layer characteristics or the separation profile is optional. the body of the slope comes to consist of this type. A default standard terrain type is provided such that as the slope profile is entered. Within the table a column is named DB for database. It is assigned a default depth. Soil types are: © 2010 GeoStru Software .

you can scale it to fit the paper or to any predetermined scale. Rocky sublayer. For each soil type the characteristics are recorded. The file is a text file called ‘TERRENI’ (followed by language suffix EN. They may of course be altered in the table as desired.19 Slope Vegetable soil. The drawing window is like a camera lens focused and centered on part of that unlimited paper. or zoom in for a magnified view of a detail. This file is used when the DB column in the stratigraphy table (see Stratigraphy in Project Modelling) is clicked and if a line is selected its characteristics are entered in the table for that line. Sand or dense silty sand. the file is precisely formatted. A plan is a life-size drawing on a virtually unlimited surface. Clay or solid silty clay. It is recommended that a copy be taken before changing the original. Silt or silt with sand. If adding or altering it please keep to the original tabulations as field separators. Clay with gravel. when you use a printer to get a paper copy. The effect may be varied with the following commands: © 2010 GeoStru Software . Gravel. Clay or average silty clay.3 Zoom Functions Enables alteration in the view of the worksheet. Sand or averagely dense silty sand. Sand or loose silty sand. The user may wish to add to or amend this file. to either reveal greater detail or obtain a more distant view in the manner of a camera zoom. Later. 2.ES or IT). Gravel with sand or sandy gravel. The file is stored in the Slope folder within the Geostru folder of the Programs folder unless installaton defaults were altered. See topic Resource files in Containment Works in Project Modelling for a sugested editing method. Clay or soft silty clay. If you examine the list you will note that units are metric however this has no consequence as units are converted as they are used. Through the lens of the drawing window you can zoom out to see your entire drawing (reduced to fit the screen).

Therefore we will describe the toolbar functions. For each type of vertex (Profile. Use the left button to select one corner of the view you want. water table. Surface and Layer toolbars also enable the identification of the individual on which to work To enter a new vertex or operate on an existing press the insert button (+).Tutorials 20 Zoom Window: lets you draw a selection rectangle or "window" to view part of your display in the drawing window. Previous Zoom: Returns to the zoom factor current before the last operation.4 Vertex Management Graphic Vertices of slope profile. If inserting a new vertex click at the desired position. As the pointer approaches the vertex it changes form into an aim sight and the boxes in the input dialog window are filled with the relevant numeric data. Select a second corner for the view. layer boundaries. A vertex coordinates window opens. wholly graphically from items in the Graphic input menu. Dragging the pointer upwards increases the size of the image. etc. or. The same functions are available on the toolbar where a frame indicates the zoom factor. Dynamic Zoom: Provides an interactive zoom effect using the mouse to control it. Now the cursor becomes a stretching rectangle. WT. Slip surface and Layer) there is a toolbar. The operation in the graphic menu is wholly duplicated in the various toolbars and are considerably more convenient there as the functions remain visible continuously while the menu ones disappear when selected. To terminate either right click with the mouse or press ‘Apply’ in the Coordinates tab card. such that the whole contents of the worksheet are displayed. This updates the figures in the dialog window. while downwards drag reduces it. © 2010 GeoStru Software . Note: Zoom does not alter the absolute dimensions of the drawing and does not impact on its scale when printing. Continue with any other alteration and then press ‘Apply’ in the Coordinates tab card (or right click the mouse). Continue thus until all vertices are selected. This figure may be altered (press enter) to achieve an exactly defined zoom factor. On these there is an Insert/amend button (+) and a remove (-) one. The screen is redrawn to show the part of your drawing that fits within the rectangle. may be entered/ amended either by numeric input in the relative vertices table in the Numeric Input menu. Drag the vertex to the new position. surface. Once the left mouse key is pressed the pointer alters into an enlargement lens. 2. as described here. If altering a vertex point to it with the mouse. The zoom factor may be read in the toolbar display. Zoom All: A zoom factor is applied.

etc.). Numeric entry of points in table can be effected by either typing the coordinate serial number and point coordinate values in each line or by pasting a table previously copied from another source (i. identify it as above. an Excel worksheet. whereupon the alterations. 2. but the management is as in a standard table. etc are held in standard vertex tables irrespectively of how originally recorded or altered. The most notable example of numeric input is the capability to import the contents of the slope profile vertices from an external table i. water table. press Esc and repeat after having moved the mouse pointer back on the worksheet area. On the same menu is also available the copy function to copy the selected lines from the table. It is possible if so desired to manage these point data exclusively numerically by operations in the tables. if any. In the latter case the right button is interpreted in the logic of the window. Continue with any other deletion and then press ‘Apply’ in the Coordinates tab card (or right click the mouse). Alternatively the Graphic Input items enable the use of the mouse pointer to enter/amens or delete vertices. are implemented in the drawing.5 Vertex Management Numeric The coordinates of points. the pointer must be on the drawing and not on the dialog window. If this occurs. When clicked the vertex is removed. When amending an existing table use the Ins.e.21 Slope If deleting a vertex. Some objects (loads in particular) present tables that are extended to accommodate additional parameters. which in fact signifies a request to open the toolbar selection menu. © 2010 GeoStru Software . Note: When the right mouse button is pressed. In both cases identify the reference point by clicking the line in the column to the left of the serial number.e. whether slope profile. the program has itself no way of knowing when the operation is terminated and the function remains active until specifically terminated by the user. key to insert a point before previously existing points or the Del key to remove an existing point. an Excel worksheet but also a Word table or also to copy a slope profile by copying table contents of an existing project and pasting into the profile table of another. As several vertices may be inserted/altered in sequence. layer boundaries. When ‘Apply’ in the Coordinates tab card is activated the points (new or altered) are drawn on the worksheet. The paste function is available from a floating menu that can be opened by clicking the right mouse button. slip surface. Clicking on the right mouse button or press ‘Apply’ in the Coordinates tab card do this. another project.

6 Graphic Print Preview When this command is invoked it opens the Print preview dialog window displaying a print preview of the drawing in the worksheet set up to print at a scale such that it will fit on the predefined page size. Thereafter the user may modify its aspect or contents at will. RTF ( Rich Text Format) is a document format that is compatible with all major text processing programs.7 Report Print Preview Internal RTF Editor The program includes an internal text editor which enables text. control returns to the original program. The editor may be invoked from the File menu by requesting Print Report or from the toolbar. Plan Scale: Displays the scale at which the plan diagram will be printed.) and thereafter edited and saved in the text processor native format. Press Enter to actuate the new scale. This format may be read by these text processors (Word. such as reports.Tutorials 22 2. Print: Prints the preview image on the predefined printer (see Set Up printer in the File menu). The commands are: Move: Pressing this button causes the mouse pointer to change to a hand and can be used to ‘take’ (click) the drawing and move it (drag) elsewhere on the paper as seen in the preview. The scale adopted is displayed in the plan scale frame. to be produced edited and saved using RTF format. See also Plan Scale factor . and/or save or print it. © 2010 GeoStru Software . <Scale +> and < Scale -> : Alters the scale of the drawing up or down in steps of 100:1. All basic text processing functions are both regarding editing and formatting are available When the editor is closed. May be altered as desired. Word Perfect etc. In the preview window are present a number of menu functions which affect the print result without affecting the original in the worksheet. One of these invokes printing of the image to the predefined printer. When invoked the editor is opened and the program’ s data report is inserted into it. 2.

or coordinate by measuring the horizontal (on the screen) distances to the desired spot and recording its elevation. printing and closure of project files and their management. y (elevation . Coordinates may be recorded either numerically by entering values on a coordinates sheet. Save As: Save file(s) for the currently open project (with STA extension) under the name and in the folder. to be entered in a subsequent dialogue window.1) is one unit up and to the right of this point. The program defines a specific location. and DXF files whereupon these coordinates appear on the coordinates sheet. When a new drawing is created. (Function is also available from the Standard toolbar) Save: Save file(s) for the currently open project. Each coordinate in your drawing has its own unique address. If the file already exists the user is asked to confirm that it should be overwritten.-1) is below and to the left of the (0.above a datum) metres. coordinate (0. while coordinate (-1. Coordinate (1.23 Slope 3 Cartesian Coordinates Your drawing is like an unlimited sheet. New: Creates file(s) for a new project. Import Trispace Sections: Opens a file open dialog in which the Trispace file can be identified and opened. (In those programs that operate in three dimensions the y is the vertical and z the elevation). composed of x (horizontal). replacing any previous version (Function is also available from the Standard toolbar).0) is below and to the left of your screen. 4 4.1 Program Menus File Menu The File menu contains those functions that enable the insertion. Import DXF Sections: Opens a file open dialog in which the DXF point file can be identified and opened. The coordinates of the pointer are indicated in the tracking panel on the status bar (base of window).0) point. or by selecting an insert function (menu or toolbar) and clicking the points with the mouse. (Function is also available from the Standard toolbar) Open: Opens file(s) for a previously created project (stored with STA extension). Coordinates can of course also be imported from Excel ASCII or other by copy/paste or. Trispace. The profile must consist of a polyline in which the nodes are © 2010 GeoStru Software . This creates a new file with that name. recall.

) Paste: Copies to the current active window. Redo: Reapplies the actions undone by the undo function. which then leaves the amended drawing. © 2010 GeoStru Software . Print Report: Produces the Computation Report in an internal text editor that permits editing in place or saving in word processing editable format. Undo: Cancels the last amendment restoring the situation as before the change.g. (Function is also available from the Standard toolbar) The function also operates in the graphic worksheet allowing backtracking through a number of actions. 4. This command permits any raster image (e. Delete Bitmap: Deletes any bitmap pasted to the worksheet. Copy: Copies to the clipboard the selected area of the active window. 4. Exit: Program exit.3 View Menu Redraw: Redraws the slope (Function is also available from the Standard toolbar).2 Edit Menu The Edit Menu presents those functions relative to editing data for the currently open project. Works etc.Program Menus 24 numbered in rising contiguous sequence from the highest point to the lowest and be within one layer. the contents of the clipboard. slope sections read with a scanner) to be copied to the current work sheet and then be used to define a new profile and/or layer by operating with the mouse. Function is also available from the Standard toolbar) Graphic Preview : Presents preview (see Graphic Print Preview in Project Modelling) of worksheet printed page(s) with dialog window for the control of the printed image. Recent Projects: Recalls the names of the last open file. Print Setup: Presents standard Windows printer select & set up dialogue window. The imported image may be removed by selecting and pressing the del key. If the file contains more than one layer the user will be asked to identify the one in question. See example file in project folder. This function is particularly useful to copy bitmaps of images in the various phases of computation to a preferred editor (Word.. (Function is also available from the Standard toolbar).

Zoom does not alter the absolute dimensions of the drawing and does not impact on its scale when printing. Dragging the pointer upwards increases the size of the image. Note that actual coordinates of the drawing do not change but the frame’s scales do. Move Layer labels: Moves the layer legend to another place on the worksheet. or zoom in for a magnified view of a detail. The screen is redrawn to show the part of your drawing that fits within the rectangle. 4. Display Soil Textures: Switch to select display or non display of soil textures in the layer diagram. when you use a printer to get a paper copy. Move: Enables frame around the drawing to be moved by dragging the drawing. Once the left mouse key is pressed the pointer alters into an enlargement lens. Use the left button to select one corner of the view you want. Previous Zoom: Returns to the zoom factor current before the last operation. The zoom factor may be read in the toolbar display. Now the cursor becomes a stretching rectangle.) by values specified by the user in subsequent dialog windows (y & x). Most of these functions are available from the Properties (see General Parameters in Numeric Input Menu) tabbed card that displays per default. Zoom + Zoom Note: A plan is a life-size drawing on a virtually unlimited surface. Through the lens of the drawing window you can zoom out to see your entire drawing (reduced to fit the screen). Dynamic Zoom: Provides an interactive zoom effect using the mouse to control it. Select a second corner for the view. Zoom Window: Lets you draw a selection rectangle or "window" to view part of your display in the drawing window.25 Slope Zoom All: A zoom factor is applied. Later. After selecting this function the legend is dragged from its location to the desired position. while downwards drag reduces it. layers water table etc. Relocate Section: Relocates the entire section (profile. such that the whole contents of the worksheet are displayed. you can scale it to fit the paper or to any predetermined scale. The drawing window is like a camera image focused and centered on part of that unlimited paper.4 Tools Menu This menu primarily contains functions relative to the setup of the worksheet and for the management of text boxes thereon. © 2010 GeoStru Software .

or equivalent units) is not affected by zoom. Bell' s. A point is considered identified when it falls within this notional circle (at this the pointer alters form to an aim sight). This option is required when using Fellenius' . This value is given (default1 m. The position of the image on the worksheet is determined by the x. Sarma' s. Click again to deselect. When using Janbu's. Free Form Surface: Free Form (non circular) Slide surface switch. when this is used to locate a point. Sarma's. Import Raster Image: Opens a window in which the location and type of image to be imported can be specified by typing or by browsing in the libraries. Janbu' s.5 Numeric Input Menu This menu gathers the functions for the entry of parameters by keyboard action.Program Menus 26 Relocate Water Table in y:Opens an entry window in which the value of relocation in the y axis may be entered raising or lowering the phreatic level as appropriate. (see Free Form Surface) Profile Vertices: Opens a standard vertex vertex table table dialog window in which the slope profile vertices may be entered/modified numerically. Bell's. Either permits the definition of the slide surface in term of its vertices and their subsequent modification or deletion. centred on the mouse pointer. © 2010 GeoStru Software . When this item is selected a tick is placed against it to indicate the fact and the Input Free Form Surface option is activated on the same menu. Redefine Raster: Permits resizing. Containment works: Selects the Containment Works tab in the Parameter Cardfile. The mode remains active until the menu item is again selected.y coordinates entered in the window. Concurrently the Surfaces toolbar appears in the worksheet window. Mirror image: Mirrors the entire section. Bishop' s. General Parameters: Opens the General Parameters window for entry of parameters of global scope. (see also Conventions Please note that no supporting structures may be present on the slope when this function is activated. Spencer & Morgenstern and Price methods. and stretching of the imported image. 4. Distance Measurement: This function activates a mode whereby the length of the line created from the point clicked and the point to which it is dragged is displayed. A larger size makes for easier identification while a smaller size allows for greater precision. moving. When this item is selected a tick is placed against it to indicate the fact. Click again to deselect. this permits consideration of Free Form slip surfaces. Cylindrical Surface: Cylindrical Slide surfaces switch. Discrete Elements (DEM) . Delete Bitmap: Deletes any bitmap pasted to the worksheet. Spencer & Morgenstern and Price methods. Cursor Tolerance: Specifies the size of the circle. Water Table Vertices: Opens a standard vertex table dialog window in which the water table vertices may be entered/modified numerically.

there is a button to generate a given number of surfaces. In the folders Import Soundings. 4. Insertion. operation on one of the layers requires that this be indicated from the drop down list. on the toolbar. amendment and removal of vertices is treated in as a normal series of vertices and as noted there.5. to perform the analysis and be able to view and or print the analysis results. In all cases it is only necessary to invoke Perform calculation from the Computation Menu or the toolbar. of DXF file for import of profile. Surface colours: Slide surface colouring. The files are in the folder ‘GeoStru Projects’. Select Layer: After entry of Geotechnic properties above. Number of surfaces: Declare total number of free form surfaces. Presupposes entry in the Geotechnic properties item above. as duplicates of an original and another to assign colours to the individual surfaces.27 Slope Geotechnic Properties: Opens a window for entry of parameter values for the definition of terrain layer type(s). displaced/rotated. In the main folder is a file DXF_Import as an ex. Surface: Select surface on which to operate.5. amendment etc) is on the whole most convenient from the relevant tool bar but otherwise operates equally from the menu items.1 Examples attached Files are enclosed with the release version of Slope Stability Analysis to provide actual examples of projects. © 2010 GeoStru Software . Layer Vertices: Opens a standard vertex table dialog window in which the layer vertices may be entered/modified numerically. Each covers some object and analysis variant in order that ready made situations may be examined.2 Free Form Surface (non circular) This function is only available once <Free Form Surface> has been selected in the computation menu. This can be done from the toolbar. requires that the surface be identified. Qsim and Raster are examples of files of those types. Surface vertices: Opens a standard vertex table dialog window in which freeform slip surface vertices can be entered/modified numerically. 4. Additionally. Operation on free form surfaces (Insertio.

the program attempts to extend one or both extremity chords of the surface line.: The slip surface is required to cut the slope profile at each end. The user can arrange this by placement of the initial and terminating coordinates. this is successful. See Table Management. Loads (see Loads in Graphic Input) Properties (see General Parameters in Numeric Input Menu) *** 4. © 2010 GeoStru Software .3 Default Parameter Card File This tabbed card file appears on the right of the main program window and accomodates 'Cards' that display parameter windows for many aspects of project definition. Within the tab itself there will be buttons to apply the data entered (or cancel). 4. The tabs are: Analysis Option (see Analysys Options in Computation Menu) Bounds (see One Point in Computation Menu) Calculation Summary (see Calculation Summary in Computation Menu) Centre' s Grid (see Centre' s Grid in Computation Menu) Containment works (see One Point in Computation Menu) Coordinates that presents the coordinates for various profiles in the form of tables. If the direction of the first and last chords of the surface are such that extending them would cut the slope profile. When the titles are active (black as opposed to gray) the tab may be clicked to open the input widow. Where intersection is not ensured by the user.5. Otherwise an error situation will occur.4 General Parameters Properties This tabbed card controls the display of properties and legends on the drawing. The tab titles indicate the aspect of the project definition data for which the card is intended. to achieve it. as necessary.5.B.Program Menus 28 N.

Solid bedrock can be declared below the lowest layer. in a manner determined by their present placement. Bedrock depth The positioning of the centres’ grid and the form of the profile may cause some slip circles to protrude below the base of the drawing. View Scale Displays a scale of depths to the right of the slope profile. on the drawing. Legend Management Check box to display. If the © 2010 GeoStru Software . the listed characteristics.5 m. In order to avoid this undesired effect. or equivalent units) is not affected by zoom. Move layer labels Moves layer legends by dragging with the mouse. If the legends are aligned. A point is considered identified when it falls within this notional circle (at this the pointer alters form to an aim sight). Display Layer legends Displays or not the various legend property values listed below. when this is used to locate a point. In this condition resistance to slipage of that circle is null as no soil data is availanbe for that depth. for whatever depth is considered necessary. This value is given (default 1. Unit Volume weight Saturated unit Volume weight Angle of friction Cohesion Non drained cohesion Description Legend box size % Enter value. View Bedrock Displays a line to indicate bedrock below the lowest layer. layer legends are moved in a block when dragged. Align layer labels Align layer labels to left hand side of worksheet. A larger size makes for easier identification while a smaller size allows for greater precision. centred on the mouse pointer. Display soil textures Check box to display graphic of soil textures on drawing.29 Slope Drawing Aids Cursor Tollerance Specifies the size of the circle. Reposition layer labels moves all layer labels onto the relative layer in the drawing.

) to display rock type table from which factors A. Layers should be added in order from the upper one.. Layer vertices may thereafter be inserted as described in Vertex management. The up to ten surfaces that have the lowest factors. This shows the surface. it is possible to control the display so as to display : The surface with the minimum safety factor. downwards.5 Surface Colour This function in Calculation Summary (see Calculation Summary in Computation Menu) tab card. 4. Select by clicking on required line of table.Program Menus 30 legends are on the layers the individual layer legend selected is moved to another place on the worksheet.5. 4. the radius and in the pane to the left of the staus bar. All computed surfaces.6 Layer Geotechnics Gathers data that specifies the geotechnic characteristics of the layers that make up the slope(see also Stratigraphy in Project Modelling). Unit Weight: (*)Unit Weight of the material in the layer in the selected units. B. Note: The function remains active until the ESC key is pressed. Once the computation has been performed and circular slip surfaces traced on the drawing. For Rock Slopes (determined in General Parameters in this menu): Number: Layer number 1. 3.5. etc. Colour ranges are assigned automaticaly by the program rangeing from Red for low to green for high values. Table: Press push button (. A: See below B: See below © 2010 GeoStru Software . & T are retrieved automatically. controls the display of coloured to surface arcs that reflect their Safety factor values. The selection of one option cancels the others. Only those surface arcs within specific value ranges. Check box to select the use of these options. Select from drop down list. 4.. An entry in this column is required before boundary profiles can be drawn. the numeric values and SF. 2.

This is due to the fact that in rock masses. A. Undrained Cohesion: (*) As applicable.31 Slope T: See below Resistance to monoaxial compression: resistance compression of the material in the layer in the selected units. For Soil Slopes (determined in General parameters in this menu): Number: Layer number 1. on opening the Stratigraphy table (Numeric Menu). B. etc. Angle of friction and coesion of the rock mass operating along the slip surface are defined as follows: tg AB ' c TB 1 TB C A c ' c ' tg where: c = Resistance to compression. ' = Tension acting on the base of individual slices. Cohesion (c): (*)Ground cohesion in the selected units. Hoeck & Bray (1981) describe a method that allows the application of classical formula of limit equilibrium to rock slopes. Volume unit Weight: (*)Unit Weight of the material in the layer in the selected units. DB: Used to retrieve previously recorded characteristics. See Soil Type DB in Stratigraphy. An entry in this column is required before boundary profiles can be drawn. 3. there is no linear relation between shear resistance and load induced expansion pressure.T = Constants given in table as function of rock type. Peak Shear Resistance Angle: (*) Angle of resistance of the ground in degrees. This table is displayed within the program . where the water table is present insert the effective parameter. 2. in rock slopes the Coloumb criterion of failure cannot be used to define shear resistance. Saturated Weight: (*) Where the terrain lies below the water table insert the saturated weight. 4. In contrast to soil slopes. © 2010 GeoStru Software .

See topic Delete vertices This command enables the deletion of vertices as above. Note: Parameter K.6 Graphic Input This menu contains functions that may be applied interactively. Terrain Description: (*)Textual description of the terrain type. For both soil and rock slopes: Texture: Select either a texture or a colour from the selection devices to the right of the table and drag to this cell. is required for DEM method (Discrete Elements Method). For the Center’s Grid (Circular slip surfaces). water table or layer boundary. (*) values that can be reported on the layer labels on the layer. (See Examples attached in Numeric Input Menu ) Apply as elevation given vertex Enable individual vertices of the drawing to be selected as ones for which the elevation is © 2010 GeoStru Software . Radio buttons to select use of peak/Residual or critical Shear angle. 4. (requires presence of ‘Retini’ folder in Geostru folder. rigidity. Rigidity K: Winkler modulus for the ground in the selected units. Input Free Form Surface Degfinition of non circular slip surface.Program Menus 32 Residual Shear Resistance Angle: It represents the angle of resistance of the soil in degrees when already the landslide has been taken place. Centres' Grid Insert See topic. Insert vertices For slope profile. Move Centres' Grid Permits the centres' grid to be moved to a different position. Delete grid Deletes the centres' grid when clicked. such parameter is necessary in method DEM for the analysis with redistribution of the tensions. Permeability: Drop down list (permeable/not). See also Legend management in the Properties tab card (see General Parameteres in Numeric Input Menu).

Keeping the button pressed drag the pointer extending the resulting rectangle outline to the desired lower right corner and then release the mouse button. Select Centres' Grid Insert. The grid can be generated interactively on the screen from the Graphic Input menu.33 Slope shown on the scale under the drawing.1 Centres' Grid When Cylindrical Surface methodology is selected (Graphic Menu). Click an already selected vertex to deselect it. 4. safety factors are calculated for slip circles whose arcs cross the slope outline. Containment Works (see Containment works in Project Modelling) Sounding management Enable individual test boring data from the programs Static or Dynamic to be inserted at the point indicated. © 2010 GeoStru Software . (The Tabbed card for Centres grid opens) 3. Note the function ‘Show Slip surface & FS’ that allows display of individual arcs after calculation. Default values for these are 10 and 10. Terracing Opens a dialogue window in which the placing and dimensions of the terrace may be entered. whose arcs pass through all parts of interest of the profile and are subjected to analysis. Distributed Loads External Point Loads See topic. Thus the purpose of centres grid definition is to design an area of centres of circles of varying radii. A grid of such circle centres can be defined either wholly numerically or placed by graphic interaction after numeric definition of the number of rows and columns of the grid.6. This scale appears as the first vertex is selected and disappears as the last remaining one is deselected. The slip circles evaluated are those whose centres are at the line intersections and rectangle centres of a grid of centres defined by the user. Bring the mouse pointer to the desired point of insertion of the left upper corner of the grid in the worksheet & click the left button. and minimum and maximum dig depths. 2. These are: Abscissa coordinate of start and end of terrace. As such the selection is subjective to the judgement of the investigator. Penetrometer graphic options Enable the setting of graphic options in display of imported stratigraphic column. 1.

B.1 Display safety factor This function permits each individual slip surface arc and radius to be displayed together with the computed safety factor for that surface. click on the lower left corner and drag to the new position.1. As noted the worksheet is in a CAD like environment. 4. Definition of the slope occurs by specifying the Cartesian coordinates (vertices) of points at which the angle of the slope alters.Program Menus 34 The number of cells generated is governed by the parameters in the number of rows and columns in the Centres’ Grid Card that remains visible. Where the slope is not so defined (import/paste) it may be mirrored by use of the Mirror image command. When moving the grid. 1. be defined in the graphic worksheet.6.6.: The surface selected by the user remains on the screen after exit from the command and will print together with the worksheet when requested. 4. the grid can be dragged to another position or deleted. yc) the safety factor are displayed in the status bar (see Status Bar in Program Tools) pane. Numerical input can occur from the appropriate item in the Centres’ Grid Card and becomes operative when Apply is pressed. Exit the function by pressing the left mouse button.2 Slope Profile Analysis of Slope Stability requires that the declivity or slope. The mouse pointer on the worksheet converts to a pointing finger. N. The slope may be defined in a number of ways: © 2010 GeoStru Software . Observe the coordinate read out at the lower left of the window. This same card can be used before Graphic insertion to vary the defaults or after insertion to alter any parameter. 3. If desired the whole generation of the grid can occur numerically by entering data in the card. After completed computation with the option Autocompute select this item. 2. Also from the Graphic input menu. It is a condition that the slope be defined as rising from left to right. The item is part of the Computation Menu and is only active when Cylindrical Surface option has been selected. Whenever the finger points to one of the centres within the centres grid (one at each grid intersection and one at the centre of each rectangle of the grid) the radius and arc are drawn in the worksheet and the values Rc and centre (xc.

coordinate pairs. Enter the data and press Apply to insert the load(s). © 2010 GeoStru Software . In either case the tabbed card window opens the coordinates tab.) In all cases the points entered are included in the vertices table and can be adjusted/ corrected at a later time.6. Amendments and corrections can be made directly as discussed below. Apply to apply! Coordinate deletion by selecting with mouse and clicking is also available as Menu or Toolbar items. Select the reference row in question by clicking on its left on the frame of the table. Click with the mouse at the specific coordinates. joins the points. (Import DXF section. When it is desired to enter the data numerically. Alternatively the values can be pasted from any table or tabular list (Excel/ Word etc. a line to show the slope. or removal (Canc key) of unwanted. Right mouse click opens a Copy/Paste menu. Coordinates are numbered from left to right irrespective of entry order. Amendments can be effected by overwriting the existing values. When deleting or inserting a vertex. Insertion (Ins key) of new vertex creates an empty row. Exported from CAD or CAD like drawing programs. The card contains a table for point loads and one for distributed loads in which the position and parameters of the loads can be entered. By importing the profile from a GeoStru Trispace file. The numeric input window may be used to amend the vertex values of an existing profile window.35 Slope From the Graphic Input Menu. As points are clicked the coordinate values are entered in the vertices table in the tabbed card window. all vertices are renumbered as relevant. Line colour may be adjusted in the Options menu (see Preferences Menu). (Import Trispace section) By importing the profile from a DXF file. By invoking the Profile Vertices command from the Numeric Input Menu. When the right mouse button is pressed.3 Loads Applying loads The program enables loads to be applied on the slope profile. Loads can be input either graphically or numerically.) modelled on profile vertices table. 4. These may be either distributed or point (concentrated) loads. by invoking the Insert Vertices (Profile) command The function is also available on the toolbar. open the loads card in the tabbed cards. This opens the Coordinates tabbed window in which a table of vertices is presented and in which the coordinate pairs can be entered.

Bound Computation This option enable the restriction of slide surfaces examined. The methods are mutually exclusive. The tab card (Calculation Summary) opens in which the coordinates of the specific centre and the value of the radius may be entered and applied. Bishop. the load entry in the table can be selected with the aim sight. In either case the loads tab cards is displayed. When these are selected the tab card opens. amend.. Perform Analysis performs the analysis according to the parameters (and constraints) selected.7 Computation Menu Analysys Options See topic. To avoid confusion. Selecting one activates it reselecting it deactivates it. When input graphically the functions can be called either from the Graphic input menu or from the toolbar button. Amendment (or correction from default values) can be effected by altering the values in the tab card grid and pressing apply. ensure that they are disactivated by pressing ESC key. and on the toolbar there are functions for amendment or deletion. use the mouse pointer to identify the load to be removed (pointer turns to an aim sight) and click. For deletion. 4. The values (including coordinates) can be altered in the tab card and applied (Apply button). For Spencer method a Graphic output is available.Program Menus 36 Point or Distributed loads can also be input graphically that is positioned by mouse click. To operate select this option (or use toolbar). With the mouse click on the profile where it is intended to insert the load. If the circular slide surface option is operative (Cylindrical surface in the Numeric input Menu) all qualifying surfaces arising from the generation of circles centered on the grid will be processed. remove) remain active.. AutoCompute Automatically calculates the critical safety factor. to enable repetitive operations. Back Analysis Perform Back Analysis with Janbu’s method. © 2010 GeoStru Software . Janbu. that are dependent on previously entered loads!. Selecting this option opens the Bounds tab card.. ) according to which the calculation should proceed. The load is inserted at the indicated position. Calculation Method Select the method ( Fellenius. etc. with default values. Recompute This option permits the recomputation and display of a single circular slip surface previously examined. In the Graphic input menu. The functions (Insert. If any uncertainty arises.

Drainage states: Select from the drop down lists. Bishop's Method Limit Equilibrium method. to be applied to a critical surface identified with the standard pseudo static method. In this option the computation is effected according to Bishop's method (Circular slip surface). Janbu's Simplified Method Limit Equilibrium method. In this option the computation is effected according to Fellenius' method (Circular slip surface). all forces for each slice. Fellenius' Method Limit Equilibrium method.2 Calculation methods See Also Technical Notes and Bibliography. 4. Piles Display of pile parameters derived in computation.7. enables data from an accelerogram obtained either independently or through the use of the module QSIM. Press Apply to render the choices effective. Exclusion conditions: Exclude those slip surfaces whose arc cuts the the same section segment and those whose arc intersections are less than the distance given. Morgenstern & Price: Options to be selected from drop down list.7.1 Analysis Options This Tabbed 'Card' addresses the specification of analysis variables to better focus on desired aspects. Show Slip surface and SF (see Display satefy factor in Centres' Grid in Graphic Input ) Stress Graphic Normal and tangential forces along the surface are shown for each surface and to the right. DEM Method: In this method it is possible to chose Redistribution of tensions selecting thereafter appropriate terrain characteristics. Janbu’s parameter: May be selected from drop down list. In this option the computation is effected according to Janbu's © 2010 GeoStru Software .37 Slope Dynamic analysis In seismic condition. 4.

Spencer’s Method Limit equilibrium method according to Spencer on Free Form surfaces. View This pane enables the display of the centres’ grid to be selected. Six check boxes coded according to the selected colour and interval coding enable the corresponding group of surfaces to be displayed separately. with © 2010 GeoStru Software . By selecting Factor’s map. By default the grid is shown as a grid of squares. will be displayed colour coded as indicated above. and the Minimum and Maximum resulting Safety Factors Recompute This pane allows a particular surface. Enter the value and press Recompute. starting with the least FS values.Program Menus 38 simplified method (Circular or Free Form Slip Surface). Bell's Method Limit Equilibrium method. Surface to View When selected a drop down list enables the number of surfaces to be specified in the sense that the first n surfaces. Surfaces Evaluated displays all the surfaces evaluated each surface coloured according to a colour coding that is either the default or one selected by the user (see below).7. and radius to be evaluated individually. & y coordinates of the centre. When Recompute is undertaken the Surface shown is that recomputed. Discrete Elements (DEM) Method (Free Form Surface) 4. The default option is to show the arc and slices of the surface with least FS values. Morgenstern & Price Method Limit equilibrium method according to Morgenstern & Price on Free Form surfaces. Sarma's Method Limit Equilibrium method. the grid transforms into a map of Safety Factor values. In this option the computation is effected according to Bell's method (Circular or Free Form Surface). The panes it comprises are: Calculation Summary This pane shows the number of surfaces calculated. Display Intervals This pane enables choice of the display of the surface slip circle arcs within the body of the slope to be selected. In this option the computation is effected according to Sarma's method (Circular or Free Form Surface).3 Calculation Summary This tabbed Card Shows the salient results of the calculation and enables display of results to be tailored to requirement. given by x.

Safety Factor is computed only for those surfaces. Zoom may be required to discern the values. The variants that may be selected are: Bound by one pont: Limits to surfaces centred on the centres’ grid. that pass through the user defined point/s. Reduced Report This pane enables the selection of a shortened Report to be made. By selecting Fs Isolines. Colour selection This pane enables the choice of colour coding and interval. (Applies also to © 2010 GeoStru Software . at the first point. to reflect the Safety Factor value derived at each circle centre. Bound by two points: Limits to surfaces that pass through the two user assigned points and whose tangent (the surface’s). forms an angle to the horizontal axis. If this check box is deselected the “Interval colour selection” text becomes active and clicking it brings up a window in which both intervals and colour coding can be selected by the user.5 One Point Computation bounds The use of these options binds/limits computation to those arcs that satisfy a set of given conditions. that pass through one user defined point. which varies from 0° to a given inclination in given angular steps. according to the colour coding above. Print: Prints the graphic on the default printer.7. Copy: Copies to the clipboard the graphic so that it may be pasted in another document e. Automatic selection check box enforces the default colour coding and intervals.g.39 Slope a value for each centre. Exit. sections of the squares are coloured. 4. These only take effect upon the next Calculation.4 Stress Graphic Example from project set up to use metric units. A floating menu opens when the right hand mouse button is clicked that gives the foollowing options: Export format: Copies to the clipboard both the bitmap and numeric data that can be imported to Excel with 'Special Paste' comand. the analysis report.7. 4.

(Display options in the Computation menu) 4.Program Menus 40 Freeform surfaces) This variant therefore requests the vectors of the two points. The coordinates requested are two that lie on the line intended as the tangent. Enter the parameters that define the condition. (Points 1 & 2 define the extent of the downhill interval. the angular step increment. with all its detail and use ‘Save as’. Bound by three points: Limits to surfaces that passes through the three user assigned points. Perform the analysis.8 Export Menu Enables selection of export format for the calculation results. 3 & 4 the uphill one). This new project can then be altered as desired. The way to use the slope and layer profiles in another project is to re open the project.dxf.) and also printing from its own File menu. that pass through two slope segments one up and the other downhill. Export in RTF format Display the computation report in an internal editor window which permits its Save in a file of RTF (Rich Text Format) format which may be read by most text processing programs (MS Word. Lotus Word Perfect. giving it another name. Please note that this exported file cannot later be re imported into the program. To utilize these option proceeds as follows: Select the variant. Export in DXF format Export in DXF format the contents of the worksheet window for the purpose of further elaboration by a CAD program. that alters content in response to the variant chosen. etc. The program does not perform the calculation if no qualifying surfaces are found. The common entry window is the Bounds tabbed window. to which a user defined vector is a tangent. (Applies also to Freeform surfaces) Bound by up/down hill segment: Limits to surfaces centred on the centres’ grid. and the maximum angle. Bound by Tangent: Limits to surfaces centred on the centres’ grid. The results of the computation may be read off as as a subset of a full centres’ grid analysis. Export in Bitmap format Export in BMP format the contents of the worksheet window. The file is generated in Pendii\Geostru_Project folder as: Noname. © 2010 GeoStru Software .

Save Save interval parameters. © 2010 GeoStru Software . that opens the Geotechnic sections module for the management of terrain profile sections alone.1 Configurations Project Configuration When the program opens (after the registration window if registration has not yet been effected) a Window opens to enable some project options to be selected. Line thickness. Professional version that enables use of piezometric water pressure readings in layers to be declred and manipulated. RTF Report headers and margins. and inclusion of theoretical notes.41 Slope Note: All exported files bear the same name as the main file and an extension that identifies unequivocally. 4. The options are: Standard version. Line & background colours. Paths and names are reported in Help. Outputs DXF file export folder path text size & scale factor. table formatting. Grid point interval. Cursor tolerance.9. Geotechnic Sections.9 Preferences Menu International settings. Texture folder paths and dimension percentage.Enable Language and measurement units to be selected. 4. Options Opens the Options window in which the following may be determined: Worksheet.

C. MONGIOVI' L. [7] CHANG. pp. J. ASCE. 5 Bibliography [1] BELL. Joseph E. 197-203. Note that this contains the version number. I. Ed. 118(12). (1980) Geotecnica e Tecnica delle fondazioni. e Chao S. New Jersy. J. Englewood Clifss. III Bologna pp. [4] BOWLES (1991) Foundation analysis and design. Start Screen Displays: The start screen for the program. [3] BOSCO G. (1991) “Discrete Element Metod for Bearing Capacity Analisis”. Geotech. About Slope Stability: Introductory information for the program. McGraw-Hill. 4. (asce) Soil mechanics and foundations division (1968). Geotechiques. Bowles. Atti XVI Convegno Nazionale di Geotecnica. J. Prentice-Hill. Register: Opens the registration screen in which the registration number can be entered or seen at a later time. << Analisi dei meccanismi di rottura per crollo e progetto degli interventi di protezione>>.. Until the number is entered the program operates in demonstration mode.10 Help Menu Index: Opens the help guide for this program. 1-16. [6] CESTELLI GUIDI C. Engrg. 8(12). S. 66-76. [8] CHANG. [5] BROMHEAD E. (1982) “Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analisis”. C. (1986) Slope Stability. Milano. Vol. 1889-1905. © 2010 GeoStru Software . S. N. (1992) “Discrete Element Metod for Slope Stability Analisis”. 1986. [2] BHATE.. Comput. M.Program Menus 42 This window may be recalled from the Preferences Menu. Hoepli. J. 109-123. K. vol.

[20] LAMBE T. H. H.. Jurnal of Computer & Geotechinics. F.. T. 1985. vol. A. 19. & GULLA'. [16] FIORITO. Sci. 83-91. [18] GRECO. SM 1. pp. 1981. vol 94. Determinazione della superficie critica nell'analisi della stabilita' dei rilevati.. e Mistra .G. [22] LEMBO FAZIO A. S. R. [10] COLOMBO P. Vol 18. DELL'ELIA. [13] CRESPELLANI. V. << Misure di protezione delle zone interessate da distacchi di blocchi rocciosi>>. 93-130.. 505-515. G. (1971) << Osservazioni sul comportamento di pali a grande diametro >> RIG. Zbstr. F Effetti dell'acqual sulla stabilita' dei pendii. 163172. [12] CRAWFORD A.Rock Mech. MADIAI. 1982. Abstr. V. CURRAN J. Zanichelli. XVI Conv. J.3. 1-8. CURRAN J. C. [21] LANCELLOTTA R.43 Slope 273-288. pp. (1994) Geotecnica. (4). Int. Vol. B. [15] ESU. << The influence of rate and displacement dependent shearresistance on the response of rock splopes to seismic loads>>. & Geomech. V n. 7(4). & Geomech. A. [19] LA TECNICA PROFESSIONALE (AGOSTO 1998) << Rivista edita dal collegio Ingegneri Ferroviari Italiani >>. 269-287. pp. << The influence of shear velocity on the frictional resistance of rock discontinuities>> Int. Min. Stochastic analysis of slope stability. JSMFD. [9] CHANG. V. [14] ESU. 2a ed. R. C. J. Gruppo Nazionale di Coordinamento per gli Studi di Ingegneria Geotecnica. G. M. & A. VANNUCCHI. ASCE. pp. (1990) “Computer Simulation and Modelling of Mechanical Properties of Particulares”. [17] GRECO. Analisi di stabilita' dei pendii in condizioni sismiche. GHINELLI. Bologna. Atti della riunione del gruppo. Effetti terreno struttura in un palo sollecitato da una frana. (1968) << The behaviour of foundations during costruction>>. [11] CRAWFORD A. Rock Mech. (1985) ”Critical Slip Surface Search in Slope Stability Analisis “. Nazionale Geotecnica.I. Sci. W. M. © 2010 GeoStru Software .

. C. 5. . D. (1980) Pile di Foundation Analysis and design. © 2010 GeoStru Software . PRICE The analysis of the stability of general slip surfaces. Napoli. New York. Vol.R.F. [29] VIGGIANI C. AND V.H. N. G. Creep e rottura progressiva nei pendii naturali. New York. "The 5th Rankine Lecture Effects of Earthquakes on Dams and Embankments. Lee.Y. Q. Chen (2002) “A rapid algorithm for computing the factor of safety using the Morgenstern-Price method” Canadian Geotechnical Journal. Il progetto dei pendii ripidi rinforzati con geogriglie [27] SUKLJE. CUEM.E. June 1965. [30] ZHU. P. 2." Geotechnique. J. Qian and G. PECK R. L. (1967) Soil Mechanics Engineering Practice. J. [25] POULOS H. [26] RIMOLDI. Wiley & Sons . Wiley & Sons .Bibliography 44 [23] MORGENSTERN. DAVIS E. No. Nathan M. H. (1983) Fondazioni. R. [28] TERZAGHI K. Ed. [24] NEWMARK. B.

the following procedure has been followed: 1 Fixing the depth of the neutral axis (xc) . with limit yield stress equal to fyd. 3 Calculating the resultant moment (Md) as regards the geometrical barycentre of the section. 2 Calculating the resultant in terms of normal stress (Nd). 4 Memorizing the calculated point (Nd. if xc is still lower than or equal to the diameter of the section. though hemisimmetrical. In any case the lower part is identical. The yield moment has been determined by interpolation on the section interaction curve. 5 Increasing xc. a rigidplastic constitutive bound. otherwise the procedure is over.(starting from xc = 0). the upper part of the interaction domain is constructed. Md). In order to construct the interaction curve of the section. NB: In this way.45 Slope 6 Calculation of the Yield Moment CALCULATION OF THE YIELD MOMENT FOR A STEEL TUBULAR SECTION. The generic point of the interaction domain has been calculated using the following formulas: Nd Md Ac _ s ( x c ) fyd At _ s ( x c ) fyd Ac _ s ( x c ) fyd dCs At _ s ( x c ) fyd dTs © 2010 GeoStru Software . then back to step 1. for steel. The section under examination is the following: Re fe re nc e dia gra m for t he c a lc ula t ion of t he se c t ion y ie ld m om e nt The calculation of the yield moment has been made conjecturing.

Fyd Resistance calculation of steel CALCULATION OF THE YIELD MOMENT FOR A STEEL TUBULAR SECTION IMMERSED INTO A CONCRETE CIRCULAR SECTION. with limit strains equal to fcd and fyd for concrete and steel. . The previous formulation. the symbols have the following meaning: . The reference diagram is the following: © 2010 GeoStru Software .Ac_s Traction steel area . respectively.Fcd Resistance calculation concrete.Ac_s Area of compressed steel. it is necessary to take into account the concrete contribution. CALCULATING THE YIELD MOMENT FOR A CIRCULAR RC SECTION In this case too a constitutive bound of the rigid plastic materials is assumed. can be extended to the case in which the tubular section is immersed into a concrete section.Calculation of the Yield Moment 46 In the previous formulas. the concrete type considered as a reactant is only compressed concrete. In this case. according to the following diagram: Dia gra m for t he c a lc ula t ion w it h t he re a c t ing c onc re t e As you can observe. used for the tubular section. .

47

Slope

Re fe re nc e dia gra m for c a lc ula t ing t he y ie ld m om e nt of a RC se c t ion
In this case, the value of the solicitations – in correspondence of a preset depth of the neutral axis – is the following: In the previous formulas, the symbols have the following meaning: - Ac_c Area of compressed concrete; - Asi+ Area of the i-th reinforcement bar situated above the neutral axis; - Asi- Area of the i-th reinforcement bar situated under the neutral axis; - Asi Area of the i-th reinforcement bar; - Fcd Resistance calculation concrete; - Fyd Resistance calculation of steel

7

Accelerogramm integration
Time conversion factor: A conversion factor which multiplies the time contained in the accelerogram file. It is necessary to convert the time into seconds. Acceleration conversion factor: A conversion factor which multiplies the acceleration contained in the accelerogram file. It is necessary to convert the acceleration into m/s2. Spacer used in the file: The spacer used in the accelerogram file to divide the acceleration column from the time column. Open: Import the accelerogram file. From the following Websites it is possible to execute the download of the accelerogram registered by the… Parameters
© 2010 GeoStru Software

Accelerogramm integration

48

Arias intensity: A parameter representing the index of intensity and frequency of the seismic waves. It is defined as the integral of the square of the accelerogram (extended to the whole duration of the seism). Intensity of the intersections of the accelerogram with the time axis: It is virtually calculated as the ratio of the number of times the accelerogram intersects the time axis to the duration of the seismic event. Duration of the seismic motion: The duration of the seismic motion defined by T rifuna c (Trifunac & Brady 1975). It is calculated as the time interval elapsing between the attainment of 5% of Ia and 95% of Ia (Ia stands for Arias intensity). Loaded accelerogram On the loaded accelerogram, a scale factor which only affects its visualization is activated. Calculation of the accelerogram integration parameters Accelerogram parameters. The study of the issue relevant to the evaluation of the increase in the interstitial pressure of soils, in case of a seismic action, requires that you calculate some parameters aimed at identifying the frequency and intensity properties of the accelerogram. The parameters to be determined are the following: Arias intensity (Ia in m/s); Intensity of the intersections of the accelerogramm with the time axis (n0 in 1/s); Actual duration of the motion defined by Trifunac (Trifunac and Brady, 1975, TD in s); Arias intensity Arias intensity is a parameter relevant to the accelerogram which provides information on the intensity and frequency of this latter. Said parameter is defined according to the following ratio:
TMAX 2

IA

2 g

at
0

dt

Whe re : T M AX represents the whole duration of the accelerogram; a (t ) represents the accelerogram.
As a rule, the values of this parameter vary between 0.05 and 2.5/3. Intensity of the intersections with the time axis. This parameter is defined though the following formula:

© 2010 GeoStru Software

49

Slope

0

Ni TMAX

Whe re : Ni is the number of times – throughout the duration of the accelerogram – the acceleration intersects the time axis; Tmax is the duration of the accelerogram.
Actual duration according to Trifunac. This parameter is used to identify the time interval elapsing between the following extreme cases:

tds t : I A tds tde t : I A tde
Where:
t*

5% I A 95% I A
2

IA t *

2 g

at
0

dt

According to the previously provided definitions, the time defined by Trifunac is equal to:

TD

tde tds

8

Contact
GeoStru Software
Skype Nick: geostru_support_it-eng-spa Web: www.geostru.com E-mail: geostru@geostru.com

9

Slope/MRE
Slope/M.R.E.

© 2010 GeoStru Software

Diagram of the pressures in foundation. STANDARDS Technical norms for constructions (D. The database can be easily completed and modified by the user. © 2010 GeoStru Software . all the verification and project analysis for more load combinations.E. Overturning and Limit load. with a wealth of theory notes. either with metallic elements or geomembranes. The program also offers a detailed computation report. 2007) Eurocodes British Standard 8006 STAS REINFORCEMENT TYPOLOGIES Strips or metallic bars.1 Standards Standards The Standards that can be chosen for the geotechnic and structural calculation are European Union Eurocodes and also specific Italian and Romanian National legislation norms as listed below. It is possible to define more reinforced earth typologies in the same file and run. (Mechanically Stabilized Earth) software for sizing and verification of reinforced earth. Breaking wedge. Strips or geotextile sheets (geomembranes) Grids. The verification and project analysis can be performed during the input phase.Slope/MRE 50 M. 9. Diagram of the efforts in the reinforcements. simultaneously. PROJECT Determination of: Effective length and folding. VISUALIZATION Diagram of the pressures on the work. Sizing of resistant section.R. The software allows an easy input through a series of dedicated instruments like automatic generation of the reinforcements' position and an integrated geogrid database. The program has a database of the main reinforcement elements on the market. Global stability: Sliding.M. that may be of relative interest to the non Italian or Romanian user. so that it can be established witch of the combinations is the most unfavourable one. VERIFICATION Pullout/Sliding. Intern Tieback and Compound.

Italian National legislation: (quoted from relevant legislation) D. Eurocode 8 Project guidelines for structural resistance to seismic events. and geotechnical aspects. 16 Gennaio 1996 "Norme tecniche per le costruzioni in zone sismiche". © 2010 GeoStru Software . Part 1-1: General Rules. normale e precompresso e per le strutture metalliche".M. 9 Gennaio 1996 "Norme tecniche per il calcolo. D. l'esecuzione ed il collaudo delle strutture in cemento armato. la stabilità dei pendii naturali e delle scarpate. 11 Marzo 1988 "Norme tecniche riguardanti le indagini sui terreni e sulle rocce. this is performed taking account of the predetermined safety factor. Eurocode 7 Geotechnic Projects.M. 10107/0-90 (Romanian National Standards) BS 8006: international British Standard 8006.M. The traction resistance verification consists in sizing the section in the reinforcement in order to obtain induced tensions inferior to the admissible one. D. Part 1: General Rules.51 Slope Eurocode 2 Projects involving concrete structures. both are defined by load factors and partial coefficients. STAS 3300/85.2 Internal verification Internal verifications performed are: Pullout Sliding Traction resistance For both pullout and sliding are sized effective lengths that develop friction forces that contrast the traction force induced in the reinforcements . 9. i criteri generali e le prescrizioni per la progettazione e il collaudo delle opere di sostegno delle terre e delle opere di fondazione". for analyzing ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state of the structure. Retaining structures. Part 5: Foundations.

For the triangular diagram related to the backfill.2.Slope/MRE 52 9.2 to 1 m while the horizontal one it is approximately between 0. to which is associated the horizontal pressure diagram.2 Reinforcements' traction forces REINFORCEMENTS TRACTION FORCES Traction forces in various reinforcements.1 Reinforcenets spacing Reinforcement Spacing STRIP SPACING Vertical and horizontal strip spacing in the reinforcement is calculated. 1. the force in the strip is given by the area of the trapezium element a b'd' and it is transformed in medium pressure qi at Z i strip depth using the relation: q i = γ zi Ka The qi pressure acts on a defined area of the h's armature spacing and corresponds to a traction force in the reinforcement equal to: © 2010 GeoStru Software . given by the diagram area of the pressures related to every strip are determinate. The vertical spacing can vary approximately from 0. The analysis refers to a unit width segment. that have fixed spacing. like in Fig.8 and 1 m. This does not apply if the reinforcement is realized with metallic nets or with geotextile sheets. 9.2.

3 Effective lengths EFFECTIVE LENGTHS COMPUTATION Le The strip lengths Le that appear in Fig 3 are calculated. Ti= Pah 9. the global length Lo of the strips to use can be determinate.53 Slope Ti = q i A= γ zi Ka (h s) For equilibrium the traction forces sum must be equal to the horizontal component of the acting forces. they are necessary until is developed a friction force Fr = Ti. Generally.2. On the base of this lengths and of the Rankine's wedge dimensions. the strips used have the same length for all the wall's height. The anchorage length depends on the friction coefficient f = tan( between soil and © 2010 GeoStru Software .

If the strip is rough enough = . Therefore it is: For strips: For bars: For sheets: If in the previous formulas the sign was replaced with the equal sign. while for smooth metals is about 20° to 25°. the friction is given by product of f by normal pressure at the reinforcement calculated as po = zi where zi is the average distance from soil surface to the reinforcement. In either case. being an opportune fraction of the internal friction angle of the soil . If is assumed Fs > 1. the safety factor Fs is equal to 1. the resistant friction is developed along the perimeter. the Le value is necessarily bigger than the one given by this formulas. for circular bars. © 2010 GeoStru Software . For strips of b x Le size or for unitary width and Le length geotextile sheets. both faces develop friction.Slope/MRE 54 reinforcement.

From available ones select one where: b strip length x resistance per width unit Ti 9. 9.55 Slope The unique safety factor (FS) is the combination of: Fs joint.3 Global verification Global Verification The work's stability in its whole thinking it as a rigid body. For metallic bars or strips with allowable strain equal with: fa = fy/FS you have: or For geotextiles a problem that occurs in that the fabrics resistance varies from one producer to another. results secure when is verified the safety to: Overturning Sliding Limit load Global stability © 2010 GeoStru Software . for both circular and free form surfaces. The analysis is carried out with the limit equilibrium methods. Fs chemical.5 Tieback & Compound Tieback and Compound Besides sliding and pullout internal verification it is possible to carry out verification of the containment works in regard to potential failure surfaces.2. Fs environmental damages 9. Fs biological.4 Traction resistances Once traction forces in the reinforcements are known (Ti) . the armatures section b x t is can be determined. Compound Guarantees the translational and rotational stability of the entire complex. The verifications are: Tieback & Compound Tieback Allows to obtain a homogeneous distribution of reinforcements tensions.2.

4 General data General Data CODE Typology's name: needed for identification. The friction coefficient (f) is the tangent of the foundation-soil friction angle. DESCRIPTION Work's description © 2010 GeoStru Software .Slope/MRE 56 Overturning verification The overturning is represented by the possible rotation of the work respect of the downhill point. The force that determines the sliding (T) is the horizontal component of the thrust plus eventual surcharges. is non inferior to the moment induced by the overturning forces (Mr). The security of this equilibrium must be insured with a due safety coefficient. LIMIT LOAD VERIFICATION It is carried out confronting the maximum normal tension on the foundation's footing with the limit breaking tension of the soil. by work's own weight. while the force that opposes the sliding is given by the resultant of the normal forces (N) to the contact plan multiplied by the friction coefficient. The action that determines the overturning is given by the horizontal component of the earth's thrust plus eventual external actions. The stabilizing action is given by the vertical component of earth's thrust. The stabilizing action represented by the action of the earth's passive thrust is not taken into consideration. To reduce sliding danger the foundation footing can be inclined. SLIDING VERIFICATION The sliding depends on the possibility that the parallel forces to the contact plan between foundation and soil are superior to the soil-foundation friction forces. In analytical terms the overturning verification can be expressed with the condition that the stabilizing moment (Ms). Generally it varies between the half of the friction angle for coherent???? soil and the value of the friction angle for coherent???? soil. GLOBAL STABILITY VERIFICATION Verifies the slip rotation of a cylinder containing both the containment and the thrust wedge as described fully in the notes for the Geostru program Slope 9. This condition is considered verified if the ratio between the limit tension and the maximum tension is superior to a fixed safety factor. respect of the rotation center. In analytical terms it can be expressed as: N*f>Fs*T Fs safety factor varies with the standard.

SEISM The program calculates the horizontal and vertical thrust coefficient on the base of the maximum acceleration on soil. for analyzing ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state of the structure. Norme Tecniche (Testo Unico): si possono considerare più combinazioni di carico con differenti fattori di combinazione e i coefficienti di sicurezza parziali sui parametri geotecnici. Depending on the chosen Standard the program generates the load combination to analyze.57 Slope REINFORCEMENTS LIST Reinforcement typology archive is a database of materials that can be personalized by the user. it is necessary to assign the material's permissible resistance (fa). The user may modify these coefficients.5.3. 9. BS 8006: international British Standard 8006. For each of those. strip or sheet. beside the geometrical identifiers.2. DESIGNING STANDARD The user can choose one of the following standards: Limit equilibrium: applies to the limit equilibrium theory with just one combination of load and a global safety factor on the various verifications. © 2010 GeoStru Software . EC8: the Eurocodes provide for ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state analysis. The profile should not be closed.4. Y coordinates referred to a local matrix whose origin is the lower vertex.5 Geometrical data Geometrical Data The reinforced earth profile is defined by X. just select Reinforcement List and press the mouse's right button to add or to delete a reinforcement. It is possible to choose to perform the computation with the designing or verification criterion. both are defined by load factors and partial coefficients. In the figure bellow the vertices of the reinforced earth are: 1. The data required varies as a function of the type: bar.

Q: surcharge. Lengths Lx. Ly : are defining the load strip width. 9.7 Reinforcements' position Reinforcement Placement Every reinforcement is characterized by: Insertion coordinates x. 9. y " From the lower point. upwards " By type derived from reinforcements list type By lenght of: © 2010 GeoStru Software . these affect only the computation.6 Loads Loads Are identified through: Description: the name will be displayed in the load combinations. X and Y insertion point regarding the local system in which reinforced earth was defined.Slope/MRE 58 For the foundation it is possible to set: footing depth and inclination.

59 Slope Bending (LRIP) Front (Lf) Total (LT) AUTOMATIC GENERATION To facilitate the reinforcements positioning it is possible to proceed with the automatic generation assigning: Initial position (Yi) Final position (Yf) Spacing (h) Bending length (LRIP) Front length (LF) Total length (LT) © 2010 GeoStru Software © 2010 GeoStru Software .

Internal verification Pullout safety factor © 2010 GeoStru Software . shear resistance angle and cohesion. 9. FOUNDATION MATERIAL The foundation soil is characterized by: volume unit weight. shear resistance angle and cohesion t hrust inc lina t ion a ngle must be assigned.Slope/MRE 60 9. FILLING MATERIAL Beside weight per volume unit.9 Safety factors Safety Factors The safety factors must be set with reference to the selected standard.8 Soil materials Soil Materials It is possible to assign three different materials: REINFORCEMENT MATERIAL Beside weight per volume unit. shear resistance angle and cohesion soil-re inforc e m e nt fric t ion a ngle must be assigned.

9.61 Slope 9. 10 Qsim Module for dynamic analysis of slope stability and automatic generation of project accelerograms QSIM is concerned with the analysis of Slope Stability in dynamic conditions utilising Newmarks’ method. Maximum acceleration. Accelerogram can be imported from file: File of whatever format incl. When acceleration falls below this value motion proceeds with null acceleration. Minimum and maximum periods. Rise time.10 Analysis Analysis By selecting Load combinations and pressing the right button of the mouse it is possible to add. delete or regenerate the combination list. Newmark’s method for modeling a landslide as a rigid-plastic block sliding on an inclined plane provides a useful method for predicting approximate landslide displacements.11 Results Results The results of the internal and global verifications for every load combination are reported. Newmark’s method estimates the displacement of a potential landslide block as it is subjected to earthquake shaking from a specific strong-motion record (earthquake acceleration-time history). that is calculated by a pseudo static analysis. © 2010 GeoStru Software . Through the Run analysis command the individual combinations are verified. Movement occurs when acceleration exceeds the critical value (kc). copy/paste Simulated Accelerogram Generation: for this the following should be provided: Seism duration. Phase constant.

Qsim 62 Calculation of maximum displacement of permanent nature and progression of velocities over the time. it is possible to verify whether. a movement would engage and its velocity. © 2010 GeoStru Software . Once an individual critical surface is identified using the pseudo static method implemented in the standard copy of Slope Stability Analysis.e. by QSIM). upon a seismic occurence for which an accelerogram is either available from recorded data or has been simulated based on historical data (i.