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Proverbs 1 After the inscription, which gives the title of the book, and describes the author by his

name, descent, and dignity, Proverbs 1:1, follows the scope and design of it, which is to teach men wisdom and knowledge; even such as are simple and foolish, and particularly young men; nay, hereby wise men may grow wiser, and attain to an higher degree of learning, Proverbs 1:2; and the "first" doctrine taught in it is the fear of the Lord, or devotion to God; which is the beginning of knowledge, though despised by fools, Proverbs 1:7. The next is obedience to parents; whose instructions, attended to, are more ornamental than chains of gold, Proverbs 1:8. And then follows a dissuasive from bad company; in which the arguments made use of by wicked men to draw in others with them, and the danger of compliance, are most strongly and beautifully represented, Proverbs 1:10. When Wisdom, who is the instructor and teacher throughout the whole, is introduced as calling upon the simple and the scorners to leave their sins and turn to her, with a promise of the Spirit to them, Proverbs 1:20; but they slighting and rejecting her call, are threatened with just and irrevocable rum and destruction, Proverbs 1:24. And the chapter is closed with a promise of safety and rest to those that hearken to her, Proverbs 1:33. Verse 1. The proverbs of Solomon,.... Who is said to make three thousand proverbs, 1 Kings 4:32; but whether any of them are contained in this book cannot be said: however, it is certain that they are not all in it, since, if you except the first "nine" chapters, which are the introduction to the Proverbs, there are but six hundred and fifty-nine verses in it; and if they are taken in, they make but nine hundred and fifteen, which are not a third part of the proverbs said to be made by him: however, here are as many and such as God thought fit should be preserved for instruction in all future ages. It was usual with the ancients in all countries, when any truth was found, and established by experience, to wrap it up in a few apt words, with or without a figure; that it might be the better understood and more easily retained, and which were always venerable and greatly attended to: and of this kind are these proverbs; only with this difference, that these are of divine inspiration, and the others not. The word used for them comes from one which signifies "similitude" and "dominion" {g}; because many of them are similes or comparisons, and are delivered out in figurative expressions, in metaphors and allegories, and the like; and have all of them a commanding power, authority, and influence upon the mind, obliging to an attention to them. The name of Solomon is put to them, the more to recommend them; who had a wise and understanding heart, as large as the sand of the sea, and was wiser than all men, 1 Kings 4:29; and was an eminent type of Christ, who spake in proverbs also, John 16:25. He is further described by his pedigree and office, the son of David, king of Israel; a wise son of a wise father, and king over a wise and understanding people. These titles are added for the further

commendation of the book; and it may be observed that they are such as belong to the Messiah, Solomon's antitype, one that is greater than he, Matthew 1:1. {g} A rad. lvm "dominatus est----lvmn comparatus, similis, consimilis factus est," Buxtorf. "Mirum est quod radix lvm significans antoritatem cum imperio, significat etiam parabolas vel sermones figuratos----verba quae Mylvm vocantur, habent autoritatem, nobis ideam immittunt, dicentis ut nos supereminentis, saltem sapientia, ingenio, doctrina; nos persuadent et pondere suo, quasi imperio noe ducunt." Gusset. Ebr. Comment. p. 845. Verse 2. To know wisdom and instruction,.... That is, these proverbs were made, and written, and published, to make known or to teach men wisdom and knowledge; not only in things moral, and therefore these proverbs are by some called Solomon's "ethics"; and indeed they do contain the best system of morality in the whole world; nothing like it is to be extracted out of all the writings of the Heathen poets and philosophers: nor only in things civil; for which reason they may be called his "politics," seeing they are instructive to kings and civil magistrates, and to subjects; and also his "economics," seeing they furnish out rules for husbands and wives, parents and children, masters and servants, worthy of their attention and observance: but also they are a means of and are designed to teach spiritual and evangelical wisdom and knowledge; things relating to Jesus Christ, the wisdom of God, and the way of life and salvation by him, the knowledge of which is life eternal. These words, with others that follow, seem to be synonymous, and signify much one and the same thing; and are used to show that the most consummate wisdom and comprehensive knowledge may be attained by means of this book; which, like the rest of Scripture, with a divine blessing, is able to make a man "wise unto salvation"; and is "profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, and for instruction in righteousness," 2 Timothy 3:15; where the apostle seems to allude to this text: since "wisdom" here may stand for "doctrine" in general; and "instruction" may signify the means of attaining to it; and it may be observed, that the word is used for "discipline" and "correction," as well as "instruction." If these words are to be distinguished, the first, "wisdom," may design a wise scheme and plan of truths, and the theory of them and the latter, "instruction," the learning it and putting it into practice; and for both theory and practice this book is useful; to perceive the words of understanding; which flow from a good understanding, and give a right understanding of things; so that a man may be able to distinguish between light and darkness, truth and error, right and wrong; particularly the doctrines of the Gospel may be meant, which are eminently so, and exceed the understanding of a natural man, and which are only understood by a spiritual man; the means of knowing which are the Scriptures, under the guidance and direction of the Spirit of God.

Verse 3. To receive the instruction of wisdom,.... Or "prudence" {h}; of wise and prudent men; and especially of Christ himself, who bears those names, whose instructions this book is full of; and the design of which is to engage the attention of men to them, and prevail upon them to receive them, and act conformably to them. Which instructions respect the following things; and which are added by way of illustration and amplification, viz. justice, and judgment, and equity; that which is just in itself, and according to the nature of God and his will; and is judged so by right reason; and is equitable between man and man, and agrees with the law of God. These three, R. Levi Ben Gersom says, signify one and the same thing; true righteousness, doing that which is just to God and man; which the doctrines of grace, or the instructions of wisdom, teach men to do; concerning which many rules may be collected from this book. {h} lkvh "prudentiae," Munster, Vatablus. Verse 4. To give subtlety to the simple,.... Men of mean abilities, weak capacities, shallow understandings, incautious, credulous, and easily imposed upon: these, by attending to what is herein contained, may arrive to a serpentine subtlety; though they are simple and harmless as doves, may become as wise as serpents; may attain to an exquisite knowledge of divine things and know even more than the wise and sage philosophers among the Gentiles, or any of the Rabbins and masters of Israel; or any of the princes of this world, whose wisdom comes to nought; and become very cautious and circumspect how they are drawn aside by the old serpent the devil, or by such who lie in wait to deceive; and perform their duty both to God and man; to the young man knowledge and discretion; or "thought" {i}; who wants both: this book will teach him the knowledge of things moral, civil, and religious: to think and act aright; how to behave and conduct himself wisely and discreetly before men; and be a means of forming his mind betimes for piety and religion; and of furnishing him with rules for his deportment in future life, in all the periods of it; and in whatsoever state and condition he may come into. A "young man [may] cleanse his way," Psalm 119:9, reform his manners, behave with purity and uprightness, by taking "heed" to the things herein contained. {i} hmzm "cogitationem," Pagninus, Mercerus; "bonam cogitationem," Michaelis. Verse 5. A wise [man] will hear,.... With great attention, and hearken to the proverbs and wise sayings herein delivered; for here are many things entertaining to men of years and wisdom, as well as instructive to young

men and simple ones; and will increase learning; or "add" {k} to his stock of learning; or, as the Targum, "will add knowledge;" see 2 Peter 1:5; or, "will be wiser," as the Vulgate Latin version. This is said to show the excellency of this book, and the extensive usefulness of it; indeed wise men will get knowledge where fools cannot, and increase learning where others can get none: there are few books but a wise man will get something out of; and especially such a book as this, and as the Scriptures are; and a man of understanding shall attain unto wise counsels; a man of a spiritual understanding arrives to the knowledge of the wise counsels of God; the doctrines of the Gospel, which are the "whole counsel" of God; are recondite wisdom, the hidden wisdom of God, which no wisdom of man is comparable to. It is the wisest scheme that was ever formed, and which the wit of man could never have devised, even salvation by Jesus Christ; and which was laid in God's "counsels of old," which are "faithfulness" and "truth"; the knowledge of which is attained unto by one that is spiritually wise. Moreover, a man that thoroughly understands the things contained in this book is fit to be a counsellor of others in things human and divine; in things moral, civil, and spiritual: he is fit to be in the cabinet council of princes, to be a counsellor of kings; yea, to have the reins of government in his hands. "He shall possess government"; so the Septuagint, Vulgate Latin, and Arabic versions: or, "he shall possess the helm" {l}; sit as a pilot there, as the word may signify, and steer the ship aright in which he is; whether it be his family, or the church of God, or a city or corporation, or a kingdom: this book, rightly understood by him, will furnish him with rules to do all things well and wisely. {k} Powy "addet," Pagninus, Montanus, Mercerus, Cocceius, Michaelis, Schultens. {l} hnqy twlbxt "gubernacula possidebit," V. L. "metaphora a nauclero desumpta," Schultens. Verse 6. To understand a proverb, and the interpretation,.... This may be connected either with the first verse, "the proverbs of Solomon," &c. are written, as for the above ends and purposes, so for these; or with Proverbs 1:5, a wise and understanding man, by hearkening and attending to what is here delivered, will not only attain to wise counsels, but to the understanding of proverbial sayings, and to see into the "elegancy" {m}, the eloquence and beauty of them, as the word signifies; and be able to interpret them to others in a clear, plain, way and manner; the words of the wise, and their dark sayings; the words and doctrines, not of the wise philosophers and sages of the Heathen world, but of men truly wise and good; and especially of the wise inspired writers of the Scriptures, whose words come from one Shepherd, Ecclesiastes 12:11; and the enigmas or riddles contained in their writings, which are so to a

natural man, obscure phrases and expressions, things hard and difficult to be understood, yet to a spiritual man, that judgeth all things, plain and easy, 1 Corinthians 2:14. {m} huylm "facundiam," Montanus; "eloquentiam," Tigurine version; "elocutionem," Mercerus, Gejerus. Verse 7. The fear of the Lord [is] the beginning of knowledge,.... Here properly the book begins, and this is the first of the proverbs, and an excellent one; it is such an one as is not to be found in all the writings of the Heathens. By "the fear of the Lord" is not meant a servile fear, a fear of punishment, of hell, wrath, and damnation, which is the effect of the first work of the law upon the conscience; but a filial fear, and supposes knowledge of God as a father, of his love and grace in Christ, particularly of his forgiving love, from whence it arises, Psalm 130:4; it is a holy, humble, fiducial fear of God; a reverential affection for him, and devotion to him; it includes the whole of religious worship, both internal and external; all that is contained in the first table of the law, and the manner of performing it, and principle of acting: this is the first of all sciences to be learned, and it is the principal one; it is the basis and foundation of all the rest, on which they depend; and it is the head, the fountain, the root an source, from whence they spring; and unless a man knows God, knows God in Christ, and worships him in his fear, in spirit and in truth, according to his revealed will, he knows nothing as he ought to know; and all his knowledge will be of no avail and profit to him; this is the first and chief thing in spiritual and evangelical knowledge, and without which all natural knowledge will signify nothing; see Job 28:28; [but] fools despise wisdom and instruction; the same with "knowledge" before; they do not desire the knowledge of God, and of his ways and worship, but despise it, make no account of it, but treat it with contempt; especially the knowledge of God in Christ, in which lies the highest wisdom, for this is "life eternal," John 17:3; they despise Christ "the Wisdom of God," and the Gospel, and the truths of it, which are "the hidden wisdom" of God; and all "instruction" into it, and the means of it; they despise the Scriptures, which are able to make a man "wise unto salvation"; and the ministry of the word, and the ministers of it: such sort of "discipline" {n} was this, as the word signifies, they dislike and abhor; and especially "correction" or "chastisement" {o}, which is also the sense of it; suffering reproach and affliction for the sake of wisdom, a profession of Christ and his Gospel; and they are fools with a witness that despise all this; such fools are atheists, deists, and all profane and wicked men. The Septuagint render it, "the ungodly"; and such sort of men are all along meant by "fools" in this book. {n} rowm "disciplinam," Tigurine version, Piscator, Cocceius, Schultens, {o} "Castigationem, correctionem," Vatablus.

The allusions are unto. done in obedience to God and parents. those things which are most pleasing and acceptable to children. if sinners entice thee. as Jarchi and Gersom interpret it. advice. who having an equal or greater tenderness for her offspring. but of Solomon and his son in a literal sense. The instructions and laws of parents being attended unto and obeyed by children. which. are ornaments of great price. is "the first commandment with promise. and forsake not the law of thy mother. and a true and hearty regard for their welfare.. Sanhedrin. nor the operative faculty of the human understanding. as those of a father. Exodus 20:12. hear the instruction of thy father. next to the fear and worship of God.. and make use of all plausible .Verse 8. and so in the Talmud {p} it is interpreted of the congregation of Israel. from listening to their instructions. hearer. which human laws among the Gentiles did not. or reader of his. any pupil. fol. see 1 Timothy 2:9. as Gersom. the old synagogue. and proceeds just in the same order and method in which the decalogue or ten commands were written. the first table respects God and his worship. For they [shall be] an ornament of grace unto thy head. My son. meaning not the congregation of Israel. and the metaphors taken from. 1. he exhorts to obedience to parents. My son. because the law of God equally enjoins reverence and obedience to both parents. 102. Endeavour to seduce thee from thy parents. whereas they carry equal authority. and chains about thy neck. give the best rules.. and obey their commands. the apostle says. and have in them the nature of a law. and prescribe the best laws she can for their good. but the mother of Solomon's son... and any and every mother of a child. and draw thee aside from them. Verse 9. will instruct them in the best manner she can. and because children are too apt to slight the directions and instructions of a mother. which begins with "honour thy father and thy mother. as Jarchi. This is not to be understood of God the Father of mankind. {p} T. and of that law which he has given them. and which ought to be as carefully attended to and obeyed as those of a father. so. and she is particularly mentioned. and preferable to any outward adorning whatever. as is "thy father" in the former clause of the divine Being. Verse 10. so good works. and of anyone that came to him for instruction.." Ephesians 6:1. beautify and adorn them.. be that unto them as chains of gold are to the neck. and it is a direction to all children to hearken to the instruction of their parents. and the second follows... or Jewish church. and commands.." &c.. render them more lovely and amiable than any beautiful ornament whatever that can be put upon their heads. as fine top knots and golden chains. Bab..

as the fowler does for birds. next to the fear of God. and then rise and shed his blood in order to get his money. be deaf to all their entreaties. but do all they can to draw in others. and "with impunity" {t}. and give up themselves to work all manner of wickedness. affectionate. Junius & Tremellius. our gang is so numerous ." Baynus. lie in ambush under some hedge or another. {s} Mnx "gratis. Michaelis. consent thou not.. or "let us hide" {q}. and to preserve youth from filling into such bad company is this exhortation given in this tender. let us lay wait for blood. and the business of life in which you are. is this caution given to shun the company of wicked men.. make one of us. his servants. but of notorious sinners. the Vulgate Latin version adds "snares"." Pagninus. sin is their trade and business. thinks himself safe. Amama.. "abscondamus nosmetipsos." the harmless traveller. come with us. {r} "Abscondamus nos. in some private place.arguments to persuade thee to join with them in the sins they are addicted unto. who has done no injury to any man's person or property. Piscator. which young men are liable to be drawn into." and wait is laid for one for the sake of the other. and proof against all their persuasions. let us lurk privily for the innocent without cause." Junius & Tremellius." Pagninus. waiting till a rich traveller comes up and passes that way. and the same word signifies both "blood" and "money. going about his lawful business. all which senses the word used will bear. "freely" {s} as to themselves. listen not to their solicitations. and is not aware of any design upon him. Leave your father's house. and daring. and those that are with him. and is of fatal consequence. Verse 12.. Let us swallow them up alive as the grave. impudent. or "let us hide ourselves" {r}. {t} "Impune." and abide by it. and having done nothing to provoke such miscreants to attempt his life or take away his property: and which they do "without cause" as to him. and become a member of our society. Verse 11. say "I will not. assent neither by words nor deeds. as all men are. and are continually employed in: for this is not to be understood of such who are sinners by nature. and go along with us upon the highway. do not say "thou wilt". they are hardened. and through infirmity of the flesh. The innocent person. who live in sin. and regard to parents. as they promise themselves and one another.. Montanus. yield not to their persuasions. Schultens. waiting "for the innocent. so Vatablus and others.. {q} hnpun "abscondamus.. show no liking and approbation of them. and moving manner. If they say. Montanus. who are guilty of the grossest enormities." Michaelis. and not content to sin themselves. and the constant course of their lives..

and goods they were travelling with. and live upon it comfortably and merrily. but it may not only design the garments taken from the persons robbed and killed. which is an allusion to a beast of prey swallowing up another creature all at once. Jarchi represents it as putting it to the young man's option. everything that is valuable.. to do which he would. we shall fill our houses with spoil. let us all have one purse. as if they were swallowed up alive in a grave. which is the "more enduring substance": the things of this world. will throw all our booty. and happiness with him to all eternity. shall in a moment be destroyed and cast into the pit. Verse 14.. or to give any information of us. their immortal souls. as soon as any booty is taken thou shalt cast lots with us.. as those that go down into the pit. nor any left to make a relation of it.. one should not have more than another: these are the arguments . Or "thou shall cause thy lot to fall among us" {u}. or let it be put altogether. Cast in thy lot among us. they are things that are not.. are not substance. Aben Ezra interprets this of garments. and whole. and risk the loss of their name. that there should not be more in one purse than in another. that there should be such an exact division made. but they are what carnal men set a high price and value upon. gold and silver and precious stones. not only intends their cruelty in taking away life. but also their money. and so partake jointly with the rest. being first plundered of all the riches they have about them. not considering that hereby they were in danger of losing the more precious substance. either to cast lots and take his share separately. commodities. and souls for. According to Gersom the sense is. We shall find all precious substance. nor are they "precious. Verse 13. and consequently we shall be in the utmost safety and security. Among one or another we meet with. lives. and the most precious substance of all. the enjoyment of God.. there being no traces of what is done. for this swallowing them up alive and whole." in comparison of spiritual and heavenly things. taken by us into one common stock. the love of money is the root of all evil. or "we will all have one purse" {w}. properly speaking. and have thy full share with those that have been longer engaged.. and their purses should be alike. covetousness lies at the bottom of all this wickedness. though just entered. or to pursue us. and so no more to be seen or heard of. but their rapaciousness in seizing upon their substance. and bury them out of sight at once.that we can very easily dispatch him and all his attendants.. who though whole and in perfect health. which in time would be so large as to fill everyone of their houses. their shares should be equally divided by lot. though wicked men so judge them.

and all manner of iniquity. and that no information may be given of them. and remember the instructions of thy parents. encouraged by one another. l. and make haste to shed blood." Mercerus. Schultens.." Cocceius. as follows. {x} "Velox ad facinus.. from which they are dehorted. in order to deter from joining with them. and. Surely in vain the net is spread in the sight of any bird. in order to get their substance. Baynus. 240. which is the broad way that leads unto destruction. "projicies. to commit robberies and murder.. {w} wnlkl hyhy "erit nobis omnibus.. showing that the blood of innocent persons is shed without cause. Verse 16. but draw back. so Gersom: or else the sense is. walk not thou in the way with them. set not one foot in it. Or "without cause" {y}. and thus it is with those men that are bent upon their sinful practices. upon theft and . and pushed on by Satan. withstand it.. because they bring upon them swift destruction. Michaelis. "jacies. {u} lypt Klrwg "sortem tuam conjicies. being carried away with their inordinate affections. Verse 17. though not to the fowler." Junius & Tremellius. refrain thy foot from their path. it is so intent upon the corn that is spread about. To the evil of sin. My son. their manner and course of life.. and so the words are an illustration of the preceding. as Jarchi interprets it. make no trial of it. whether it will be pleasant and profitable walking in it. which are as feet to the soul. and which is a reason why their ways and paths should be abstained from. the blood of innocent persons. stop in time. and so rush on headlong to the evil of punishment also. and so is caught in it. that though the net is spread by the fowler even in the sight of the bird. that it takes no notice of the net.. In the same way as they do. 1. Tigurine version. v. and drawn aside with their lusts. no injury being done by them to those that do it.. and go on in the way thou hast been trained up in. do not proceed.used by wicked men to allure and ensnare young men to join with them in their sinful ways and practices. which has done no harm to the fowler that seeks to take it. just as the net is spread for the innocent bird. this is mentioned as having something very horrible in it. so Cocceius. nor join them in it. but is shed without any provocation at all. to cover their iniquity and shame. as the word is rendered in Proverbs 1:11. yet it is in vain to the bird." Claudian. Proverbs 6:18 {x}. when there is an inclination or a temptation to it. it is to their own hurt they run." Pagninus. and the Targum. Montanus. in Rufin. do not follow it. the experiment will be dangerous. Schultens. and in haste and swift to do it. For their feet run to evil. they are eager upon it. though the first sense seems best to agree with what follows. Verse 15.

and to be followed by the justice and vengeance of God. and that those sins were frequent then is manifest both from Scripture... as sabbath breaking. or by God himself. they are laying snares for their own souls. and what will his gain profit him then? it would be of no use and service to him could he have gained the whole world. or. [which] taketh away the life of the owners thereof: or who. was here on earth: to which time the whole passage refers. his ways will end in the loss of his own blood and life. for fear of being murdered themselves. drunkenness. as follows. and they daily see their companions in iniquity come to an untimely end. and from the confessions of the Jews. and suffer eternal punishment. That is set upon getting riches in an unlawful way. even every one of those that are greedy of gain. not only because other sins lead unto them. {y} Mnh "sine causa. however. though their ruin and destruction are before their eyes. and justice will not suffer them to live. These sins of robbery and murder are particularly instanced in. but rush on to their own ruin.. and issue in temporal and eternal ruin. who say {z} that forty years before the destruction of the temple the sanhedrim were obliged to remove from place to place.. And they lay wait for their [own] blood. and is the cause of their own blood being shed. Mercerus. to everlasting ruin and destruction hereafter... or gain gotten in such a wicked manner. will be the cause of the life of the injurious masters and wrong possessors of it being taken away from them. and when they shed the blood of innocent persons. and will be rich at any rate.murder. that they will be brought to a shameful and untimely end here. see Matthew 27:38. or money they are greedy of.. and they could not judge and condemn them. While they lie in wait for the blood of others. because that murderers increased. but because they were very common among the Jews at the time that Wisdom. this will be what his wicked ways and course of life will bring him to. Gejerus. they lurk privily for their [own] lives: while they are lurking in secret places to take away. and it .. they lie in wait for their own. vengeance pursues them." Vatablus. Verse 18. it in the issue comes upon their own heads. they know that they are liable to suffer death by the hand of the civil magistrate. and the consequence of it will be. and such wicked practices cannot fail of meeting with a just recompence of reward: or "which" covetous gain. yet take no warning hereby. or Christ. either by the hand of the civil magistrate. and lewdness. Song of Solomon [are] the ways of everyone that is greedy of gain. and in the loss of his immortal soul. such stick not to take away the life of the proper owners of that gain. by robberies and murder. Verse 19. as appears from the following verses. the lives of others. in order to get it into their own possession.

and without that part of the country which was properly called Jewry. in particular. for crying here means no other than the preaching of the word. 2. as preached by him. weeping over it. which well suits with the Gospel. that is. or this may mean the Gentile world." and "the acceptable year of the Lord. and the ministry of it." as Christ did. as in the Hebrew text. show that a divine Person is intended. nor is this sense to be excluded here. nor the law of Moses given to the Israelites. {a} Misnah Sotah. nor the revelation of the divine will in general. and most properly belong to Christ. because of the consummate and perfect wisdom that is in him. Avodah Zarah. neither of which Christ did. Isaiah 11:2. which is such a cry as that of heralds. fol. Verse 20. by which we are to understand not the attribute of divine wisdom displayed in the works of creation. in the plural number. This. he is "the Logos. which perhaps may be meant of places in the Gentile world. as Jesus did when he cried to Jerusalem. where Christ preached. whom he sent into all the world to preach the Gospel to every creature. a joyful sound expressed by piping. Here the person instructing throughout this whole book is represented under the name of "Wisdom". as man. which was a mournful one. This cry was made "without" the city of Jerusalem. 9. it may be figuratively understood of the public ministration of the word . Matthew 23:37.. s. Bab. she uttereth her voice in the streets: of the city of Jerusalem. as Mediator. and of the success of it. John 7:28. though not in person. and he also sent his servants into the streets and lanes of the city to call in sinners by the ministry of the word. which is to be understood of crying in a bawling and litigious way. especially in the eighth and ninth chapters. nor is this contrary to Matthew 12:19.. the word signifies to cry both in a sorrowful way.was because of this great increase they were obliged to stop the beheading of the red heifer {a}. Luke 14:21. and ascribed to it in this book. with what follows to the end of the chapter. and. Matthew 11:17. and in a joyful one. "all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge [are] hid" in him.. "the Spirit of Wisdom" rests upon him without measure. as it is delivered out in the sacred Scriptures. as he did. of lifting up the voice in selfcommendation. so Wisdom or Christ. 9. Colossians 2:3." the Word and Wisdom of God. Wisdom crieth without. and yet might cry and utter his voice in the streets. publicly preach his Gospel there. when they publicly proclaim peace or war. Christ first preached in the land of Galilee. yet by his apostles. nor the Gospel. 8. but our Lord Jesus Christ. and other places. and of the calamities that should come upon the Jews for the rejection of him: and Wisdom is here said to "cry." Isaiah 61:1. for the things spoken of Wisdom. in opposition to John's ministry. c. who may be called "Wisdoms" {b}. as he is a divine Person. is said to "proclaim liberty to the captives. is a prophecy of the ministry of Christ in the days of his flesh. {z} T.. nor the light of nature in man.

Vatablus. or of the temple." in the "streets. Hilchot Tephillah. at his disciples and followers. and loved the folly and darkness of them. and were a simple and foolish people. and which." may denote in general the openness and publicness of the Gospel ministry. here Christ taught publicly. see John 10:23. and to continue in them. men of weak capacities and shallow understandings. Michaelis." in the "chief place of concourse. and in the Gentile world. and best of all the temple. see Matthew 11:25. the singular being put for the plural. {b} twmkx "sapientiae. as follows. and so all these expressions of "without. often compared to a city. from hence." and "the city. "on the top of palaces. where Christ frequently preached. . [saying]. and figuratively in the church of God.. agreeably to their character. addicted to silly customs and usages. where they passed and repassed continually on account of worship. and such were the first persons that were called by Christ through the ministry of the word." "the opening of the gates. c. even effectually. either of the city. as he himself says. because of the meanness of his parentage and education. they were babes and sucklings in comparison of others. Song of Solomon 3:2. rather than the light of the Gospel. in the city she uttereth her words.. 11. ye simple ones. the Targum is. s. and to which the Jews daily resorted. Where a multitude of people meet together." Montanus. and in other cities of Judea and Galilee. the doctrines of the Gospel. who were externally called by Christ. Psalm 87:2. they build in the highest part of the city {c}. John 18:20... She crieth in the chief place of concourse. in Judea. being weak simple men.. 2. both by Christ in his apostles. will ye love simplicity?. even in the city of Jerusalem literally. in allusion hereunto the public worship of God's house is signified by the gates of Zion. Verse 22. to the traditions of the elders. in the opening of the gates.. more especially the former. and also of Wisdom. at Christ. and the scorners delight in their scorning.and ordinances in the church called the streets and broad ways of it. Simple foolish things. Cocceius. Mercerus. though it may respect the Jews in general. Verse 21. John 3:19. {c} Maimon." but rather it is to be understood of the synagogues of the Jews. by whom they were despised as illiterate and ignorant of the law.. How long. whither the tribes of Israel went up to worship in great bodies. at which people went in and out in great numbers.

"turn ye to hear my reproof.at his doctrines and miracles. "turn your face to my reproof. "scatebrae instar effundam. they hated Christ. and the fervour and importunity of his ministrations." but "unto you": for the Holy Spirit of God is not here designed. and the effusion of his gifts.. not "upon you. they hated the light of it. which sense is confirmed by what follows. and judgment. sufferings and death. and of eternal salvation. or of his special grace." the doctrines of grace and truth. his enemies being witnesses.. and even of error and infidelity. or. and who are therefore expostulated with by Wisdom or Christ. but the turning of the face and ears to hear it. I will pour out my spirit unto you. out of his heart. John 1:17. which expostulations show their continuance in these things. as a Priest to be the propitiation for them. as the word {e} here used signifies. wherefore it follows: {d} So some in Ben Melech.. as Aben Ezra. words of grace and wisdom. but the Jews were such fools as to hate and despise the knowledge of these things. or to him repentance. but rather loved the darkness of the law. "scaturiam. so they were poured out by them again." Baynus. which reproves of sin. though without a cause. the knowledge of the Gospel. "here. and does not design the turning of the heart to it." turn your ears and listen to it." Psalm 45:2." for the words are not an exhortation to the conversion of the heart." . ordinary and extraordinary. which were made known in a ministerial way by Christ and his apostles. or stop your ears that you may not hear it. which is God's work. for as the doctrines of "grace [were] poured into [his] lips. by whom "grace and truth. and do not pull away the shoulder. and the truths of it. "came" in their full extent." and not your backs. as they did. Michaelis. my will" {d}. of life and righteousness. the external revelation of his will made in the ministry of the word. and is mentioned as an encouragement to men to attend unto it. but the mind of Wisdom." Cocceius. as out of a fountain or well. but to an attendance to the external ministry of the word preached. Some interpret it. they hated his person. {e} heyba "fluere. the words of peace and reconciliation. Or rather "to my reproof. the teacher of true and useful knowledge.. showing a dislike of it. righteousness. and such as never man spake as Christ did. and did not care to come to it. and the danger they were in by them. as the word is used in Proverbs 29:11. which denotes the large and abundant revelation of the Gospel by Christ. behold. the pity and compassion of Christ as man and a minister of the word. and as a King to rule over them. Verse 23. they hated him in his offices. vel scaturire faciam. and of God in Christ. as a Prophet to instruct them. I will make known my words unto you. Turn ye at my reproof. the doctrines of the Gospel. and fools hate knowledge? the knowledge of Christ. such "fools" were they. and so the Targum. or Christ.

and when eager and fervent. this the Jews set at nought. and his eternal purpose in Christ Jesus. I have stretched out my hand. the entire scheme of salvation by Jesus Christ.. did not like it. The same with "the counsel of God. requiring silence and attention. and is also a call to special blessings of grace. no attention was given to it. measuring measure for measure. they show an aversion to it. but contemned it. which go by the same name. do not attend on the ministry of the word. the author of it. and importunate in their discourses. now he in his turn will "laugh" at them and their distress. Luke 7:30.. rejected. and to eternal glory. "ebulliam. to the natural duties of religion. and is according to the counsel of the divine will. and have no mercy upon them. it is attributed to Christ." Acts 20:27. or. this is a gesture of persons calling to others. and can never be refused. rejected by the Scribes and Pharisees. because of the wisdom and will of God in them. which is here complained of. is according to an eternal purpose. Verse 24. and importunity. and no man regarded. But ye have set at nought all my counsel. unchangeable. and this may be refused and rejected. as orators and preachers. who were the persons first called to hear it. nor salvation follows. show no compassion to them. expressed by words and gestures. notwithstanding all Wisdom's eagerness. Because I have called. even as they scorned him. This is to be understood not of the internal call of Wisdom. peculiar to God's elect. and blaspheme it. contradict. as it often is.. it was all disregarded. or. Matthew 20:16. but despised and rejected. and which is always effectual. it is in a negligent careless way.. Verse 26. Acts 4:11. signifying that he should not at all pity them. as when men.. or Christ. and by a divine power.. see Matthew 23:37. despise. which may be where no election goes before. so as to become void and of no effect: but of the external call by the word. and delighted in their scorning. and all the truths of it. and ye refused. and would none of my reproof. as the Jews did. and to an attendance on the means of grace. which is the produce of divine wisdom. the fruit of everlasting love. see Psalm 2:4. nor receive any instruction from it nor caution by it.. nor take it.. if they do. By way of retaliation.. and resisted. I also will laugh at your calamity. no sanctification attends. and irreversible. but. made no account of. as also his ordinances. The whole Gospel. see Matthew 22:2. and trampled upon it. which is by the special grace of his Spirit. Isaiah 65:2..Gussetius.. which act is ascribed to the Lord by an anthropopathy. warmth. so Ben Melech. but rather express a pleasure and delight in displaying the glory of his justice in their destruction: the plain ." Schultens.. would not hearken to it. zeal. as they did Christ. Verse 25. particularly baptism. notwithstanding that call.

even on their nation. fierce.. These are the "desolations" said to be "determined. so it was just in him to return no answer to them. and consternation with it. and boisterous.. and its fine buildings.. and they refused to answer to his call. Mercerus. Amama." Daniel 9:26. but I will not answer." which should be "poured upon the desolate. and pestilence. Verse 27. which is here intended. and made them so desperate to the last. throwing down and carrying all before it: so the said destruction did. terror. but the whole country of Judea. and the famine within. Matthew 24:22. that no favour would be shown them. Verse 28. for by "fear" is meant the dreadful calamity on which brought dread. Matthew 24:2. as famine. suddenly and unthought of. sword. denoting it would be a very dark dispensation with the Jews. Proverbs 1:24. it not only laid Jerusalem and the temple waste. and of which they had fearful apprehensions beforehand: wherefore this is mentioned among the signs of Jerusalem's destruction. I will mock when your fear cometh. which is the same thing in different words." Vatablus. or cloud. as in their last destruction by the Romans.. Then shall they call upon me. and the temple." or "the consummation and that determined. The word translated "calamity" signifies a "vapour" {f}. and what they expected. when Jerusalem was besieged by the Romans: what with the sword of the enemy without." Luke 21:26. when distress and anguish cometh upon you.. . so that not one stone was left upon another not thrown down. that the Messiah would come and deliver them. "men's hearts failing them for fear. As he called them. it threw down the walls and houses of the city of Jerusalem.. and save them from ruin: for this was what they called out for. and temple. as they did at that time with a witness. this was what they buoyed themselves up with. that it shall be like some desolating judgment.. When your fear cometh as desolation. {f} dya "significat vaporem.sense is. Josephus's history of those times is a proper comment on these words. when they called on him to deliver them from the Romans. and your destruction cometh as a whirlwind. When such will be the calamity that will occasion this fear. city. which lays all waste: and such was the destruction of the Jews by the Romans. Isaiah 27:11." 1 Thessalonians 2:16. together with the vast number of cutthroats and seditious persons among themselves. as it was when "wrath came upon them to the uttermost. nor ever will be. it was such a time of distress and tribulation as never was from the beginning of the world..

Verse 29. be punished according to their deserts. whom they had rejected. Matthew 23:13. for when he was gone. nor did they choose or care for the pure. for their hypocrisy. in the desert. . to observe their ingratitude.. and their usage of him. then they sought after the Messiah. to their ruin and destruction. they despised all my reproof. which is the beginning of knowledge. and what the true cause of it. and by their rejection of the Messiah. For that they hated knowledge. and receive the just reward of their iniquities. but they shall not find me. Their evil ways. and they were in distress. by which they made the word and worship of God of none effect. his person. Neither his doctrines nor his ordinances. and would return no more.. but they "derided" him for it. and would neither go into he kingdom of God or Gospel church state themselves.. Therefore shall they eat of the fruit of their own way. uncleanness. and how just was their ruin. of the promises and prophecies of them respecting the Messiah.. These things are repeated from Proverbs 1:25.. Verse 31. and much in the same words with these. it plainly appeared that the fear of God was not before their eyes nor upon their hearts. see Matthew 23:1.they shall seek me early.. Proverbs 1:7. Verse 30. and in other discourses of his at other times and places. till he came in his kingdom and power. the knowledge of the Messiah. instead of choosing. John 7:34. until his second coming to judgment. introduced in the Gospel dispensation. and be filled with their own devices. though they were called upon and exhorted to "search" them. or "counsels" {g}: their device and counsel was to put Christ to death. spiritual. covetousness. offices. of which coming of his the Scriptures often speak. see Isaiah 3:10. and other sins they were addicted to. alas! they could not find him: the true Messiah... the ordinances of Christ they did not choose to submit to. they cast off the fear of the Lord. and the doctrines of it. and in this and the other place. see Proverbs 1:22. Luke 16:14.. was come and gone. the knowledge of the Scriptures. nor suffer those that were entering to go in. where the same word is used as is by the Septuagint here. the knowledge of his Gospel.. but. and did not choose the fear of the Lord. and in the secret chambers. where they were told he was. Spiritual and evangelical. however.. and grace.. to deliver him to the Roman governor. according to the tradition of the elders. and evangelical worship of God. or. They would none of my counsel. nor would they attend to the wholesome counsel and advice he gave them in his sermons upon the mount. but rather chose their superstition and will worship. this is the very thing that Christ told the Jews.

Piscator. leading them to commit sins. c. or Christ. as the word {h} used signifies. Verse 32. Some render it. 5. and a deaf ear to him. and in their observance of ceremonies and traditions. so as to feet the power of it. s. so as spiritually and experimentally to understand it. and sometimes more. living in carnal security till death should seize upon them. Junius & Tremellius. his ordinances. even their turning away from Christ. &c." Pagninus. Pagninus. as Aben Ezra. {k} tbwvm "requies. and to delight and take pleasure in it.. and prosper in the world.. and believe it. {i} Josephus de Bello Jud. and by one another. so as to approve of it. think it will always be well with them. l. "quies. but internally. to the cry and call above.. their aversion to him. and putting it from them. to the voice of his Gospel.. 1. from a principle of love. to distinguish it from the voice of a stranger. and receive it in the love of it. peace. 11. {h} webvy "saturabuntar. having no sense of guilt. thereby judging themselves unworthy of everlasting life: in all which they showed themselves to be the "simple" and "foolish" persons they were. such vast numbers of them were crucified by the Romans before the walls of the city. or. and crosses for bodies {i}. when sudden destruction was at hand: or a stubborn hardened rest in sin. their turning away from his Gospel. Tigurine version. and for which wrath and ruin came upon them. To Wisdom. nor fear of punishment. "the rest" or "quietness of the simple" {k}. &c. Montanus. not only give an assent unto it. their turning their backs on him. which bring destruction upon them. as he was: and they afterwards had their bellyful of crucifixion. being in prosperity. seeing sinners live with impunity. Such . and the prosperity of fools shall destroy them. not only externally. and without trusting to and depending upon it. and therefore put away the evil day far from them." Junius & Tremellius. and appropriate the things of it to a man's self: and also to the voice of his precepts. Mercerus. &c. L. But whoso hearkeneth unto me.that he might be crucified." Junius & Tremellius. five hundred a day. that is. which comes upon them at an unawares. so some in Ben Melech.. and crying Peace. Baynus. with a view to his glory. For the turning away of the simple shall slay them. a seared conscience. which is their ruin. and they were slain with the sword and famine. take encouragement from thence to indulge themselves in sin. {g} Mhytuewmm "de consiliis suis. "ex consiliis suis. insomuch that room was needed for crosses. Montanus.. but by faith receive it. so as to yield a cheerful obedience to them.. taking up their rest in themselves." V. Verse 33. or. Or be the cause of their being slain.. the abuse of it." Vatablus. which was the case of the Jews. Gejerus.

being by his righteousness secure from divine justice. where they are safe from Satan. or strong hold: and they dwell in Christ the Rock of ages. in those mansions and everlasting habitations in Christ's Father's house he is preparing for them. the enemy. and be free from all evils. by whom Judah is saved. The safety and protection of those that hearken to Christ. comes in upon them as a flood. under a comfortable sense of the blood. since they dwell in God. for. nor of the evil of judgments upon a wicked world. and in the covenant of his grace. and in his everlasting and unchangeable love. against which the gates of hell cannot prevail. that beat upon them. beyond Jordan {l} as they did. who is greater the he that is in the world. and especially they will dwell safely in the other world. as in a garrison. or spiritual. CHAPTER 2 . wherefore they are not consumed. speak peace to the conscience. and sacrifice of Christ: which. and so remain safe amidst the floods. when applied and laid hold on by faith. here promised. who. who cannot devour and destroy them. from the curse of the law. encamp about them. and from wrath to come: besides. as well as quiet resting places. and under whom Israel dwells safely. the refuge to which they flee. which are sure dwellings. the Spirit of the Lord lifts up a standard against him. and believe in him. as they must indeed. angels are their guardians. as follows. a little before the destruction of Jerusalem. and tempests. the Lord their righteousness. and whither they run and are safe. so that such have no reason to be afraid of the evil one. and from the fear of them. had a remarkable accomplishment in the believing Jews. and on which their souls are built. storms. who when he. and immovable. nor of death and a future judgment. and are in his hands out of which none can pluck them. and everlasting damnation: and hereafter such will enter into peace. fortress. amidst all the waves and billows of affliction and tribulation. nor of the evil of sin. which has salvation for walls and bulwarks. natural. nor of hell. and shall be quiet from fear of evil. being out of the reach of them all.shall dwell safely. "the secret place of the most High". and coming under the dominion of it. in his heart. as they may be in the present life. the ark in which they ride safely. Satan. which is firm. and yield quietness of mind. yet not of being conquered by it. their place of defence. were warned to go out from thence to a place called Pella. and sure. nor of being brought by it into a state of condemnation. though they may and should be afraid to commit it. such have the Spirit dwelling in them. and where they were safe. the strong hold to which they turn. by and in which they are kept. righteousness. and in his power. and they are the inhabitants of a strong city. moral.

and not only so. Proverbs 2:1. expressed by prayer. These are either the continuation of the words of Solomon to his son Rehoboam. and the ways she leads persons into. Proverbs 2:2. Song of Solomon that thou incline thine ear unto Wisdom. Proverbs 2:20. who are described. embracing the doctrines of the Gospel. such as the words of peace. Proverbs 2:5. such is the nature of divine wisdom. which are to be received. and as they are and will be by every sensible sinner. are represented as very dangerous.. when it has once got a place in the heart and in the affections. and with all readiness of mind and willingness... or to anyone that came to him for instruction. And. whom he carefully keeps and preserves. Proverbs 2:10. whose character is given. such is the usefulness of true wisdom. that it leads into the way of good men.. The advantages are. and from their being laid up for them. Proverbs 2:16. so as to have a high esteem of them. and constantly observe them. and a hearty affection and value for them. My son.. not as the word of man. Proverbs 2:18.. as by the three thousand pricked to the heart under Peter's sermon. it will be a means of preserving both from the ways of evil men. as for silver and hid treasure. whom he addresses in this tender and affectionate manner. but such learn to do that which is just and right among men. when the wicked shall be destroyed. or Christ. An earnest and importunate desire. as they were by the Bereans.Proverbs 2 This chapter directs to the means of attaining to the knowledge of divine things. or was within the reach of being taught by him. And from the evil woman. or rather to the instruction of Wisdom. that. righteousness. in order to gain his attention to what he was about to say: or else they are the words of Wisdom. that is.. that such shall attain to the fear and knowledge of God. or doctrines: the doctrines of the Gospel. Verse 1. and retaining in memory and affection the ordinances of it. and most gladly. which may be concluded from these being the gift of God to his people. office. Verse 2. and giving them some very wholesome counsel and advice. after the same. And. Proverbs 2:13. The means are. who will be happy and safe.. on the contrary. and life. and an inclination of the ear and an application of the heart to the knowledge of these things. see Psalm 119:11. Proverbs 2:4. and salvation by him. retain them in memory. besides. whose vicious course of life. Proverbs 2:9. pardon. relating to the person. continued. Christ. thus bespeaking: his children and people. and shows the profit and advantage arising from thence. Proverbs 2:3. and hide my commandments with thee. if thou wilt receive my words. Hearken to Wisdom. and a diligent and unwearied search for them. in the heart. and frequently think of them and meditate upon them. and grace of Christ. but as the word of God. . backed with the most powerful and prevailing arguments.

.. which is granted to those who lift up their voice in prayer for it. an earnest and hearty desire after knowledge. without an application of the heart. that it may understand these things. or Christ. 1 Corinthians 2:6. and is worth listening unto with the greatest attention. or rather for an understanding of the Gospel and the mysteries of it. Verse 4. which men do not naturally understand. James 1:5. the doctrine of wisdom.. Of God. [and] apply thine heart to understanding. the Gospel is a treasure. expressed here by "her": namely. and which it opposes. for Christ. solidity. having some apprehension of the worth and value of it. see Psalm 119:112.. which are as desirable and valuable as silver. an hearty desire for it. . a hypocrite may seemingly hear with great attention. must open the understanding. what the wisdom of man could never have devised. and more so. and be preferred before it. and the truths thereof. not only bow the ear and bend the mind to these things. by his spirit and grace. 2 Corinthians 4:7. and duration. and are to be sought after with as much and more eagerness. for their purity.. Proverbs 8:10. see Psalm 119:72. and diligence. and understanding. which all signify and relate unto one and the same thing. and for which there must be an understanding given. If thou seekest her as silver.. affection. wisdom. or the eyes of the understanding must be enlightened. in the justification and salvation of his people by Christ. [and] liftest up thy voice for understanding. the Gospel. which supposes some sense of a want of it. Ezekiel 33:31. or Christ. but importunately and fervently pray for them. and that it is to be had. and yet his heart be after the world and the things of it. as there is indeed great reason to hope for and expect it. Yea. and which may be fitly compared to it. but cry to God to give the Spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of divine and spiritual things. that is. not only attend the ministry of the word by men. and a spiritual and experimental knowledge and understanding of it. because it is the produce of divine wisdom. and in which there is a most glorious display of the wisdom of God. for being far fetched and dearly bought. and show much affection. things valuable for their antiquity. will signify nothing. It contains rich truths. Verse 3. so called. and the truths of it: for an inclination of the ear. to a spiritual and experimental understanding of the Gospel. which is what is designed by this expression.. Christ. Proverbs 8:14. as silver is by those who are most covetous of it. an accumulation of riches. knowledge. and searchest for her as [for] hid treasures. which signifies the intenseness of the mind. That is. and the Gospel. if thou criest after knowledge.which is the Gospel.. who is understanding as well as wisdom.

and from God's own elect before conversion.coming from heaven.. and as an hid treasure. and are now.. or lies in the bowels of the earth. and by the same leads them into the riches of his special grace and "goodness. that "topazin. being wrapped up in dark prophecies. These are things to be sought for and searched after. entirely hid from the wicked and reprobate part of the world. there are treasures of wisdom and knowledge in the Gospel." in his heart. and conversation with them. and the truths of it. and likewise the "treasure hid [in the] field" of the Scriptures. By means of the Gospel the Lord works it in the hearts of his people by his Spirit. exceeding great and precious ones. by constant hearing the truths of the Gospel preached. and for the abundance of them. sure and irreversible. obscure hints. from all eternity. by which men "depart from evil". and the riches both of grace and glory. and shadowy types and sacrifices. in the first place. his special goodness in Christ. as being of the greatest moment and importance. Romans 15:29." and the Lord for the sake of it: and particularly they are led hereby to the pardoning grace and mercy of God. The grace of fear. which is with him. and the holy martyrs of Jesus. Proverbs 1:7. 8." which they are influenced by to "fear. and the exercise of it: which is the beginning of wisdom and knowledge. Ephesians 3:9: the truths of it are the "treasures of wisdom and knowledge hid" in Christ. and with the utmost diligence and labour. and it is the Gospel which induces and encourages a true filial fear of God. as precious stones: Pliny {m} says. Verse 5. who is full of truth as well as grace.. and a multitude of them. l. by earnest prayer for the illumination of the divine Spirit to understand them. in the early time of life. which are absolute and unconditional. and very much from the Jews themselves. And under this notion of a treasure is it to be searched for. in allusion to what is laid up in the cabinets of princes. that he may "be feared". This is "the fellowship of the mystery" that was "hid in God. Matthew 22:44. has the signification of seeking. from them that are lost. the unsearchable riches of Christ." The Gospel. with like labour and resolution with which men dig into the earth. and in Christ the sum and substance of it. and is a treasure itself. and sure to all the seed: and it reveals the riches of God's goodness. Colossians 2:3. and by all the help of the writings of good men." in the language of the Troglodytes. because "topazes" are diligently sought for and searched after. by frequent and deep meditation on them. to find the rich ore that is in the bowels of it: and this should be done by diligent reading them. It contains rich blessings of grace. Hist. and also rich promises. that can be had. and sealed by the blood of Christ. and always were. and substantial. solid. c. {m} Nat. such as are spiritual. for . which therefore are to be searched into for them. Then shalt thou understand the fear of the Lord. See Gill on "Job 28:19. suited to the various cases of God's people. were greatly hid under the former dispensation from the Gentile world.. 37. Colossians 2:3.

and find the knowledge of God. and is given to be wisdom to his people. of his mind and will. and through this men not only find it. And this is the advantage arising from a diligent search after the doctrine of wisdom. and misery. and evangelical.. by means of Gospel light. and practical understanding of the fear of God as a grace. and of the way of peace. which must serve greatly to engage and excite persons to a diligent search and pursuit after it. as it includes the whole worship of God. Heautont. by Jesus Christ. Sc. and salvation. experimental. with respect to doctrine and worship. in being acquainted experimentally with the doctrines of the Gospel. and with a view to the glory. of God." This only is to be found in the Gospel. in all characters he bears. his own folly. nor in the law of Moses. who is wisdom. impotence. for though much of God and his perfections may be seen and known by the things that are made. that it is pure. which is "life eternal. and spiritual wisdom. life. And all that is here said is designed to encourage a diligent search after divine things. and is never taken away again. and as becomes it. he is a very large comprehensive gift. and much of the will of God by the law he gave. men come to have a spiritual. He is the gift of God to them. and in the exercise of faith. and of God in Christ. yet by neither of these is the knowledge of God in Christ. and that these are to be kept as they were delivered. or the Gospel. here only it is brought to light. and in walking wisely and circumspectly.that teaches them to deny all manner of sin. in partaking of the true grace. and by means of it. spiritual. and is used as an argument encouraging to it. as is also Christ. in the whole volume of the creatures. 1. partly to caution . and in its utmost latitude and perfection. and in all the writings of the philosophers. for. which is practical wisdom: and all this is the gift of God. Now this is said. an unspeakable one. and to live a godly life and conversation: so that through a diligent search after the knowledge of the Gospel. and also. Act. from a principle of love.. 4. they come to understand what sort of worship that is God is to be worshipped with. there is nothing so difficult but by searching may be found out. and an attaining it. but increase more and more in it: herein is a glorious display of his persons and perfections. with all its improvements. and relations he stands in. Natural wisdom in all its branches. of his counsels and purposes. {n} Terent. For the Lord giveth wisdom. impurity. being wise unto salvation. as the poet {n} says. suited to his nature and will: what the ordinances of divine service are. which is given freely and liberally. no. in the knowledge of Christ.. such a knowledge of God as is not to be found by the light of nature. and another follows. as the only way of salvation. Verse 6. which is wisdom in the hidden part. and a knowledge and understanding of it. without trusting to them or depending on them for salvation.. of his covenant and promises. which lies in the knowledge of a man's self.

who is the month of God to men. sufferings. and the inheritance reserved there. The word here used signifies "essence. not the law. but evangelically ..such who search after wisdom. and are things that are not. true and real wisdom. by the prophets of the Old Testament who came with a "Thus saith the Lord. and are rich and valuable.. and is that goodness of his. because it endures for ever. in Christ. since the Lord freely gives it. not to attribute it to their diligence and industry. and by whom the doctrines of grace and truth. and partly as a direction where to go for it. and find it. which is another encouragement to search after it.. which he has laid up in his heart. He layeth up sound wisdom for the righteous. and this was hid in God. and such are the glories of the other world the crown of righteousness. death and salvation by him: and by his Son. but to the grace of God. which is sound doctrine. and has declared all his mind. of his coming. and by the Scriptures of truth. which are a vain show. in opposition to that which has only the show of wisdom. and the fulness of grace which he has laid up in Christ for them Psalm 31:19. but for those who are really and truly so. and laid up as a treasure in the sacred Scriptures: or else the true grace of God. Proverbs 8:21. and are able to make men wise unto salvation: and by the ministers of the Gospel. not for those who are legally." and the Targum by a word which signifies "glory" and "honour".. all which may well be understood of eternal life which is laid up and reserved "for the righteous": not for such who are only so in show and imagination. In order to give it to them that seek for it. when all beings are defective and come to nothing." and were the mouth of the Lord to the people. his person and offices. both of the Old and of the New Testament. what are breathed by him and come out of his mouth. by whom he has spoke in these last days. "speaketh wisdom. in opposition to earthly riches. James 1:5. and is science falsely so called. out of his mouth [cometh] knowledge and understanding. who speak in the name of the Lord. and in the covenant of his grace. and the knowledge of them. By "sound wisdom" may be meant." "substance" {o}. which are the word of God. and is solid and substantial. namely. by attending on the word. that which really is. and the Lord by them. and by means of whom he imparts much spiritual and evangelical knowledge to the sons of men. Colossians 1:5. of the will of God. in distinction from that which is counterfeit. and his tongue talketh of judgment. to encourage to a search after wisdom in the use of means. pure and not corrupt. Verse 7. This clause is added. The Septuagint render it by "salvation. but the Gospel. of the Messiah. and at best temporal and perishing. are come fully and clearly. Hebrews 1:1. from whence flowed the knowledge of divine things. so called." Psalm 37:30. These are real things. and have substance and solidity in them. the mouth of a Gospel minister. the hope laid up in heaven. or eternal glory and happiness. but these are an enduring substance. though invisible. and the ministry of it. and as an encouragement to hope to have it. as Kimchi and Ben Melech.

Tigurine version. and walk on in him as they have received him. "quicquid revera est. p. and which is his own way." his own Son. liberal. or not for such that seek righteousness by the law.. they only have a right unto it. and so expresses the end." These the Lord preserves by his power and grace." Junius & Tremellius. and keep walking therein. which is walking in his uprightness. and effect of the Lord's being a buckler to them. as he is said to be in Proverbs 2:7: he is their shield and protection. Some {p} read these words by way of apposition. and lay hold on it as their righteousness. Montanus. Ebr. He keepeth the paths of judgment. that that is a buckler or shield to the persons here described. that is. and go on living by faith on his righteousness. till they come to be with him for ever in heaven. or who have been merciful. and sacrifice." Pagninus. and generous to others. and a meetness for it. see Ecclesiastes 7:12. The words may be rendered. Comment. {p} So Mercerus.." which is immutable and invariable. who walk according to the rule of the divine word. [he is] a buckler to them that walk uprightly. without stumbling in them. Gejerus. his blood righteousness. {o} hyvwt "essentiam. Mercerus. which faith lays hold on and uses as a shield against Satan's fiery darts. his holy . in the course of his providence. or declining from them. 454. for such who are made righteous by the righteousness of Christ imputed to them." Schultens. "solidam firmamque substantiam.. are useful to men: the Targum calls them "righteous ones. "he delivers it". fruit. and gives them "the shield of salvation" which secures them from sin and wrath and every enemy. he keeps them there from turning out of them. and renders it. with this compare Genesis 15:1 Psalm 3:3." as a "shield. he does that which is just and right himself. he covers them with the "shield of faith. That is. to whom he has been kind and bountiful. Piscator. Verse 8." Baynus. and shall enjoy it. in the way in which he has led them. safe to his kingdom and glory: for none of his saints. vel solidam rem. and in the methods of his grace. "solidum. Gussetius chooses to take the word Ngm for a verb. Ephesians 6:16. and preserveth the way of his saints. so as either to keep them in the right ways in which they should go. who are sincere in their deportment before God and men. the Lord keeps them.. and understand them of sound wisdom. Schultens. and keeps them by his power through faith unto salvation. who having partook of the grace of God themselves. To these the Lord is a "buckler" or shield. but by faith in Christ.righteous. sound wisdom to them that walk uprightly. or that they might studiously observe them. "to keep the paths of judgment" {q}. and in consequence of this live soberly and righteously: for these only eternal life is prepared. and encompasses them about with his "favour. and as he guides the feet of his people in the ways of righteousness and holiness. and by faith receive it. who walk by faith on Christ.

" Montanus. how just. that besides the knowledge of God. {r} So Schmidt. opened by the Spirit of God to receive it. and by it an understanding of their duty. and urges them to observe: or the words may be rendered... shall ever perish. so as to have a spiritual understanding of it. it gives them not only a theoretic but a practical understanding of justice." Pagninus. for it teaches men to live soberly. see 1 Samuel 2:9. it leads men into a notion of doing that which is right and just among men. and how to behave with reverence towards him.and righteous ones. and equitable. everyone is. every good path. "ad servandum.. and engages him to do works of righteousness from the best principles. as in the stony ground hearers." or "most plain. which enters not into the head only." as the Syriac version. One word signifies "plain" and "straight. which is done when the Gospel comes not in word only. and a true judgment of what is right and wrong. This is another fruit and effect of the Gospel. and equity. and right. either "the rectitude" or "equity of fall good paths. Then shalt thou understand righteousness and judgment. as to do that which is equitable between man and man. It is not only a revelation and ministration of the righteousness of Christ as the only matter of a sinner's justification before God. and of a spiritual understanding of it. or "plainnesses. yet straight and plain." and another "round" {s}. Verse 10." Baynus. and conversation. . and plain. and godly. {s} Myrvym "complanationes. nor into the natural affections. right and wrong. for though it is a circle of duty saints walk in. upon the best motives. When wisdom entereth into thine heart.. even all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord. and informs a man's judgment so that he can distinguish between truth and error. the Wisdom of God. as in hypocrites and formal professors." is or shall be "every good path" {r}. the wisdom of God in a mystery. that is. "ab lge rotundus. lgem "orbitam.. Either Christ. Montanus. and in which he keeps them. who enters there at conversion. but it influences his actions. leads to everlasting life. life. but into the heart.. [yea]. and dwells there by faith: or else the Gospel. so as to walk in them.. Schultens.. these things the Gospel acquaints men with. good and bad notions and practices. but in the demonstration and power of the Spirit. or gives such an understanding thereof as that they practise it. Proverbs 2:5. so to understand equity. Verse 9. and with the best views." Schultens. and both are true of the path of righteousness. the way in which he directs them. Titus 2:11." Gejerus. {q} runl "ad custodiendum. righteously. to them that have a spiritual and experimental knowledge of the Gospel. and sets up a throne in the heart. and therefore ought to be walked in. and to understand every good path which the word of God directs to.

"good counsel". and is sweeter. and who endeavours to draw others into the same evil practices. and the discretion it gives him will put him upon his guard. but the word seems to be a ." What these are a means of keeping and preserving from is explained in the following verses. from the man that speaketh froward things. if a single man is meant. as the only Redeemer and Saviour. "a just thought shall preserve thee in thy last times. he might be thought to be the man of sin. and chiefly designed. And so the words may be rendered. is a means of the preservation of the saints. his tabernacle. from everything that is contrary to the law of God and sound doctrine. and which. to the word of God. see Proverbs 16:24. understanding shall keep thee. and sin. Revelation 13:5. and every false way. are a means of preserving men from following the examples of such persons. believes it. and the Gospel delivers men from following him. both law and Gospel. and the Gospel is full of. loves it. as gracious and merciful. from a vicious course of life... Verse 11.when a man truly understands it. forgiving iniquity. as some interpret it. Which wisdom or the Gospel gives. The Septuagint version renders it. and richly dwells there. things contrary to the light of nature. Verse 12. from every evil way. Who is so by nature and practice. and affords unspeakable delight to the mind.. and falling in with his perverse doctrines and practices. The Septuagint version renders it. and from walking with them in the ways of sin: or from "the evil way" {t}. which is only the same thing expressed in other words. which the Gospel thus entering gives. "discretion will watch over thee".. and the knowledge of Gospel truths. and the Arabic version.. to divine revelation. approves of it. Discretion shall preserve thee. the knowledge of Christ... and direct him to watch against every error. and it has a place in his heart. and knowledge is pleasant unto thy soul. though this may be included. "an holy thought". if attended to. as the God of all grace. as every truth of the Gospel is. and in his conduct and deportment. whose course of life is evil. which lead and relate unto him: all which is pleasant to a gracious soul. for the Gospel makes a man wise and discreet in the business of salvation. than the honey or the honeycomb. perverse things. even the knowledge of God in Christ. and a spiritual knowledge of it. antichrist. transgression. which wisdom gives. or the Lord by the means of it. not from idolatry only. but from all manner of sin. and them that dwell therein. who is hardened in sin and abandoned to it. his name. who has a mouth speaking blasphemies against God.. to keep thee from everything pernicious in doctrine and practice. To deliver thee from the way of the evil [man]. now the Gospel.

.. nor whither they are a going." {u} rvy twxra "semitas rectas. which is an aggravation of their wickedness. which the light of nature and the law of God. and glory when they have done it." Schultens. and glory in their shame. [and] delight in the frowardness of the wicked: of the wicked man... Michaelis. Romans 1:32. they speak of it in an exulting manner. Pagninus. and turned the law into evil. Who rejoice to do evil. and which lead to blackness of darkness. and especially the Gospel of Christ. At the doing of it. Montanus. Who leave the paths of uprightness. as it is explained in the following verses in the plural number. and they delight to see him do things perverse and contrary to the will of God. the darkness of hell. and infidelity.. Verse 14. who out of their evil hearts. as Aben Ezra and Gersom supply it. Or "righteousness. speak evil things. in which only works of darkness are done. and everything that is good." Mercerus. tending to debauch the minds and manners of others. The Vulgate Latin version renders it." or the "right [and plain] ways" {u}. and which must be very uncomfortable as well as dangerous. and in which they have been trained up.. they are glad of an opportunity of doing mischief. "itinera recta. direct to. the doctrines and ordinances of it. The Gospel is undoubtedly a means of preserving from error and heresy. since they are said to leave them. and in them that commit them. Proverbs 10:2. and to be understood of all wicked men. or when they have done it. Cocceius. ignorance. in the perversities and contradictions of every wicked man. and religion. Verse 13. to whom the description agrees. for though persons do not easily and ordinarily leave the ways they have been brought up in. {t} er Krdm "a via mala. yet sometimes they do. against all good men. for it supposes them to have been externally in these ways. having had a religious education. against the Gospel. Jarchi restrains this to heretics.collective one. "itinera planissima. Mercerus. a miserable choice.. and have no remorse of conscience afterwards. in which they that walk know not where they are. and boast of it.. "ways of horrid darkness. to be delivered from whom is a singular mercy. and Christ. to walk in the ways of darkness: sin. things against God. it is a sport and pastime to them." Piscator. and the abundance of wickedness there. and such generally are the worst of men. Gejerus. "they . a sad change this! So Schultens renders it. L. but in the sins of others." V. they not only take pleasure in their own sins. they take pleasure in the act of sin. they delight to hear a man speak froward and perverse things. and there are instances of it. and such as caused Israel to apostatize to idolatry.

. so from a naughty woman. and not to him whom she entices into her embraces.. are a means of delivering persons from the evil man. ruled and governed. with good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple.. her husband. Which swerve from and are not agreeably to the rule of the divine word.. sometimes going one way and sometimes another. and works. As the Gospel of Christ and its doctrines. ways. it has many serpentine windings and turnings in it. a transgression of his law.. leaves his company and bed. Malachi 2:14. but now forsakes him. and in great happiness... Which forsaketh the guide of her youth. move the affections. and [they] froward in their paths. not because of another nation. will worship. as others do also of superstition and all false doctrine. Romans 16:18. Gersom interprets this of the sensitive appetite. called a "strange" woman. see Proverbs 5:3. declining here and there. either the law of God or the Gospel of Christ. and so antichrist. and with whom he had lived long in love and friendship. but always following that which is evil. who loved her and espoused her in his youthful age. and all false teachers and heretics.. as the phrase may be rendered. and many retrograde actions. so it is in a woman to forsake "the friend" or "companion of her youth" {w}. and a walk in it is unbecoming the Gospel of Christ. full of distortions and excursions. To deliver thee from the strange woman. and win the hearts of men. and antichristian doctrines. by: and as it is an aggravation of evil in a man to deal treacherously against the wife of his youth. to whom she was married in her youth. which she . an adulteress. or unknown. the Gospel delivers men. and Jarchi of idolatry. and ensnare them and draw them to commit wickedness with her. &c. but because she belongs to another person. Verse 16. or spiritual adultery. appointed to govern the other powers and faculties of the soul. that useth smooth and soft words to work upon the passions. that is.. and the whole that is here and afterwards said may well enough be applied to the whore of Rome. Verse 17. her affections being alienated from him." Verse 15.. see Psalm 125:5. and everything that is contrary to true wisdom. [even] from the stranger [which] flattereth with her words. see Proverbs 7:5. sin is an aberration. from whose fornication. and resolute to continue therein. and forgetteth the covenant of her God: the marriage covenant.. or the instructions of wisdom. Gersom interprets this of the human understanding. and to whom she gave up herself to be guided and directed. idolatry. and associates with others. Whose ways [are] crooked. a straying from the rule of God's word.exult in the worst things. his company.. and the wife of his covenant.

and all that are ensnared by her." Schultens. and may refer to the giants of the old world.. and reputation. who was her guide in her first settlement. so false teachers leave their guide. which. the Scriptures. but because he is present at it. not only because God is the author and institutor of marriage." Michaelis. verges. and have been brought to repentance for their impure manner of life. her evil ways in which she walks.. that is. live and dwell with her. it lies in the way to death. which issue in corporeal death. "ad orcinos...entered into with her husband when espoused to him. and has directed and enjoined persons to enter into such a contract with one another. the house she at last comes to and must dwell in. and with whom such persons shall be for ever. "quod ad domum suam. so Aben Ezra and Kimchi. as it adds to the solemnity of it. and to which the Targum agrees. or all that are in her house. and commit wickedness with her.. and is a witness of such an engagement. and bring diseases upon their bodies." here used. None that go unto her return again. to keep company with them. which is a death upon them. and sinks into it as into a ditch. and be punished as they are: the word "rephaim. see Proverbs 5:5. or are in danger of dying by the hand of the injured husband. {y} Myapr la "ad damnatos. 2 Peter 2:1. {x} hytb twm la "ad mortem quoad domum suam. sometimes signifies "giants. at least but very few. or the civil magistrate." and so the Targum renders it here. That is. and have truly . and also are exposed unto eternal death: or "she inclines to death. So the church of Rome has forsook Christ. Verse 19." Gejerus. and her paths unto the dead. For her house inclineth unto death. Bends.. which is her house" {x}. hence some of the ancients thought adultery was the unpardonable sin. Genesis 6:4. character. "for in the pit of death is her house:" that is. that are familiar with her. "ad mortem domum suam. and deny the Lord that bought them.. and to a sober and chaste way of living. and do lose. and has followed other lovers. those that commit whoredom with her return not again by repentance. and brings unto it. and points that way. and become the mother of harlots." Cocceius. and into which she draws others to join with her." Tigurine version. these lead both her and them to the "damned" {y} in hell. and when they mutually obliged themselves to be faithful to one another: and this is called "the covenant of God". makes the violation of it the more criminal. as a chaste virgin. but it is certain that some have been recovered by the power of divine grace. their name. and the second death will be the portion of the whore of Rome and all her followers. who were cut off for their debauchery and uncleanness. and bring in damnable heresies. mid is appealed unto in it. Verse 18. Revelation 14:10. and her husband she professed to be espoused to.. these incline or are liable to lose.

and lived sober and godly lives afterwards. and whose hands are as bands. and a spiritual understanding of them. For the upright shall dwell in the land. these walk by faith on Christ.. and are anew created unto righteousness and true holiness. and to walk in the same good old paths as they have done. few there be that find these paths and walk in them. holiness. when men are fallen into idolatry. and in consequence thereof live righteously. will worship. and who walked in the way of righteousness.. are held so fast by her that they seldom get out again.. being directed therein by the Spirit and word of God: now the use and profit of wisdom's instructions. and in all the duties of religion. and patriarchs of old. and in all the ordinances of it.. prophets. but it is not often that they be loosed from it. {z} hyab lk "omnes ingredientes eam. whose faith is unfeigned. these being Israelites according to . Verse 20. and the doctrines of it. and their hope without hypocrisy. but made so by the grace of God. generally speaking. and the Gospel teaches all those that receive and profess it to do the same. but.. there is a peradventure they may. and keep the paths of the righteous.. such as are made righteous by the righteousness of Christ. Matthew 7:14. even in the paths of faith and holiness. no. remorse of conscience. but continue therein. as the Targum adds. their love without dissimulation." Pagninus. but also to influence and engage them to follow the examples of good men. neither take they hold of the paths of life. they are held so fast by her alluring charms. and bitterness of soul." but with great distress of mind. and the ways of Christ. Ecclesiastes 7:26. very few of them.. who have a right spirit renewed in them. and as becomes his Gospel. Christ. Verse 21. or of the Gospel of Christ.believed in Christ. The words may be rendered. and especially such as are drawn aside by an impure woman. Hebrews 6:12. not only observe them and walk in them. and these instances are rare. such as are ensnared by an adulterous woman. 2 Timothy 2:25. "all that go into her {z} shall not return again". Such as are upright in heart. they do not return "in peace. though some few may escape. such as the saints. are not only to deliver men from the wicked man and the naughty woman. whose hearts are right with God. that they are like persons that are led out of their way. that they are recovered out of this snare of the devil.. which lead to eternal life. whose heart is snares and nets. superstition. have the truth of grace in them. That thou mayest walk in the way of good [men]. And it is a very rare thing. for righteous men. Montanus. Who are not so by nature. and cannot find it again. and who are upright in their lives and conversations. and so bewildered by her art of deceiving. and heresy. and truth.

.. bound with strong cords." Schultens.. Mercerus. and cast into the fire. and are perfectly justified by his righteousness. the new heavens and new earth. shall be cut down. or shall be "strengthened" {b}. confirmed. but not of degrees. on the contrary. as wicked men do not. like unfruitful trees." Cocceius. are perfectly holy in Christ. though not in themselves. Suddenly by death. though in a small quantity. or they shall dwell in it as a tent or tabernacle. and the perfect shall remain in it. and established in it. as the wicked are to the righteous. but shall perish out of his land. superstition. that such shall dwell peaceably and quietly in the world. however." Michaelis. whose garments are not defiled. as well as Israelites indeed in a spiritual sense. "superstitabunt. but be rooted up. with the strange woman before mentioned. Psalm 10:16. pure. though as yet imperfect in themselves. in the new earth." Junius & Tremellius. and their . shall dwell in the land of Canaan. or else they shall inhabit the world to come. and spotless. But the wicked shall be cut off from the earth. and promising themselves a long and quiet possession of. {a} wdtwy "superstites erunt. shall not dwell in the second Adam's earth. who have a perfection of parts. when others should have no place in it. will worship. Piscator. though it is not come up to maturity. before they have lived out half their days. with the love of God and a sense of it. 2 Peter 3:13. but. and laying up. Revelation 3:4. and possess the good things of it. but the Messiah's kingdom on earth. "relinquentur. such as have acted treacherously and perfidiously {c}. Verse 22.. not only a future state of happiness in heaven. and those that shall dwell in the new heavens and new earth. see Isaiah 33:20. as follows. {b} "Nervabuntur. "reliqui fient. or continue there. in such a comfortable manner. which the Lord promised to such. shall be entirely perfect in soul and body. they shall have no posterity to succeed them. and idolatry. holiness. and peace: the Targum renders it. wholly without sin. see Psalm 37:2. By the "perfect" are meant such as have all grace seminally implanted in them. and remain there a thousand years. and shall not enjoy the good things of the earth they have been seeking for. and complete in knowledge. wherein dwelleth righteousness. and are opposed to upright men." undefiled persons. as Jarchi interprets it. are properly men in Christ. and which good men enjoyed by virtue of it: or the sense is. who are "without spot. and perfectly comely through his comeliness. and who are free from the pollution of false doctrine. and.the flesh. these shall not only be cut off as trees to the stump. or in a judicial way by the hand of the civil magistrate. and the transgressors shall be rooted out of it. such who are not defiled with women. or "be left in it" {a}. and have neither root nor branch left them." Tigurine version. though they are not arrived to the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ.

Verse 2. charity. "doctrine" {e}. Proverbs 3:1. and show the greatest value and affection for them. honour. from the profit. urged from the different state and condition of wicked men and fools. Or. it is in his . as coming from a loving father.. or "shall be scraped off. Proverbs 3:19. Or. a hearty attention and obedience to them. and from that comfort. Michaelis. and not let slip. the lowly. the doctrine of Christ. and peace with neighbours. which they might expect to have. a long life of usefulness and comfort here. see Hebrews 2:1. Verse 1. as the ark. or be in the least slighted and neglected. as well as had the promise of the mercy and truth of God. annexed to them." Piscator. CHAPTER 3 Proverbs 3 In this chapter.." Schultens. Proverbs 3:27. and the happiness of the man possessed of it is declared. My son. and to seek direction from him in every step they took. and security. as not to forget his doctrine. seeing these are the means of lengthening out their days. to liberality in supporting the worship of God. "doctrinam meam. or Christ. kept the two tables of the law put into it. should be kept in memory. Proverbs 3:14. to humility and the fear of God. and wise. and to shun the ways of wicked men. then follows a commendation of wisdom. the Gospel. Proverbs 3:31. it denotes a cordial affection for the commandments and ordinances of Christ. and to be taken notice of by. For length of days. and fleeing from evil. and of the just.. flowing from love and gratitude to him. safety." Cocceius. Proverbs 3:7. forget not my law. pleasure. Psalm 21:4. and eternal life hereafter: the law of Moses promised a long life to the observers of it. and the chapter is concluded with exhortations to beneficence. and the continuance of them. as the dust and dross of the earth. see Malachi 4:1. and usefulness of it. which come by the doctrines and instructions of Wisdom. to patience in bearing the chastisement of the Lord. Proverbs 3:21." or "lives" {f}.. and the interest of religion. and is in his right hand. and the offscouring of all things. and of enjoying peace. and given him.. but heartily attend to his precepts and ordinances. {e} ytrwt "doctrinae meae. "institutionem meam. or chest. which. and then he proceeds to exhort them to a hearty trust in the Lord. being of the utmost moment and importance. Proverbs 3:16. Proverbs 3:13. without dependence on themselves.. Proverbs 3:3. delivers out some fresh lessons and instructions to his children. Proverbs 3:11. concord. and the several truths of it. John 14:15. which would turn to account and profit to them. but the Gospel of Christ brings an immortal life to light and promises to all believers in him that they shall not perish. Wisdom. and long life.memory shall utterly perish." or "swept away" {d}. God and man.. and therefore are exhorted to keep close to them. which was the way to find favour with. preciousness. but shall have everlasting life. Proverbs 3:5. "years of life.. Proverbs 3:9. and a constant and cheerful observance of them. but let thine heart keep my commandments. "Length of days for ever and ever" was asked by Christ of his Father. which they would find would much contribute to their health. and from its concern in the works of creation and providence. and a steady regard to them.

and other sorts of wood. just before mentioned. Or. restore backsliders. for that reason. the "mercy" of God in forgiving sin. cast not away your confidence. see Jeremiah 31:33. and as an encouragement to regard the doctrines and ordinances of Christ. but the doctrines of it. in a spirit of meekness. are the means of giving and increasing spiritual peace in the hearts of believers. it is the work of saints. and atonement by his sacrifice." Montanus... and peace shall they add to thee. write them upon the table of thine heart. rendering the words. Proverbs 3:1. in helping in time of need. and to show by their conduct and behaviour that they are written there. nothing makes a believer look more lovely in conversation than a close regard to the truths of Christ. put on bowels of compassion. not one shall fail. and he does give it to all his children. Deuteronomy 6:8. and by giving them wholesome counsel and advice: to fellow Christians. and the exercise of them." and he never goes out of them. "all [his] paths [are] mercy and truth. and followers. and to their souls. "paths of peace". never fails. the Gospel is the Gospel of peace. in later times. Though many interpreters understand this by way of promise. do not forget them. glory. as chains for ornament: not mercy and truth. and beauty. "non deserent te. and forgive offences. though we believe not.. speak truth to your neighbour and brother. and never depart from it. to sinful men. show "mercy" to fellow creatures. so . Let not mercy and truth forsake thee. people. and in bringing to eternal life. which in Proverbs 3:17. keep them in memory. and not sacrifice. all shall be fulfilled. that you steadfastly adhere to these things. 2 Corinthians 3:3. see Psalm 89:33. Psalm 103:17. to copy them over in life. be tenderhearted. "mercy and truth shall not forsake thee" {g}. the "truth" of God. {f} Myyx twnv "annos vitarum. Solon's laws were written on tables of wood {h}.. in both phrases. and always retain a hearty affection for them. and hold fast the truth of the Gospel. by pitying and praying for them. on which they wrote. and to the writing of his law on tables of stone: and it was usual with the ancients. in sympathizing under affliction. see Romans 5:1. and. Psalm 25:10. Attend to "truth". The allusion. covered with wax. is to the directions given about the law of Moses. and such were the "tabellae et pugillares" of the Romans. to the bodies of men. See Gill on "Hab 2:2". upon them that fear him. Psalm 21:4. pardon by his blood. for the mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting. made of box. by relieving their wants. and when they are there written. and a constant walking in his ordinances. sympathize with them in their troubles. but Solomon would have his law written on the fleshly tables of the heart. under a divine influence. or pass away. which not only proclaims peace by the blood of Christ. exercise faith on the Lord. but the law and commandments of wisdom. Verse 3. it is the Spirit's work to write them in the heart. see Proverbs 1:8. and so are the ordinances of Christ. such as justification by the righteousness of Christ. in supplying with all needful grace." Piscator. for God will have mercy. the unbelief of man cannot make it of no effect. or the doctrines and ordinances of Christ. meaning the mercy and truth of God. are called. forsake not them. bind them about thy neck. beech." Michaelis. as may seem at first sight. reckon it as your greatest honour.power to give. {g} Kbzey la "non derelinquent te. to write on tables of wood. he abides faithful and true to every word of his. his faithfulness in performing promises.

to be taken notice of. and the highest. when they succeed. in his righteousness for justification. for it stands opposed to trusting in the Lord. it signifies a faith unfeigned. in his person for acceptance. all power and strength are in him to help. and in him only.. that a man believes and trusts in the Lord. in the conduct of civil life. Genesis 39:4. nor in any works of righteousness done by him. Solon. or distrust him. but to the goodness of God." Junius & Tremellius. see Psalm 111:10. which is deceitful. as man. regarded. as the God of nature and providence. it is not saying. Trust in the Lord with all thine heart. Verse 5. and lean not unto thine own understanding. that he believes unto righteousness. and larger measures of it. for all spiritual blessings. or professing. which are communicated to men when in the way of their duty: or good will. and for ourselves in times past.. which he has provided. but should seek the direction and blessing of Providence. in his blood for pardon. nor in graces. and in him alone for salvation and eternal life.. Trust in Jehovah the Spirit. Song of Solomon shall thou find favour. of which a saint may be confident that where it is begun it will be completed. not in faith or trust itself: but in the Lord. And this trust in Father. in his own heart. &c. in his fulness for supply. not in a man's self. and much less should men lean to their own understanding in matters of religion. or trust not to that. in his power for protection and preservation. a natural man has no understanding of spiritual things. and approved by both. nor in any outward privilege. A. Noet. had in the sight of both.Aben Ezra and Gersom. or the duties of it. grace. as riches. Genesis 6:8. as Noah did. {k} bwj lkv "successum optimum. {i} Nx "gratiam. There is something lovely. arising from natural descent and education. as Joseph had with Potiphar. 12. and are always the same: the consideration of what he has done for others that have trusted in him. see Romans 10:10. which make a man amiable in the sight of others. if he believes aright. and wisdom. and mercy.. Luke 2:52.. that is. the object of all grace. Attic. move him to it. should ascribe it not to their own prudence and wisdom. strength. 2. not in frames. should induce and encourage to it. and good understanding in the sight of God and man. l. who enjoy peace and safety. Or "grace" {i}. of the . not in any creature enjoyment. Some render it "good success" {k}. Trust in him at all times. the best. or otherwise will meet with disappointment. and. ever so well performed. in times of affliction. for all temporal blessings. and freely gives. for "bread" is not always "to the wise. the grace of God. esteem. Vit. the holiest." Ecclesiastes 9:11. as Christ. in a close attention to the doctrines and duties of religion. The phrase denotes not so much the strength of faith as the sincerity of it. his love. Son. but it is with the heart. and which is followed with a blessing from the Lord. among men. and his displeasure at those that show any diffidence of him. and all the needful supplies of grace. no." cordial and sincere. in Jehovah the Father. Not in a creature. should be "with all the heart. not in a profession of religion. and respect.. Verse 4. prosperity in things temporal and spiritual. Montanus. promised. Tigurine version.. to carry on and finish the work of grace upon the heart.. and Spirit. {h} Laert. and the keeper of the prison. and of good report. and darkness: there is a great deal of reason for it. Trust in Jehovah the Son. Gell. and the exercise of them." Pagninus. c. and for eternal happiness. temptation. Men should not depend upon their own wisdom and understanding. as also the happiness of those that trust in him. nor riches to men of understanding. and as the God of all grace. and with his whole heart.

glorying in it as thine own acquisition. and cannot be discovered. there is none. and. and make the Scriptures thy counsellors. and the standard of our faith and practice. faith in him. give him the glory of all. yet they are above them. and without his advice. The fear of the Lord is opposed to pride. Verse 6. consider him as ever present with thee. and take not one step without his leave. but after the Spirit. seeking to him for direction. or the men of thy counsel. and carefulness not to offend him. In short. Nay. the union of the two natures in Christ. where this is not. Romans 3:11 Jeremiah 4:22. So as to act independently of God. and not lean to our own understandings.things of the Gospel. The understanding of man is darkened by sin. there are some things in the Gospel. it is like the first earth. the Lord: set him before thee. the resurrection of the dead. these two go together. Ephesians 4:18. covered with darkness. consult his word. reached. not to trust in him. and vain conceit. rich. is not wisdom. fear the Lord. submit to his sovereignty. and even than the Scriptures. for his own glory and his people's good. being wise above that which is written. in order to understand spiritual and divine things. Be not wise in thine own eyes. pleasing thyself with thine own wisdom. and where this is there is humility. so far as it any ways deserves the name of wisdom. take him as your guide. Romans 11:20. {l} whed "scito eum.. Ezekiel 36:26. which. and the bounty of it. and in matters of religion wiser than thy teachers. this includes reverence of God. come from him. and are conceited of.. when things go cross and adverse. yea.. of an understanding to be given. and not ascribing it to God. and accounted for by them. and when things succeed.. and at least it is their folly to boast of it and be elated with it. There is a necessity of a new heart and spirit. and not to your mind. the procession of the Spirit. nor ask nor take the advice of others. &c. and he shall direct thy paths. which is true wisdom. acknowledgment of him. lean to thine own understanding. let men be ever so conceited. of the generation of the Son of God. and be still and know that he is God. not a man: this is a blessing from the Lord. keeps the feet of his saints.. though plain to an enlightened understanding by the word of God. high-mindedness. observe the footsteps of his providence. no. . and honourable. and much less as carnal and unsanctified. Verse 7. acknowledge that all you have. man cannot direct his own. but the word of God only is our rule of judgment. Matthew 16:17. ask wisdom of him who gives liberally. comprehended. follow the Lamb wheresoever he goes. as exceeding others. have him always in view. and to that we should have recourse and be directed by it. Montanus. in providence and grace. for though these are not contrary to the reason and understanding of men. nor indeed any practical understanding of things moral. as in Psalm 119:24." Pagninus. that does all things right. Psalm 46:10. walk not after the flesh.. not our reason and understanding at best. nor seek to him for help and direction. see Isaiah 5:21 Romans 12:16. nor acknowledge him. who steps of his people. and make a man wise. and directs them aright in things temporal and spiritual. yet the manner how they are cannot be apprehended: as the doctrines of a trinity of Persons. Jeremiah 10:23. Proverbs 22:4. In all thy ways acknowledge him. but folly.. observing every step thou takest. though for the most part that which men glory in. as being wise enough to conduct all affairs in life by thy own discretion. dependence on him. but. till light is let into it. being conceited and self-sufficient.. is darkness itself. own his hand in it. and therefore not to be leaned unto and depended on. Or "know him" {l}.

and not another's. and of account. Tigurine version. the Lord takes as done to himself. and keep at a distance from it. and may respect the comfortable support of Gospel ministers under the present dispensation. Honour the Lord with thy substance. and the firstfruits of it.. and marrow to thy bones. and not by fraud and oppression. and may be put for the bowels and inward parts. or. as are the means of keeping the soul in good plight. and this may be put for the whole person. giving them the "double honour" which is due to them.. the body is in health. and chiefly by communicating to the ministers of it. especially his poor saints. It shall be health to thy navel. A man's "substance" are his wealth and riches. {m} ywqv "irrigatio.. Proverbs 14:31. and the discharge of such duties. and these may be put for the whole body: and so the Septuagint version renders it. and abstain from all appearance of it. or to the firstfruits of every kind . Or. as Jarchi. and the manner of doing it.. "out of the chief of all thine increase" {o}. from the evil of self-confidence and self-conceit. and with the firstfruits of all thine increase. either wisdom. what in proportion to his substance can be prudently spared. they should honour him with them again. his "mammon. in comparison of heavenly things. and to do the will and work of God. the Gospel. and not in themselves. Proverbs 16:6." what is righteously and lawfully gotten. L. and in the first place. and which. and therefore he avoided that which was evil.. Nehemiah 5:15.and depart from evil. both in soul and body. among other things. or the fear of God. and from all other evil. and especially by contributing to the support of his worship.. "out of thy substance" {n}. by means and through the exercise of it men forsake it. for as it should be a man's own that he gives. that is required. And the sense is. That part of the body which is the knot of the intestines. see 1 Corinthians 9:13. which. the keeping up the interest and credit of religion. was out of the annual produce of the earth. Junius & Tremellius. "out of thy just labours. because of the fear of the Lord. What marrow is to the bones. the doctrine of wisdom. and not lean to their own understanding." as the Targum. by giving to the poor. which teaches men to trust in the Lord. "watering" {m} to them: that which irrigates and moistens them. as an honouring him. Amama. which being sound. Vatablus. God must have the best. so it is only a part of it. the means of establishing and strengthening them against sin. Piscator. and is sufficient and suitable to the call in Providence. Cocceius.. that is wisdom.. or. which. this contributes much to a man's spiritual health and welfare: or else the fear of the Lord is of this use to men. and therefore called "thy substance". and for the spread of the Gospel. when given them. to apply to him for wisdom. and as with these God has honoured men. and not all. Schultens. The allusion is either to the maintenance of the priests and Levites under the law. so having mercy on them is honouring him. indeed have no substance in them: yet these are worldly substance. the fear of God influences men to avoid sin. as the Septuagint version. to the souls of men. Verse 9. or. and Job was a man that feared God. Montanus. 1 Timothy 5:17. and snares and temptations. "to thy body"." V. Verse 8. and are influenced by it to the exercise of such graces. Nehemiah could not do as others did. since by it they depart from those sins which bring diseases upon the body. and makes and keeps them strong and solid: see Job 21:24. for as an oppressing of them is a reproaching of him.

so neither elsewhere in this book.. and restrained by him. and even among the Heathens formerly were something of the same kind. here called "the chastening of the Lord. and even to all the children of God in all ages.. who more or less endure afflictions. so that there will be a sufficient provision of bread for the eater for the ensuing year. Song of Solomon shall thy barns be filled with plenty. as disagreeable food or physic be. and the Septuagint. and are ordered.. 49. Cocceius. Piscator. that applied to him for instruction. promised to the liberal man. spoken unto children." because they are from him." or loathed and abhorred.. after the gathering of the fruits. seeing the children of God are often afflicted in this world. My son. and uses them for the good discipline and instruction of them. and trifling things. Verse 10. slight. so this of drinkables. that they should be ready to burst or run over: and so the Targum. it suggests. but that they should be so full. This seems to be introduced to prevent an objection that may be made to the above promise of plenty. and the reason of it given. despise not the chastening of the Lord. by which it appears." Tigurine version. that they should be gainers by it.. and both fulness of all sorts of provisions. Aristotle says {p} the ancient sacrifices and assemblies were instituted as firstfruits. where the same phrase is used. nor to all the people of God in his time: but it has respect to the Jews in the times of the apostles. in which he deals with them as with children. and are represented as an exhortation. "---ruperunt horrea messes. which would be a loss. and Arabic versions. These words are cited in Hebrews 12:5. instead of having less. "and thy presses shall overflow with new wine. even the wise and pious. {n} Knwhm "e substantia tua. at which time especially they ceased from working. Junius & Tremellius. v. "de divitiis tuis. and were taught by him. they are indeed by his appointment." As the former clause denotes plenty of eatables. Syriac.. as not here. Schultens. and those that fear the Lord. whatever concern men or devils. 8." Montanus. the children of God. nor to any person or persons. or as little. Vulgate Latin. or second causes. and to his word and oath." Junius & Tremellius. as the word {r} here signifies. {o} Ktawbt lk tyvarm "de praecipuo totius proventus tui. which is accounted for. Leviticus 23:10. from being losers by honouring the Lord with their substance.offered to the Lord. they are originally from the Lord. or unworthy of notice and regard.. "de substantia tua. Gejerus. and to the feast kept sacred to him at the ingathering the fruits of the earth. and of seed for the sower when the time of sowing returns. that not any single person is meant by "my son". Michaelis. l. either sent or suffered by him. 1. his everlasting and unchangeable love. c. they are the chastisements of a father. not that they should really burst {q} for then the wine would be spilled. without considering from whence they come and for what they are sent. Georgic." Mercerus. or as if they were unnecessary and unprofitable. {p} Ethic. and. l. but they are in love. It is not to be limited to any son of Solomon's according to the flesh. may have in them.. limited. and are overruled for his glory and his people's good: they are not chastisements in a way of vindictive wrath and justice. which would be contrary to the satisfaction of Christ. "de opibus tuis. on the . and thy presses shall burst out with new wine. should have abundantly more." Verse 11. and therefore not to be "despised. but. render it. in Proverbs 3:12. and honour him. so far should they be. 11." Baynus. the justice of God. With plenty of corn. and may be an emblem of the large provisions of grace and glory. {q} A like figure see in Virgil. which the Lord has made for and bestows upon such that honour him.

" Junius & Tremellius. see Job 5:17. he knows their souls in adversity. and chooses them in the furnace of affliction. and as our covenant God and Father in Christ. and by his providences. wherefore they ought to be patiently bore. "when thou art rebuked of him. are given in love. are here guarded against.. "sub redargutione ejus. not to be affected with it. he pays love visits to them. so the Lord chastens and corrects his people. Verse 13. should be regarded as useful and serviceable. Gejerus. but because he improves in spiritual knowledge and understanding by them. to outbrave it. afflictive ones. and him that has appointed it: and. L. as before. and the advantages of it. neither be weary of his correction. as if no sorrow was like theirs. nor consider the rod. and has the greatest pleasure in. on the other hand. and supposes a fault to be committed by him that is corrected. even as a father the son [in whom] he delighteth. and comforts them under all their tribulation." V. "eruditionem. insisted on in the preceding chapter. as the Father of spirits. {r} rowm "disciplinam. "rebuke" or "reproof" {s}. and when necessary. by his word. and delivers out of it. which men are apt to run into. and by the issue of them. at a proper time.. and supports them. Mercerus. in measure and with judgment: and of this the children should not be "weary. This is a reason why the children of God should not despise corrections. and especially should not be weary of their lives on account of it. "happy is the man that findeth wisdom. to aggravate an affliction. see Psalm 94:12. by his ministers.. see Deuteronomy 8:5. has a right to do: he corrects by his Spirit. nor be weary of them. though he is chastened by the Lord. nor is there any abatement of it in them: when the Lord chastens and corrects. that chastisements may not come upon him." as grievous and intolerable. so in Hebrews 12:5. in which sense the word is used in Genesis 27:46 which has been the case of Job and others. and their good. but in a different manner. as a father chastens and corrects his son. a good man. as if the sense was. but in love. and authority in the corrector.. and it is always for good.. is resumed here and .. it is because he loves them that therefore he thus deals with them. or takes them to himself: the issue is always his own glory. Happy [is] the man [that] findeth wisdom. nor humble under the mighty hand of God. which flows from the inexpressible love of God to them. to make little or nothing of an affliction. There is such a relation subsisting between them as that of father and son. yet is a happy man. whom he dearly loves. without fretting and murmuring. as appears by what he does for them in them. thus. Schultens." as it is rendered in Hebrews 12:5. yea. for God corrects none but for sin.contrary. and is invariable and unchangeable." Cocceius. The two extremes. which last is here meant. Some connect these words with the preceding." Tigurine version. since they spring from love. or should not "faint." for by it he keeps from sinning. he makes their bed in their affliction. The same thing is meant by correction as chastening. {s} wtxkwtb "ad increpationem ejus.. Aben Ezra connects them with the former. and with patience." Schultens. not only because his chastenings are in love and for good. and kindly taken by them. and continues the same under all their afflictions. "redargutionem ejus. and to be quite dejected and overwhelmed with it. he does not take away his lovingkindness from them. on the one hand. which he. and which is a love of complacency and delight in them. But rather the argument in praise of wisdom. Cocceius. or sink under the weight. but cheerfully support under it. Verse 12." not in wrath and fury. he sympathizes with them.. but should bear it quietly and peaceably. For whom the Lord loveth he correcteth.

and death itself. and even life itself. at his mouth. but by means of the Gospel. and messenger of it. and where he shows himself: for he is not to be found by the light of nature. attended with the Spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him. Aben Ezra interprets it.. as a man that is said to obtain the favour of God. as metals are drawn out of the earth by searching and digging for. who has learned wisdom. who is to be found in the covenant of grace. and the effects of it. and a happy finding this. with which a man is never satisfied. and more durable and lasting than that. and for spiritual and heavenly things by him. his own righteousness. Vatablus. as Jarchi. out of the abundance of it in his heart. which fills the possessor with inexpressible joy! see John 1:41.. which are gifts of grace themselves. which does not arise from nature. which is full of him. and to be preferred unto it. nor by carnal reason. nor by faith and repentance. and the blessings of his grace. as a man's sinful lusts and pleasures. Matthew 12:34." which is "better than [that] of silver. in the promises of it. {t} qypy "educet. and possessing him. as such that know Christ cannot but speak to others of the things they have heard and seen. Verse 14. are drawn out of the mines and fountains of the Scriptures.. which a man may have a large abundance of." Tigurine version. and the man [that] getteth understanding. and so comes to Christ. For the merchandise of it [is] better than the merchandise of silver. are more valuable than silver. and enjoys him. when set in opposition to or competition with him. that it is ready to break out. The Targum is. nor by the law of Moses. which is a seeing him. which direct unto him. by such that seek after him aright. and "finding" him supposes seeking him. and inexpressible pleasure the other. having all things. and by wisdom is meant Christ. praying. and attendance on the word and ordinances: and finding him is no other than an enjoyment of him by faith. and because there is a parting with something for Christ. and lose his soul. a taking hold on him. "who causes understanding to spring up. and because he runs a risk of suffering reproach. which are the fruits of grace. as before. and follows upon the sight of the need and worth of Christ. his friends and relations.enlarged upon. and the gain thereof than fine gold. in consequence of finding Christ.. John 6:45. but it is given unto a man: and "getting" here signifies. which hold him forth. Proverbs 8:35. Christ. whereas he that has Christ has enough. but the grace of God. and is done in the use of means. where the same word is used as here. and the things of Christ. The word signifies to "draw out" {t}. his mouth speaketh. being the Mediator. as reading. when he enjoys it. when called for." or than silver which is got by merchandise: for Christ. and a spiritual understanding of him: this is not a proper acquisition of a man's own. "eruit. and learns it. The believer is a spiritual merchant. in the Gospel. the doctrines and ordinances of Christ are more to . or as water out of a well. afflictions." as water out of a well or fountain. the true believer in Christ hears and learns of the Father. and enjoyment of him. or. in the ordinances. surety. the enjoyment of Christ is for ever. an interest in Christ is not gotten by anything of man's. thus Christ. and the knowledge of him. more satisfying than silver is. and more safe in enjoying. faith is a trading with and for Christ. not by his good works. more pleasant in obtaining. that draws or brings it out from another. is called a "merchandise. out of his heart. a great deal of anxiety and vexation attend the one. whereas by Christ is the salvation of it. as Gersom. as God's pure gift. therefore this concern with him. and a saving knowledge of him by means of his Gospel. more useful and profitable than silver is." Montanus. possession and enjoyment of Christ.

. fulness. "more precious than rubies. it cannot be said how great this gain is. yea. The Targum and Septuagint render it in general terms "precious stones". he has that which is more worth than the gain of the whole world. and hills. neighbours. even in this world. and the precious things of the earth. and here. this takes in a very great compass: there are many things that are very desirable. and long absence. &c. receive much from him. are more precious than gold that perisheth. and in the hour of death: and he is superlatively precious. 1 Peter 2:7. Ep. and in the world to come everlasting life: it is all clear gain a believer gets by Christ and trading with him. 1.. Mercerus. then to "fine gold" {y}. {y} "Vilius argentum est auro. pardon of sin. as silver and gold. which Solomon had most knowledge of. and all the things thou canst desire are not to be compared unto her. in his person as God and man. and all with him. Verse 15. and even the graces of Christ in the hearts of his people. in his divine nature. and sacrifice. are precious. &c. brought forth by the sun and moon. and much more preferable must he himself be. hope... and acquaintance. the riches of grace and glory. Immanuel.." Montanus. he is so to them that believe. and the gain that accrues to a believer by him. Or "pearls" {u}. even the salvation of his immortal soul. and the perfections of it. relations. saints on earth. yet none to be valued with Christ. virtutibus aurum. Matthew 13:46. and the Vulgate Latin version." Junius & Tremellius. see Psalm 73:25. the eastern were the more valuable {w}. as others. he has him. but are more precious than they. &c. to "precious stones" Christ is precious. which is cent per cent an hundred fold. and more enriching to his possessors. and of more intrinsic worth and value. See Gill on "Job 28:18". She [is] more precious than rubies. or "carbuncles" {x}. Messiah. wisdom is first preferred to silver. every truth and promise of it. are not obtained by corruptible things. 1." Horat. or all put together. as some. grace. exceeding precious in his names and titles. assure of his ability to save. being "the brightness of his Father's glory". {u} Mynynpm "prae margaritis. than fine gold. yea. these see the need and worth of him. and compared to him. Gemm. which are either upon it or in it. and desirable persons in the world. and not easily satisfied. his priestly office. 2. Christ is the pearl of great price. and under temptations and afflictions. 39. Michaelis. in all his relations and characters. and fitness of it. there is a beautiful gradation in this and Proverbs 3:14. and to none else. but none of equal worth with Christ. there are many precious and excellent. his Gospel is precious. of greater price than any pearls. l. of a superior lustre and glory to them. and upon the plains. such as redemption. and render his mediatorial performances valuable. l. 52. wisdom. in his offices. Hist. and so he is after desertions. Piscator. there are the precious things of heaven.be desired than gold. and angels in heaven. all his ordinances and appointments. {w} De Boot. in the bowels of it. his commandments are more to be loved than gold. in his satisfaction. in his prophetic office. which were formerly esteemed above all precious stones. in his kingly office. than fine gold. Ep. and in everything that belongs to him. without money and without price. and the desires of man's heart are very extensive. in the beauty. in his power. as faith. Gejerus. in his intercession. the riches he has by Christ are immense and unsearchable. v. righteousness. "than all riches"." or any precious stones. friends. which is ever acceptable and prevalent. his blood. Jesus. c. {x} "Carbunculis. for such possess all things. which show his condescension and grace to become a Saviour. of more value than any pearl. and love. and especially he is precious to them at first conversion. losses and disappointments. the blessings of grace by Christ. and live upon him.

holiness. generally speaking. for such who find Christ. all spiritual and eternal ones. but a long life. see 1 Kings 3:11. and so has a right and power to bestow it: and it being in his hands shows both the valuableness and the security and safety of it. Pagninus. the former are said to be in the right hand. and is in his gift. gold. in consequence of his asking it of his Father: and which he has in a covenant way. Cocceius. not the promise and grant of it only. "length of days". nor of Christ. and when they came to a hundred went to the right {z}. or the honour of this world. who. Some think that only temporal blessings are here meant. and shall reign with Christ for evermore. but seeing in the preceding verses the advantages of wisdom are superior to silver. justifying. and temporal blessings are the left hand ones. and profess him. and in the other. and riches and honour." Satyr. nor are they durable: but spiritual riches are intended. accounted the faith and offscouring of the world. being the principal. so that in that might be truly said to be "length of days. instead of a globe. difficulties. a life of perfect knowledge. riches and honour: the allusion is thought by some on this clause to be to an ancient custom of numbering things. by the hand and fingers. 16. had not that only. have but a small share of this. or eternal life. wherefore happy is the man that finds Wisdom. by comparing this passage with Proverbs 8:18. being. Quinquagena. Gejerus. even those of the left hand. instead of a sceptre. for these are not always to the wise. it can hardly be thought that she should be represented as only having temporal blessings in her hands to bestow on her followers. ab Alex. beginning with the left hand. and of all supplies of grace. they are made kings and priests unto God. because health and long life are preferable to wealth and honour. this as well as grace is Christ's gift. they are the spouse of Christ. asking wisdom. and. but yet they are the children of God. a life of vision or enjoyment of God. as indeed she is above all kings and queens. Montanus. immense and unsearchable. by "riches" are meant not temporal riches. eternal glory. Psalm 84:11. see Proverbs 8:15." V. 249. being free from all the imperfections. "----suos jam dextra computat annos. the riches of grace. Nebrissens.. to all that believe in him: or "glory" {a}.Verse 16. this honour have all the saints. or Christ. and also the riches of glory. Mercerus. when speaking of Nestor. {z} Vid. which are solid and satisfying. 1. {a} dwbk "gloria. since he finds and has eternal life in him. Length of days [is] in her right hand. By "length of days" is meant "length of days for ever and ever. and so his queen that stands at his right hand in gold of Ophir." Psalm 21:4. and all that have these are not happy.. and which will last for ever. and in no other. and pleasure. and is a pure gift of his grace. and is what is in the hands of Christ to give. . Others are of opinion that spiritual and eternal blessings are the right hand ones. and distresses of the present one. Wisdom is here represented as a queen. 14. L. and sanctifying grace. c. holding in one hand. this is in the hand of Christ. nor to the children of Wisdom. and also that it is to be had from him. & Alex. and are possessed of him. [and] in her left hand riches and honour. of pardoning. and precious stones. c. and does give. to which Juvenial refers. v.. as the word signifies. and the ages of men." few arriving to that number: or rather the reference is to what Solomon received of the Lord. the glory of God. Matthew 6:33. but to me they seem all of one sort. Genial. 10. as being the less valuable. and so have that name which is better than to be the sons and daughters of the greatest monarch. lasting and durable: and by "honour" is designed not the honour which comes from men. but the thing itself. Dier l. Schultens. and the latter in the left..

disagree among themselves." to view the love of Christ in them. though attended with much tribulation.. The "ways" and methods which Christ took to bring about the salvation of his people.. they may meet with much uneasiness at times in their own spirits. clothing them with his righteousness. end in eternal pleasure. and have much trouble from it.. it comes to the blood of Christ. and all her paths [are] peace. and of an everlasting duration. and eternal. they may bring the malice of the world upon them. full and complete in itself. Revelation 2:7. he obtained it by the blood of his cross. and the salvation of his people. they have that peace which others have not while they live. not of unregenerate persons. grace. in allusion to the tree of life in the garden of Eden. and good company with them. as the paths of faith and obedience. and assisted in it. and truth. being agreeable to all the perfections of God. they depart in peace. as engaging as a surety for them. too often. holiness. as the assumption of their nature. and pluck and eat of the fruit which is upon him in great plenty and variety. he took the chastisement of their peace upon him. natural. obedience to the law. Genesis 2:9. also the ways of faith. and obey them. and will have him and no other. suffering and dying in their room and stead. the "paths" which Christ has trod in to procure the peace of his people.. when the heart is enlarged with the love of God and Christ. he assumed the nature of his people. and his Spirit into the hearts of men to reconcile them to this way of peace and salvation by him. who is the principal way. temptation.. ascending to heaven. Now all this is true. as himself. and deals with it for pardon and . and enter into eternal peace. and desertion. Hebrews 6:18. which souls may come at. These are "pleasant. it is this which makes Christ so pleasant to souls. flowing from the blood. which passeth all understanding. and keeping them by his power unto salvation. he sends his ministers to publish it. and glory. when they die. and the result of all this is. by reason of sin. Her ways [are] ways of pleasantness. and interceding for them." when the presence of God and Christ is enjoyed in them. in order to be their peacemaker. to them that lay hold upon her. and peace of conscience is enjoyed. taking the care and charge of their persons. and the Gospel also: or else the ways which Christ has prescribed and directed his followers to walk in are here meant. these lead to the enjoyment of "peace" here and hereafter. and sacrifice of Christ. others in time. having good food and refreshment in them. righteousness.. there is much peace had in a way of believing. and great peace have they which love the law of God. the glory of God brought about hereby. rising again. and to heaven and happiness. entering into a covenant with his father on their account. that an honourable "peace" is made for sinners. but of true believers in him. and. and yet. he appeared in the council of peace. the ways of Christ's commandments. and which. faith lays hold on the person of Christ as a Saviour. and the whole issues in eternal peace in the world to come. spiritual. suitable to the case of sinners. after all. which is expressive of an act of faith on Christ. and too. Or "lives" {b}. who desire not the knowledge of Christ. the success that attended them.. Verse 18. so Christ is called. some in eternity. when assisted therein by the Spirit of God.Verse 17. he entered into a covenant of peace with his Father. free to them. he being the author of life.. and at last introducing them into his kingdom and glory. calling them by his grace. which are "pleasant. and all the ordinances of the Gospel and institutions of religion. which is exceedingly pleasant. even all the blessings of grace and glory. and to whom there is no peace. and the only way to the Father. and the commandments of Christ. Likewise all those "paths" which Christ instructs his people to walk in. She [is] a tree of life.

and directing their station. and yet stays itself on Christ. The Lord by wisdom hath founded the earth.. multitudes of lost sinners have been saved by him: and he is a tree of life. they have spiritual life. but. and it is their mercy that interest in Christ. and. and may expect everlasting life from him hereafter. and salvation by him. with all the host of them. or "holds her fast" {c}. he never discourages any from so doing. He has created all things. who walk on in him as they have received him. to him. a partial departing there may be. the Jerusalem Targum of Genesis 1:1. Ephesians 3:9 Hebrews 1:2. and hold fast the profession of their faith in him. the blessings and promises of it.. the creation of all things is ascribed. it is sometimes very difficult for faith to keep fast hold of the Redeemer. oftentimes the soul walks in darkness. do not depend on acts of faith. also condescension on Christ's part to suffer himself to be handled by them.purification. so Mercerus. John 1:1. faith keeps its hold of Christ through great darkness and many difficulties. not using him as an instrument. firmitas et constantia in tonendo. and puts it on." Montanus.. is. and influence. {b} Myyx Ue "lignum vitarum. Faith is sometimes very low. he is able to bear the stress of their salvation they lay upon him. and the support and comfort of it. it is for the honour and comfort of believers so to do. some strength of grace. see Song of Solomon 3:4. nor casts out any that come to him. safety in him. Christ Jesus. {c} hykmt "significatur hoc verbo. a view of suitable provisions for food and clothing with him. Jeremiah 10:12. he is set before them in the Gospel to be laid hold on. or Christ. it lays hold on his covenant.. and particularly the laying the foundation of the earth. on the robe of his righteousness. and so the happiness of that man that finds him. in the exercise of grace and discharge of duty. Abraham-like. Verse 20. believes in hope against hope. though "we believe not.. and yet lets not go its hold. it lays hold on his strength.. and shall live with him for evermore hereafter. From whence fountains and rivers flow. he being an efficient cause with him. and this serves greatly to set forth the dignity and excellency of Wisdom. The phrase is expressive of great affection to him. and made the world by his Son. is ascribed to the essential Word or Wisdom of God. and strong faith in him. or are steadfast in their faith on him. by placing the luminaries in them. with this the account of him is closed and crowned. and some degree of resolution. as such may be said to do who constantly apply to him for fresh communications of grace." Michaelis. "by wisdom God created.." 2 Timothy 2:13. it cannot so let go its hold as that there is a parting. adorned. and though this is true of the divine perfection of wisdom. but not a total one: however. by understanding hath he established the heavens: or prepared. and likewise that he first took hold on them and brought them out of a state of nature to himself: great encouragement there is for sensible sinners to lay hold on Christ. from him now. [yet] he abides faithful. as the text says. and whereby that great cavity was made which holds that large . it fails not. through the prevalent intercession of Christ. to such persons.. as to the first cause. Hebrews 1:10. for." &c. they have much communion with him now. the making of the heavens. yet from the context it appears best to understand it of the essential Wisdom of God. it lays hold on his skirt. motion. By his knowledge the depths are broken up. Psalm 33:6. and happy [is everyone] that retaineth her. nevertheless happy are they that retain him. the Wisdom of God. and takes them to itself: and this act supposes danger without him. and goes forth in it. who is a Jew. Verse 19. and beautified them.

and be exercising faith on him as such. Moreover. but all the things that are said of him in the context. healing and cleansing. and lead into adoring and admiring views of him. for by sound wisdom is meant sound doctrine. It is observable that the Septuagint here makes use of the same word the apostle does in Hebrews 2:1. and should always look upon him as the Mediator between God and man. Psalm 78:13. for fresh supplies of grace. this may include all the truths and doctrines of Wisdom. which makes the earth fruitful. they have no other father but him. let not them depart from thine eyes. though it is good to contemplate his works of creation and providence.. or the daily bread of our souls. be ever looking to him by faith. and show the greatness of him. the exceeding great gain got by him. keep" them. or Christ. the pleasantness and peaceableness of his ways. the drops of dew are begotten by the Lord. then much more the doctrines of the Gospel. speaking of Gospel truths. dropped and distilled by them under the influence and direction of Christ. we should always consider him as the Saviour. and so be ever in sight. Meaning not the things done by Wisdom. the wholesome words of Christ. Genesis 27:28. and make use of him. and as the mark for the prize of the high calling of God. the solid and substantial truths of the Gospel. and we should always keep sight of him while running our Christian race. to copy after. And not only Wisdom. and he should be ever before us as our example. . and the works of nature and providence done by him. from whence they descend. all wonderful works of divine wisdom. or Christ. My son. by whom they were done. and is put for all the blessings of nature. whereby these things are done. The Vulgate Latin version renders it. Deuteronomy 6:8.confluence of waters called the sea. these are meant in the next clause. and of the dew of Gospel doctrine. the usefulness of him as a tree of life to those that lay hold upon him and retain him. as the forerunner for us entered. and such is Christ the Wisdom of God. we should keep in view his righteousness for our justification. if the law and its precepts were to be upon the hands and as frontlets between the eyes of the Israelites. we should always have in sight his divine Person for our acceptance with God. but wisdom. Proverbs 3:14. is no other than the mighty God. and some by a transposition place them thus. and knowledge. and which we should ever make mention of at the throne of grace. or our own hearts. which serve to set forth the glory of Christ. he who fills the clouds with them.. in whom are "hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.. and others to the dividing of the waters of the Red sea when Israel came out of Egypt. we should be continually looking to his blood for peace and pardon. Satan. the fulness of blessings in both his hands. the superlative preciousness of him. and our eyes should be at all times on his fulness. for spiritual food. and for spiritual strength and comfort. which are but so many names of Christ: we should always set him before us. Genesis 1:9. both in the exercise of grace and performance of duty. the greatness and glory of it to encourage our faith and hope in him. and never suffer him to depart from our eyes. See Gill on "Heb 2:1". for there is no other. we should never lose sight of. and hold it forth in the hand of faith against all charges and accusations of law and justice. and to thankfulness to him. "let not sound wisdom and discretion depart from thine eyes. see Deuteronomy 32:2. Verse 21. and the clouds drop down the dew. Genesis 7:11. for. Some understand this in a mystical sense of Gospel ministers. understanding. Some refer this to the breaking up the fountains of the great deep at the flood." Colossians 2:3. keep him always in view. but the literal sense is best. the vanities of the Gentiles cannot produce them.. "keep the law".

v. 289. Then shall thou walk in thy way safely. or be departed from. the stumbling stone laid in Zion. as some men do. yea.. and thy sleep shall be sweet." the doctrine of the Gospel.. having in sight the Captain of salvation gone before." Arabic version. though immortal. L.. see Psalm 4:8. being thereunto appointed.. for so the word also signifies. and of quickening them to the discharge of their duty. pleasant and comfortable. unthought of. without fear of any enemy. Song of Solomon shall they be life unto thy soul. and such a light unto the paths. or "counsel" {d}.. particularly at his justifying righteousness. Verse 22. much better. when thou liest down on thy bed at night in order to take sleep. This epithet of "sweet" is often given to "sleep" in poetic writings {f}. and of nocturnal apparitions and diabolical spectres deceiving thy sight and disturbing thy mind: or when thou art "asleep" {e}. and at Christ. are the means of reviving drooping saints. and the doctrines of it. and whose conversation is as becomes it! see Proverbs 1:9.. thou shall not be surprised out of it with any of the above things. {e} bkvt "dormieris. and thy foot shall not stumble. Ecclesiastes 5:12. Verse 24.. and having such a lamp to the feet." V." Vatablus. by any of the above things mentioned in the preceding note. thou shalt not be afraid of thieves breaking in to hurt thy person or rob thee of thy property. Acts 20:27.. and as the Gospel is called.. or of fire to consume thy dwelling and substance.. as they were delivered. free of all uneasy thoughts and cares. sound and refreshing. "consilium. which also is meant by discretion.. Idyll.but the Syriac version.. and distressing dreams. and walking in such ways of pleasantness and peace as Wisdom's are. wherefore both he and they should be kept in continual view. {d} hyvwt. and a view to the glory of Christ. the advantages arising from them follow.. having committed thyself into the hands of a faithful Creator and covenant God and Father. Give it a better life than it naturally has. and held fast. as the Gospel and its doctrines be. anxious cares. When thou liest down thou shalt not be afraid. thou shalt lie down. 23. from a principle of love. as some render the word.. Christ is both the spiritual and eternal life of the souls of those that look unto him by faith. v. the doctrines of it should be held fast and not let go. Odyss. and his Gospel. In the way of thy duty and business. "eum dormies. and of Christ the Redeemer and Wisdom of God. 511. an ornament to that and to the whole man. "keep my doctrine.. That is. 22. Verse 25. this should be kept. how ornamental is Christ and his righteousness to a believer! how lovely is the person that is steady in his principles. & 19. Verse 23. see 1 Peter 2:8. boulhn. Homer. like that of the labouring man. Theocrit. or terrified in it with uneasy imaginations. Sept. v. 11. Of anything terrible that comes unawares. 7. Be not afraid of sudden fear. and the ordinances of it should be observed and kept. and regular in his practices! who stands fast in the truths of the Gospel. and grace to thy neck. or by any .. at the word and the truths of it. {f} glukuv upnov.

rumours and reports of danger being near at hand; always think thyself safe in the arms of Wisdom, and under the care of Israel's keeper, who neither slumbers nor sleeps; neither of the desolation of the wicked when it cometh; either of the desolation which wicked men threaten to bring, and are suffered to bring, upon the godly for the sake of religion; either on their persons or goods, since suffering at their hands in such a cause is to the honour of saints, and for the glory of God; or of the desolation which comes upon the godly, for God is able to deliver him from it, as Noah and his family from the universal deluge, and Lot and his family from Sodom and Gomorrah; or if they promiscuously fall in it, nevertheless it will be well with them to all eternity. Verse 26. For the Lord shall be thy confidence,.... The object of it, in whom thou shall put thy confidence, and be safe and secure from all fear and danger: or "the Lord shall be in thy confidence" {g}; shall support thee in it, and maintain that, so that thou shalt not cast it away; the word used has sometimes the notion off oily in it, and Jarchi, from the Jerusalem Talmud, produces a sense agreeable to it; "the Lord shall be in things in which thou art foolish;" which, how absurd it may seem to be, will admit of a good interpretation; that the Lord will be with Wisdom's followers in things which may seem foolishness to the world; as Christ, the things of Christ, and the things of the Spirit of Christ, the Gospel, and the doctrines of it, are. The Targum is, "the Lord shall be thine help," in all times of distress, difficulty, and danger; and shall keep thy foot from being taken; in the snares of sin, temptation, and mischief; in those which Satan and the world lay for God's people; from these the Lord preserves them; wherefore happy are those that have an interest in Christ, who find and enjoy him. {g} So Montanus, Vatablus, Michaelis. Verse 27. Withhold not good from them to whom it is due,.... Honour, reverence, and tribute, to civil magistrates, Romans 13:7; just payment of debts to creditors, and alms to the poor, which, by what follows, seems to be chiefly intended; and the Septuagint render it, "do not abstain to do well to the needy;" and Aben Ezra interprets it of the poor; to them alms are due because of their wants, and by the appointment; of God; hence called "righteousness," in some copies of Matthew 6:1; so money kept from the poor "mammon of unrighteousness," Luke 16:9. They are, as the word in the Hebrew text signifies, "the owners thereof" {h}: rich men are not so much proprietors of good things as they are God's alms givers or stewards to distribute to the poor; and, as often as men have opportunity, they should do good in this way to all, especially to the household of faith, Galatians 6:10; this will hold true, as of temporal good things, so of spiritual; as good advice, exhortation, and doctrine. The Vulgate Latin version is, "do not forbid him to do well that can"; which sense is favoured by Jarchi: and as we should not abstain from doing good ourselves, so neither should we forbid, hinder, or discourage others; but the former sense is best; when it is in the power of thine hand to do [it]; not to hinder others, as Jarchi, but to do good; when a man has a sufficiency in his hands to do good with; has not only enough for himself and his family, but something to spare; when he has both opportunity and ability; and when he can do it at once and without delay, as follows.

{h} wylebm "a dominis suis," Vatablus, Mercerus, Gejerus, Michaelis. Verse 28. Say not unto thy neighbour,.... Either to whom thou art indebted, and who comes for the payment of a just debt; or to any poor and indigent person that applies for alms: go, and come again, and tomorrow I will give; go home, and come tomorrow, and I will pay thee what I owe thee; or do not trouble me now, come another time, and perhaps I may relieve thy wants: this should not be said, because a man cannot be sure of tomorrow that he shall ever see it; nor may it be in the power of his hands, should he live unto the morrow, to do as he promises; his substance may be taken from him; and besides, in the mean time, the poor object may perish for want of relief; when thou hast it by thee; money to pay thy debts with, or to give alms to the poor; and therefore should give readily and at once, and not make any excuses and delays; "bis dat, qui cito dat." Some make this to be part of the covetous man's words, saying, "and there is with thee"; or thou hast enough, thou hast no need to ask of me; thou hast what thou askest; thou art not in want; thou art richer than I; but the other sense is best. The Septuagint and Arabic versions add, "for thou knowest not what the day following may bring forth;" or may happen on it. Verse 29. Devise not evil against thy neighbour,.... Or, "plough not evil" {i}; turn not up thy heart to find evil against thy neighbour, as the earth is turned up by the plough; see Hosea 10:13. Do not contrive and form schemes in thy mind and thoughts to do him any injury, in his name and character, in his person, property, or family: a good man should devise all the good he can to his fellow creatures, but not evil to any; especially to his neighbour, and as described in the next clause; seeing he dwelleth securely by thee; having a good opinion of thee, and not suspecting any ill design against him, thinks himself, goods, and family, in safety; and is under no concern to provide for his security, placing his confidence in thee, and perhaps to such a degree as to entrust with his secrets. Now to project evil against such a man is exceeding base; it is doubly sinful; this is an aggravation of the iniquity. {i} vrtt "ne ares," Amama. Verse 30. Strive not with a man without cause, Either by words, in a wrangling, quarrelsome, and contentious way, for mere trifles; when there is no foundation for it, no just reason given to form a complaint, or pick a quarrel upon; or by deeds, by lawsuits, when there is nothing to proceed upon; or it is so trifling, that it is not worth while to litigate it or contend about: such, who strive either way, are far from following the example of Wisdom or Christ, and from taking his advice, Matthew 12:19; if he have done thee no harm; no real hurt to thy person, nor injury to thy substance; if he has not abused nor defrauded thee, nor taken any thing from thee by force or fraud, nor withheld from thee what is thy right and due. But otherwise the laws of God and man ought to take place; right may be sought for, and justice should be done.

Verse 31. Envy thou not the oppressor,.... The man that gets wealth and riches by acts of injustice, by oppressing the poor, by rapine and violence; do not envy his prosperity, and the substance he is possessed of; do not wish to be in his place and circumstances, to enjoy his affluence and ease; do not look upon his happiness with an envious eye and a fretting heart; he is far from being a happy man; his end will be bad; see Psalm 37:1; and choose none of his ways; which he has used to get his riches in; do not follow him in them; for should you do as he has done, and get ever so much, since this would be with the loss of your souls, of what advantage would it be? He makes the best choice that chooses the "good part" that shall not be taken away, Luke 10:42; Christ, and the ways of Christ. Verse 32. For the froward [is] abomination to the Lord,.... The perverse man, that pleases not God, and is contrary to all men, as the Jews were; one froward in his words and actions: "who transgresses the law," as the Arabic version renders it; one that acts contrary to the nature, will, and word of God; and such an one is not only abominable in his sight, but an "abomination" itself; it is sin, which is that abominable thing that God hates, that makes him so: and the Targum is, "for iniquity is abominable before the Lord;" but his secret [is] with the righteous: not such who are outwardly so to others, or trust in themselves that they are righteous, or seek for righteousness by their own works; but such who are justified by the righteousness of Christ, which faith receives from him, and in consequence of which a man lives soberly and righteously: with these the "secret" of the Lord is; of his love, grace, and favour, which was from everlasting, and is manifested in regeneration; of his purposes of grace, with respect to election, redemption, calling, and adoption, which is made known in effectual calling; of his covenant, as that he is their covenant God, Christ is their covenant head and Mediator, and that they have an interest in all the grace, blessings, and promises of it; of the Gospel, and the several mysteries of it, which are so to carnal men; of his providences, what he is doing, or what he is about to do, and will do hereafter, Amos 3:7; and of communion and fellowship with him. The phrase denotes friendship and familiarity; God deals with the righteous as a man does with his intimate friend, converses freely with him, and discloses his secrets to him: and the word is rendered "confabulation" by the Targum, Syriac, and Vulgate Latin versions; see Job 29:4. Verse 33. The curse of the Lord is in the house of the wicked,.... The wicked man, being a transgressor of the law, is under the curse of it; and all that he has, his house, his substance, his very blessings are curses; see Malachi 2:2; he is accursed amidst his greatest affluence, and sometimes from a plentiful estate is reduced to penury and want: and Aben Ezra interprets it, "the curse of want"; and the Vulgate Latin version is, "want from the Lord is," &c. but he blesseth the habitation of the just; the righteous man, as before described; he is blessed himself, having the righteousness of Christ imputed to him, and his sins forgiven him for his sake; and what he has of worldly substance, though it be ever so little, he has it with a blessing; and therefore it is better than the riches of many wicked men; his house, though it is but a courage, as the word {k} here signifies, is blessed with the presence of God in it; his family, his children, and servants, are blessed, having his instructions and example, and especially when made effectual by the grace of God; as the house of Obededom was blessed for the sake of the ark, so is

a just man's house, being a "bethel," an house of God, blessed on account of his worship in it; see 2 Samuel 6:11. {k} hwn "tugurio," Montanus; "tugurium, vel casam pastoritiam," Gejerus. Verse 34. Surely he scorneth the scorners,.... That make a mock at sin, a jest of religion, that scoff at the doctrines of the Gospel and the professors of it; these the Lord looks upon, laughs at, and has them in derision. The Greek version and two apostles render it, "he resisteth the proud," 1 Peter 5:5. Such who are haughty and arrogant, that exalt themselves and despise others; as those of a pharisaical spirit are and do, are abhorred and despised by the Lord; he sets himself against them, is their enemy, "and scatters [them] in the imagination of their hearts," Luke 1:51. L'Empereur observes {l} that this version is quite agreeable to the Hebrew text and the sense of Jewish writers: R. Alshech says, that Myul, rendered "scorners," are such who will not look upon the divine Being, but go on boldly in sin, as if there was no God; and Kimchi explains the word by Myagtm, who exalt themselves, or are proud; and because proud men yield to none, but resist others, hence the verb is used, by the Septuagint, to resist; agreeably to which the Targum is, "he shall drive away;" and Alshech, "he shall destroy;" and Gersom, "God shall make others mock them;" which is, to resist them; but he giveth grace unto the lowly; or humble souls; such who are made truly sensible of sin, and lie low in their own sight on account of it; who, sensible of the imperfection and insufficiency of their own righteousness, submit to the righteousness of Christ; ascribe their salvation, and all the blessings of it, to the free grace of God; own the deficiency of their duties, and disclaim all merit in them; think the worst of themselves, and the best of others; and humble themselves under the mighty hand of God, and are patient under every adverse dispensation of Providence; knowing what their deserts are, how undeserving of any favour, and how deserving of the divine displeasure. Now God first gives grace to these persons to make them thus humble and lowly which they are not naturally, and then he gives them more grace, according to his promise; and it is in proof of God's giving more grace to such persons that the Apostle James produces this passage, Proverbs 4:6. Grace is God's gift, first and last, what is had in first conversion, in after supplies, and for perseverance to the end: sanctifying, justifying, pardoning, and adopting grace, are the pure gifts of God, of his own favour and good will, without any merit, motive, or condition in the creature; and which he gives liberally and bountifully; for not favour with men is here meant, as some think, but the grace of God. {l} Not. in Mos. Kimchi odoiporia, p. 34, 35. Verse 35. The wise shall inherit glory,.... The wise are the same with the just and lowly before mentioned, to whom God gives grace, and to these he gives glory. The "wise" are such who are so, not in a natural, civil, or notional sense, or that are wise in the things of nature, in civil affairs and in speculative matters of religion; but in a spiritual sense, who are wise unto salvation; who know themselves, the sinfulness of their nature, their inability to do that which is good, and their want of righteousness to justify them before God; who are sensible of the sickness and diseases of their souls, their spiritual poverty, and their great folly and ignorance with respect to things of a spiritual nature; who know Christ, and him crucified, the way of peace, pardon, righteousness, and salvation by him; that know him, not only notionally, but so as to apply unto him, and rest on him for salvation; who build it on him the foundation, on

him only, and give him all the glory of it; and who have also a competent knowledge of the Gospel, and a comfortable experience of the truths of it; and who take up a profession of religion upon such an experience, and hold it fast without depending on it, and have a conversation becoming it, walking circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise. Now these shall "inherit glory"; not the glory of this world, or honour among men in it; but the glory of another, of which the glory of this world, and of, he most excellent things in it, is but a faint resemblance: it is unseen, inconceivable, and incomparable; it is an eternal glory which Christ is entered into, and the same the Father has given him; and will lie in the vision of God, and communion with him; in beholding the glory of Christ, and in having a glory put upon them both in soul and body: and this they shall enjoy as an inheritance; not by purchase or acquisition, but by free gift; as a bequest of their Father; which comes to them as children, through the death of Christ the testator, and will be possessed for ever, as inheritances run; but shame shall be the promotion of fools; not fools in a natural, but in a religious sense; such who know not themselves, nor the way of salvation; who mock at sin, and scoff at religion: these and everyone of these "shall take" or "lift up shame" {m}, as their part and portion, alluding to the heave offering under the law, in opposition to the glory the wise shall inherit and possess. Or, "shame shall lift up fools" {n}; hold them forth, and make them manifest and conspicuous: all the promotion they shall be raised unto will be only shame and confusion, if not in this world, yet in that to come; for, when they shall rise from the dead, it will be "to shame and everlasting contempt," Daniel 12:2. The Targum is, "fools shall receive tribulation;" that shall be their inheritance in the other world. {m} Nwlq Myrm Mylok "unusquisque stultorum suscipit, vel sustinet, ignominiam," Vatablus. {n} "Stolidos vero tollit ignominia," Junius & Tremellius.
CHAPTER 4 Proverbs 4 In this chapter Solomon advises to seek after wisdom, to avoid bad company, and to continue in the right paths of goodness and truth: he excites attention to what he had to say, from the relation he stood in to the persons addressed; from the nature of his instructions, which were good and profitable; and from his own example, in attending to those his parents gave him, Proverbs 4:1; He exhorts above all things to get wisdom, from the superior excellency of it, and from the preservation, promotion, and honour, to be had by it, Proverbs 4:5; and he further enforces big exhortations, from their being the means of a comfortable life, and of the prolongation of it, and of leading in a right way without straitness or stumbling, Proverbs 4:10. And then proceeds to caution against bad company, and going into a bad way of life; which is enforced from the mischief done by those that walk in it, and from the darkness of it, to which the path of the just is opposed, Proverbs 4:14. And the exhortation to attend to and observe his instructions, and keep them, is repeated, from the consideration of their being life and health to them, Proverbs 4:20; and that they might be preserved, and not departed from, direction's are given about ordering the heart, mouth, lips, eyes, and feet,

Whose author. forsake you not my law. so he was beloved of his father. For I was my father's son. who had a most affectionate regard to him. because he had a peculiar love for him.. and of having their understandings stored and enriched with. which being received. or the children of his body. since he was their father.. whose son he was. and. that he was his darling.. as Gersom interprets it. are good. as the following verses show. relinquish. for. or "doctrine" {o}. he had others besides him. Amama. and therefore his name was called Jedidiah. as he was beloved of the Lord. and therefore in his tender age. gave them to him.. use. . and abide by it. but should keep it. tender and only [beloved] in the sight of my mother. Verse 1. of Christ and his apostles. they ought to receive it: by whom are meant. which serves to exalt him. ye children. whom he loved above the rest. which goes out from Mount Zion: this the children of Wisdom should not neglect. or depart from. the instruction of a father. not the law given on Mount Sinai. But the sense is. and therefore should be received.Proverbs 4:23.. {o} ytrwt "doctrinam meam.. improve. 1 Timothy 4:6. "a son to my father" {p}. drop. Hear. but his disciples. so Solomon was to God.. made deep and lasting impressions on him. and tendency. Or. enlarge.. what would serve to enlighten. his mother Bathsheba. Verse 2. or rather of Solomon their father: and so he recommends his instruction from the relation he stood in to them. his heavenly Father. not his children in a natural sense. but the doctrine of Christ. and whom he undertook to learn. what would lead them into the knowledge and understanding of things divine and spiritual. which Jarchi observes. as Gersom interprets it. even all the doctrines and truths of the Gospel. his beloved son. "instructionem meam. and attend to know understanding. matter.. and no other is here meant: it is the doctrine concerning Wisdom or Christ. and makes for the good and welfare of immortal souls. though he was not his only one. and. and which would be worth knowing.. so the Gospel is called. as soon as he was susceptible of instructions. he would give them no bad instruction. he took a particular care of his education." Schultens." Junius & Tremellius. and inform their understandings. since they were his children. and gives as the sense of this place: but his father David is meant... Either of God their father. such who applied to him for knowledge. Verse 3. For I give you good doctrine. Piscator. and such is the doctrine of the Scriptures. 2 Samuel 7:14.

a king. and were the only nation that received the law. so Cocceius. and also gave him instructions when he was older. "to the sons of my mother". some of which are called "maschil. to have recourse unto upon all occasions. he taught him by the several psalms he wrote. the government of the people. and to a good old age.. Verse 4. and which they received at the time of their coming out of Egypt. How far the words of David his father reach is not agreed on. Christ. and is restrained to the father. "they both taught me. and in a religious and political one." and the Arabic version. and one that feared God: as well as they may respect his orders for the building of the temple. he taught him in the following words. by observing which he would live comfortably and honourably. who were sons to God their Father. He taught me also. concerning his moral behaviour. Schultens. for Bathsheba had more sons. others say that the whole of the book following is his." but in the Hebrew it is singular.." Pagninus. in the days of their youth. The marginal reading is. and keep them there. others with the Proverbs 4:9. "beloved in the sight of my mother's sons. He taught him when he was very young. and the knowledge of divine and spiritual things. Michaelis.. two of them particularly were written for him. and live: which commandments may respect him both in his private and public capacity." instructive or causing to understand.. and so the Septuagint version. and a little before his own death. Montanus. Not only moral and political wisdom and understanding. let thine heart retain my words: says David to his son: the instructions he gave him by word of mouth. and the knowledge of him. on all hands. Gejerus. which can by no means be agreed to: it seems most likely to me that they end at Proverbs 4:6. these he would have him lay up in his heart. but that which is spiritual and evangelical.." Gersom interprets this of the people of Israel. some think they end with Proverbs 4:5. 1 Chronicles 3:5. and said unto me. relating to political things. see 1 Chronicles 28:8. "who said and taught me. both readings may be retained. and especially such as concerned the everlasting welfare of his soul. which is not probable.. {p} ybal ytyyh Nb "filius fui patri meo. and the words of Solomon begin at Proverbs 4:10: some will have it that they take in the whole chapter. how he should behave as a man. he being the only happy man that has an interest in him. get understanding. nay. as a rich treasure. "they taught me. keep my commandments. the seventy-second and the hundred twenty-seventh psalms. or were about Wisdom or Christ. and settling and establishing the worship of God in it.see Proverbs 31:1. Mercerus. and at most are not to be carried beyond Proverbs 4:9.. The Targum is. others with Proverbs 4:6." his father and his mother. and said unto me. Get wisdom. which is the meaning . and is possessed of him by faith.. Verse 5.

and above all creatures and things. for the communion he indulges them in with himself. sincerely. the temptations of Satan. in his Father's love and his own.. and condemnation by it.. husband. keep it in remembrance. ardently. and constantly. He is to be loved. Forsake her not. Wisdom. the fulness of grace and truth in him. and from a final and total falling away. and good man. and cleaving to him. the above instructions. his glories and excellencies. Christ is to be loved for the excellencies and perfections of his nature. he being the only wise God and their Saviour. Verse 6. that wise. by which it appears. from the power and dominion of sin. so as not to perish everlastingly. his truths and ordinances. which are his other self. and such lovers of him shall be "kept" by him from the evil of the world. Men may be said to forsake Christ when they forsake the assembly of his church and people. when they forsake his word and ordinances. and afterwards repeats and urges. be continually meditating on Wisdom. and in a state of grace. neither decline from the words of my mouth. the Wisdom of God and Wisdom to them. it is against a man's own interest. when they forsake his ministers. and therefore to be guarded against. that what Solomon had before delivered. and the prevalence of corruption. father. taught him. true believers only partially and for a time. his ambassadors. in the everlasting covenant. and adoption. was the same his father David. for the loveliness of his person. To forsake Christ is a very great evil.. and she shall keep thee. and representatives. are . through the weakness of the flesh. and his temptations. for the relations of an head. for the love he has showed to his people. for what he in love has done and suffered for them.of getting him. and she shall preserve thee. See Gill on "Pr 3:13". to abide by him. all of him and that belong unto him. such shall be "preserved" by him safe to his kingdom and glory. That is. and whose Gospel is the Wisdom of God in a mystery. and is now doing. and all others he gave unto him. and which he mentions. and therefore such an exhortation is necessary. or Christ. the more to recommend the getting of wisdom and understanding to others. love her. from being destroyed by Satan. for the fulness of his grace and salvation.. or depart from them. is very commendable. and friend. the snares of the world. of sanctification. the blessings of goodness which come by him. and the suitableness of them to them. or Christ. he stands in to them: and also under the character of Wisdom. when gotten. when they drop the doctrines of the Gospel. and is of dangerous consequence. the great use and profit of having and enjoying him. justification. when they quit the profession they have formerly made. brother. and ought to be regarded. Not that loving Christ. Nominal believers and formal professors may forsake him finally and totally. great. they are kept in his own hands. forget [it] not.

. in grace and glory. but a knowledge of it. He is the beginning and chief of all God's ways. he is the one thing needful. Mercerus. but gaining a greater degree of knowledge of him. and make use of all means to obtain a greater knowledge of him. by which he means. see Proverbs 1:7. Or the words may be rendered. &c. he possesses all things. he is superior to men. Are they kings? he is their King: are they priests? he is the great High Priest: are any of them prophets.. grace. and is above them in the human nature." Montanus. yet these are descriptive of the persons kept and preserved: and the preservation and keeping of them is used as an argument to love him. look upon all but dross in comparison of Christ and the knowledge of him: all other gettings or substance are only for the body. and cleave unto him. so Christ advises to buy gold and white raiment of him. and with all thy getting get understanding. and to the best of men the saints. they are not satisfying. which. he is the God. Colossians 1:18. the chief Master Builder. "Wisdom [is] the beginning" {q}. and power. in redemption and salvation. the Creator. and of interest in him. Or principal. and prefer it to all worldly substance. having this. that is. as the context shows. a Teacher. "buy wisdom" {s}. Or thus. Wisdom. . the good and better part and portion. this for the soul. having a more excellent name and nature than they. angels or men: Christ is superior to angels. all things are his. Gejerus. and the chief in them. a soul has enough. another name for Christ. and head of them. has all things. Philippians 3:8. both in the old and new creation. he is King of kings and Lord of lords. without money and without price. in the council of peace. that never any taught or spoke like him. Revelation 3:18. {q} hmkx tyvar "principium sapientiae. one. [therefore] get wisdom. and of his being the first cause and author of all things. Or. and all other things are not blessings without him. not an interest in Christ. they are only for a time. yea. or. his grace and righteousness. so Christ is called. all other substance signifies little: or part with all for this pearl of great price. and the eternal welfare of it. or "above all". see Proverbs 8:14. but. teachers. and covenant of grace. to the greatest of men. let not Christ be wanting. Christ being his. that which is "the beginning of wisdom get" {r}. Verse 7. that he had already. this for eternity. a phrase expressive of his eternity. which is what the apostle calls "winning" Christ. which is the fear of the Lord. if missing.. Wisdom [is] the principal thing. the principal of persons. in election.the causes of this preservation. not getting an interest in him. the chief Shepherd and Bishop of souls: is the church a family? he is the Master of it: is it a body? he is the Head: is it a building? he is the Foundation and Corner Stone. he is all in all. shepherds? he is the great Prophet in Israel. "along with all thy getting" {t}. the principal of persons and things. but his love..

by owning his divine and eternal sonship.{r} "Principium sapientiae est hoc. Christ is to be exalted in his person. by trusting in him. and she shall promote thee. when thou dost embrace her: by faith: for this is an act of faith. "quae est caput sapientiae eam acquire. Verse 9. "in omne acquisitione tua. "prae universis quae possides. comparas sapientiam." so the Vulgate Latin version renders it. and is expressive of great nearness to Christ. and be owned by him before his Father and his angels." Tigurine version. and submitting to his ordinances." Michaelis. perfectly comely through this comeliness. and some think James refers to this passage." Montanus. see 1 Samuel 2:30." Jeremiah 50:26.. and will reign with him for ever and ever. Roshhashanah.. and .. Bab. According to the Talmudists {u}. 26. Vatablus. Cocceius. and use much freedom with each other. and distinct personality: he is to be exalted in all his offices of Prophet. by allowing him to be the author of all divine works. and the following clause. 2. {s} hmkx hnq "eme sapientiam. and such that exalt him. and a very considerable one. Junius & Tremellius. and will be before long rolled off. of strong love and affection to him. but they are made exceeding beautiful. it not only covers the nakedness of their souls. This. by ascribing all divine perfections to him. and all their spots and imperfections. such he promotes and "brings to honour". in the arms of their faith. Now such who embrace Christ. for to embrace Christ and exalt him is the way to disgrace. explain what that honour is Christ promotes and brings his followers to here and hereafter: he gives them grace and more grace. and as the only Redeemer and Saviour. embracing his Gospel. for such an action is used by persons near akin. Priest. by giving him divine worship and homage." &c. she shall bring thee to honour. and rejoice at meeting together. Proverbs 4:6. as their alone Saviour. Verse 8. of which more in the next clause. of much intimacy and familiarity with him. and so the Septuagint interpret the word in the sense of "searching. Such will be set at his right hand.. {u} T. of a good degree of boldness used with him. but to honour hereafter." Pagninus.. and have a very great affection for one another. and they will be placed on the same throne with him. by asserting his proper deity. fol. The grace that Christ gives is very ornamental to his people: justifying grace greatly beautifies and adorns them. L. he will "promote" them here and hereafter. She shall give to thine head an ornament of grace. and of joy and exaltation in him. the word for "exalt" signifies a diligent search.. Exalt her. though the disgrace is an honour. "an increase of grace. a perfection of beauty by it. by turning things about to find out what is sought... not to honour among men. and are very familiar with. and King. and through it all their sins are caused to pass from them." V. {t} Knynq lkl "in omne possessione tua.

. which is the wisdom of God in a mystery. Hear. or what makes a man beautiful. "a crown of glory". they will appear with Christ in glory. Sept. as it appears in the life and conversation. and.. which must be a very forcible argument to engage attention to his sayings. {w} Kngmt uperaspish sou. to everyone of his children that came to him for instruction. his doctrines. see 2 Timothy 4:8. a crown of glory shall she deliver to thee. and is safe with him. he has power to dispose of it. as he is. I have taught thee in the way of wisdom. it is that by which a man is made like to God. raiment of needlework. humility. Verse 10. and receive my sayings. or Solomon continues relating what his father said to him. see Psalm 5:12. it is in his hands." Gejerus. as fine linen. hope. a crown of righteousness. see Proverbs 3:1. and makes him meet for heaven and happiness: every grace is ornamental.. "muniet te." it is not to be understood of the natural head of a man. Revelation 2:10. it gives a comeliness to. This Christ is said to "deliver".. long life here. and conformed to the image of Christ. they will be clothed and surrounded with it: and so some render it. and the years of thy life shall be many. rich. and which directs to Christ and the knowledge of him. belongs to such as are made kings and priests unto God." an ensign of royal dignity. though I rather think these are Solomon's words to his son. "cinget te. or is concerning it. love. is very ornamental. or eternal life hereafter. L. a Wedding garment. who is true wisdom. an incorruptible and never-fading one. laid up in him. stuck with jewels and precious stones: sanctifying grace. "she will compass thee about with a crown of glory as with a shield" {w}. . Tigerine version.. Some think David is still speaking to his son Solomon. and costly.which is often signified by that which is very ornamental. but of his whole person. and length of days for ever and ever. by which is meant eternal glory and happiness. And when this ornament is said to be given "to the head. and it may be expected from him. &c. and be crowned with glory and honour. which. O my son. or he took upon him to teach. and may denote the visibility of it." Montanus.. this is another reason or argument why the wise man's instructions should be attended to. "proteget te. it is called "the beauty of holiness". even who are more than conquerors through Christ. faith.. in the Gospel. In the way that leads to it. called a "crown. both in soul and body. Verse 11.. about the neck. and as a reward of diligence and faithfulness. which also is Christ's gift. it is the curious workmanship of the Spirit of God. clothing of wrought gold. It is sometimes called a crown of life. and to embrace. and not reject. the saints in heaven will have a glory put upon them. and is given to conquerors. these are like rows of jewels. and chains of gold. the manifold wisdom of God." V. whom he advises to listen to what he had further to say. as here.

attentively hear it. the snares of the world. it is taken fast hold on when it is mixed with faith when heard. took fast hold of the Gospel. and an eagerness to be possessed of it: such may be said to take fast hold on it.I have led thee in right paths. and which lead right on to the city of habitation. through the deceitfulness of sin. yet they are brought into a large place. nor suffer it to be . and becomes the ingrafted word. into the doctrines of peace. for though saints do not walk in the broad road with sinners. as Jarchi and Gersom interpret it.. This should be "taken fast hold of". concerning the salvation of men. and their hearts are enlarged to run the way of God's commandments. and truth. and in the way of their duty.. and a wide field of truth and duty such have to walk in.. nor waver about it. let [her] not go. in order to which. and not into their heads only. When thou goest. By enemies. and eternal life by him. nor be languid in a profession of it. so as to fall and perish. into the person and offices of Christ. Psalm 18:19. or subject to dangers. Not the law. Take fast hold of instruction. the doctrine of Christ or the Gospel. so a reception of it in the love of it. showing that salvation. as the word signifies. and into the business of salvation through him. which is an instruction into the mind and will of God.. and. in all its branches. but doers of it. nor indifferent to it: "be not remiss" {x}. see Proverbs 8:1. as it were with both hands. having. and the temptations of Satan. nor depart from it.. such that make haste to keep the commandments of God. head knowledge of the Gospel instruction is not hold fast enough. or the Gospel of Christ. thou shall not stumble.. or let not thine hand be remiss. or let not thine hand go. that run with alacrity and cheerfulness in their Christian race. and when thou runnest. pardon. the instruction of wisdom. when it is digested and incorporated as it were into men. Verse 13.. and are not hearers only. or they will never lay fast hold on it. being thus taken fast hold of. and such ways walked in. for taking fast hold. but be at freedom and liberty in walking.. it must be heart knowledge of it. or attended with difficulties and obstructions. they should come with a cordial affection to it. do not drop it. as it supposes a careful attention to the Gospel. who receive it into their hearts. but the instruction of wisdom. who are taught and led in the ways of wisdom and righteousness. in such as are agreeable to the will and word of God. men should take heed unto it. and their steps are enlarged under them. and therefore such teachings and leadings should be followed. and an eager desire after it. in paths of righteousness. thy steps shall not be straitened. when men are led experimentally and practically into it. righteousness. into the grace of God. hold it fast. neither drop it through negligence and carelessness. is of pure grace. holiness. shall not stumble. Verse 12.

. Verse 15. nor reckon thyself or them happy that walk in such ways... and especially since he is the "life" of his people: he is the author and maintainer of their spiritual life. by which they live upon him." Tigurine version. Verse 14. "do not delight in the paths of the ungodly": but this supposes not only entrance. who is to be kept as the pearl of great price. seeing the feminine gender is here used. they are far from it: hence the Targum. a man would as soon part with his life surely as part with this! Or else. but progress and continuance in them. Enter not into the path of the wicked. keep her. do not follow their example." Tiguriue version. and of reviving and comforting them under the most drooping and afflictive circumstances.. which may be understood either of the Gospel. As dangerous and pernicious. and ties greatly in the enjoyment of him. it is given through him and by him. being more precious than rubies and all desirable things. and Syriac versions are. The Vulgate Latin version is. of producing faith in them.. for she [is] thy life. as abominable and detestable. "flee from it. withdraw at once. since it is the means of quickening dead sinners... keep no company. and of maintaining and supporting the spiritual life in them.taken from thee by fraud or force. Wisdom's instruction. Michaelis. Some render it. they live also: all the comforts and supplies of life are from him." as the Vulgate Latin version: Jarchi and . their seeming pleasure will end in bitterness: the Arabic version is. so Aben Ezra. and he is their eternal life. "do not esteem the way of evil men blessed" {y}. Avoid it. whereas the first is dehorted from in these words: and go not in the way of evil [men]. do not set one foot in the path they tread. Which leads to eternal death. which does not agree with the word translated "instruction. join not with them in their wicked ways and practices. if tempted and prevailed upon to take a step and make a trial. {x} Prt la "ne remittas. "do not imitate" them." Michaelis. have no fellowship. lest thou shouldest be tempted to proceed to more ungodliness. Septuagint. and because he lives. or.. which should be kept as a rich treasure. seeing the word used has sometimes the signification of blessedness in it. therefore enter not. "ne beatam praedices viam malorum." mentioned Proverbs 4:11. therefore Christ may be here meant. when once you begin. and not parted with at any rate. Mercerus. "do not envy the ways of wicked men". you do not know where and when there will be a stop. he is their life itself. and do as they do. Gejerus." but with "wisdom. do not proceed. it is hid with him. of showing sensible ones the way of life by Christ. {y} Myer Krdb rvat "in via malorum ne te beatum existimes. do not go on. with them.

abstain from all appearance of evil. sleep." from wicked men. under the influence of divine grace. Oftentimes they cannot sleep on their beds for devising mischief. They imitate their father the devil. or they as greedily commit such acts of oppression and injury as a man drinks a glass of wine. the Targum adds. into the snares and traps they lay for them.. turn from it.. "make it void". keep at a distance from it.. cause it to cease. lives soberly. unless they cause [some] to fall. constantly casting up mire and dirt.. and everything that may lead to it. in righteousness and true holiness. and who is created anew in Christ. The "just" man is one that is made righteous through the righteousness of Christ imputed to him. as Jarchi and Gersom interpret it. they feed upon it with as much eagerness. Verse 18. appetite. and pleasure. "from them. Who would keep such company as these? and their sleep is taken away.. their thoughts are so intensely set on contriving wicked schemes. the former of which they endeavour by all means to draw men into. they are continually restless and uneasy day and night. destroy it. and does. to dissuade from the least approach to it. like the troubled sea. Verse 16. they do not drink up iniquity like water only. and when they have so done. and. For they sleep not. gust.. see Proverbs 11:23. it is a sport to thereto do mischief.. and all well inclined persons.. and the latter is the unavoidable consequence of it.Gersom interpret it. and they have no pleasure without it. it is meat.. But the path of the just [is] as the shining light. that you may not be drawn into it.. or wickedness itself is bread unto them. they take the highest satisfaction and the utmost delight in it. the most generous and delicious. righteously.. do not come near it. and godly: the "path" he is directed to walk in. or into sin and calamity by it.. it is that to their minds as bread is to their bodies. Either that is gotten by wicked and unlawful means. and to express the vehement desire of the wise man to preserve his son. and in the ruin of their fellow creatures. except they have done mischief. they cannot sleep until they have executed them. both delight in sin. What company are such! Verse 17. Wherefore all society with such men should be avoided. but even like wine. it is a sweet morsel to them. pass not by it. and drink the wine of violence: either that which is obtained by rapine and violence. do all you can to hinder the wicked from accomplishing their designs. and pass away. is . drink. This heap of words is used to show the danger of bad company. For they eat the bread of wickedness. and everything to them. from it. Or they cannot sleep.

whether of grace or duty. and the life. so does true grace. and know as they are known. yet capable of being increased. desertion. and acceptance. the light of the knowledge of Christ the way. or is revealed. and to eternal life and happiness: and. it is a light after a night of darkness. especially when Christ the sun of righteousness appears. and sacrifice. or set. whose glory will always be beheld by the righteous to all eternity: when there will be no more night of affliction. and is increased by means of the ministry of the word and ordinances. a day without clouds. or "going and shining" {z}. as the hope of glory. patience. though at first is but glimmering. in right path. every grace does. the inheritance of the saints in light. since such is the path of the just. and the doctrines of it. and holiness. suitableness. the insufficiency of its own righteousness. humility. and in order to enjoy communion with him. there are the paths of truth. "ambulans et lucens. when there will be no more clouds of darkness. when the sun will always be seen." 1 John 2:8. as such is the state of unregeneracy. the kingdom and glory itself. yet afterwards is clear and shining. the way. righteousness. and death. no more withdrawn. appointed in the decrees of God. for fresh supplies of grace. And. it grows and increases more and more. is prepared for them from the foundation of the world. distinct. &c. when the light of knowledge will be clear and perfect. by which a soul sees its own vileness and filthiness. and firmly established by them: the invisible glories of the heavenly state. as the following words show. though it is imperfect. he goes to God for grace and mercy. Light into the Gospel. and safely. and saints shall see face to face. comfortably. pardon. and who also is the way of salvation. eclipsed. and the fulness. and attain unto. the truth. increases yet more and more. hope. which. righteousness. and fears. for peace. when there will be nothing to interpose between God and them. even Christ. the way of the commandments of God. which make this everlasting day. and has some discerning of Gospel truths. whereby a soul walks pleasantly." Montanus. besides this grand and principal path. through whose blood. that shineth more and more unto the perfect day. is "as the shining light"." . {z} rwaw Klwh "vadens et illuminans. The first grace in conversion is a "true light [that] shines. are things which God has prepared for his people. or of the morning. faith. Such is the light beamed in at first conversion. and ability Christ as a Saviour. or at least when the sun rises. when the day first dawns.Christ himself. the path of duty and obedience. which increase God has promised. but they themselves shall shine as the sun in the kingdom of God. saints pursue after. doubts. The words may be rendered. and ordinances of Christ: and this path he walks in. or "enlightening": it shines clearer and clearer. who would walk in the ways of the wicked? which are the reverse of this. and when not only the light of the righteous shall be so clear. "until the perfect day" of glory comes. unbelief. which directs men to walk in the above mentioned paths. "the prepared day" {a}. love. the sun of righteousness. and perfect.

Moreover. and do not forget them. but this is not true in fact. they are sound. attend to my words. nor thee to neglect them. ignorance. they know not at what they stumble. for to some the Gospel of Christ. ruin.." Pagninus. cautions. and exhortations. Let them not depart from thine eyes. Verse 21. salutary. whom they have no knowledge of. for which no place is so fit a repository as the heart. My son. the way in which they are leads to eternal darkness. For they [are] life unto those that find them. and of showing the way. They are in the darkness of sin. whose type Solomon was. and being found. often meditate upon them.. See Gill on "Pr 3:21". stoop and bow the ear. and ill examples. and look upon them as a most inestimable treasure. the whole man. "to all flesh": that is. they are the means of spiritual life.. show the most affectionate regard unto them. which they are ignorant of. the wicked. and misery. keep them in the midst of thine heart. listen attentively to what is said... by diligent searching for them. and he the physician of souls. and bringing unto eternal life. the doctrines of the Gospel are the wholesome words of our Lord Jesus." Michaelis. Montanus. and the body too. incline thine ear unto my sayings. however. see John 6:63. through contempt and rejection of . and luxury. so of healing the various diseases of the soul. of directing to a panacea for them. frequently read them over. cause them to depart from thine eyes. which is the true balm of Gilead.Gejerus. "procedens et lucens. and. and are curbed by these. to all men. and ponder them. which they are not aware of. The words or doctrines of Christ. by their bad advice. to the blood of Christ. as if the sense was. and so must be most uncomfortable and dangerous.. lead unto. error. instructions. The way of the wicked [is] as darkness. and of maintaining it.. nor upon their guard against. Verse 20. and at Christ.. they stumble at the word. soul and body. and through the temptations of Satan and snares of the world.. and healthful. "pergens et lucens. Which go before and which follow after. {a} Mwyh Nwkn de "usque ad paratum diem.. which intemperance. lay them up there. as being of the greatest moment and importance. Verse 22.. Some understand this of the wicked.. Commit them to writing.." Schultens.. solicitations to sin. and unbelief. Verse 19.. and serve to keep the soul in good plight. let them be always in sight. their works are works of darkness. The Septuagint render it.. as a rule and directory to steer the course of life by. are to be found in the field of the Scriptures. as they are the means of preserving the body from many diseases. his doctrines. and health to all their flesh. let not them. lust.

The mind from vanity. that nothing hurtful enters. and perverse lips put far from thee. and everything that is repugnant to truth and justice. the man will live a life of faith and holiness here." Vatablus.. and treasures and riches. is the savour of death unto death. Baynus. . preserve. all the avenues to it to be watched... or evil comes out. Verse 24. or being the possession of Satan: great diligence had need be used in keeping it. and will be hereafter. such is his state now. the conscience clear of guilt.. Verse 23.. lying.. the understanding from error. of natural life: it is the seat of it. Michaelis. from whence all actions of life are derived. so Aben Ezra and Ben Melech. "above all keeping. yet the heart above all: for out of it [are] the issues of life. they are regulated and denominated by it. the first that lives. unjust. great care therefore should be taken of the heart. hearing. meditation. a strict eye is to be kept upon it. above all. and care taken of them. and towns and families. reading.. to the law of God. and the whole from falling into the hands of the enemy. every thing that is untrue. since it is naturally so deceitful and treacherous. and enjoy everlasting life hereafter: and if the heart is right. all swearing. the affections from being inordinate and set on evil objects. and. who are to be shunned and avoided. by prayer. and filthy. and which lead unto and issue in eternal life: as is a man's heart. nor keep company with men of such a character. and to be debarred the houses and society of good men. do not make use of them thyself. they will then spring from right principles. it is to be kept by all manner of means that can be thought of.it. Gejerus. blasphemers. and the last that dies. it is. and performed with right views. so will the actions of men be. Put away from thee a froward mouth. unchaste. the will from perverseness. Or. Mercerus. Keep thy heart with all diligence. if the heart is quickened and sanctified by the grace of God. the thoughts from being employed on bad subjects. and froward persons. though other things are to be kept. and keep it. since so much depends upon it. Some understand it of men that are liars. and it is the seat of spiritual life the principle of it is formed in it. Much the same thing is meant as before. and be directed to right ends. Schultens.. and Gospel of Christ. by applying to Christ for his grace and Spirit to sanctify. keep thine heart" {b}. and it is so well known to God the searcher of it. as kingdoms and cities. from whence all spiritual and vital actions flow. as philosophers say. foolish. {b} rmvm lkm "prae omni custodia. blasphemies against God or men. things contrary to right reason. A mouth speaking froward and perverse things.

"recte apparentur aut disponantur. The Septuagint version is. "make straight paths for thy feet". for the prize of the high calling of God. as motives to excite diligence. Verse 27. to observe them. and the supplies of it." Schultens." V. directed to in the word of God.. are to be had. and to exercise patience. and from doing evil things. by foot from evil. without turning or looking to the right hand or left. and false worship. the evil of sin brings on the evil of punishment. and see whether it agrees with that or not. but attend to the way of holiness and truth. nor be moved out of it by threatenings and menaces. as knowing you are in the way of your duty. to the examples of the saints gone before. Pagninus. see Isaiah 30:21.. from whom all grace.. when care is taken to look well into them.. so as to walk on steadily.. the author and finisher of faith. "and all thy ways shall be established" {d}. leaving all events with God. Mercerus. Some render it as a promise. {d} "Stabilientur." or "directed. see 2 Chronicles 20:20. according to the rule of the divine word. as the rule to walk by. abstain from all appearance of evil. but keep on in an even way. Turn not to the right hand nor to the left. nor be lifted up with prosperity. Let thine eyes look right on.. and hope. "let all thy ways be prepared. Hebrews 12:13. and Vulgate Latin versions. to which the author of the epistle to the Hebrews seems to have respect. superstition. remove. to the promises of it for encouragement. and not be easily moved out of the ways of religion and truth. faith. {c} wnky "dirigantur." or "disposed" {c}. or weigh it in the balances of thought. attending to that which is just and right." Vatablus. L. which are not in the Hebrew text. to the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ for eternal life. neither be cast down with adversity. Verse 26. There are two verses added in the Septuagint.Verse 25. and to the mark.. as it is afterwards expressed.. to the word of truth. Or. Arabic. Ponder the path of thy feet. To the path of truth and holiness.. whether right or wrong.. as Aben Ezra. or rather in the balances of the word. Consider well what path it is. or into that of error. "constabilientur. keep at a distance from it. and let all thy walls be established. Either into the road of immorality and profaneness.. and in which he would have you walk.. and to the blessed hope laid up in heaven. uniformly. "for the ways which are on the . from walking in evil ways and along with evil men. to Christ." Tigurine version. to the precepts of the word. Montanus. and thine eyelids look straight before thee. constantly. nor by flatteries and promises.

if he is not able. Proverbs 6:11. and deliverance from it. by his mouth. and cautions against adultery. Proverbs 6:2. whose company is dissuaded from. Verse 1. Proverbs 6:26. hast engaged thyself by promise or bond. whose ruin is sudden and inevitable. and heart. to pay a debt for him. describes a wicked man. and advice is given what to do in such a case. exposes the sin of idleness. from the folly the adulterer betrays. if thou be surety for thy friend. My son. and promote thy goings in peace. The seven things hateful to God are particularly named. Proverbs 6:11. Especially to preserve from the lewd woman cautioned against. To another. feet. from the unavoidable ruin such come into. to attend to the instructions of parents. Proverbs 6:1. Proverbs 6:34. The sin of slothfulness is exposed. Suretyship is described. or if required. and useful. Proverbs 6:27. eyes.. in which men are taken. from the sin of uncleanness being greater than that of theft.. Proverbs 6:24. Proverbs 6:20.. and represented as a snare and a net. Proverbs 6:16. by observing the industry of the ant. or hast laid thyself under obligation to any. on account of the extreme poverty and distress she brings persons to. but those that are on the left are perverse. Then a naughty wicked man is described. from the destruction of his soul. and even danger of life." CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 Proverbs 6 In this chapter the wise man dissuades from rash suretyship. Proverbs 6:32. Proverbs 6:3. makes mention of seven things hateful to God. and from the rage and irreconcilable offence of the husband of the adulteress. Proverbs 6:9. pleasant. He will make thy paths right. and by the poverty it brings upon him. exhorts to attend to parental instructions and precepts. and the disgrace he brings on himself. for safety in it. by expostulating with the sluggard for his continuance in sloth. and by mimicking him. Proverbs 6:30. fingers. which will be found ornamental. or both.right hand God knoweth. Proverbs 6:6.. to see . And next the exhortation in some preceding chapters is reassumed.

"pro alio peregrino. as Aben Ezra. and this before witnesses. Montanus. Junius & Tremellius.. as Gersom. thou art taken with the words of thy mouth. "for thou art come into the hands of evil men for thy friend. art no longer free. and he is in the hands of the debtor.. as in a net. without hurting a man's self and family. and without considering whether able to answer the obligation. and held fast therein and thereby. "because or seeing thou art fallen into the hand of thy friend. Cocceius. whom thou knowest not. Do this now. but under obligation to pay the debt if required.. or "to" him {b}.. Piscator. when thou art come into the hand of thy friend. and to whom thou owest nothing. if the debtor does not." Pagninus. as well as thy word and bond. {c} "Pro alieno. Jarchi interprets it of the Israelites engaging themselves to the Lord at Sinai. and in the . this also is a great inadvertency and oversight. Schultens. The Septuagint and Arabic versions are. Got into a snare out of which an escape is not easy. and cannot get loose without paying the debt. and hast given him thine hand upon it. Mercerus. who. if thou art a surety to thy friend for a stranger. {b} rzl "extraneo. Gejerus. otherwise suretyship may lawfully be entered into. in order to be freed from such an obligation. if required. that what such an one owes him shall be paid." Tigurine version. who may demand payment of the debt of him. or. by the verbal agreement made and confirmed by striking hands." and the Syriac version. and especially if for a stranger thou knowest little or nothing of. or of both. as the best that can be given in such circumstances. doing it without inquiring into.. or without the leave of the creditor. or to be safe and easy under it. this is a piece of rashness and weakness. if a careless or crafty and deceitful man. Baynus. and good be done by it.." &c. which may be understood either of the creditor to whom a man is bound. a gesture used in suretyship for the confirmation of it.the debt of another paid. and no hurt to the surety himself and family. Thou art snared with the words of thy mouth. and thine own man. [if] thou hast stricken thy hand with a stranger. "for a stranger" {c} And the sense is. "seeing for thy friend thou art fallen into the hands of thine enemy. or. to keep his commandments." and therefore must make the best of it thou canst. and having sufficient knowledge of the person engaged for." as the Targum. or "though thou art. and deliver thyself. Verse 2. or of the debtor for whom he is bound. either if thou art become bound for a friend of thine. It is a rash and inconsiderate entering into suretyship that is here cautioned against. for a surety is in the hands or power of both: he is in the hands of the creditor. or. Proverbs 17:18.." Michaelis.. Take the following advice. my son. Verse 3. may leave him to the payment of it.

get as many as thou canst to intercede for thee. see Psalm 132:4.. Or.. "magnify thy friend" {e}.. urge him to pay off the debt quickly. especially when he finds himself liable to danger by it. dilatory. fall down on thine knees.." so some in Vatablus. for thou art in his hands. Vatablus." Noldius. Verse 5. and yet takest no pains to get out. and not haughtiness. and got into a snare and net. and that persons in such circumstances should not be careless. which is very swift. and as an honest and faithful one. Go to the ant. p. 859. and make sure thy friend. Until the above things are done. if up. is most likely to be serviceable in such a case. Deliver thyself as a roe from the hand [of the hunter]." and speak well of the debtor to thy friend. but should use great diligence. stimulate him. when it is got into the hand of the hunter. another metaphor. that is. to extricate themselves. "magnifica. 1630. No. repente. and there is no carrying it with a high hand or a haughty spirit to him. That art become surety for another. speak of him as a very able and responsible man. which denotes of what consequence and importance they are. will strive and struggle to get out.. as the former of these versions render it.. this he should do "immediately" and "out of hand" {g}. as the Syriac and Arabic versions add. and entreat him to discharge thee from the bond. {d} oprth "praebe conculcandum te. so should a man try all ways and means to get out of his suretyship engagements. and as a bird from the hand of the fowler. that will pay in due time. thou sluggard. {g} dym "statim. to the creditor. stir him up. humble thyself. Give not sleep to thine eyes. to the creditor. "subito. .following way: go. or give longer time for payment. "multiply thy friends" {f}. Some render it "magnify. as the phrase here used sometimes signifies with the Jewish writers. that is. and unconcerned. and leave no stone unturned. Verse 4.. humility. solicit him. {e} Kyer bhr "evehe proximum tuum." De Dieu. nor slumber to thine eyelids. as the word {d} signifies. which may please and appease him: or. lie down upon the ground to be trodden on. and get thee discharged from the obligation by some means or another. Michaelis. to this purpose Jarchi." Tigurine version. p. {f} "Multiplica amicos tuos." so some in Bayne.. or method untried. signifying the same thing. or give thee security and indemnity from it. prostrate thyself before him. for whom thou art become a surety. as the Septuagint. and discharge the bond." so some in Eliae Tishbi. As such a creature." Montanus. "ilico. Verse 6. 143.

she works at it night and day while the season lasts. Against the winter. {i} Hist. climb trees. that it may not grow. never hinder. masters. as the Septuagint and Arabic versions: this is a mortification of proud men. Verse 8. v. having in the summer time got a sufficiency laid up in cells for its use: she toils in the heat of summer to get in her provision for the winter. 35. and conscience. not to the surety. and nevertheless diligent and industrious. and leads to all sin. feeble creature. & l. that would be reckoned wise. by the instinct of nature. 8. and are so built as to secure them from rain. exhort.. prepare little cells to put their provisions in. besides the dictates of nature. so diligent is it in laying up its stores at the proper opportunity {l}. 1. . {k} Hist. consider her ways. These. 33. yet will travel over flints and stones. they bring out and dry it. enter into towers. with others. {h} So Horace gives it as an example of labour--"Parvula (nam exemplo est) magni formica laboris. for the instruction of idle and slothful men. who. Aelian. and to dissuade from idleness. and some of them by Gersom on the place. & Phocylides. that it is agarcov. Sacr. being sensible that nothing is to be gotten then. weak. Animal. in search of food. this has no connection with the former. and be wise. but the wise man proceeds to a new subject. Provideth her meat in the summer. to see that she does aright. overseer. 2. 1. 34. which brings ruin on families. and uses no industry to be in a capacity to pay them. and bite off the ends of it. readily and willingly: and yet how slothful are men. of which it is mindful.Or this may be directed. and keep her to it. to be sent to so despicable a creature to get wisdom from. 5. learn wisdom of it. Sat. None to guide and direct her what to do. c. places high and low. are taken notice of by Frantzius {i}.. c. l. but the debtor. c. v. cellars. it may be.. though a small. and enforce! so Aristotle {k} says of the ant. and be wiser than that. Sermon. nor any to call her to an account. who. par. when it never comes out of its place. direct. which. Animal. proposes the example of the ant. and correct her for doing amiss. instruct. 1. has contracted debts. and sends them to it to learn industry of it {h}. barns. 1. but help one another in carrying their burdens. to guide. what diligence and industry it uses in providing its food. and if at any time their corn is wet. through his slothfulness. or to oblige her to work. and. and magistrates. doing everything of herself. reason. Verse 7.. Or. have parents. l. 25. 152-159. de Animal. nor any to overlook her. c. 43. ministers. 6. without any ruler or governor. Hist. or ruler. Vid. l. Which having no guide." &c.

6. How long wilt thou sleep. 11. which being near. even by moonlight. {p} Stromat. and have youth on their side. it being done by biting. exercising a conscience void of offence both to God and men. hence its name in Hebrew is "nemalah. men should not be slothful in things temporal or spiritual: whatever may be the proper time to awake and arise out of sleep in a morning. while the industrious ant is busy in getting in its provisions. health and business. 1. this it gathereth. but perhaps being written in the margin of some copy of the Septuagint as a parallel instance. that they may not grow. 360. 2. Gejerus." "to cut off". as Pliny {m} and others observe. The seeds it gathers and lays up. 1. as naturalists {r} observe. 12. &c. and though weak in strength. it bites off the chit or bud end of them. it seems to presage old age. it is always high time for the sinner to awake out of the sleep of sin. O sluggard?. Or "lie" {q} in bed. c. p. Satyr. and. the time when corn is ripe. whose labours kings and private persons use for health: she is desirable to all. and famous. {o} "Inopi metuens formica senectae. and lays up in its repositories against a time of need. l. and what an admirable work she performs. 186.. "or go to the bee. providing things honest in the sight of all men. and seed. Plutarch. l. de Solert. p. Verse 9." &c. {l} "Ac veluti ingentem formicae farris acervum. it will work exceeding hard to lay up food.. v. things necessary for thyself and family. and therefore provides against it. v. 1. So Horace." Montanus. when wilt thou arise out of thy sleep? and be about thy lawful calling? doing the duties of religion. and is shed on the earth.[and] gathereth her food in the harvest. 4. it seems to have some sense of futurity with respect to famine. Yea." from "namal. l. Hist. Satyr. and learn what a worker she is. and wherewith to do good to others. 30. Animal. while persons are in health. v. indulging in sloth and ease. So Horat. nor of the concerns of the immortal soul and a future state." But this is not in the Hebrew text." Georgic. {m} Nat. but be a winter store. 1. c. and arise from the dead. ut supra. {q} bkvt "jacebis. 968. to the neglect of the affairs of life. An instruction this to work. {n} Vat. from whence the Arabic version has taken it. that they may have not only a sufficiency for present use. "cubabis. l. Virgil. according to Aelianus {n}. but to lay up against a time of sickness and old age. for Clemens of Alexandria makes mention of it {p}. and the business of life. fruits. honouring wisdom is advanced. Time should not be slept away. v. was by some unskilful copier put into the text of the Greek version. it crept in very early. Junius & Tremellius. Hist. which seems to be according to a man's circumstances. 36. 286. l. vol. Juvenal." .. and for the drowsy saint to arise out of his lethargy and carnal security. 402. according to Virgil {o} and others. Aeneid. The Septuagint and Arabic versions add.

but the former sense is best. and the Syriac version. or though he moves gradually. thy harvest shall come as a fountain (as the inundation of a fountain. Vulgate Latin. The Septuagint. Vulgate Latin):" but this is not in the Hebrew text." Junius & Tremellius. little slumbers" {s}. Arabic). Either swiftly and suddenly. and before he was aware: and though it might come by degrees. yet it would certainly come. add. and if these cannot be granted.. Arabic. "but if thou art not slothful." Pagninus. pauculis dormitationibus. {u} Nnm vyak "tanquam vir clypei. yet surely: and so it signifies that poverty should come upon the sluggard very quickly. "little sleeps. some sound sleeps one after another. a few tossings and tumblings upon the bed more. Or." The Jewish commentators understand this as a direction and command to sleep and slumber but little. "pauculis somnis.. {r} Aelian. "ad cubandum. which is quite agreeable to his character: and if he cannot be allowed them. then he requests a "few slumbers" at least. l. and the posture of sluggards. but be suffered to sleep on longer: there is a very beautiful climax or gradation in the words. c. by slow paces and silent steps. but want shall flee as an evil racer (as an evil man. {s} twmwnt jem twnv jem "parvis somnis. parvis dormitationibus. and comes upon his family or friends at an unawares. in answer to the call of him to awake and arise." Junius & . These are the words of the sluggard. some dozings. aptly expressing the disposition and actions of a sluggard. "vir clypeatus. far from thee. Song of Solomon shall thy poverty come as one that travelleth. "a little thou wilt embrace the breast with the hands". or otherwise poverty will come.." Piscator. 4. Verse 10. a little folding of the hands to sleep. &c. or." Cocceius. and the terribleness of such a condition." Montanus. with his hands folded about his breast." Junius & Tremellius. a sleeping gesture. as a traveller makes haste to get to his journey's end. "cubare. desiring he might not be disturbed.. or. not to be resisted. Cocceius. "to lie down" {t}.. appearing with great terror and force. since a little sleep is sufficient for nature. "thy wants as a man of shield" {u}: denoting many wants that should come rushing in one upon another. yet he prays however that this might be admitted. {t} bkvl "cubando.. till he can get himself thoroughly awake.. he first desires a "few sleeps" more. Piscator. [Yet] a little sleep. and Arabic versions. "and a little thou wilt put thine hand upon thy breast.. like a man armed with shield and buckler. It denotes the unavoidableness of being brought into penury and want by sloth. de Animal. Verse 11. 43.Piscator. The Septuagint and Arabic versions render it. a little slumber. and thy want as an armed man.

or as signifying to them some secret design of his against another. The characters well agree with the anomov. a wicked man.. speaking perverse things.. artful ways. as is usual with such persons: it is the air and gesture of a sneering and deceitful man. that has thrown off the yoke of the law. 2 Thessalonians 2:3." Montanus. Verse 12. they have a language to themselves.. Piscator. A naughty person. Verse 13. the motions of the feet have a language. The former signifies an unprofitable man. 45. and blasphemies against God and man. but purposely and with design. Vatablus. {w} Nwa vya leylb "homo Belijahal. a man of iniquity" {w}. Barthii Animadv.. without being understood by other persons. that is of no use to God or man. with one of his eyes. 4. the man of sin and son of perdition. Or. when he should be silent or should speak. and deceit. {y} Vid. antichrist. here it seems to intend the giving of a him to another. and will do his lusts: the latter phrase signifies one that is wholly given up to work wickedness. Belial is the name of the devil. Baynus. ad Claudian. 7." Plauti Pseudolus. dissimulation and deceit. Revelation 13:5. cunning. 2 Thessalonians 2:10. v. or do this or the other thing he would have him do. or one that is lawless. So mimics are said to speak with their hands. Act. He winketh with his eyes. as Aben Ezra. "a man of Belial. fitly agrees with the man of sin. Sc. "---aliis dat digito literas. which they express by the motions of their eyes. a man good for nothing. and in which he continues. Not through natural infirmity. to law and Gospel. some have been famous in this way {y}. vir iniquitatis. and here it may design such as are his children.. and fingers: and this character of art and cunning. feet. de Consul. the stamping of the feet expresses rage. The whole of it seems to design the secret..Tremellius. things contrary to the light of nature and reason. sneering at the weakness of another in company.. 311. v. as the word "walketh" signifies: so antichrist has a mouth opened in blasphemies against God and his saints.. who gives the wink to some of his friends. by privately pressing his foot with his. by stretching them out or compressing them. which wicked men have to convey their meanings to one another. to which he has used himself. the lawless one. {x} "In hunc intende digitum. Michaelis. Mallii Paneg. he speaketh with his feet. which he chooses not to declare in any other way. and so showing either scorn and contempt {x}." Ennius. Who walketh with a froward mouth. &c. or rage and fury. he teacheth with his fingers. uttering lies. and will not be subject to it. .

ways. which. "he sendeth out discord. the destruction of antichrist will be sudden." as firebrands among men. contriving methods. Verse 16.. these are the messengers sent out by him to make mischief. "he casteth out strifes.. {b} aprm Nyaw "et non sanitas. his heart is the forge where he is continually framing wickedness in one shape or another... repugnant to the will and law of God. and of all wicked men at the coming of Christ. "and there shall be no healing" {b}: his bones will be broken to pieces." or "strife" {a}." Daniel 11:45. parents and children. Junius & Tremellius. or "strifes" {z}: the Syriac version adds. "immittit. or. rather between a man and his neighbour. Therefore shall his calamity come suddenly. antichrist. between one friend and another. The words in the Hebrew text are. and with which it is fruitful. "jurgia.. has been very busy. Cocceius. brethren and brethren. all evil thoughts and evil things. Piscator. nor time and means of preventing it. These six [things] doth the Lord hate. which Jarchi interprets between a man and his Maker. "curatio. and means. "medicina." Piscator. Gejerus... Mercerus. Montanus. cannot be put together again." Pagninus. {a} xlvy "mittet. the six . Mercerus. and the ground which he is always ploughing up and labouring at to bring forth sin and wickedness. That is. so antichrist will "come to his end. against his neighbours. magistrates and subjects.." V." Schultens. L. errors and heresies. suddenly shall he be broken without remedy. things contrary to right reason. Frowardness [is] in his heart.." Junius & Tremellius. distress. he soweth discord. Michaelis. Piscator.. The ruin of wicked men is sudden. how to disturb. The Targum is. {z} Myndm "contentiones." Junius & Tremellius. Gejerus. "lites. Montanus. Schultens. and irreparable. "litigia. between husband and wife.. Verse 15. Or perverse things. evil habits and principles of sin. and especially against good men. Montanus.. 1 Thessalonians 5:3. or he shall be like an earthen vessel. and none shall help him. "between two". he deviseth mischief continually. and ruin men." Baynus.Verse 14. being a true child of Belial. all manner of wickedness. see Matthew 15:19. inevitable. between kings and princes of the earth in which sort of work the man of sin. when broke. Unthought of and unexpected: he that deviseth mischief to others secretly shall have no warning of his own ruin. and there will be no cure for him. or of the devil." Pagninus. he is continually planning schemes." Pagninus. and the reverse of sound doctrine. Cocceius.

which more immediately strike at his being.. but they are all to be supposed to be hateful and abominable to the Lord. will. a like way of speaking. for which they ought to die by the laws of God or men.. the phrase denotes impudence and haughtiness. as is probable." or "hatred" to the "sixth". and indeed more so. as contrary to his nature. the sin of the angels. see in Proverbs 30:15. who is the father of lies. Or. and is directly opposite to God and to his nature. what his soul abhors. horror. There are other things besides these that God hates. or by the looks of a man. Nor is the word "abomination" to be restrained to the "seventh. is a most detestable evil. These "three" sins are plainly to be seen in the son of . and hands that shed innocent blood. to hurt the character of a neighbour. as sins against the first table.." James 4:6. human blood. and glory. knowingly and willingly. and being like to the devil. Vatablus. and law. which is sowing discord among brethren. Verse 17. and against which he sets himself. Gersom says. Michaelis. it being what was last mentioned in the character of the wicked man. and yet shed or poured out as common water. it being the first sin committed. was of all the most abominable. seven [are] an abomination unto him. Pride is the first of the hateful things mentioned. it ought to be so to men. which make seven. {c} wvpn twbewt "abominatio ejus animae. and such men must be hateful to God.. who is a God of truth: nor is there anything in which a man more resembles the devil. which are all to be found in a man of Belial. Cocceius. and must be hateful to God. who was a murderer from the beginning. Mercerus. that is the second of the hateful things. but are mentioned. the pride of the heart shows itself in the eyes. these being such as are against the second table. and is a predominant evil in human nature. and for the sake of which this enumeration is made. "the abomination of his soul" {c}. and which seems to have given occasion to. Proverbs 6:19. "eyes elated" {d}. yea. having an high opinion of their own worth and merit. such hands must be defiled. it must be so to God." Montanus. they destroying his image. or. or reckoning them as unworthy to be looked upon. and that of persons who have not been guilty of any capital sin. "seven" for the "seventh". but one more along with the six. with an intention to deceive others. a lying tongue. Schultens. a wicked man before described.following. A proud look. or he abhors from his very heart: meaning not seven others. as more especially appearing in the character of the above person. scorning to look down upon others. Proverbs 6:14. as if the seventh. or to flatter a friend. though some think the cardinal number is put for the ordinal. or looking upon them with disdain. for "he resisteth the proud. a tongue speaking falsehood. and of the first man.

but to everyone that came to him for and put himself under his instruction. and swears to them. {d} twmr Mynye "oculi clati. a breach of the eighth command. and not to his son only. keep thy father's commandment. "cogitationes vanitatis. Or. to the damage of others. or such a system of precepts that is founded upon and agrees unto the revealed will of God. &c. he and his followers speak lies in hypocrisy.. "he that bloweth lies" {g}. My son. 2 Thessalonians 2:4. Mercerus. to commit all manner of sin with greediness.. {e} Nwa twbvxm "cogitationes iniquitatis." Junius & Tremellius. the kings and princes of the earth. "that speaketh lies. It may be rendered. antichrist. and may respect the depths of Satan in the antichristian beast of Rome. and should be observed and attended to and obeyed throughout the whole course of life. both against God and men. A false witness [that] speaketh lies. and which being so should be laid up and kept in the heart.. [even] a false witness" {f}. {g} Mybzk xypy "qui efflat mendacia. and not forgotten. See Gill on "Pr 6:14". that raises lies. Piscator. in a strict natural relation. Verse 19. or in a religious community. Or. and indeed it is no other . and spreads them abroad... which are forged and fabricated in the wicked heart of man. is placed in the midst of these hateful and abominable things. {f} So Vatablus. who exalts himself above all that is called God.." Piscator. These are not the words of David to Solomon continued from Proverbs 4:4. as if it was the commandment of God himself. "thoughts of wickedness" {e}. are intended.. and to everyone that stood in such a relation to a religious father. feet that be swift in running to mischief." Cocceius. Verse 20.. and him that soweth discord among brethren. evil thoughts and designs. the Father of all." Montanus. or in a civil society. and so this is distinguished from a lying tongue.. the second of these evils: this is the sin of bearing false witness against one's neighbour. but the words of Solomon to his son. and the seventh follows. Revelation 2:24.. whether in a natural relation. see Proverbs 1:16. for not the divine Being. Verse 18. Michaelis. An heart that deviseth wicked imaginations.Belial. is here meant. and is the whore that is drunk with the blood of the saints. according to some Jewish writers. especially murder. though the commandment no doubt is the commandment of God taught by godly parents. Michaelis. This makes the sixth.. which are framed and formed in the heart: and this being the source and fountain of all wickedness..

slight their mother and her directions. and which to walk in. but they should be bound upon the heart. as the words of the law were to be bound. which yet children are apt to make a difference in. it will lead him safely. and have an abiding place in the understanding. and how to behave the day following. and assist in meditation. one that observes it conscientiously may lie down and sleep. When thou goest. . the mother of us all. or "it shall go out with thee" {i}. and urge upon them the observance of. affections. and they standing in the same relation. and which is mentioned to show that the same respect is to be had to a mother as to a father. evil spirits. the commandment and law of them being the same. the same as before. {h} Kyle rmvt "excubabit apud te." Schultens. when thou sleepest. see Proverbs 1:9." Cocceius. as some Jewish writers.than that which pious parents train up their children in the knowledge of. instead of a necklace of pearl. Schultens. it shall talk with thee. into the fields for a morning's walk. The law of God taught by parents. which is most conducive to his good. or "shall watch over thee" {h} in the night season. as an ornament. or chains of gold. and not fear any evil.. familiarly. and while they stand in awe of their father and his precepts. dangers by fire or thieves. teaches him what way to shun. from terrifying dreams. [and] tie them about thy neck. Deuteronomy 6:3.. instructed in by parents. this directs man in the path of duty and business of life.. and which may confirm the sense of the words given. and to the glory of God. Not upon the head or arm.. Bind them continually upon thine heart. and will. and of awaking at the resurrection of the dead. "excubias aget super te. that this respects the law of God itself.. it shall keep thee. so that he shall not stumble. Some understand this of the congregation of Israel.. secure of the guardianship of divine Providence. Verse 22. it leads out of the paths of sin. {i} Kxwvt ayh "illa ipsa spatiabitur tecum. and forsake not the law of thy mother." Michaelis. which ought not to be. Proverbs 3:3. and [when] thou awakest. it shall lead thee. and the precepts of it. Verse 21. Jarchi interprets this of sleeping by death.. to which there seems to be an allusion. they should be so far from being thought burdensome and troublesome. that they should be reckoned comely and graceful.. and instruct what to do. and into the way in which he should go. instil into them. and others of the church of God. memory.

. and the law [is] light. one very evil. and from being carried away with their false glosses. for so it may be rendered. see Proverbs 2:16. Gejerus. is a means of preserving persons from the errors and heresies. given up and abandoned to sin. bout it a man knows not rightly what to do or where he should walk. the doctrine of wisdom.Verse 23. that inlet to all sin. Amor.. so the religion of this false church is delivered in a strange language the people understand not. the same with the evil woman. the lewd and adulterous one. and are the means of preserving them from a scandalous and useless one. by which they are kept in ignorance and deception. Quaeritur Aegistheus. desidiosus erat. and all its deceivable ways of unrighteousness. and reproofs of instruction [are] the way life. or where he is walking. to preserve from fornication and adultery. This is one use of the profit arising from attending to the instructions of parents. Revelation 17:1. as taught by them. Cocceius. For the commandment [is] a lamp. now the word of God read and explained in the mother tongue. what is right and what is wrong. and walking more comfortable.. from the flattery of the tongue of a strange woman. and especially the Gospel part of it... and as this woman is said to have the "smoothness of a strange tongue" {m}. and it directs them to avoid the one and do the other. Michaelis. see Psalm 19:8. 162. "quare sit factus adulter?--in promptu causa est." Ibid. so antichrist is called "the man of sin. which instruct what should be shunned and what should be performed. {m} hyrkn Nwvl tqlxm . Mercerus. 139. Jarchi interprets this of idolatry. and gaudy worship. {l} er tvam "a muliere mali. superstition and idolatry. To keep thee from the evil woman. kind reproofs given by parents agreeable to the word of God. and the whole of it directing to an observance of all duties respecting God and our neighbour. which requires diligence and industry. as this woman is called "the woman of evil" {l}. Verse 24. and makes working more pleasant." Ovid. 161.. The law of God is a lamp or candle to see to work by and to walk by. or antichrist. it enlightens the eyes and directs the feet. 1. of the church of Rome. the character well agrees with the idolatrous church of Rome. it enlightens the eyes of the understanding. l. put men in the way of an honourable and useful life. see Psalm 119:105. as the words may be translated. whereby persons come to see both their sin and their duty. v. and to the law of God. and are by the Targum. when attended to. it makes things clear and manifest. one of its precepts expressly forbidding adultery and all corporeal uncleanness.. {k} "Otia si tollas periere cupidinis arcus. v. represented by a whore. and indeed wit." Baynus.. and especially to uncleanness {k}. and prevents idleness." 2 Thessalonians 2:3. de Remed.

" &c. Do not look upon it with the eye. A whore is compared to fire. Revelation 18:13. Luke 15:13. with the sparkling of her eyes. and draws him into those evils which bring him into the hands of her husband." and hvya... his gold and silver. who avenges himself by slaying the adulterer. Verse 27. Matthew 5:28. &c. she lays snares for him. having stripped him of his goods and livelihood. Can a man take fire in his bosom. and the adulteress will hunt for the precious life.. and then send them going to get their bread as they can. who strip them of all their substance. and to beg for one. may signify the outward pomp and grandeur of it. great devotion. Verse 26. it is expressive of the extreme poverty and want which harlots bring men to. &c. by whom this sin of adultery was punished with death. or let her not take thy wisdom from thee. his jewels. "it is a like thing to fall into fire and into a woman {p}. miracles. Verse 25." Schultens. which applied to the antichristian church.. to infallibility. "ex lubrica glabritie linguae peregrinae. which are taking to men. to the apostolic see. Montanus. having spent his substance with harlots. its pretensions to antiquity. and are the Circean cup with which she bewitches and allures.." the Hebrew words va. The Targum is. "a laevitate linguae peregrinae. For by means of a whorish woman [a man is brought] to a piece of bread. so Aben Ezra. "let her not captivate thee. and it is a saying of Pythagoras. and even to desperation and death.. or "soul" {n}.. and lust thus conceived and nourished in the heart is no other than committing adultery." have some affinity in sound." Montanus. thus the prodigal."a lenitate linguae extraneae. Lust not after her beauty in thine heart. so spiritual fornication or idolatry leaves men without bread for their souls.." "fire. let her not take thee from instruction with them.. brings them into spiritual poverty. is the occasion of the ruin of his precious and immortal soul to all eternity: the precious souls of men are part of the wares of antichrist. though some think that is here intended. nor dwell upon it in the thought. so the Syriac version. the one will lead on to and kindle last in the heart... with the wanton and amorous glances of them.. nay. not content with his precious substance. and the other will cherish it and blow it up into a flame. from attending to that. or into the hands of the civil magistrate." &c. "esh. or rather let her not take thee as in a net." Michaelis. "ishah. Revelation 17:4. for the least morsel. neither let her take thee with her eyelids." "a woman. and the phrase of taking it "into the bosom" fitly expresses the impure . "let her not seduce thee. To be glad of one. so Jarchi. {n} vpn "animam. and is so called by the poets {o}. was so reduced as to desire the husks which swine ate." Pagninus.

5. and much more if he walks upon them. if he steal. will be the portion of those that commit fornication with the whore of Rome. 1. though not with frequency.. though without any ill design at first. Act.. and so if a man gives way to the burning lusts of his heart after a whorish woman. 2. and his clothes not be burned? he cannot." Schultens. v. 9." Terent. and continues them ever so little on them. v. Can one go upon hot coals. either by the jealous husband or civil magistrate. {p} to eiv pur kai eiv gunaika. by impure dalliances. and there is no possibility of being unhurt by them: see Job 31:12. so Gejerus. as this phrase is often used. 39. Verse 28. and his feet not be burned?] He cannot. for it means not barely going into her house or chamber. {q} "Periculosae plenum opus aleae tractas: et incedis per ignes suppositos cineri doloso. 1. [Men] do not despise a thief. See Gill on "1Co 7:1". Verse 29. Act.. or expose him to public shame by whipping him. if he sets his feet upon them. which yet may be dangerous. Carmin. from punishment in this life. shall not be innocent." Horat." Hebrews 13:4. the lake of fire and brimstone. in which sense it is used. but committing adultery with her. Ode. it is impossible. or free {r} from disgrace and infamy. l. 15. for "whoremongers and adulterers God will judge. "Accede ad ignem hunc. and in the world to come by the Lord himself. Sc. whosoever toucheth her. Eclog.embraces of a harlot. everlasting burnings. Genesis 19:31. or into her company. or fix a mark of infamy upon him. and much more if he continues such a lewd course of life. Verse 30. or lie with her. apud Maximum. Revelation 14:10. what put him upon it. as the Targum. vel immunis. They do not discommend or reproach him for it. he will not escape punishment in one shape or another.. {r} xqny al "non insons. and commits adultery with her. c. Song of Solomon he that goeth into his neighbour's wife. 4. Eunuehus. and that he had no other intention in it than to do as follows.. but rather excuse him and pity him when it appears what his case is. To converse with her.. . and equally vain is it to think that a man can commit whoredom and it not be known. and life. 2. such practices are extremely dangerous {q}. soul.. or he not hurt by it in his name and substance. and especially by carnal copulation with her.. from loss of substance or health. Sc. or in his body. they will be burnt. {o} Plauti Bacehides.

"for he steals to satisfy his soul": and so they are a reason why men do not despise him. full restitution as the law requires: but then this finding: him is not to be understood of finding him in the fact. "for he does this to satisfy his soul". men in such cases wilt not bear hard upon him for it. at least it is not so heinous as adultery. and has no need to steal. if the theft was found alive in his hand. pressed with famine. The Targum is. or that the penalty was increased in his time." it is a fault. Some think Solomon has reference to a law in other nations. According to the law in Exodus 22:1. if necessary. and in some cases fourfold and fivefold. because it is done with no other view. nor use him ill. as the Syriac version. but the sense is. or seventy times seven. for then to insist upon a legal restitution. be it seven times. the temptation is great. Exodus 22:2. but it is not a very heinous one. and another reason follows. as Gersom observes. or to make full restitution. he shall give all the substance of his house: to pay the sevenfold. he himself may be sold. which obliged to a sevenfold restoration. stealing to satisfy hunger. nature urges him to it. or the sense is. that be should make perfect restoration. that such an one is not usually reproached and found fault with.. . Matthew 18:21. or it should be found that he has food to satisfy his soul. in case of theft double was to be restored. Verse 31. then he shall make restitution as the law directs. "it is not to be wondered at in a thief that he should steal to satisfy his soul when it is hungry. when the other goes unpunished. or for "he is hungry" {s}. and with which it is compared: the design of the instance is to show the adultery is far greater than that.to satisfy his soul. or if he is found in a man's house. and so makes sevenfold. even a full one.. he shall restore sevenfold. as it is incompatible with such a man's circumstances. nay. that a thief should make restoration according to law as often as he is found guilty. and yet in our age we see that the one is severely punished even with death for trifling things. as the above law requires. {s} ber yk "quia esurit. rather the meaning is. Michaelis. or. nor no other way of getting any: the words should be supplied thus. if it should be found otherwise.. for the sake of which it is mentioned. for he steals to fill a hungry soul. when he is hungry." The Vulgate Latin version is." Cocceius. not with a wicked design to hurt his neighbour. so would contradict what is before said. "it is not a great fault when anyone steals.. joins them. and though it is criminal. but neither appears. Aben Ezra observing that double and fivefold being near together in the law. having nothing to eat. But [if] he be found. nor with a covetous intent to increase his own substance in an unlawful way. or the former confirmed. but only to satisfy nature in distress. his craving appetite for food.

or "an heart" {t}. Horat. "ipse faciet hoc. 13. and depraving that. Gejerus. "is id faciet. 41. stroke. yet they will despise an adulterer. and speak reproachfully of him. A. so Michaelis. it shall even continue after death. is liable to have his life taken away by the husband of the adulteress. for according to the law of. c. Moses he was to die. whenever they have occasion to make mention of him. l. as in the case of David. {x} "Secat ille cruentis verberibus." Michaelis. the one does it to satisfy hunger. but this man lacks wisdom... sive facit. and though he may repent of his sin and reform. he [that] doeth it destroyeth his own soul. he not only ruins the natural faculties of his soul. see Genesis 12:17. "is patrabit illud.. p. besotting. "caret corde. as long as he lives. which stands last in the original text. A wound. and besides. the thief lacks bread.. for so the first part of this clause. Sat. or blow. {y} Valer. though it issues in the ruin of his precious soul. 6. which keeps boiling within him." Montanus. either from the husband of the strumpet.. may be rendered. v.. and his reproach shall not be wiped away. 90. in Vita Solon. l. Satyr. for though they do not despise a thief in circumstances before related." Cocceius." Mercerus. 1.. 2. it is strong as death. Satyr. s. [But] whoso committeth adultery with a woman. it being the stealing of another man's wife. Attic. Montanus. and therefore acts so foolish a part. "ille facit id.." Juvenal. Vid. 17." so some in Vatablus. yea. Fills a man with rage against him of whom he is jealous. Maximus.Verse 32.. {w} hnvey awh "ipse faeiet illud. and cruel as the grave.." Pagninus. 316. being ordered by him to be beaten {y} or stoned. 1. l. v. giving his heart to a whore. so according to Solon's law {u} the adulterer taken in the act might be killed by the husband: or by the civil magistrate. as was often the case {x} in later times.. 18. but brings eternal destruction on it. the other a brutish lust. though his life may be spared. and therefore steals. Verse 34. where the same word is used as here: and "dishonour" from men. Noct. yet so foolish is he. "he does this" {w}. . {t} bl rox "deficit corde. 42. corrupting. lacketh understanding." Schultens. or from the civil magistrate. either to be strangled or stoned. For jealousy [is] the rage of a man. A wound and dishonour shall he get. Gell. See Gill on "Joh 8:5". Verse 33. {u} Plutarch. 10. c.. or from God himself inflicting diseases on him. till he has an opportunity of venting it: and very severe it is. Which is a greater degree of theft than the former.

. Schultens. and no more is said and done to him. as follows. but in this case it will not do. and sometimes the life of both of them. and satiety of love to be enjoyed in it. when he has an opportunity of avenging himself. "he will not accept the face of anyone that gives a gift:" he will have no respect unto him for the sake of the gift. Proverbs 7:15. The arguments she made use of to prevail upon him to go with her are taken partly from the elegance of her bed. whatever gift is offered. the softness of it. and delight.. wilt be of no avail. who is a jealous God in matters of worship. be it what it will. A story is told. her voice. Michaelis. "ullius lytri. and pretensions to piety. He will not regard any ransom. and keep continually giving. it will be disregarded. of Solomon's own knowledge." Mercerus. a thief's. he makes restitution according to law. or obtain it in a way of legal prosecution. How foolish therefore is the man that will expose his name and credit. affection. to utter ruin. for the ransom of his life from death. and bring him to public justice. and partly from the absence of her husband. though thou givest many gifts. it is but parting with all the goods in his house. he spares not to take away his life. as the Targum paraphrases it. and his soul in another. So that his case is much worse than. and he is freed. which is spiritual adultery. his life in this world. of a young man ensnared and ruined by a lewd woman. the harlot that met him is described by her attire. {z} ynp avy al "non accipiet facies.therefore he will not spare in the day of vengeance. for the sake of gratifying a sordid lust! This may be interpreted of God. and will not suffer idolatry to go unpunished. if he is taken. Gejerus. and had . at most." Montanus. or catches him and his wife in bed together. her inconstancy. Proverbs 7:10.. her subtlety. and its sweet perfume. who was gone a long journey. instances of this nature history furnishes us with: or he will spare no cost and pains to prosecute him before a civil magistrate. and. his health and substance. increase them. whenever he finds the adulterer in his house. in order to answer the end. "he will not accept the face of any ransom" {z}. Proverbs 7:7. in order to avoid the adulterous woman. which he will either take away himself. it begins Proverbs 7:6. the exhortation to keep them with care. is in Proverbs 7:1. Verse 35. prayers and entreaties. and as throwing himself in the way of temptation. "non acceptabit faciem ullius redemptionis. In the Hebrew text it is. that is. her impudence. neither will he rest content. The young man is described as foolish.." Cocceius. bribes and gifts. CHAPTER 7 Proverbs 7 The sum of this chapter is to exhort men to attend to the doctrines and precepts of Wisdom. nothing but the life of the adulterer will satisfy him.

the doctrine of Christ.made provision for it for a certain time. Doctrines and instructions. and abiding in the understanding and will. 1 John 3:23. Let the above words and doctrines be as ready and familiar as if they were at the fingers' ends. Thou art [my] sister. as faith in him." Verse 2. a fool to the stocks. he had delivered... The Septuagint and Arabic versions add. Proverbs 7:21. and even the doctrines of Christ are so called. and fear none besides him. and especially of doing things nicely and accurately.. it should be kept inviolate. Proverbs 7:19. write them upon the table of thine heart. and love to the saints. and of Christ. "son. Verse 4. as a piece of thread is tied about the fingers. and to avoid the ways and paths of the harlot. and made use of as an antidote against and a preservative from sinning.. but the commandments of Christ. that they may be strong in the memory. and my law as the apple of thine eye. to be kept as valuable. or let them be as rings upon the fingers. and thou shalt be strong.. as a father to a son.. Verse 1.. and as carefully preserved. be strongly affected to. the essential Wisdom of God. And the chapter is concluded with an exhortation to hearken to the words of Wisdom. My son. Not the commandments of the law only. greatly beloved.. to put in mind of anything to be done. and lay up my commandments with thee: as a treasure in his heart. which is the way to live comfortably. deep in the affection.. By which arguments she prevailed upon him to his utter ruin: which is illustrated by the similes of an ox going to the slaughter.. Bind them upon thy fingers.." the Arabic adds. what is not in the Hebrew text. the fingers being the instruments of action. the law of the Lord. Keep my commandments and live.. and highly delighted in: this may be understood both of the Gospel. these he would have him observe and attend to. and who stands in the relation .. peaceably. pleasantly. they being the direct road to hell and death. which should be as dear to men as the apple of their eye. by which many and mighty persons have been ruined. honour the Lord. or a master to his scholars. that goes out of Zion. Proverbs 7:24.. and take delight and pleasure in. Verse 3. see Psalm 119:11. to be brought out upon occasion. and a bird to the snare. which men should be conversant with. which. or let them be always fresh in memory.. the wisdom of God in a mystery. "and he shall strengthen thee. that the least injury is not done to it. and honourably.. see Proverbs 3:3. both memorial and ornamental: or put into practice the things taught and commanded. Say unto wisdom. Intimately acquainted. keep my words.

. as sitting in his palace at a window. setting forth the cunning artifices of an harlot. {a} edm "cognatum. idolatry. or a parable made by him. {b} "Notam. See Gill on "Pr 2:16. and dwell richly in us. Revelation 2:18.. which carries it to Solomon.. from the sin of uncleanness. and Christ the Son of God. at the small windows of it. and should be respected as such. who looks through the windows and lattice of heaven. For at the window of my house. near to which was an harlot's house. the Spirit and his operations." see Gill "Pr 5:3. his Word and Gospel." Piscator. the omniscient God. As Solomon was a public magistrate. or "lattice" {c}. and the ruin he is brought into by her. and behold all the follies of those that commit fornication with her. though a greater than he may be designed. from the stranger [which] flattereth with her words.. This is either an historical account of a matter of fact known to Solomon. of the whore of Rome. as follows.. Verse 5. where he could see and not be seen himself. and a retention of them. partaker of the same flesh and blood. and also from all the errors. That they may keep thee from the strange woman." Montanus.. and an intimate acquaintance with them. I looked through my casement. nor should we be ashamed to call him kinsman: moreover. whose "eyes [are] like unto aflame of fire. it should be well "known" {b} by us. the Septuagint. heresies. where they make their prey. {c} ybnva deb "per cancellum meum. and will worship. a stranger to God and true godliness." and see Gill "Pr 6:24." Montanus.. and Arabic versions: understand this of the harlot looking out of the window of her house and through the casement. Michaelis.. for they generally get about the courts of princes. and call understanding [thy] kinswoman. those that are most private. when she spied a young man. or "kinsman" {a}. into all the intrigues of the Romish harlot." Tigurine version. but this agrees not with the Hebrew text. Syriac. Michaelis. and done in the dark. he is here represented as a private observer of the behaviour of his subjects. such Christ is in our nature. Nothing has a greater tendency than Christ and his Gospel. as the word used signifies." our near kinsman. from all fleshly lusts." to look through all the darkness of Popery. our "goel. "per cancellos. should be familiar to us.of a brother to his people. to keep from all sin. to Christ and his truths.. and the understanding of it. and therefore is not ashamed to call us brethren. the folly and weakness of a young man ensnared. represented by the Thyatirian church state." Verse 6. and beholds all the actions of the children of men. as the Targum. superstition.

. {d} Mynbb "inter filios. {e} bl rox "carentem corde. The house of the harlot that stood in a corner to take in persons that came both ways." Pagninus. and know less of religion. and so in a fair way to continue foolish and simple. as the word {f} signifies.. compositus et pomposus.. and.Verse 7. and destitute of the true understanding of things. "est aliquid grande et audax in verbo. or. a young man void of understanding. and impure discourse with her. at least in understanding. with an air pleasing to the harlot. they being such as they themselves do . and not arrived to any ripeness of understanding in things natural and civil. {f} deuy "intelligitur incessus. &c. Gejerus. we should abstain from all appearance of evil." Schultens. and to go where harlots haunt. this was putting himself in the way of temptation. see 2 Timothy 3:6. and from everything that leads to sin. "destitutum corde.. by which they think to conceal them. dalliances. would not have done it. And beheld among the simple ones. that led directly to her house. the children Jezebel. to come near which is dangerous. and exposed to the snares delusions of such that lie in wait to deceive. and not in the way to learn and improve. to know and fear the Lord. Verse 9. or "wanting a heart" {e}." Piscator. had he took the wise man's advice. and where they dwell or stand. so to false doctrine and false worship. or the corner of the street where she stood to pick up young men. I discerned among the youths. however.. which shows a bad intention. the synagogues of Satan and Popish chapels should be avoided. Which is the usual time adulterers take to commit their works of darkness in. stately manner. simple and foolish in things moral and spiritual. Proverbs 5:8. such simple foolish creatures are the followers of antichrist. Mercerus.. yet to gratify his lusts by looks. it was exposing himself to danger. and if his design was not to commit fornication. in the evening. and he went the way to her house. In the twilight. Passing through the street near her corner. Verse 8. or "children" {d}. Revelation 2:23.. in the black and dark night. but in company like himself. and by which air and gait he was known by her to be a proper person to attack." Montanus. and are easily imposed upon and carried away with the company they keep. have seen but little of the world." Schultens. as a beau and fop of the town. Such as are easily persuaded and drawn into sin. and hither he went in a set." Michaelis. it could be with no good design to walk the streets in the night. and as to immorality and uncleanness.. "magnis et patheticis possibus.

the "morning star" of the Reformation has appeared.. as this was. [with] the attire of a harlot. most likely to meet with harlots. signifying the outward pomp and splendour of the Romish religion. but a dark black night is hastening on. and when he came near the harlot's house it was "black [and] dark night": and this may represent the gradual and progressive growth of Popery. Revelation 17:3. there was first a "twilight. when he first set out from his own or his father's house. as before observed. to recommend her: so the woman. such as the Athenian whores wore. walk. as the following account of her shows. by that time he had got good part of his way the sun set. and it is easy to observe how many.. or are verging to Popery. like this foolish young man. wherefore the word "behold" is prefixed as a note of admiration at the impudence of the woman. which brought on an "evening." the sun was declining. it is neither day nor night with us as yet. Verse 10. the whore of Rome. for though that might be the sign of a harlot in the daytime. as the Romans. mistress of all artful and intriguing methods to seduce . and first attacked him. and then it was "evening". And." a decline of the purity of Gospel light and knowledge. who she knew. and then the sun of the Gospel set. Perhaps these several words may express the time from the young man's first setting out to his drawing nigh to the harlot's house. she at once set out from her house. This woman represents the woman on a scarlet-coloured beast. and subtle of heart. and precious stones. as fittest for their purpose. but the blackest and darkest nights. is an arrant whore. since that. designed to captivate weak and unwary minds. and an adulteress. and pearls. are marching on in a stately manner to the harlot's house. she did not wait till he came up and made his suit to her. Genesis 38:14. their works will not bear the sun and daylight. and dress. behold. with whom the darkness and the light are both alike. and not light nights neither. we are in a twilight again.not care should be seen and known. was a fit person for her turn. by his air. but this is become obscure. and as a note of attention to observe the consequence of this affair. A married woman. or the corner where she stood. or short ones.. and choose the night. not with her face veiled. the mother of harlots. See Gill on "Re 17:4". yet not in the night. and decked with gold. Job 24:15. neat and well shaped.. who. and his being attacked and ensnared by her. as soon as ever she discerned the young man before described. it was "twilight." and issued in the gross "darkness" of Popery. therefore they take the twilight and when the sun is set. represented by the Thyatirian church state. the word signifies one fitted to her body. whether they design it or not. is said to be arrayed in purple and scarlet colour. but she went out. and met him. and less liable to be seen by their neighbours. as Tamar was. though she pretends to be the spouse of Christ. rather with showy gaudy garments. but always to be seen by the omniscient God. there met him a woman.

sitting or standing at the door of it. which is enlarged upon in Proverbs 7:11.and ensnare {g}. cautious and wary what she said. and other emissaries of Rome." Cocceius. Verse 11. and publishes and encourages everything that is contrary thereunto." Tibullus ad Junonem.. and disobeying his commands. but it is the sign of a harlot to gad abroad. and talkative. 6. sometimes at one corner. and so be found by those that seek her in the dark. "reserved of heart" {h}. Revelation 13:5. is gone out of the way of his truths and ordinances. so the Targum renders it. as well as has a mouth speaking blasphemies.. but rather clamorous. whose spouse she professes to be. not that her voice may be heard. Mercerus: Gejerus. but kept back what was discouraging.. to attend the business of it. as Jarchi. 2 Thessalonians 2:9. Syriac. 12. and bring them in. noisy. "Loud".. in order to get him out. to deceive the hearts of the simple. priests. to pick up and bring home. or quickly. with all deceivableness of unrighteousness. is perfidious to him. to whom she is "stubborn" or "rebellious. the coming of antichrist was after the working of Satan. at her husband." as the Targum." Tigurine version. and in the country. to see what she can meet with there. speaking rebellion. and sometimes in the "streets" of the . "retento corde. Now [is she] without. when within doors." and to the same purpose are the versions of the Septuagint. to see who she can light of. it is the character of good women that they are keepers at home. grows impatient: she is now in the streets. pouring out foolish and unchaste words to allure and entice him. "which takes away the hearts of young men. or without her house. and sometimes at another. but site is gadding abroad to seek her lovers.. is well known.. of the street. declining out of the way. and if she can get none this way. sometimes she is "without" in the fields. while she stole the hearts of others. when she has got her gallant with her. or she kept her own heart to herself. who is rebellious against Christ. and Arabic: the subtlety of the popes. breaking covenant with him. takes her walks abroad in the streets of the city. {g} "Fallendique vias mille ministret amor. that she may take all that comes. in an idle posture. and lieth in wait at every corner. She [is] loud and stubborn. The word for whore is sometimes rendered in the Targum {i} one that goes abroad. disobedient to his commandments. as Aben Ezra: all which agree with the whore of Rome. where more ways meet. her feet abide not in her house. and in order to invite her lovers in. {h} bl trun "cauta corde. jesuits.. or. told everything that was encouraging. Verse 12. v. and departing from him. unless it is to be understood of her bawling and scolding.. and be rid of him. as Aben Ezra interprets it.

as the word sometimes signifies. 3.. and abominations of the earth. {i} Targ. [I have] peace offerings with me. and such is the church of Rome. or. Mercerus. but. in Gen. the breast and right shoulder..city. and satisfy her lust {k}: all which may represent the diligence and industry. the greatest part of which. this day have I paid my vows. or standing. and in the populous places of it. 31. for such a person. which makes great pretensions to devotion and religion. and were to be eaten the same day. a whore's front. Meaning at her house. where she was sitting." Pagninus. And said unto him. and. or in the way to her house. "a holy" religious harlot. [and] with an impudent face. yet is the mother of harlots. of the Romish emissaries to gain proselytes to their idolatrous worship.. as the word {l} signifies.. and come up to him." Montanus. all excepting the fat on the kidneys. xxxiv. Revelation 17:5. "obfirmabat. The young man that went near her corner where she was plying. in the markets. not on account of the young man. and no sooner she saw him. so Michaelis. art and cunning." Schultens. they were offered by way of thanksgiving for favours received.. without shame or blushing. rubbed her forehead. accosted him in the following manner. Leviticus 7:11. that she was a sufficient housewife. had a considerable affluence of life. Verse 14. were returned to the offerers to feast upon with their friends. These peace offerings were of the eucharistic kind. and in every private corner. {k} "Mille modi veneris.. waiting and watching for such an opportunity. "and she strengthened her face" {m}. what is unusual for women to do. trying all ways to gain lovers. and kissed him. {m} hynp hzeh "et roboravit facies suas.. and courts. that she wanted nothing of him but his company. put on a brasen face. as a prey to fasten on. She was properly hvdq. the rump of the sheep. This she said to show that she was no common strumpet. which were the priest's. she laid hold upon him. prope finem. her substance greatly increased. Michaelis. Song of Solomon she caught him. or that prostituted herself for gain. and that she had good cheer to regale him with. {l} wb hqyzxh "apprehendit eum. who everywhere lie in wait to deceive. Onk. Gejerus. without any ceremony or address. "vultumque suum obfirmavit. kissed him. and for . in order to stir up wanton affections and impure desires in him." Cocceius. and the enjoyment of him. for which she had made her thank offering that day. threw her arms about his neck." Ovid de Arte Amandi.. and embraced him in them. see Jeremiah 3:3. l. Schultens. Verse 13.

she told him lies. She had adorned her bed with curtains and clothes. and posts. and having so fond and affectionate a regard to this young man. and all to allure her lovers. says.. Having so much good cheer at home. Under this point may be reckoned the vows of virginity and celibacy. to fire the young man's lust. but this was no doubt a lie. or the network. for those vows were not now made to be paid. with the comeliness of which she was exceedingly taken and ravished. she soon discovered her lustful inclinations. she would have said the same things to them. upon Proverbs 7:14. were all carved. which she speaks with a rapture and ecstasy of joy. as she pretended. and draw them into her idolatrous worship. and agnet holes made . which look like incisions and carvings. and got up betimes in the morning. had she met any other. and cut out of cedar wood and others. which of all faces she desired to see. through a show of which the most shocking iniquities are committed by the members of the church of Rome. Verse 16.. and I have found thee.. and his only. being most lovely to her. and that the thing was of God: so conversions to the antichristian church. which are the artifice of hell. intimating. she had performed. as Gersom observes.. and says this. Therefore came I forth to meet thee... as she had promised. 1 Timothy 4:2. are ascribed to the divine Being. with carved [works]. very delightful to the eye. and more. diligently to seek thy face. Revelation 2:22. as some interpret it. to seek for him. probably that might be true.his health. Made use of by the ancients {o} for bed clothes: beautiful ornaments. as Gersom. {n} rxvl "ad quaerendum mane. which. with cords of fine linen. Aben Ezra. Verse 15.. and find him so quickly. and for meeting with him. that it was a kind providence. I have decked my bed with coverings of tapestry. which are the beds in which she commits adultery. whom she hoped to meet with. that she should come out so opportunely. tester. what her heart was upon. and inviting. and also her images to strike the minds of people. he being the only person in her thoughts. even before day. and whose company she desired. as the word {n} signifies. but were made and paid already: but her vows of peace offerings and thanksgivings. and cause him to follow her: so the church of Rome adorns her places of worship in the most pompous manner. and none to eat of it with her. and had well corded it. and precious garments. perhaps the bed's head." Montanus.. as Jarchi. blessing herself on this happy occasion. though some think: this refers to the variety of work in tapestry. though. and it is no unusual thing for the whore of Rome to speak lies in hypocrisy.

9. Even this the harlot did. Tanitic. 70. and frankincense. called "byssus. Verse 17. l.. Revelation 11:8. {o} Vid. and so most of the Oriental versions interpret it of bed coverings of tapestry painted. and was the most gainful and profitable. prope finem. 69. and its leaves like a willow {r}. and odours. and is said to grow upon a tree as high as the poplar. or linen cords. c. Pliny {q} says. aloes. Egypt is very properly made mention of in this account. {q} Ibid. Butic. Paedagog. c. and carved images. it being one of the names of the city of Rome. and make it more acceptable. 2. & Odyss. and indeed is nowhere else used: the Targum renders it. "I sprinkled my bed": or. even when the linen of Egypt is mentioned.. 8. or the church of Rome. and Tenterytic. {r} Philostrat. by censing it with incense. Hist. and may here signify threads of linen twisted together. Cinnamon. with myrrh. are reckoned among the wares of Babylon. or by sprinkling {s} a liquor. {u} "Uctis cubilibus pellicum. the sheets. l. on the head. Vit. c. . c. so called from the names and provinces where they were cultivated. The word is used in the Chaldee language for cords. 13. made thereof.therein: this may be very well applied to the carved work. Hist. though not the strongest. p.. set up in the Romish churches. 7. c. 299. and looked beautiful. by suffumigation. which was reckoned the best and finest. and draw into her embraces. {p} Nat. 1. with which the harlot's bed was corded. As she had made it entertaining to the senses of seeing and feeling. which is spiritually called Sodom and Egypt. and all to provoke lust. and all the Oriental versions. all odorous. which women are said to use with their garments and bed clothes {t}. Revelation 18:13. soft and easy. it being showy and gaudy. 1." was brought out of India into Egypt. and perhaps the Etun of Egypt may be the Tanitic: the fine linen. Pliny says {p}. I have perfumed my bed. an Egyptian covering. and bolsters. Pelusiac. pillows. v. Apollen. Odyss. {s} Plin. of the linen of Egypt. 4. Vulgate Latin." Epod. but bore the best price. there were four sorts of linen in Egypt. brought out of Egypt. and of a sweet smell: Horace {u} speaks of the anointed beds of such persons. render it. and so soft to lie upon. made of the following spices. 177. and of the above spices ointments were made. as Donesh in Jarchi. and sides of the bed. Septuagint. l. Ode. and equal to both for lust and luxury. that it had less strength and firmness in it (it being so fine). so to the sense of smelling. 19. to remove all ill scents. with which the harlot's bed might be perfumed. 2. and cinnamon.. {t} Clemens Alex. with fine linen of Egypt. Homer. so the Targum. posts. The word used is not what is elsewhere met with. and ointments. l. it may be. Nat. 5. of the great city.

and after supper to bed. or. Syriac. The good man of the house may be understood of Christ.. as the word {w} signifies: so the poet {x} speaks of "ebrios ocellos. more properly lusts. He hath taken a bag of money with him." "eyes drunk. and flatters herself and her lovers with impunity. "in his hand" {a}. from his distance from her. 43. since it was not a few pieces of money he put in his pocket to defray expenses. is committing fornication with the kings of the earth. and show as alone." Pagninus. either for merchandise. but "the man. and there enjoy ourselves. let us take our fill of love until the morning. but criminal. Cocceius. but a bag of it he carried in his hand. Montanus. who professes herself the true church and spouse of Christ. Luke 19:12.Verse 18. who is gone into a far country. Mercerus. Schultens." Pagninus. "come". &c.. Gejerus.." Montanus. whom she calls Christ's vicar on earth. and has set up another in his room and stead. Piscator. and bitterness in the end. Montanus. Or. to heaven.. let us not stand here in the streets. "my man. "in via a longinquo. Ep.. and pulling him along. Gejerus. "for the man is not in his house" {y}. and mistress of the house. and therefore need not fears return of him that night. denoting the abundance of it. though the Septuagint." or "my husband". and the pleasure promised in it. the night being the fittest season for those works of darkness: this expresses the insatiableness of her lust. she says. she was prepared to answer all objections. 11. and in the mean while the church of Rome. Or. Piscator." Pagninus.. Michaelis. Mercerus. not lawful." by way of contempt. "a way afar off" {z}." that is. {w} hwrn "inebriemur. till "inebriated" with love. but let us go within. Schultens. or. For the good man [is] not at home. mutual love.. or for defraying: the charges of his journey. {x} Catullus de Acme.. or remind herself of her conjugal obligation. {z} qwxwm Krdb "in via longinqua. and so continue till the morning light. to take a kingdom to himself. Verse 19. and his vicar having a right to do as he pleases.. lest this should throw some difficulty in the young man's way. it required time to purchase goods. let us solace ourselves with loves. however. Taking him by the hand. he is gone a long journey. c. Mercerus.. as disowning him for her husband. or if for his journey.. Verse 20. it shows . and return. since her husband was gone. and see them packed up and sent away. having no regard for him in comparison of others: and this she says to encourage the young man to go with her. She does not say. with love.. Come. {y} wtybb vyah Nya yk "quia non est vir in domo suo. and Arabic versions so render it. Junius & Tremellius. and both suppose length of time: if for merchandise. as Gersom. which is very short lived. into a distant country.

There is an appointed time for Christ's second coming. good and bad. This she did. 1. and sets up for a teacher of men. l. This she says to remove all fears from the young man of being surprised and caught by her husband. but could stand it out no longer against her alluring words and soothing language. and prevailed upon him to yield to her entreaties. put the evil day far away from them. and at such a festival. by her prolixity. with the flattering of her lips she forced him. With her much fair speech she caused him to yield. found a way into his heart. at the new moon. when the moon is covered {b}. Gejerus. lewd women are generally very talkative {e}. "inclined him" {d}. when the congregation meets together. but surrendered to her. so Jezebel calls herself a prophetess. had more effect upon him than her kisses. and when.. which were smoother than oil. and such as the apostate church of Rome make use of to encourage themselves in their wickedness. when it is light all night. which Horace {c} calls "tricessima sabbata": but rather it is to be understood of the full moon. Gersom takes it to mean the beginning of the year. L. this good man had fixed for his return. and. . but with it: though at first there was some reluctance. when the holy blessed God. [and] will come home at the day appointed. Or. but her words. and which is supposed to be at a great distance of time: and therefore wicked men and seducers. "to decline" from the right way: or. conscience rose up and opposed. and eat things sacrificed to idols." so some in Vatablus. in hopes of impunity. "novilunii. he could no longer withstand her attacks. 69." Cocceius. or appointed time. sits upon a throne to judge the world in righteousness: the Targum calls it the day of the congregation..that he should be out a considerable time. and not before.. Montanus. as the word is in Proverbs 4:2. and call his servants to an account. Michaelis. {b} aokh Mwyl "in die plenae lunae. by her false doctrine. but in the appointed time Christ will come. Schultens. when he will certainly come. at the beginning of the month. v. It may be rendered. his ear to listen to her." Pagninus. Mercerus. and flattering lips. and by some taking and striking expressions. as Aquila and the Vulgate Latin version render it. deceives some that are called the servants of Christ to commit fornication. 2 Thessalonians 2:10. to go along with her." V. and not before. Piscator. by using a great many words. her charming voice. {c} Satirar. notwithstanding these he was reluctant. not against his will. he would.. and not before: Aben Ezra interprets it. some fixed festival day. {a} wdyb "in manu sua. 9. Verse 21. Michaelis. "by her much doctrine" {f}. and his heart to go after her and along with her. Sat. and so a proper time for travelling home again. "ad diem interlunii. Revelation 2:20. parabolically speaking. With this compare the deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish through antichrist.

"velut in compede ibat. "as an hart into whose liver an arrow flies. he cannot help himself. or as a fool to the correction of the stocks. a drunken besotted fool. Lamentations 2:11. as senseless and stupid as that. till he is slain either by the hand of God. Verse 22. as Zimri and Cozbi were by Phinehas. being pierced through and poured out.. or by the jealous husband. as a man goes to "the stocks. and so of life. Syriac. Michaelin. when once given way to. Verse 23. bound hand and foot." Catullus ad Camer. or by the civil magistrate." Cocceius.{d} wtjh "declinare facit eum. Baynus. quasi veniens ad compedes ad castigationem stultorum. Or. as an ox goeth to the slaughter. Piscator. but when he has been there awhile." Tigurine version. "flexit. so the young man went after the harlot: or.." Pagninus. Junius & Tremellius. is insensible whither he is going. but it ends in ruin. where he has been smitten by Cupid's darts: or this dart through the liver may denote some disease. they follow them in a view of pleasure. Michaelis." or is wounded by .. v. the meaning is. is certain death. Junius & Tremellius. Piscator. yet in the destruction of their immortal souls. "as a dog to a chain. and the shame that attends or follows it. The fountain of blood. nor avoid the shame. So such persons as are ensnared by harlots.. "tanquam constricto ad pedes capite. Vatablus. Till a dart strike through his liver." Junius & Tremellius." Junius & Tremellius." Michaelis. and as ignorant of the issue as that is. {h} lywa rowm la okek "sicut compes ad castigationem stulti. The Targum is. not only for the reason before given." Schultens. It denotes both the power of sin. Or "suddenly" {g}. {e} "Verbosa gaudet Venus Ioquela... "inclinavit illum. Gejerus. He goeth after her straightway." and so the Septuagint. Gejerus. giving himself no time to think of what would be the sad consequences of it. and is come out of his drunken fit. there is no withstanding its allurements and blandishments. then he is sensible of his punishment and his shame.. by the revengeful husband or civil magistrate. if not in the loss of bodily life. 53. "as the stocks are for the correction of a fool" {h}: or. {g} Matp "subito.. The "liver" may be particularly mentioned. {k} "Velut compeditus. and inconsiderately. goes thither. {f} hxql brb "multitudine discipline suae. Ep. infecting the blood through sinful lust. and be thrust through by him. led by the butcher." Michaelis. Montanus." Baynus. so he is stricken in the part where his lust begins." Gejerus. Montanus. {i} "Abiens post cam. The Targum is. as if it was going to a pasture. but because it is the seat of lust {l}. as "one fettered" {k}. while he is leading to the stocks. and Arabic versions." Pagninus. when it is going to the slaughter house. Mercerus. 20. "doctrinae suae. which. who. to the correction of a fool" {i}. Piscator.

13. Since this is the case. and attend to the words of my mouth.." in the same manner as the chapter begins. stop and check the first motion of the heart. O ye children." Ovid. affection. or the fool knows not that it is for his soul. 12. as Jarchi. "Cum tibi flagrans amor et libido saeviet circa jecur ulcerosum.. or disposition of the mind thereunto. Ode 1. and knoweth not that it [is] for his life. Hearken unto me now therefore. "children. the second death." the children of Solomon. {l} "Spleu ridere facit. the best preservative from the allurements of the whore of Rome. 15. which leads to a compliance with her. the bird knows not that the snare is set for its life." and to the same sense the Syriac and Arabic versions. she goes into perdition. to those of the whorish woman." lbid l. that young men are in danger of being ensnared and brought to ruin by this harlot. as Aben Ezra. that this young man went as swiftly after the harlot as a hart does when it is wounded. This is the epilogue. Verse 24. "Si torrere jecur quaeris idoneum. "he knows not that it tends to the death of his soul. and seems to be directed to her ways.an arrow in the liver. Revelation 18:13. Carmin. which adulterers and idolaters shall have their part in. the path of truth and holiness... insensible of the snare that is laid for it. as the Septuagint. The souls of men. Syriac. it has its eye upon the bait. as a bird hasteth to the snare. and Arabic versions: and so the meaning is. or to betray any love and liking of them. and carries all her worshippers with her. The man that goes after the harlot knows not. therefore take the advice of the wisest of men. and flies swiftly to that. or does not consider. Let not thine heart decline to her ways. v. l. or were willing to take his advice: it may be extended to all the children of men. for all are interested herein. . and so read the Targum and Syriac version. that it is to the destruction of his precious and immortal soul. v. which hates correction. "my son. and the ruin of them. the followers of wisdom. let there not be the least wandering thought. even of Wisdom herself.. cogit amare jecur. into the bottomless pit. are what the whore of Rome deals in.. that lead to ruin and destruction. but it is in the plural number in the Hebrew text. and Arabic versions. but all such that put themselves under his instruction.. so the Targum. not only those of his own body. that it shall die. The Septuagint. in the singular number. Revelation 17:8. the doctrines of Christ." Horat. or application of the above story. especially such who profess to be the children of God and of Christ. 4. Ode 25. Revelation 21:8. do not so much as think of going out of the one into the other. Vulgate Latin. herself. read. 1. Verse 25. Or turn not aside from the right way..

men famous for martial exploits. or a few only. Animadv. so Bootius. in their bodies by diseases. Or "ways" {p}. Piscator. as he might be thought to be.. such as wound and kill others.. have been ruined by her. 1. Wounded in their name. and. from Christ and his Gospel. is to take a step to destruction. nor in the least decline to her ways. s. Sept. 2. of which they seem themselves to be conscious. many strong [men] have been slain by her. What dost thou? {m} Mybr "multos magnosque. "and innumerable are they whom she has slain. will bring a man thither. so Arab. character. Schultens. shame. For she hath cast down many wounded." Gejerus. which seems the true sense of the word here used: and therefore none ought to trust in themselves. mighty men of war. {n} See Dr. as the "children" here addressed. as soldiers {n}. and some of the sycophants of Rome have even said. through a compliance with her sinful lusts: these she "cast down" from the honours they were possessed of. Verse 27. and commit wickedness with her. and courage. a large stride towards hell. and others of robust constitutions have been weakened by diseases. either to the grave. thousands have gone to hell by her means. the place of the damned: to go into her house.. and especially such as are weak and unskilful.. Amama.. either from her husband. and foolish.. and in their souls by guilt. {o} Mymue anariymhtoi. men of great riches. or the civil magistrate: and of these there have been "innumerable" instances. as "sheol" often signifies. and from the peace and tranquillity of mind they formerly felt within them. that if the pope of Rome should send thousands to hell. as the word also signifies. and reputation. Who . she has prevailed over them. and from the right paths of faith.. "numerosi. Verse 26. from the health they enjoyed. Kennicott's Dissert. or her gallants. but such as were "great" {m} and mighty. rich and poor. if grace prevent not. p. duty and worship. and those not weak. so the word {o} for "strong men" sometimes signifies. as Samson and others.. and some have suffered death by her means. l. great multitudes. and from the true church of God. yea. contracted through incontinency with her. Michaelis. or to hell itself." Junius & Tremellius.go not astray in her paths. 4. and so it is here rendered in the Septuagint and Arabic versions. as the young man instanced in. Cocceius. c. Her house is the way to hell. and horror. and wisdom. have been overcome by her: some of great fortitude of mind have not been able to withstand her." All the world have wondered after the whore of Rome. and inconstant. for whoever walks in her paths goes astray from God and his law. kings of the earth and mighty men have committed fornication with her. nor trust themselves in her company. high and low. 11. but "many". and ignorant of her devices. And not a single person. hundreds and thousands. no one should say to him. 110. the broad highway to it.

not only leads to the chambers of the grave. to enter her chamber. by his prophets under the former dispensation. Proverbs 8:6.would go into such a house. and of more worth than gold.. to step into her bed. which is the very suburbs of hell? going down to the chambers of death. and in the following. and the advantages of those that are early seekers of him are pointed out. who is the Wisdom of God. or however by his faithful ministers? . setting forth the happiness of those that wait on him in public ordinances. howsoever decked and adorned. comfort. or Christ. either in person or by his servants. Verse 1. the apartments of the second death. Proverbs 8:17. and the author of them. and by his influence on the political affairs of kings and princes. and is opposed to the whispers of a harlot. who then would hearken to the alluring voice of a harlot. in a corner. showing the excellency of them. publishing. truth. honour and righteousness. and by his apostles and ministers. See Gill on "Pr 1:20". verily he does or will. but to the lowest and innermost parts of hell. and of his being with the Father. The excellency of the things delivered. CHAPTER 8 Proverbs 8 This chapter contains the instructions of Wisdom or Christ. agreeably to the word of God. or hear Jezebel the wicked prophetess teach. Doth not wisdom cry?. Proverbs 8:1. And next follows an account of his existence from eternity as a divine Person. and from many personal properties. the allusion is to an herald that this up his voice aloud at noon day in the public streets when he proclaims. when Christ himself preaches. truth seeks no corner. their enjoyment of his favour. plain and easy to be understood. the lot of all unclean and idolatrous persons. Plautus {r} also calls the gate of a whore's house the gate of hell. illustrated by a variety of phrases. in his word. and of Christ's wonderful delight and pleasure in the sons of men. as the Targum. preaching the everlasting Gospel. in his own person. Proverbs 8:30. which signifies proclaiming. and which clearly appears from his subsistence with the Father. the persons to whom. "Crying" is here attributed to him. under the present. the god of hell. and complacency in him. it will bear the light. in opposition to the harlot and her allurements. Proverbs 8:22. being right things." or Christ preach. of his great affection for him. Proverbs 8:2. and their being led by him in right paths now. Now. and actions ascribed to him throughout the whole of this chapter. which agrees with the first clause of the verse. Proverbs 8:4. And the chapter is concluded with an exhortation to them to hearken to his instructions. characters. and the misery of those that hate and reject him. The places where this proclamation is made are described. by his hatred of evil. its voice is heard at noon day. and find him. under the name of Wisdom.. and so those chambers are no other than the chambers of hell. is represented as an herald. Proverbs 8:12. at night. in the preceding chapter. silver. and much less dwell there. Christ. publishing the Gospel in the ministry of the word. and precious stones. "does not" or "shall not Wisdom cry. his eternal existence. Christ.. and eternal happiness. a word similar to this used here. and inheriting eternal glory hereafter. entertaining and inviting it is. which directs men in the right way of enjoying peace. And then Wisdom. of his riches. by the name of Moth {q}. is commended and recommended by his consummate prudence and knowledge. honour. The Phoenicians called Pluto. without repentance and faith.

to show them the right way. To be both seen and heard. Verse 3." V. and says. such as the Scribes and Pharisees. both by Christ himself. rich and . always taught in the synagogues and temple.. so did the Apostle Paul. of whatsoever rank or order. where the courts of judicature were. for which reason Christ went up into a mountain and preached. O men. yet only to rational ones. irrational creatures. these are by the Gospel called. "this is the way.. the fallen angels. nor the brutes. or of the city..and understanding put forth her voice? the same with Wisdom. which is the voice of Christ. Of the temple. {s} tbytn tyb "in mediis semitis. for. state or condition. "between the paths" {s}. and caution them against taking wrong ways. and persons met on civil accounts.. John 18:20. so some in Vatablus. or say unto them. and in secret said nothing. She crieth at the gates. I call. which some interpret of the poor. by the way. or." whom God has loved and Christ has redeemed. all these expressions denote the publicness of the Gospel ministry. Baynus." giving or uttering it. where more ways than one met together. so that high and low.. but it rather seems to design men indefinitely. and how to avoid such as lead to destruction. of the temple. Verse 2.. so did Christ. some of open profaneness and impiety. though the Gospel is to be preached to every creature. Matthew 16:6. walk ye in it. to the Targum." Isaiah 30:21. at the entry of the city. and my voice [is] to the sons of men. and Arabic versions. "in mediis compitis. "inter semitas. "men. see Proverbs 8:14. as they had nothing to do with Christ. and he by them. and not the voice of a stranger. and who ordered his disciples to preach what they heard and received from him upon the house tops.. here Christ stands in the ministry of the word to direct. in the places of the paths. and called effectually." Schultens. Verse 4. or the common people. who spake openly to the world. at the coming in at the doors. of which See Gill on "Pr 1:24. and as there are many ways which are proposed to men to walk in. There are some men indeed who are only externally called. or Christ. the way of salvation. for. and so difficult to know which was the right path to take. or private houses. Sept. meeting those that came out of the country to the city upon trade and business. to instruct and direct passengers as they go along. the roadside." Some think men of eminence are here meant. but there are others who are also called with an holy calling. or those who are more illiterate. Acts 16:17. Matthew 8:29. the ministers of Christ show. Acts 20:20. he had nothing to do with them. as rich men.. Not angels. and others that have a show of religion and devotion. by whose voice the Gospel is meant. signifies the publication of it. L. as Aben Ezra. Matthew 5:1. and learned doctors among the Jews." Tigurine version. but both lead men wrong.. and where people were continually passing and repassing. Unto you.. so Aben Ezra. Mr 16:15. or men of wisdom and knowledge. or city. which is heard and followed by the sheep of Christ. and "putting it forth... She standeth in the top of high places.

{t} bl wnybh "facite cor intelligere. and death of Christ. or "cause the heart to understand". and the Prince of peace to speak. and to be preferred unto them. grace. Mercerus. "facite ut cor vestrum intelligat. Verse 5. understand wisdom. The Gospel. O ye simple. they not only excel what the light of nature dictates and directs to. and to be had in the highest esteem and veneration.e..poor. they are to be approved of. and the opening of my lips [shall be] right things: agreeable to right reason. "acquirite animum sapientem. who are here called unto. and has an understanding given him to know him and his interest in him. of the greatest importance. and even to the perfection of God's righteousness." so some in Vatablus. .. and generally speaking such are they to whom the mysteries of grace are made known. as the word may be rendered." Mercerus.. righteousness. all which are consistent with and greatly display the justice of God: nor are any of the doctrines of the Gospel licentious ones." as Gersom.. though above it. Verse 6. be of an understanding heart. Philippians 1:9. it is the highest wisdom to know Christ and him crucified: and they are "the simple" who are weak and easy to be imposed upon. the doctrines of the Gospel are excellent in their author. and the great salvation which he has wrought out. which became him who is the Prince of the kings of the earth. his need of Christ. {w} "Praecipua quaedam. particularly those which respect the love. all men. the person and offices of Christ. which is greatly glorified by the obedience. and these are the excellent and principal doctrines of the Gospel. while they are hid from the wise and prudent. and are such as never man spake the like.. Michaelis.. {u} Mydygn "principalia. sufferings. as is often expressed. let them be what they will in other respects." Baynus. but on the contrary teach men to live soberly and righteously. and ye fools. and redemption through his blood. and use.. but the phrase seems to intend the same as before. or "leading" truths {w}. 485. or "princely things" {u}. as well as they are plain and easy to such who are conversant with them. esteemed by those who are the princes of the Lord s people: or they are "principal" ones." Gussetius. the efficacy of his blood. are fools as to a spiritual and experimental knowledge of divine things. or "get an understanding heart" {t}. particularly the doctrine of salvation by Christ. and redemption through him. Hear. Such are the things of the Gospel. and are embraced and." as Aben Ezra. i. the wisdom of God in a mystery. or "honourable. have the Gospel preached unto them. and are worthy to be received by princes. but even what the law of Moses commands and requires. "ducalia. the plague of his heart. even justification by Christ's righteousness. These are the doctrines of grace which proceed out of Wisdom's mouth. consonant to the righteous law of God. for I will speak of excellent things. p. nature. the same thing is said in different words. atonement by his sacrifice." Tigurine versions. and sacrifice. and may be the sense of the word here used also. and mercy of God. the worth of him. Gejerus. digna principibus. being what differ from others. make use of all means to get spiritual wisdom and understanding. "praiseworthy. and that man can only be said to have truly an understanding heart that knows his own folly. interesting ones. though little known and valued by the princes of this world.." Gejerus.

though an anxious.. that has a discerning.. will.. and of the propriety and usefulness of a life of righteousness and holiness. sought after and received. as it is abhorred by Christ. the mysteries or doctrines of the Gospel are hid in parables from such. And nothing but the truth. Verse 8." {x} qdub "cum justitia.. but an entire harmony and uniformity in them. The Bible is a sealed book to others.. and law of God: or "are concerning righteousness" {y} the necessity of righteousness in order to eternal life. which the grace of God instructs men in. what Christ never suffered his lips to utter. learned or unlearned. that faithful saying. with the righteous nature. and can only be discerned by spiritual men." Cocceius. as opposed to truth. this is detestable to wisdom. the one is to be preferred to the other: the doctrines of . in the use of proper means. and.. and not silver. or Christ. For my mouth shall speak truth. sinful pursuit after it. worth. and right to them that find knowledge. but the principal one is salvation by Jesus Christ. and wickedness [is] an abomination to my lips. all the doctrines of Christ are agreeable to the Scriptures of truth.. or drop from his lips. consistent with righteousness. {y} "Gloriatio de justitia sua. let him have what natural knowledge or wisdom he will. the sin of lying more especially. Gejerus. Not but that silver may be desired.. Michaelis. the insufficiency of man's own righteousness to entitle to it.Verse 7. and are what the Spirit of truth leads into. that Jesus Christ came into the world to save the chief of sinners. and excellency of the righteousness of Christ for that purpose. who is truth itself.. They [are] all plain to him that understandeth.. for no lie is of the truth. the need. meta dikaiosunhv. and they are plain unto them: for though there are some things hard to he understood in the Scriptures. Whose understanding is enlightened by the Spirit of God. Receive my instruction.. these know them. under the direction and by the assistance of the Spirit of God. and the whole is called "the word of truth": there are many very particular and special truths. hinders the reception of them. consistent with the instructions of wisdom. that is contrary to right reason. or to the analogy of faith. nor is there any contradiction in the doctrines of the Gospel one to another. Verse 10. or to the law of God. and nothing more or less can be spoken by Wisdom. [there is] nothing froward or perverse in them. are agreeable to it. is a very plain one. but those to whom Christ has given an understanding to know him. in a right way. for they are spiritually discerned. as in Paul's epistles. All the words of my mouth [are] in righteousness." Piscator... that seek for it heartily and diligently.. are righteous ones. they are not "yea" and "nay. or to the Scriptures of truth. and some sublime truths in the Gospel. are connected with it. and when they are in competition. a spiritual and experimental knowledge of Christ and his truths.. vel invitatio ad accipiendam justitiam per fidem.. but of Satan the father of lies. and worthy of all acceptation. Or "with righteousness" {x}. he cannot know these things. immoderate. The Targum is. who is a spiritual man. Sept." and so the Syriac version. Verse 9. yet those which are necessary to salvation are easily understood. "to them who desire knowledge. nothing else can come out of his mouth. it ought to be by all good men. and can judge of spiritual things: as for the carnal man.

{a} "Margaritas.. "than precious stones" {z} in general. Piscator.. who believe in Christ. than "pearls" {a}. but as wise. Tigurine version. Or by "prudence" may be meant prudent men. which appeared in his disputation with the doctors in the temple at twelve years of age. fully possessed of prudence." Pagninus. and the truths of it. and find out knowledge of witty inventions. nor with such who are so in their own conceit. shows that Christ is very largely. so the words may be rendered. and the knowledge of God in Christ. the word twmzm is sometimes used in an . and a most lovely one it is. not with the wise and prudent of this world. as a man that dwells in a house is the proprietor and possessor of it. than the gold of Ophir." Baynus. and who walk circumspectly. For wisdom [is] better than rubies. Verse 11.. trial." Junius & Tremellius." Cocceius. and prudence dwells in him. A sort of precious stones: or. "with Prudence". {b} "Carbunculis. all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge are in him. as it was when he was incarnate on earth. See Gill on "Pr 3:15. and therefore the meaning is. that is. and the Spirit of wisdom rests upon him: and also it shows that prudence is natural to him. he and Prudence are as it were born and brought up together in one and the same house: and likewise that there is an intimacy and familiarity between them. yea. and throughout the whole of his ministry. so prudence is Christ's. a spiritual and experimental knowledge of these things is of more value than the finest gold. and crucifixion. and with such Wisdom." Schultens. which is a point of the highest prudence. see Job 28:16. I Wisdom dwell with Prudence. "prae gemmis politis. dwells. and are made wise unto salvation. Prudence is most present with Christ. Here Wisdom begins to speak in her own person.. or Christ. but with such who are sensible of their folly. or Christ describes himself. "I Wisdom inhabit Prudence" {c}. and more to be desired. is always near him. it belongs to him. pencils out and draws his own picture. and all the things that may be desired are not to be compared to it.. he enjoys it. and ready at hand to be exercised by him. Michaelis. such as these have the presence and company of Christ. who are humbled under a sense of sin. by his prudent answers to the ensnaring questions of his enemies. than thousands of gold and silver." as it was prophesied he should. nor does he go abroad for it. Isaiah 52:13. it does not come from abroad.. even than all of them. and not adventitious. see Psalm 19:10. that the instruction of wisdom should be received rather than silver. The phrase. as the Vulgate Latin version. both as to the manner and matter of it and particularly at the time of his seizure. Arabic and Syriac versions. taken both ways. so Gersom interprets it.the Gospel are of more worth. Verse 12. arraignment. Montanus. he "dealt prudently. that is the house in which I dwell: or by his companion with whom he dwells. the knowledge of Christ.. such as are possessed of this quality or virtue. so the Targum and Septuagint. Gejerus. that is my companion with whom I am familiarly conversant. In this clause Christ is described by the habitation in which he dwells. and with which agrees the following clause: and knowledge rather than choice gold. Mercerus.. or. it should have the preference. nor is it to be procured by them. not as fools." {z} Mynynpm "gemmis. or "carbuncles" {b}: there are none equal to it. and continues to do so unto the end of the chapter. he dwells in prudence. "unionibus. the knowledge of the Gospel.

" or "found redemption" for us. he was apprised of all the ways and methods they devised to take away his life before the time. he has full and perfect knowledge of it." Proverbs 12:2. and he communicated. is meant not the fear of his judgments and wrath. but a reverential affection for him. and may be taken in this sense here. Moreover. not a scheme and device of men. and spoke of it to him and others before it was executed. and learned of them. and a "witty" one it is. knows all that is in the hearts of men. but of God. it may be understood and interpreted in a good sense. but of God. as appears by settled upon so proper a person to be the Saviour as his own Son. which is peculiar to children. The fear of the Lord [is] to hate evil. he found out the persons to be saved in his eternal decrees. the manifold wisdom of God. and the honour of his law. and he knows all his wiles and artful schemes to decoy his people. it is the wisdom of God. he makes it known to others by his Spirit. and besides he has found it to his cost. which is consistent with strong faith. it came and was preached by him. and especially in the glass of pardoning love. he found out. and he found out the way and manner of saving men by him. or of them only. and ministers. evil company. and so escaped them. it is not taught by men. the Gospel is an "invention. "prudentiam. Christ. and in such a way. in tempting him in the wilderness. and the knowledge of it. and is . and particularly as relating to man's redemption and salvation: this is a device or "invention" of God. and he knew all the wicked devices and stratagems of Satan against himself. schemes. and devices.. he scented the knowledge of them when here on earth. and makes them known unto them. when they tempted him with ensnaring questions. he was privy to the secret thoughts and wickedness of men's hearts. and blessed are they that know the joyful sound! {c} hmre ytnkv "habito astutim. and in making such partakers of it. and having found it. and the person that should be the Saviour of them in his council and covenant. and so has "obtained. a filial." which shows itself in an hatred of evil. but of God. he found out the knowledge of Judas's wicked scheme to betray him. of the thoughts. as it never was before or since. much less an hypocritical fear. evil actions. and the doctrines of it. as the phrase is in Hebrews 9:12. because of the loathsome nature of it. wherein God has abounded in all wisdom and prudence. as one brought up with him. evil words. great joy. and was the Angel of the great council. and is rendered "wicked devices. and purposes of God's heart. and as it appears in the glass of the law. Verse 13. as most glorifies the riches of his grace. word. godly fear. and in putting it into the heart of Judas to betray him. or a mere show of devotion. so that they are not ignorant of his devices.. sin is man's invention. though esteemed foolishness by men." not of men. and appointed him for the work. and true courage. All evil in general.. by bringing it about in a way so agreeable to all his perfections. evil thoughts." Cocceius. and still does communicate the knowledge of it." Michaelis. all their thoughts. even at the expense of his precious blood. devices. being in the bosom of his Father. Likewise these "witty inventions" may be interpreted of the whole Gospel. and is opposite to pride and self-confidence. as in Jeremiah 23:20. "solertiam. he knew all the hypocritical designs and views of the Pharisees.. evil worship. and by "the fear of the Lord. it is hid in him. but the recovery of man is the invention of God.ill sense. and present when the design was formed." Schultens. and being contrary to God and his will. who is God omniscient. And this scheme Christ has full knowledge of. by which he fell. This Christ has "found out the knowledge of". even by the ransom and sacrifice of himself: and this is a "witty" invention. or a distrust of his grace and goodness. and evil doctrines. to the satisfaction of his justice.

it is arrogancy. "The evil way. and the two words in the Hebrew are very much the same. things contrary to a man's own heart. and in his redemption. these are the particulars of evil. show that a divine Person is meant.. which must be hateful and abominable to him who is truth itself. both in the words of nature and grace. by whose Spirit and grace this only is done: and it is a piece of arrogancy when men ascribe all the good works done by them to their own power. is freely given. declares his hatred of. reconciliation. and the froward mouth. to carnal. which therefore must be displeasing to him. and salvation. this must be hateful to Christ. and calls for and requires. and it is very suitable and seasonable. and to all men. is their advocate. The words and sentiments in this and the following clause are the same with those in Job 12:13. civil. "Counsel" belongs to him. Counsel [is] mine. and must be hateful to Christ. and which continues on record: the Gospel is the counsel of Christ. who been at so much pains and expense to bring in everlasting righteousness. and is used by him with respect to his people. pride and arrogancy. and who was consulted in the creation of man. to knowledge falsely so called. hearty.accompanied with real holiness. answers to all charges and accusations. which are spoken of God." as Aben Ezra observes. being taken. or Christ. and on whom rests the Spirit of wisdom and understanding. he appears for them in court. to commend wisdom from its holiness.." from whence he has his name in this book. introduces their persons. and presents their petitions to his Father. and. Grevinchovius. he has made himself to differ from others. and the evil way. and of might. and scent to be taken from thence. and faithful. and in crying up the purity and power of human nature. and convert himself. and is greatly increased and promoted by the discoveries of his love and goodness: this is brought into the account and description of wisdom. 1 Corinthians 1:24. when without Christ they can do nothing. every blessing of goodness for them. for this the beginning of wisdom. to whom all the purposes and counsels of God are known. real and true. he gives them counsel and advice. which he chooses and delights in. "Pride. he being the wonderful Counsellor. both to sinners and to saints. "Sound wisdom" belongs to Christ. yea. and is used and exercised by him. wisdom itself.. in speaking too well of themselves. see Revelation 3:18. renew. of counsel. or spiritual. and sound wisdom. he is council to them. in point of law and justice. and must be hateful to him: "arrogancy" differs little from pride. the council of peace being between them both: and it belongs to him. it is an ascribing that to a man's self which does not belong to him. and which leads to destruction: "and the froward mouth" is the mouth that speaks perverse things. "wisdom. whether in things natural. when men attribute their justification and salvation to their own works. he gave it in person when here on earth. contrary to truth. in setting up and trusting to their own righteousness for salvation.. sensual. is an evil custom and course of sinning. to say. as concerned with the Father and Spirit." which appears in men in thinking too highly of themselves. infallibly succeeds. and are very applicable to him who the Wisdom of God. it takes its rise from the grace of God. to the Gospel. and the power of God. and work out salvation for men: it is the height of arrogancy in a man to conceit he a power to regenerate. Verse 14. which Wisdom. in opposition to the wisdom of the world. and being here applied to Wisdom. this is very contrary to the spirit of the meek and lowly Jesus. and . and of the fear of the Lord. such as is solid and substantial. very little differ. Job 28:28. pleads their cause. do I hate. to distinguish it from carnal wisdom. to the rule of the divine word. to Christ and his people. with the haughty Arminian. And he is council for them. and. "sound" wisdom. in despising others. a man's own way. sincere.

or their advising to them. there is no searching of it. The Syriac version renders it. but he is understanding itself. which is the wisdom of God in a mystery. and which is conspicuous herein. his understanding is infinite. and are accountable to him. that is Christ's. grace is that "wisdom" which he makes his people to "know in the hidden part". Tigurine version. all power in heaven and earth is given him. and in giving them strength in the mean time to bear the cross. author. sound doctrine. I have strength. happily. and some render it. to exercise the graces of the spirit. and perform the duties of religion. and deposes them at pleasure. his understanding was amazing to all that knew him. and Lord of lords. Christ is the Prince of the kings of the earth. all the wisdom which appears in their administrations is all from him. the better and more enduring substance in heaven. Verse 15. to withstand temptations and corruptions. and putting them into execution. and give advice in making laws. "soliditas. his strength is manifest in the salvation of his people. by which he was furnished for his prophetic office. {d} hyvwt "essentia. by fulfilling the law for them. Christ not only has an understanding. and assisting in drawing them up: and now all the wisdom that is necessary hereunto. the Spirit of wisdom and understanding rests on him without measure. he has the Spirit of might upon him. they have their kingdoms. As Mediator. and they ought to seek his glory. whatever has a being. afflictions. are assisting to them in government. which appears in his creation of all things out of nothing. of the light of nature and reason. which are both in the gift of Christ. the wholesome words of our Lord Jesus: both grace and glory may be intended. and by destroying all their enemies: and in his plucking them out of the hands of Satan. as man. out of the burning. and princes decree justice. and temptations. he sets them up. all creatures are his. and of all the spiritual understanding in divine things.. so it is by him that they rule well who do so.. by bearing their sins." Montanus. as it is by him they are set up as kings and governors. "quicquid est. in which they are employed by kings." Michaelis. crowns. the King of kings. a form of sound words. I [am] understanding. who has . essentially as a divine person. and glory is that "sound wisdom" laid up for the righteous. of those intellectual faculties which men are possessed of. "realitas. which are enacted by them for the good of their subjects. and the good of his kingdom and interest. The Gospel may be meant. By me kings reign. they are made kings by him." Schultens.. of all the natural understanding there is in men. and they that dwell therein. and in preserving them safe to his kingdom and glory. that they reign justly. these may design such who are under kings.. which his people are partakers of. and in his government of the world. Moreover. who are of their privy council. and successfully. all those wise laws. and heard him. it reaches to all persons and things: as Mediator. is owing to the wisdom and prudence he gives them. in bearing and supporting them under all their burdens. he is the fountain. The word here used signifies essence or substance.earthly wisdom. as the mighty God. and are under him. and sceptres from him. and giver of understanding. 1 John 5:20. Here it particularly regards their making just and righteous laws for the good of the state. "whatsoever is" {d}." Junius & Tremellius. is all from Christ. "for me". and the punishment due to them. wisely. and are preserved and continued in their governments by him. in his upholding all things by his power. the earth and the fulness of it. it is for the sake of Christ they reign. when he came travelling in the greatness of it to save them. out of the mire and clay at conversion.

a carefulness of offending him. causing all things. all which they have from Christ. preserving and keeping them from falling. for he loved them from everlasting. and instances of his love to them. undertaking their cause. so one of the Ptolemys. prudence. all which were before they had any love to him: but this points out and describes the persons. and integrity. "I anoint princes with justice. have their power. and highly esteemed of by him: it shows itself by a high veneration for the truths and doctrines of his Gospel. who may be assured of the love of Christ to them. by an earnest desire after his presence.. "generosi. and nobles. grace. it gives him the preference to all objects. and pass sentence on men. as they are "free" and noble themselves. as well as suggests that he has future blessings to bestow on such. and the continuance of it. I love them that love me. see John 14:21. besides. Such who govern. generous. giving them more grace. . and by his assumption of their nature in time. and by his suffering and dying for them. that believe in him.... and much faithfulness and integrity. since their love to him springs from his to them. and glory. and to all that belong to him. Gejerus. and is what is very acceptable to Christ. and have a spiritual and experimental knowledge of him. The Targum is.the spirit of princes in his hands. Those that love Christ are such who are born again. How great therefore must he be! how wise and just! from whom all rulers.." Verse 16. All governors of provinces and cities. as well as their power of ruling. such as are called "benefactors. was called Evergetes. have had his love shed abroad in their hearts. their subjects are a free people. "ingenui. justice.. "munifici. By me princes rule. king of Egypt. and taking the care and charge of their persons. as appears by his espousing their persons. it cannot be lost. by a diligent inquiry after him in the use of means until he is found. and interest in him. And "the judges of the earth" are such." Junius & Tremellius. generosity. such as granting them his gracious presence. and justice! {e} Mybydn "munifici sive liberales. or are his. some comfortable apprehensions of their relation to him." Luke 22:25. have seen his loveliness. [even] all the judges of the earth. hear and try causes. and at last giving them eternal glory and happiness. and losing his company. even afflictions. who are under the king as supreme. by parting with and bearing all for his sake. that rule well. and though it may be lost. so early. and by the joy expressed at finding of him: now such Christ loves. and to all creature enjoyments." Piscator. angels or men. is cordial and sincere. and are indulged with communion with him: the love with which such souls love Christ springs from their very hearts. it designs some fresh manifestations of his love. as sit on benches of justice. Verse 17. to work together for their good. and by a concern at his absence. and delight in it. and orders and directs them as he pleases." Schultens. which requires great skill and knowledge. but with clemency and gentleness. and a view of his fulness and suitableness. it is drawn out to all of Christ. not in a cruel and rigorous manner." Vatablus. who. which all that perform their office aright have from Christ. by a strict regard to his commands and ordinances. prudence. become remiss and abate in its fervency.. as fresh marks of his affection. bountiful men. and enjoy their privileges and liberties fully and quietly. the discharge of whose office in a right manner requires much wisdom. the word {e} for nobles signifies persons of a "free" spirit. supreme and subordinate. not that he begins to love his people when they begin to love him. by a hearty affection for his people.. to all creatures.

for though this is with him and from him. these are his by covenant. always abide. and salvation. of which he is the author and object. as being what are come by in a way of righteousness into his hands. See Gill on "Pr 3:18". or to riches either ill-gotten or ill-managed. in being made by him kings and priests unto God. are intended. and salvation in him. and expresses another property of Christ's riches of grace and glory. sanctifying grace. and in reigning with him here and for ever. though rather it respects a distinct thing which is with Christ. and for ever. Verse 18. yet these. which are only to be had in him: and they may be said to "seek [him] early. as durable as his riches are.. who seek him in the morning of youth. durable riches and righteousness. {g} "At once" and "once for all.. which are his fulness that ever continues with him: pardon is "simul" and "semel" {g}. redeeming. His "fruit" are the blessings of grace.. as appears Proverbs 8:15." Verse 19. This is said in allusion to the fruit that grows on trees. &c. pardon. and in common.. which is incommunicable. nor is such honour durable. Riches and honour [are] with me. By "riches" are meant not the riches of Christ's person. and his vast empire over all creatures. pardoning. also the graces of his Spirit called fruits." or "morning him" {f}.. and every blessing. and eternal life. love. and the revenues arising from thence." {f} yrxvm "quaerentes diluculo me. which he has wrought out. consisting of his active and passive obedience. and are distributed faithfully by him. than fine gold. diligence and importunity.. which last some understand as another adjunct and epithet of riches. and are communicated from him. yet not communicable.and those that seek me early shall find me: and they are such who see their need of Christ. being a tree of life. above all things else. and therefore are happy. and know the worth of him. and the same may be said of honour both here and hereafter. justifying. but generally reckoned the offscouring of all things. reconciliation. which secures from condemnation and entitles to eternal life. "qui me mane quaerunt. his works. such as redemption. My fruit [is] better than gold. as faith. or as Mediator. is in him. are procured by him. they "find" Christ. the word and ordinances. but the riches of grace.. but the honour he gives his people lies in their being espoused to him. and at his dispose. and even good works. nor are they durable. which though durable. and life. the perfections of his nature. for pardon. and about the riches of glory there can be no doubt of the permanency of them. and is an everlasting one. and love. in being the sons of God through him. and those seek to him in the use of means. and is what is called the righteousness of God and of faith. . life. righteousness. who are not the great and noble. hope. and in his hands to give. and as assisted by his Spirit and grace. the fruits of his grace. hope. and sanctifying grace. much less temporal honour. and represent them in opposition to mammon of unrighteousness. justification. which. yet it is not usually given to his followers. as faith. righteousness." Montanus. or in the first place. and the riches of glory in another world: and so "honour" designs not that which he has as a divine Person.. [yea]. at least a large share of them. is not given to his people. not temporal riches. and given by him to his people. or Christ. and such always are successful. adoption. and that with the greatest eagerness and earnestness. Michaelis. yea. though with him. See Gill on "Pr 3:13. Wisdom." Tigurine version. and so he is compared to other trees. Song of Solomon 2:3. even his justifying righteousness.

blessings indeed. and he leads them to his own righteousness. see Leviticus 23:39. being for the good and welfare of immortal souls. or improved by commerce. and of which they have the earnest and pledge. and shows them that this is answerable to the demands of law and justice. being opposed to the vain and shadowy things of this life. and imputed by him without works. he goes before them by way of example. and had in the way of righteousness. and the saints will always continue to enjoy it." or "that which is" {g}. and so signifies the same with the gain and merchandise of wisdom. a shepherd his flock. in all which they are led not against their wills but with them.. as parents their children. as the former word refers to fruits that grow on trees. it is enduring substance. which he has wrought out.. and are directed to his glory: and all these. As a king his subjects. and my revenue than choice silver. especially his grace and the blessings of it. and laid up for the saints. and the . and substantial communion with God and Christ. but is what is known by them now. and not only walk but run with the greatest cheerfulness in those ways and paths of his. I lead in the way of righteousness. leads his people in. in his commandments and ordinances. denotes the reality of it. he teaches them. and so his word. as the word used signifies. as a guide to persons that are ignorant and out of the way. That I may cause those that love me to inherit substance. and to eternal glory. it being not only actually promised.. Verse 21. that which is. to himself. a self-existent Being. and their annual rent. Substantial blessings. Verse 20. teaching them to go. where the same word is used as here. all men are out of the way of it. they are more useful and profitable. as well as the riches. they are more valuable as to their intrinsic worth and excellency. also substantial happiness hereafter. unprofitable to him. by his strength. Christ leads them into it: he leads them off of their own righteousness by showing that it does not deserve the name of one. or the way and manner of a sinner's justification in the sight of God. or Christ. that it is unacceptable to God.. and this he does in his word and by his Spirit: and in this way of righteousness he leads them into his Father's presence with acceptance. which is in its own nature incorruptible. and which may more especially be intended in the next clause. in the midst of the paths of judgment: of truth and holiness.. and which cannot be obtained with such a corruptible thing as gold is. and substantial grace. and are ignorant of the right way. this to such as spring from seed sown in the earth. and they are more satisfying and more lasting.. as also the solidity of it. Christ himself is compared to seed. "my revenue is choicer than silver". and is also rendered "revenue" in Jeremiah 12:13. and continuance of it. from estates. but our version is best. which being expressed by "substance. as all spiritual ones are. is acceptable to God. in which he beholds them with pleasure. as every grace is. and he gives them his Spirit and grace to enable them to perform them. who is most eminently vy. as eternal life is. See Gill on "Pr 3:14. valuableness. or from money put out to use. and insufficient to justify them before him. is "the way of righteousness". or as a master his scholars: and the way Wisdom. prepared. which is a real thing. and they learn of him works of righteousness.they are done in virtue of union to him." Aben Ezra construes the words thus. which cannot be wasted nor taken away. God himself may be meant. the doctrine of righteousness. and the fruit or revenue thereof is the same as before: or else the allusion is to the profit arising from riches... which gives them a title to it: he also leads into the practice of righteousness. are preferable to the finest gold. John 12:24.

. and made use of him. without which none would be fit to enjoy it. John 1:1. or Wisdom of God is never said to be created. were in him. James 1:12 1 Corinthians 2:9. and who will be their portion now and for ever. which possession of him is expressed by his being with him and in him. that is. which version Arius following gave birth to his pernicious doctrine.. his nearness to him. equality with him. then he did possess his Son. The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his way. and their hearts with food and gladness." as the word is translated by the Septuagint in Zechariah 13:5. the covenant of grace was made with him. it might be more truly rendered. and by whom he made all others: the Word. it denotes the Lord's having. the first cause. but in deed also. and comes to them through the death of Christ the testator. his relation to Jehovah his Father." Schultens. purposes. possessing. to them it is promised. the beginning of his way" {h}. both old and new. who from hence concluded Christ is a creature. and joy. Genesis 4:1. Christ." Junius & Tremellius. he began with him when he first went out in acts of grace towards his people. "I love them that love me. saying." as the Targum and the Septuagint version. essence itself. the choice of their persons was made in him. as the word is sometimes used." Proverbs 8:17. as he was "in the beginning of his way" of creation.. see Colossians 1:18. for further illustration and confirmation's sake. . {g} vy "quod est. not that their love to Christ is the meritorious cause of so valuable a blessing." Gejerus. and of whom the saints are heirs. "the Lord begat me. their minds with peace and joy. when he went forth in his wisdom and power. but this describes the persons that shall have it. who compares with this Job 40:19. God was in him contriving the scheme of their peace. though they do not so strongly believe in Christ. And be it further observed. the beginning of the creation of God. and not created. the treasures of their hearts. and to them it will be given. for them it is prepared. "the Lord possessed me. and as one brought forth and brought up by him. and besides there is a connection between grace and glory. the efficient of it. to which may be added. and created all things. yet truly love him. and hereafter he will fill them to full satisfaction with knowledge. and so Aben Ezra observes. who am the beginning. Christ now fills their understandings with spiritual knowledge. holiness. it is not purchased. So Aben Ezra. and I will fill their treasures. "rem solido vereque subsistentem. as inheritances are. and decrees concerning their happiness. reconciliation. his first thoughts. that it signifies an eternal possession. besides. and in his bosom. and how much he esteems the love of his people.Being of beings. is the Creator of all things. God must have been without his Wisdom before he was created. but bequeathed and given to the children of God by their heavenly Father. Matthew 12:35. Romans 8:17. and is for ever. nor acquired. and salvation. as the Word and Wisdom of God. This shows the real and actual existence of Christ from eternity. Verse 22. Not "created me. for by him he made the worlds: and "in the beginning of his way" of grace. which was before his way of creation. and if as such he was created. who. that this substance is enjoyed by way of inheritance. not of the same but of a like nature with himself. and will be all in all to them. but this possession is not in right of creation. and all fulness of grace was treasured up in him: the words may be rendered. and such that shall enjoy this inheritance are those that "love" Christ. "solidum illud. and enjoying his word and wisdom as his own proper Son. and distinction from him: it is added. and points out a proper disposition for it. and was the first creature that God made.. and it is designed to encourage the faith and hope of weak believers. their souls with grace. as he is. that this shows that Christ does not love in word only. in some moment or period of eternity.

Not only in the decree of God." Gejerus. and not a nature. Job 11:7. When [there were] no depths. priest. begotten. and appointed the Judge of the world. and investiture. to be the propitiation for their sins." or "honoured" {k} with it. a detail of which there is in the following verses. {h} wkrd tyvar ynnq "possidet me principium viae suae. It intends likewise his inauguration into his office. Verse 23. when [there were] no fountains abounding with water. this further confirms the eternal existence of Christ's person. before the earth or anything was created. "praegravati. and the thoughts and purposes of his heart. for the words may be rendered. the Septuagint is. the creation of the heavens and the earth. I was brought forth. when there were none but God the fountain of living waters. or invested with his office as such. the antiquity of his office. and king. or "heavy. this phrase designs the ordination and constitution of Christ in his office as Mediator." Cocceius." as the Targum and Syriac version. from the beginning. and anointed as Mediator. "inuncta fui. and chiefly his kingly office.before his works of old. his call. for the word ytllwx is used of generation. appointment. "habuit me principium viae suae. "and there were given to me power. Job 15:7. when the fountains of the great deep were not. I was set up from everlasting. but the infinite being and perfections of God. "I was ordained". Michaelis.." Pagninus. and water the earth. or ever the earth was. and greatness. and may lead to entertain high and honourable thoughts of him. "he begot me". and to be the propitiation for their sins. he could not have been set up... Schultens." Cocceius. every part and branch of it. and when there were no other fountains which form rivers. but "was begotten. Christ is the firstborn of every creature. which are his deep things. and because anointing with oil was used in installing persons into the offices of prophet. {i} ytkon "uncta sum. and not the human nature of Christ. "I was anointed" {i}. and who was also set up as the fountain of all grace. it takes in all that goes to his constitution as Mediator. before the depths of the great sea were formed. {k} ydbkn "aggravati. and brought forth before any creature was in being." Gejerus. dominion. when there were no depths. for they were made by him.. hence Christ's instalment into his office as Mediator is here expressed by an anointing. see Psalm 2:7. Christ was foreordained to be the Redeemer and Saviour of men. life. with reference to which the same word is used Psalm 2:6. So the Vulgate Latin version renders it. and so Gersom paraphrases it. and heir of all things." all which suppose the eternity of his person. the early provision of grace in him as Mediator for his people. to be the head of the church.." Vatablus. "honorabiles. and his investiture with it. as the head of the elect. "gravati. and salvation for his people. Schultens. and not a quality. Michaelis. then was Christ as the only begotten son of God. I. or the original of it." Michaelis. born. before all time. and so it is to be understood of the eternal generation and sonship of Christ... the person of Christ as the Son of God. that is. or from the first of the earth.. a person. which then did not exist. Psalm 95:1. a person. foreordained to be the Redeemer of them. for had he not existed from everlasting. and the whole of his office. ." Pagninus. Verse 24. and the Judge of the world.

and unalterable quality. to be before the mountains is a periphrasis of eternity. Before the mountains were settled. being without sin. the eternal generation of Christ being an article of faith most surely to be believed. and the higher the mountains be." Vatablus.. as well as is more excellent than they. in opposition to the mountains and hills before mentioned. partly because all our northern mountains are covered with it. and therefore called the ancient mountains. the valleys and meadows that lay between them. before whom Christ was: yea. of which we read very early. and partly to show the certainty of it. Verse 26. which is fairer than any of the children of men. even the first man Adam. Genesis 2:6. the ambient and spacious ether." Tigurine version. and which was done by the great strength of the Lord.. That is. "immersi. "Plunged" {l}. and fruits. {l} webjh "defixi. and which were "aborigine. so Jarchi. While as yet he had not made the earth. Lister {o} was of opinion that sand was once the most exterior and general cover of the surface of the whole earth.. and was before any man was. which are before mentioned. Psalm 65:6. the two poles of it. But Christ was before any of them. and by whom he was set up.. existed before his human nature did. when this was done. for it was made by him. and "valleys. the Lord. and also the curious workmanship of the Spirit of God." by the Targum here: or the "out parts" {m}. or Christ." Montanus. Genesis 2:12. Deuteronomy 33:15. the extremities of the earth. out of which man and all the creatures were made.." even the dusts of the world. or before he was the Son of man. earthy. contrary to those philosophers who asserted the eternity of it. as the Son of God. and the chief of all the individuals of human nature. full of grass. who possessed Wisdom. Genesis 2:7. and are the highest part of the earth. nor the fields.. Or it may be man is designed. as the only begotten of the Father. upon their proper bases. and if so. the gold.Verse 25. and deserving of the strictest attention and observation. as was the first man. or fixed in the earth. so the word is also rendered Job 5:10. more or less. but rather "the chief of the dust of the earth" {n}. this might with propriety be called the highest part of the dust of the earth. and united to the Son of God. and is a phrase expressive of God's eternity. durableness. that Christ was before that was. this shows that the earth had a beginning. silver." or from the beginning of the world. Now Christ. and that he was not of the earth. pleasant to behold. nor the highest part of the dust of the world: meaning. as distinct from the habitable part of it afterwards mentioned: or all with out it. since the earth was made before man. the plain parts of the earth. at this day. these are the metals and minerals within it. still the more and coarser the sand is. shows his eternity is the same with his Father's." the first and chief. or the "beginning. and partly because of its great hardness. Junius & Tremellius. Psalm 90:2. the uninhabitable parts of the earth.. Dr. and consequently he must be eternal. the "prima materia. . the human nature of Christ himself may be meant. "mergerentur. he as yet had not made the earth.. and profitable to be enjoyed. this being a matter of infinite moment and concern. not the mountains and hills. he says. which is repeated partly to show the importance of it. before the hills was I brought forth. and precious stones. and being here used of the Son's. as the words may be rendered. who was made of the dust of the earth. flowers.

Verse 27. and yet its foundations are such as that it shall not be removed. the earth is hung like a ball in the air upon nothing.. when he gave them their form. Job 38:4. vol.. and are unaccountable. [as] one brought up [with him]. Genesis 7:11. not as a mere spectator. when he strengthened the fountains of the deep. which is stretched and drawn around the terraqueous globe as a canopy or curtain. nay. "by him. Jeremiah 5:22.. which strength of flowing and reflowing can be attributed to nothing else but to the great power of God. Job 26:7. When he gave to the sea his decree. gave them strength. Schultens. see Hebrews 1:10. magnitude. Made. and adorned them. which denotes his co-existence with . then was Christ present. Vatablus. and still continues it. 453. as with doors.." Montanus.. 2." or "with him" {q}. the place and state of glorified saints. so that those proud waves may come hitherto and no further. bars.. Cocceius. Transact. Proverbs 26:10. which are laid on the seas and floods. or made the earth with the sea globular. they hang heavy with them. for he was concerned in the laying of them himself. figure. Schultens. When he established the clouds above. Mercerus. Christ was with his Father on the first day's creation of the heavens. abridged. and even the third heaven. when he appointed the foundations of the earth. and roar. Then I was by him. In which the waters are bound. the spreadings of which are beyond understanding.. The Lord asks Job where he was then. A perpetual decree. which it cannot pass. called the circle of the earth. When he prepared the heavens. and a decree made for them when they shall fall. that the waters should not pass his commandment. and stars.. Now Christ was present when those were laid. {o} In Philosoph." Cocceius. the Lord makes small the drops of water. though its waves toss. and from all eternity. and bolts. and the laws of them. with which he has shut it up. and yet are not rent under them. Hebrews 1:10. I [was] there. in the thin air.." as Job says. being the purpose and decree. p. who has settled and established them in the heavens. and must be referred to the power of God. "summam." Cocceius. Verse 28. he was not theft in being. where they are weighed by measure. and feed and fill it. which run into the main sea.. when he set a compass upon the face of the depth: or "compassed the waters with bounds. the power and might. {p} gwx wqxb "describendo circulum.{m} twuwx "quae extra sunt. on which he sits. foam. "exteriora. this is his decreed place.. Matthew 25:34. beautified. Tigurine version. Verse 29. and when they do. and return to their place again.. which never has been altered nor never will: he has placed the sand for the bounds of the sea everywhere.." Montanus. and on the second day. prepared for them from the foundation of the world. when the firmament was made. and was before them both. to cast out their waters.. and motion. which the clouds do drop and distil on men abundantly. which make one terraqueous globe: or "made a circle" {p}. Michaelis. but Christ was. when he garnished them with the sun. {n} var "caput. Job 26:8. Verse 30. Isaiah 40:22." Tigurine version. of the Lord himself. Michaelis. but as a co-worker. 452. Michaelis. this compass may design the vast expanse or firmament of heaven. moon.. and where. all around it. He was then..

and equality with God. exceeding delightful to him." V. &c. he being of the same nature and perfections with his Father: and he delighted in him as a workman. Sept. in whose bosom he lay and was bore. and his distinction from him: he was by him when the names of God's elect were put down in the book of life. or brought up. in his constitution as such. as in Ruth 4:16. and so Christ was a co-worker. Montanus." Vatablus. and so the Latin interpreter of the Targum renders it "nursed up at his side". when he was by him as a workman. Many translate it an "artificer" or "workman" {r}. to obey and suffer in the stead of his people. educated. and by whom. and interpret it of Christ's nursing the creation." as our version. he being the express image of his person. L." V. "cuneta componens. not as an instrument. but before. and of the salvation of the elect by him. and not as subordinate and inferior to his Father. and his relation to him as his Father. and sea. he was trained up in the performance of his office." Montanus. the heavens. But others think the word has the sense of nursing. col. which expresses the tender regard of his Father to him. the man of his right hand. but as a party concerned. as Nma in Song of Solomon 7:1." Gejerus. translated "brought up. Piscator. Junius & Tremellius. which is a diversion to the one." so the Tigurine version. and in engaging as a surety. Mercerus. and of his own glory in it." Junius & Tremellius. 90.God. {t} "Alumnus. Isaiah 42:1. rejoicing in having the same nature and perfections with him. and a pleasure to the other." Pagninus. he was by him and with him in the council and covenant of grace and peace. not as a onlooker. and acceptable to him. he was strengthened in it by his Father. in the works which he did. of his being "brought up. made strong for himself: the Targum renders it "faithful. and was in his view. and I was daily his delight. in sonship. . council. "apud eum. and especially in what respects the salvation of the chosen people. he not only delighted in him day by day. or being nursed. There is a mutual pleasure and delight which the Father and Son have in each other. Others {t} passively. L. Piscator. and even from the days of eternity. obeying and suffering in it. being the same he saw him do. his equality with him. but equal with him. a worker with God in the making of all things. Baynus." is differently rendered. and has been ever since. earth. The word Nwma. in the foreviews of his human nature. as a nursing father bears his son in his bosom. supporting. and preserving all creatures in their being when made. faithful to all he promised and was intrusted with. as Mediator. his nearness to him. as his begotten Son. this delight was founded in relation to him. The allusion in the word used in this clause is to children's playing in the presence of their parents. which is a proof of his proper deity. John 17:24. or "delights" {u}. and in the relation he stood in to him. "artifex vel opifex. {s} "Nutritius. from the date of his commencement as Mediator. Pagninus. {q} wlua "cum eo. rejoicing always before him. or cherishing. as Christ was set up in his mediatorial office. and also in the view of the works of creation and redemption he would be jointly concerned in with him. Numbers 11:12. and in likeness. and in him as Mediator. and so in the creation of all things. and covenant. being always in his presence. Esther 2:7. in sameness of nature. "educans. particularly of his nourishing and cherishing the church and people of God committed to his care. {r} Nwma armazousa. throughout the six days of the creation. and all in there. but as a co-efficient cause of them. The Father loved the Son from all eternity. as Christ was to him that appointed him. which joy always did and ever will continue. so Schindler. Some {s} take it actively. with a love of complacency and delight. and in all that they are concerned. Symmachus and Theodotion render it "strengthened".

they themselves are the habitation of God. in bestowing the bounties of his providence. his love was then a love of the utmost complacency and delight. or of Adam. for as the earth was made. over whom he rejoices to do good. and whom he makes glad. not with all men. and be glorified. it was a kind of sport or play unto him. and with whom the tabernacle of God shall be. Piscator. "making glad the habitable part of his earth" {x}. so some read the words. and my delights [were] with the sons of men. appears by his frequent appearances in a human form before his actual incarnation. and in being the light and life of men: all which were done by him with the greatest ease. in filling it with inhabitants. and may be said to be habitable. and by bringing them. in the foreview of which the Son of God rejoiced. and in which only righteous persons shall dwell. . which will be after this is passed. and as his spouse and bride. which shows the allusion is to a nurse child. through a variety of trials. and to be united to his person.. and his. which Christ in his eternal mind had a foreview of. as well as of their conversion. and the Word tabernacled. This appears by his early engagement as a surety for them. Verse 31. and Stockins." Schultens. Junius & Tremellius." Montanus. increases the signification of the word. or the second Adam's earth. which was formed in the lower parts of the earth. away. by taking them out of a state of nature. in governing it. safe to his kingdom and glory. as his children. 77. and therefore he is called the fruit of the earth. according to his infinite wisdom and the counsel of his will. and is the true tabernacle. this may have a peculiar view to the saints and people of God. or with whom Christ shall dwell a thousand years. by his espousing their persons and their cause. and given him by his Father. and Noldius. so the very place of their birth and abode." Cocceius. which. and those as considered as the objects of his own and his Father's love. and the inhabitants of it. p. notwithstanding their fall in Adam. so Gussetius. in preserving and sustaining it in being. but its two first radical letters are doubled. even before the world was. though by nature children of wrath. {u} Myewvev "deliciae. by suffering and dying in their room and stead. the church of God is his dwelling place on earth. and took a pleasure in: besides. and is continued on their account. in the Hebrew language. by bearing them on his heart in heaven. as the word used signifies {w}. Gejerus. and so expresses the exceeding great delight and pleasure which Christ took in his people from everlasting. Cocceius. as "preludiums" of it. 379. as well as pleasure and delight. Psalm 139:15. by assuming their nature in time. and the blessed Spirit. p. the new earth. p. as to be produced without sin by the Holy Spirit. The human nature of Christ may not be amiss thought of. joy. not with angels. and in the foreview of this he may be thought to take delight and pleasure. in the foreview of it. in which he was to work out the salvation of his people. 1884. In that part of the earth which is habitable." Schultens. and adorned with his graces. where he delights to dwell. and there interceding for them. "obleclationes. in which the fulness of the Godhead dwells. may be truly called his. and ordering all things in it for the best. and so in Proverbs 8:30. of fallen Adam. Rejoicing in the habitable part of his earth. Moreover. and to those particular spots of ground in God's earth where they should dwell. Once more. but with men. as beheld in the glass of his Father's decrees. by visiting them with his grace and presence.. and transgressors from the womb. Isaiah 4:2."alumna. "in sinu gestatus filius. and Christ. Michaelis. and working out salvation for them. No. as chosen in him. were afore appointed and fixed by the Lord. 71.. only some.. The word for "delights" is not only in the plural number. and continued.

such who see themselves lost and perishing. reassumes his former exhortation. {x} "Laetificans in orbe habitabili terram ejus." Tigurine version. in the knowledge of themselves. what credit should be given unto it. Cocceius. Schultens. O ye children. or Christ himself speaking. he exhorts them to "hearken" to him. their impurity. and the Gospel instruction teaches men to behave wisely. and unrighteousness. Now therefore hearken unto me. personality. they have their commission from him. the naked and weary. and . show that they have no care of them. both as to the knowledge and practice of it. to be kept in them. it is a happiness to be in the ways of Christ. and refuse it not. it being no other than the word of Christ. and from hence it appears how sad and dreadful will be the case of such that despise it: to hear it is the way to have the knowledge of Christ. and though not for keeping. with whom his delights were.. and to what he says there. and enforces it by the several particulars in the above description. Piscator." Baynus.. grace. given to him as such in the covenant. and be wise. and represent him. for hearing them is hearing him. and to keep them. the hungry and thirsty. Mercerus. Verse 34. eternity. the poor and indigent. L." Pagninus. the disconsolate and afflicted. predestinated to the adoption of children. as speaking by his ministers. in things that appertain to the Spirit of God. and submit to his ordinances. and such as do so despise their own souls. Christ. there is a pleasure enjoyed in observing them. revealed in his word. "ludo. as that he is the God and Father of his people. in things respecting Christ. Hebrews 2:3." Michaelis. riches. children of the covenant and promise. Montanus. if this is rejected.. Psalm 19:11. and therefore to be hearkened to." Junius & Tremellius.. for. the giver and sender of Christ. and preach him himself. for blessed [are they that] keep my ways. Hear instruction. there is great reward. Amama. "lusitans. to his voice in the Gospel. by which they appear to be the children of God: these Wisdom here addresses in the most affectionate manner... Children of his and his Father. the God of all grace. office. and operations of grace on the souls of men. but to act the part of fools. for this is not to be wise. and with respect to everlasting things and a future state. Proverbs 8:5. there is no escaping eternal damnation. and also to his voice in his precepts and commands. and his delights with men. "ludebam. The instruction of wisdom. and righteousness.{w} tqxvm "ludens. This shows with what attention and reverence the Gospel should be heard. Christ has promised and does vouchsafe his presence in them.. this is the way to be wise to that which is good. "ridens. Luke 10:16. to embrace his doctrines. Gejerus. the Gospel of Christ. speak according to his mind and will. having finished the account and description of himself. Proverbs 1:7. this accounts for the efficacy of it on the souls of men. are his ambassadors. From the consideration of his wisdom. receive their gifts from him. suffered and died. his deity. how it ought to be put in practice. yet in keeping Christ's commands. to walk in wisdom towards them that are without.. impotence. for whom he became man. his person. nearness to God. Blessed [is] the man that heareth me.. and all good things by him. and in the way of salvation by Jesus Christ. vel faciens ridere alios... Verse 32. to gather together regenerated ones. or concern for their eternal welfare.. which instructs men in things relating to God the Father." V. Verse 33. Christ in his Gospel. to be wise unto salvation.

10. So saints should wait at the throne of grace. they live a life of justification and sanctification. 1. and to sit with the King at his table." Horat. faith in Christ. the joy of faith. Here sensible sinners watch in the ministry of the word and ordinances. in season and out of season. as follows. who knock. taking all opportunities. with whom are counsel and sound wisdom: or else to beggars. if anything drops that they can catch at. watching daily at my gates. it is an honour to be admitted here. but. diligence. and waiting at the door posts of it shows early seeking to Christ. the church of Christ. where the priests and Levites watched. See Gill on "Pr 3:13. Christ and the knowledge of him. since these things come by it. as Jarchi observes: Christ is a teacher. tell their case. both to bodily sleep and to sleepy frames of soul. who wait the opening of the school doors to go in first. John 5:5. and wait still. and here every believer watches for his spiritual edification and establishment in the truth. see Isaiah 26:1. to hear the word.. or to the gates of kings. who waited long. and will not depart till something is given.. wherefore it is both the duty and privilege of persons to hear the Gospel of Christ. and here souls. sensible souls are his disciples or scholars. and learn him. love to Christ. either in allusion to scholars. and eagerness for instruction from him. {y} "Sub galls cantum consultor ubi ostia pulsat. The church is the palace of the great King. remembering the ease of the poor man at the pool. and to have spiritual food and nourishment. "Watching" is opposed to sleep. the gates of Wisdom's house." Such that find Christ find "life" or "lives" {z}. v. Luke 12:37. or the ministers of Christ preach. not only by eating and drinking. till they are found of Christ. mighty and strong. and which should be "daily" or "day after day. and for patronage and protection. and it denotes circumspection. palaces. for happy is he that shall be found thus watching when his Lord cometh. Esther 6:10. or to give in their petitions for themselves or others. to plead the cause of his people. which are the public ordinances thereof. under darkness and desertion. Sat. consistent with the duties of their calling. waiting at the posts of my doors. Luke 21:38.an increase of it. Proverbs 1:21. of holiness from him. that wait at the door for alms. the Advocate with the Father. life spiritual and eternal. as Benhadad's servants did. for counsel. called in Scripture the gates of Zion. receive repulses. Psalm 87:2. and to intemperance. waiting at the doors of counsellors {y}. when called by his grace and converted. 1. Of finding Christ. and therefore it is right to wait at his doors. For whoso findeth me findeth life. where courtiers watch to be admitted and received as favourites. to plead their cause for them. Exodus 29:42. the Redeemer. performance of promises. where the people of Israel assembled for worship. or to the gates of the temple. watch for spiritual light and comfort.. and communion with him: and such that . Or to the door of the tabernacle. but with the cares of this life. they live a life of faith on Christ. are had by such means. and a furtherance of it. for answers of prayer.. Sat. and upon the word and ordinances. Christ is the wonderful Counsellor. Verse 35. suitable to their case and circumstances. Or the allusion may be to clients. 1 Kings 20:33." one Lord's day after another. to have a name and a place here. in allusion to the gates of cities. the Spirit and his graces. and wait until the door is opened. as they that watch for the morning. they are dead. and attention. and wait for relief. where Wisdom cries. and so they are to continue to the end of life. and aboundings in it. l. and a growth therein. and the presence of God and Christ: and so should sinners wait on the outward ministry of the word. and at last had a cure. the church is the school where they learn of him. and find him in effectual calling. since faith comes hereby.

to support this life. but an enjoyment of it. Wherefore everyone that thus sins against him wrongeth his own soul. has the beginning. the whole world that lies in . and has both a right unto it. and to whom we are to look for heaven and eternal happiness. Such an one finds that which of all things is most valuable. pledge." Pagninus. Montanus. with any degree of contempt: they sin against him practically that slight his Gospel. who is the Saviour of men from sin. Philippians 3:14. and evilly treat his people.find life in this sense find spiritual food in and from Christ. and from whom it comes to the sons of men. the truths and promises of it. for that is free and sovereign. and a meetness for it. and shall obtain favour of the Lord. L. which can procure it. especially sins against Christ." V. or grants continued and comfortable manifestations of it. and sacrifice. see Judges 20:16. see Psalm 36:10. who say he is not come in the flesh. and such miss the mark who look for salvation elsewhere. who deny his proper deity. or draws it out in great lengths. or done by them. being found. from whence it flows as from a well or fountain. and encompasses them about with it. or by a mere profession of religion. and denotes that it is before it is drawn out or manifested. and to the spiritual and eternal welfare of it." Montanus. or by any moral performances. and of all spiritual duties and services. of the Scriptures. which is an aberration or straying from. peace of conscience. But he that sinneth against me. that it is in the heart of God. an access to God. for in this sense favour is not to men of spiritual skill and wisdom. or any religious exercises. and is enjoyed in the exercise of the grace of faith. nor is there anything in men. {a} qpy "educet. righteousness. "haurit. and good will of God. of the graces of the Spirit. yea. not favour among men. and lies hid there. even the best. the presence of God. the life of his immortal soul. Hebrews 10:26. all they that hate me. and rest in him. Christ is the mark and scope of the counsels of God. and treat his blood. by which is meant. is injurious to it. rather spiritual blessings.. or missing. either by the light of nature." Vatablus. and which he can find nowhere else. the mark of the law.. as do the seed of the serpent. in a contemptuous manner. Sinning against him is very aggravating. The word {a} used signifies a drawing it out. and which is the comfort of it. as the word {b} signifies. his divine and eternal Sonship. and treat his blood.. or by the law of Moses. since there is no other Saviour but him. for he finds eternal life in him. when the Lord remembers his people. and spiritual clothing. can never be lost. nor temporal blessings. all sin is hurtful to the souls of men. and communion with him. The word is frequently used for sinning. 1 John 5:11. and every needful supply of grace: but it seems most principally to design the love. and in whom alone salvation is. called the justification of life. of the covenant of grace. "hauriet. "depromit." Schultens. as water out of a well. {z} Myyx "vitas. transgress his laws. Mercerus. that trample him under foot. or that Jesus is not the Christ. of the Gospel. neglect his ordinances. which makes life pleasant and delightful. and which is observed by Aben Ezra. acceptance with him. Some sin against Christ doctrinally. a justifying righteousness. it is against him in whom all grace and mercy is.. Or misses the mark. grace. the spring and fountain of all blessings: and "obtaining" it does not intend getting an interest in it. and therefore to such there can be no other than a fearful looking for of judgment. and which. Gejerus. Verse 36. it is he that gives it. and earnest of it. no other sacrifice for sin but his. righteousness and salvation. though that is had from the Lord.

Christ's Father's house. built up a spiritual house. and is prepared by Christ. the pillar and ground of truth. though rather. as Aben Ezra. But there are two other senses. in which young men were trained up in the knowledge of divine and spiritual things. Some would have the whole universe to be meant. which bid fairest one of them to be right. which is a temple. it is deeply rooted in their minds. and maltreating his people. they hate him privately. CHAPTER 9 Proverbs 9 In this chapter. simple. or the seven planets. a tabernacle. all unregenerate persons. casting off his yoke. Some understand it of the temple of a regenerate man's heart. by despising his Gospel. Wisdom. as others. Proverbs 9:13. being without love to him. a house in which the Godhead dwells. with its five senses. and even many professors of religion. And the chapter is concluded with the description of the foolish woman.. but interpretatively and consequentially. Proverbs 9:14. When it is observed who are and who are not to be reproved. and righteousness of Christ. dwell. Proverbs 9:2. and which is a city whose builder and maker is God. and quit all other company but his. and.. by which it was supported and adorned. Proverbs 9:10. Verse 1. and then its seven pillars are the graces of the Spirit. the house not made with hands. made without the hands of men. and what the advantages of it both here and hereafter. Proverbs 9:7. and stands firm upon the promises of God. adds the voice and memory: rather the human nature of Christ. the Wisdom of God. all which arise from the corruption of their nature. with the reasons of it. to make up the number seven. precious and lively stones. and as having sent his servants to invite them to come and partake of them. Father. for this hatred or enmity is original and natural. Christ. and which is continually building . and irreconcilable without the grace of God. in which God. not formally and intentionally. and is always undeserved. or not walking worthy of it. and much less an eternal one. the rock and foundation. as others: it is an odd notion of Grotius. who is represented as clamorous. and plying passengers that go by her door. Wherefore such are said to love death. Or "Wisdoms": of which see Proverbs 1:20. that the human body is intended. it may design the schools of the prophets. Various are the opinions concerning this house built by him. by disclaiming doctrines. or loving others more than him. and so are reckoned to love death itself. in whom and from whom all wisdom is. the opposite of Wisdom.wickedness. and what is the sum and substance of true wisdom. Such a house there was under the Old Testament. as they love that which brings death upon them both in body and soul. in which are many mansions for his people. Proverbs 9:3. and inviting them in to partake of her provisions. is represented as having built a stately house or palace for the entertainment of his guests. and the seven pillars to be the seven liberal ones. for death in any shape cannot be desirable. and such an one there is under the New. Proverbs 9:18. Wisdom hath builded her house. the materials of it are true believers. this is built by Christ upon himself.. as Jarchi. Some take it to be the whole circle of sciences. and the grace of the blessed Spirit: or rather the church of Christ on earth. is meant. is built by Wisdom. Proverbs 9:1. the person. not a corporeal death. blood. as having made large and suitable provisions for them. or Christ. and the seven pillars to be the seven days of creation.. see Isaiah 11:2. either the heavenly glory. the house of the living God. Son and Spirit. and ignorant. and positively and practically. the consequence of which is sure and certain death and destruction to her guests. and a fit and suitable habitation for God through the Spirit.

as in union with his divine person. and was vicarious. and which is no other than himself. and thereby fitted for their work and service. being free from all motives and conditions in the creature. in allusion to the pillars in Solomon's temple. Song of Solomon 7:9. which exhilarates and refreshes the weak. to old wine. col. and adorned with the gifts and graces of the Spirit by Christ. and as such is spiritual and savoury food to his people. she hath mingled her wine. and comfort it gives: the blessings of grace which it exhibits may be so called from their comforting and refreshing nature. nourishing and strengthening. the church. Though it may be these seven pillars may denote in general the firmness and solidity of this spiritual building. to last to the end of all things. was offered up in the room and stead of his people.. and the church is called a banqueting house. Lexic. as spice." being polished. It is commonly ascribed to the Jews as a wicked action of theirs. by way of sacrifice and satisfaction for sin." because there is a complete and sufficient number of them. a crucified Christ is suitable food for faith. and to neat wine. effectual to the purposes for which it was offered. or a house of wine. a sacrifice voluntarily offered up by himself. which also makes a considerable part in a banquet or feast. Now the "mingling" of this wine is in allusion to the mixture of wine.. see Galatians 2:9. Verse 2. Song of Solomon 1:2. and will continue to the end of the world. The death of Christ was prefigured by the slaying of beasts for sacrifice under the old law. and is expressed by "killing" him in the New Testament. which Christ has provided. {c} Vid. either with something richer. but violent. and the continuance of it by the power of God. Jachin and Boaz. compared to pillars for strength and stability. to strong generous wine. Matthew 26:29. to old wine for the antiquity of it. as long as they continue in the world. which are had freely. for the pleasure. "my oxen and my fatlings are killed. to wine. being more ancient than ours to him. for the ancient doctrines of it. even as old as eternity. Or. the principal of the provisions in Wisdom's house. becomes a feast. and so are the joys of heaven. the weary. and to generous wine. The love of Christ is compared to wine. for the purity of it. is expressed in the same language as here.up by Christ by means of the word and ordinances. joy. quickening and comforting. or they may have respect to the seven states of the church in so many periods of time. or than ourselves. but was not without the counsel and determination of God. Song of Solomon 8:2. she hath hewn out her seven pillars. and always will provide for his churches. his soul and body. as he is the Lamb in the midst of the throne. ministers of the Gospel." Matthew 22:4. signified by the seven churches in the book of the Revelation. as Jarchi . and which shows his death not to be natural. in which the slain Lamb of God makes the chiefest part. and for their being instrumental in supporting the interest and church of Christ. or rather with water. and well pleasing to God. on the lees well refined. or the church of Christ. exceeding acceptable. Isaiah 55:1.. "her sacrifice" {d}: a crucified Christ. The Gospel of Christ is also compared to wine. see 1 Timothy 3:15. Heb. and so never to be repeated: and his death. These are said to be "hewn. to make atonement for their sins. beautified. and extremely satisfying: thus the Gospel feast. was foretold in prophecy. and this death was as a victim to justice. as though he had been slain. and the will and consent of Christ. She hath killed her beasts. and distressed.. for the purity of it. 623. Song of Solomon 2:4. being a sacrifice. and said to be "seven. Esther 5:6. so Cocceius {c}. he is evidently set forth in the Gospel as crucified.

19. and Christ. a fatted calf. which. 355. p. or that she should employ such in inviting her guests. and his blood drink indeed. are said to have their maidens to wait upon them: and besides. 281. meat. others ascribe it to Melampus {k}. the one was three parts water and two wine. and others to Amphictyon. Son. and sups with them himself. salvation is all of free grace. which they called by three different names. it is proper that her attendants should be maidens. Not moral virtues. before time.. followers of him. in Vitruv. 45. 27. and others. the bread of God and of life. and so is eternal life. a well-furnished table has a variety of excellent provision upon it: and such is the ministry of the Gospel. for the love of Christ is pure and sovereign. Act. But this may design the various displays of the love of Christ in the several acts of it. p. especially the ordinance of the supper. 5. pure . {e} T. being strong wine. 1 Corinthians 10:21. it very fitly expresses the character of Gospel ministers. whose flesh is meat indeed. as Rebekah. l. the tame he sits at. 179. Montanus. and his blood shed. encourages them to eat and drink. 77. Baynus. 1. Pharaoh's daughter. particularly in the ordinance of the supper. p. 6. & Nidda. c. Bab. without the mixture of men's works. the other three parts water and one wine. such as is complained of. de Architect. Equi.observes. which subserve the interest of Christ and religion. {g} Apud Philander. ministering spirits to Christ. obsequious to him. and now in heaven. the first of them was reckoned the best mixture {h}: one Cerassus is said to be the inventor of mixing wine with water {i}. and the publication of the Gospel. she hath also furnished her table. and Spirit. but have the name to keep up the decency of the parable. l. spiritually understood. to make it fit and suitable drink for the bodies of men: the mixture was no doubt according to the strength of the wine. with the ancients {f}. so Ben Melech. 274. c. are presented to the faith of his people. the Gospel of Christ is free of all mixtures of human doctrines. honey. Sc. c. {i} Hygin Fab. & Scholia in ib. She hath sent forth her maidens. 3. which is signified by various sorts of food. milk. and the propriety of the allegory: for since Wisdom is represented as a lady. is expressed by several things that are eatable." Pagninus. according to Plutarch {g}. does not design any impurity or degeneracy. 1. a table richly furnished indeed! {d} hxbj "victimam suam. called the table of the Lord. {k} Athenaei Deipnosophist. was mixed two parts water and one wine {e}. 2. a princess or queen. and not by works of righteousness done by men mixed with it. the blessings of grace are all of free grace. Here his broken body. nor angels. who is the sum and substance of it. as that they are the servants of Christ. in the salvation of men. which was usual in those hot countries. or good works. in time. the wine of Sharon. and the accommodation of the truths of it to the capacities of men: and perhaps some respect may be had to the blood and water that issued from the side of the slain Lamb of God. 1. fol. and delicious fruits. p. and welcomes his guests. Tigurine version. to be eaten and drank in a spiritual manner. as by a slain lamb. before three parts water and two wine. the third was one wine and two water. Mercerus. Esther. as bread. fol. they had three ways of mixing. or the joint display of the love of Father. Sabbat. said to be handmaids to divinity. 16. and the harmony and agreement of the divine perfections therein. incorrupt in doctrine. {h} Aristoph. nor the liberal arts and sciences. & l. who being so called does not suppose or encourage women's preaching. though. Isaiah 1:22. humble and modest. Verse 3. adorn the Gospel and its professors. the hidden manna. 4. which seems to design the ministration of the word. {f} Suidas in voce poma. and so is he held forth in the ordinances.. and the administration of ordinances in Gospel times. And this.. but the ministers of the Gospel. here prophetically and figuratively held forth..

and partake of the provisions in it. but invites them into his house for instruction. liberty. and whose voice is soft. And these he "sends forth": from him they have their mission and commission to preach the Gospel. and delightful: being not the rough voice of the law. of the work of the Spirit. and salvation. inviting such who are "simple" to turn in hither. Son. and where can they be better? and who so fit and proper to be here. a proclamation made aloud. to partake of the provisions he has made: he sends them forth publicly into the world. to invite persons to the Gospel feast. and who are sensible of their ignorance and want of understanding. this is to be understood of the preaching of the Gospel. but who are sensible of their folly and simplicity. "in pinnnaculis": Cocceius. And now these are the words of Wisdom. and foolish. into which passengers or travellers turn for accommodations. or by his maidens. and fits them for his service. and concerning their duty to God and men. and authority given to them. who are but of weak capacities. "super pinnis. The saints are travellers here. yea. And this supposes superiority in him. and need refreshment by the way. not the natural faculty of the understanding. These Christ has a property in. grace.. a voice of love. to the hedges and highways. to invite. so Ben Melech. apt to be credulous. Amama. alluring. Into Wisdom's house. incorrigible. either in person. and by him speaking in them there or elsewhere. and be with Wisdom. he chooses and calls them. and mercy. are weak in knowledge and experience. where such who are "simple. saints instruct one another. and none teach like them. may learn. life. and righteousness. as of the grace of God. and Spirit. sottish.. which is the first thing the Spirit of God convinces men of. into the streets and lanes. the church of God is an inn of good accommodations. such who know ever so much or ever so little." weak. and they give up themselves to him. of the Gospel. as into an inn. and so easily imposed upon and deceived. but of things spiritual and evangelical. a school. Father. very charming. yea. Now these Christ does not despise. and the mysteries of it. and which is not a mere whisper. pardon." Schultens. and drawing. small. at a distance from their Father's house. which are in the church. but the still. as a house of instruction. of salvation by Christ.in conversation. Here many lessons are to be learned concerning themselves. in the temple. his ministers. and other public places. and good provisions. and irreclaimable. Here are many instructors. that is. pleasant. of themselves and their state.. Montanus. Or let him turn in here. {l} ypg le "super alas". as the word {l} signifies. and may in general denote the publicness of them. and all of free cost. concerning Christ.. as the wings or pinnacles of the higher parts or buildings of a city are in that. and the "highest places" the ordinances thereof. of peace. both by Christ himself in person. in the city of Jerusalem. see Proverbs 9:15. "super convexitatibas. here teach and instruct. and to be delivered with fervency and earnestness: the "city" may mean the church of God. or who are so in comparison of others. all sorts of persons may learn here. not such who are quite stupid and insensible. or Christ. Whoso [is] simple. nor an understanding of things natural and civil. so well built and furnished. here is room enough to entertain them. Verse 4. and willingly engage in it. here are good lodgings for rest and safety. and by his ministers. ministers of the word are teachers. but a cry. the church of Christ. musical voice of the Gospel. and even to compel them to come in. into all places where his people are. than such as these? . let him turn in hither. she crieth upon the high places of the city." Piscator. [as for] him that wanteth understanding.

such as turn in to her house ought to forsake these. and more especially Christ himself. and of very bad consequence.. it is not intoxicating as wine. as they do that keep company with the foolish. which may be considered either as an exhortation. live on Christ himself by faith. and be persuaded of interest in it. for everything else is that which is not bread. live not to yourselves. a river of it. and all foolish doctrines.. who are ignorant of divine things. such as are contrary to the Scriptures. "want of understanding.. Son. nor to the lusts of men. to obscure or lessen the grace of God in man's salvation. and causes grief. and should obey: and.. shunned. such live in communion with Christ. very pernicious and hurtful. of the love of Christ. such are in. and shall live an eternal one hereafter. the Targum and Syriac version. but as the wise. which are hurtful. and which should be denied and abstained from. honourably. Verse 6. they are called out from among them by Christ. on her bread and her wine. but to the will and glory of God. it designs the Gospel. live not in sin. and become the guests of Wisdom. and the Arabic version. Forsake the foolish. besides. as the Israelites ate their manna. and it may be had freely. it is quite unbecoming them to converse with them. "imprudence". the Septuagint version renders it. and go in the way of understanding. as the foregoing. which to a believer is more than his necessary food. Song of Solomon 1:2. which is to be eaten by faith. and the ordinance of the supper. wherein is excess. "and ye shall live" {n}. and this only. and without danger. and make a mock at sin and at religion. for so the saints are.. foolish lusts. but unto righteousness. but such who are wickedly foolish. live not as the foolish do. or of the love of the Father. which are dangerous and lead to ruin.she saith to him: as follows.. as they do that turn into Wisdom's house. this may be drank largely of. and war against the soul. comfortably and delightfully. eat of my bread. and are her guests. and go in the way of . it corrupts good manners. and breaks peace. and drink of the wine [which] I have mingled. yea. Which stands for all the provisions of Christ's house. "foolishness". and largely and freely.. and avoided. all such are to be forsaken. and this daily. live on the provisions of Wisdom's house. which meet and mingle together: to "drink" of this is to partake of it by faith. live not to the flesh. and live. and with gladness and singleness of heart. and by no means countenanced and encouraged. sooner or later. the living bread that came down from heaven. this is the believer's daily bread. and as enforcing the preceding exhortation. not men of weak abilities in things natural and civil. but to and after the spirit: or as a promise by way of encouragement. Verse 5. one of the symbols of which is bread. nor after it. whose company is not to be neglected and forsaken. they live a spiritual life now. that tend to degrade any of the Persons of the Trinity.. their own or others'. and all foolish ways. Foolish men and their company. to which they are welcome by Christ. they have better company to attend unto: and they should also forsake "foolish" {m} things." or "judgment". it is very unprofitable to keep company with such vain men. and not scandalously. Come. to the doctrine of Christ and his apostles. such company is very unsuitable for Wisdom's guests. for there is enough. or who are reckoned foolish by the world. it is quite out of character for Wisdom's followers to be the companions of fools. without money and without price. as such do that quit the conversation of foolish men. and with his people. joyfully and with sincerity. or to exalt the creature. and Spirit. the bread of God.

they were the first invited to the Gospel feast. Psalm 141:5. and trusted in themselves. and such as want understanding." Proverbs 13:20." Tigurine version. and in the preceding verses. the Spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of divine things. and their ministrations. Schultens. which is doing good. For wicked men are apt to hate those that publicly rebuke them. Reprove not a scorner. which are able to make a man wise unto salvation. and preach it to them. are to be invited into Wisdom's house. lest he hate thee. Such who are spiritually wise will be thankful for the reproof of Gospel ministers. The scorner here. yet when men despise it. though this also should be bore with. to rebuke such an one is not only labour lost. Hence minister's of the word are of all men most hated. Piscator. "shame" is the sure consequence of it. and go to the Gentiles. and atheists. so he bid his disciples let them alone. {m} Myatp "imperitiam. and despised others. "fatuitates. He that reproveth a scorner getteth to himself shame. and by these means get and increase it. and who also converse with knowing and experienced Christians. Matthew 9:13. they show that they have. for "he that walketh with wise men shall be wise. Intimating. the same that is described in the context.. and is quite irreclaimable. Mercerus. Vatablus." Piscator. and so judged themselves unworthy of it. as the Jews of old. to reprove and exhort such persons." Gejerus. and who was determined to take kindly the reproof of any righteous man." Vatablus. as Christ came not to call them himself. and make a mock at it. but also proud scornful Pharisees. the abandoned sinner. and ask wisdom of the Father of lights. who constantly and carefully read the Scriptures. and even of . Michaelis. Solomon got all his wisdom and understanding this way: such are in the way of it. and no more is to be said to them. Verse 8. and giving that which is holy to dogs. for such are said to have a good understanding. and quite incorrigible. contradicted and blasphemed the word. Gussetius.. they made light of it. 703. and go in the way of it. Christ and his apostles. the scoffer at all religion. that they may be taught by trim. Amos 5:10. Verse 7. such who derided Christ himself.. that feed men with knowledge and understanding. who frequently attend the throne of grace. and such. were bid to turn from them. or there was any reason to believe. they are to be turned from.. if there was any hope of doing good. sensualists. though this a man might patiently bear. and in vain.. rebuke a wise [man].. which they that ask have. and keep the commandments of Christ. that though the simple. who sit under the ministry of Gospel preachers.. yet not the haughty scorner." Pagninus. or Christ's ministers. {n} wyxw "et vivetis. that the reproof would be of any service. may not only design profane sinners. bent on his wicked ways. "stoliditates. could it be thought. "stultitias. it is but casting pearls before swine. for it is to no purpose to address such persons. and he will love thee. as David did Nathan. and of whom there is hope of doing them good. see Psalm 111:10. and scoff at all that is good. and he that rebuketh a wicked [man getteth] himself a blot. a very profligate man. who walks after his own lusts. but the rebuker getteth himself an ill name. who go up to the house of the Lord as often as they have opportunity. this shows who is meant by a scorner.. who submit to Gospel ordinances. wherefore Wisdom's maidens. that despise all religion. p. though the Gospel is to be preached to every creature. Luke 16:14. because a man is disappointed of the end he has in view.understanding. and is sure to have the dirt of reproach and scandal cast upon him.

to him of showing his wisdom and of improving in it: and he will be yet wiser. or grace. this is to attain to a good degree of understanding: as likewise the knowledge of the Holy Spirit. the author of sanctification. and which makes them so.. and communion with him. and godly. as the Lord his righteousness. not a legal knowledge of him as a lawgiver. not a mere natural knowledge of him by the light of nature. give him reproof. of which they are the . of regeneration and sanctification. chastisement. fulness. who are so called. and he will increase in learning. Syriac. Verse 10.. or instruction. and suitableness of his righteousness. he will learn something by every him that is given him. no man is wise till he fears the Lord. and does not trust in it. render it. the knowledge of God the Father. for not a slavish but a filial fear is here intended. as a convincer and comforter. it is the first act of wisdom. from a principle of love to him.. and appropriate him to one's self. as a Spirit of illumination and faith. and in the knowledge of Christ and all divine things. at least then he begins to be one. and love. such knowledge which holy men have. that has seen the insufficiency of his own righteousness. or which appears as soon as a man is converted and caused to know wisdom in the hidden part. and grace. trust in him. for fear is an awe and reverence of the divine Being. access unto him. and every lesson of obedience and duty. and has renounced that. God's Holy One.. and as the Spirit of adoption. so as to approve of him. and is at the first of it. but an evangelical knowledge of him in Christ. Give [instruction] to a wise [man]. and Arabic versions. and the knowledge of the Holy [is] understanding: either the knowledge of the Holy Ones. doctrine. and for the good which they themselves receive hereby. as the three divine Persons in the Godhead. Verse 9. correction. have communicated in the sacred Scriptures. for the former are never without the latter. this is right understanding: so the knowledge of Christ. and the earnest of glory. a knowledge of him in his person. as repentance. and as the God of all grace in him.private Christians. teach a just [man]. The Septuagint. and an offended Judge. one that is truly so. Moreover. believe in him. and a desire to serve and worship him in a right manner. Proverbs 1:7. see Matthew 13:12. he will be the better for it. This shows who the wise men are. joined with love to him. and which holy men of God. an inward knowledge of him. no sooner is a man converted. a spiritual acquaintance with him. teach such a man the doctrines of the Gospel. and who has learned Christ. so does the fear of God. righteously. and trusts unto it and depends upon it. and in what true wisdom lies. it is the beginning of grace. whether it be by way of rebuke. In the Hebrew text it is only "give to a wise man". nor a mere notional knowledge of him by revelation. Vulgate Latin.. so as to have faith and hope in him. "give occasion". has seen the glory. moved by the Holy Ghost. and he that does so is a wise man.. quickly show themselves in one act or another. or by way of instruction. faith. Joshua 24:19. he will grow in grace. and will love and esteem them for their faithfulness and uprightness.. this is another branch of spiritual understanding. who is holy in his nature and works. and in consequence of this lives soberly. The fear of the Lord [is] the beginning of wisdom.. this is the principal part of wisdom. and operations of grace. be it what it will. but presently there is in him a fear of offending God. as his God and Father. of his person. offices.

yet in the world to come. redemption by Christ.. Verse 11. He is wise that harkens to Wisdom's advice. it will bring no real hurt to Wisdom. and feel the smart of it. and a land destined to thirst. is understanding indeed. in Proverbs 9:10. he wanders from the paths of his own husbandry. thou alone shall bear [it]. If thou be wise. The knowledge of holy things may also be meant.. The Syriac and Arabic versions add. they will receive some profit by it.. of the holy doctrines of the Gospel. Verse 12. "for by it thy days shall be multiplied. and the punishment due unto it. It is not for her own sake that Wisdom presses her exhortations. and contain a reason and argument why her call and advice in the preceding verses should be listened unto. see Proverbs 3:16. for ever and ever.. or Christ. scoffed at. which will be without end. She is a tree of life unto them. that obeys her call. see Job 22:2. but experimental. others blind reason. the unconditionality of the covenant of grace. and all the dreadful consequences following upon it. and advantage. the devil. others heresy and superstition. and he alone shall bear it. promoted. encourages and promotes holiness of heart and life. turns in to her house. justification by Christ's righteousness. as opposed to wisdom. he passes through a desert without water. eternal election. for his present peace and comfort. For by me thy days shall be multiplied. Cocceius. nor to his ministers. and becomes her guest. A foolish woman [is] clamorous. and preserved. the evil. or. see Proverbs 10:27. "they shall add years of life to thee" {o}.. These are the words of Wisdom. the same pursues birds flying. to which long life is attributed. the beginning of wisdom. and the Septuagint version is. for he forsakes the ways of his own vineyard. Verse 13. and length of days. "and unto thy friends". which entices and draws men to that which is evil. and perseverance by his power: and now a knowledge of these things. and teach men to live in a holy manner: the faith once delivered to the saints is a most holy faith. others carnal sensual pleasure." and which are retained in the Syriac and Arabic version.. satisfaction by his sacrifice. it is for his own good. and the knowledge of the Holy. not notional. reap the advantage and usefulness of it. as the Vulgate Latin. by means of her bread and her wine spiritual life is maintained. {o} Myyx twnv Kl wpyowy "et addent tibi annos vitae. and the years of thy life shall be increased. they. the author and giver of spiritual and eternal life.. pardon by his blood. The Targum is. is the gift of her right hand. "if thou becomest wise to thyself. which are all according to godliness. as the doctrines of God's everlasting love. for the good of his soul... and is so urgent on men to take her counsel and advice. their wisdom is not profitable to her. The Septuagint version here adds the following clause. and such an one is wise for himself.. ignorant of divine things. it is for their own good. others the old serpent. if not in this world.. and for his future bliss and happiness. the fear of the Lord. thou shalt be wise for thyself." which seems to refer it to the fear of the Lord. profit. wisdom and understanding. and he gathers unfruitfulness with his hands. conversion by efficacious grace.penmen. "he that trusteth in lies. and they only. of the holy mysteries of religion. thou wilt be wise to neighbours". but are not in the Hebrew text." Baynus. the sin of scorning. since she gives long life to her followers. as well as a knowledge of holy and gracious experiences. all the hurt will redound to the scoffer himself. nor to his Gospel and ordinances. but to themselves. she seems to be the same . Some by this woman understand folly itself.. but [if] thou scornest. he feedeth on winds.

Schultens. nor the Spirit of God. Popish . [she is] simple.. &c.. is without the fear and love of him. "Merome. and endeavours to seduce and raw persons to her superstition and idolatry. and trained up in the principles of true Christianity. spiritually good. see Revelation 13:2. yet he is destitute of all spiritual wisdom and knowledge. and faith in him. {q} From Mwr "altus". Babylon. in the high places of the city.. and the operations of his grace upon the heart." Revelation 17:5. "super solio. The Septuagint and Arabic versions are. Whoso [is] simple. just as harlots are very desirous of seducing and debauching chaste. seems to design antichrist. The harlot's house. knows nothing that is good. and its jurisdiction. and comes from the same root {q}. that is. or "throne" {p}. as the Targum. looking out for her prey. which the dragon gave to the beast. or throne.. on a seat. see Revelation 18:7." the word for "high places. and on it written. power. and sending out her maidens to call in her guests. "Mystery." Revelation 17:3. for whatever worldly cunning and craft. placed at Rome. and is "foolish". the high places of which are their temples. To call passengers who go right on their ways.] Idle and inactive. where this foolish woman is noisy and clamorous. or churches. Junius & Tremellius. to make them proselytes to her antichristian religion. when she succeeds in. who is described in the book of the Revelation as the great whore. or Christ. and as it follows. clamorous." Cocceius. and very pressing and importunate to gain proselytes to his religion. and are in a fair way for heaven and eternal happiness. For she sitteth at the door of her house. Proverbs 2:16. the mother of harlots. not active and laborious. killing her beasts. knows not God aright. and virtuous persons. wealth. {p} aok le "super solium. but exposing herself in the most public manner. and wicked subtlety. Revelation 16:13. &e. Antichrist is represented as a "woman. she glories and boasts of. and abominations of the earth. building her house. 1. Who have been religiously educated. hence that of Virgil--"altae moenia Romae. let him turn in hither. "she knows not shame". "in thronum. having a whore's forehead. but is bold and impudent. which. or antichrist. miracles.with the strange woman and harlot before described. and the way of righteousness and life by him. merits. a woman of follies." Montanus. see Revelation 2:20. as Wisdom. v. and calls unto them. furnishing her table. and authority. worship. Saying as follows: Verse 16." has some affinity with Rome. proclaims her folly. Verse 14. where this woman reigns." Aeneid. has a mouth speaking great swelling words of vanity and blasphemy. and most grossly ignorant. boasting of infallibility. and ordinances of God. l. the same seat. the city of Rome. Verse 15. Michaelis. there may be in the Romish antichrist. 7. and riches. and all the characters here agree with the same. extremely foolish and simple. sitting as a queen. croaking frogs. and being at the utmost ease. and the doctrines of it. and knoweth nothing. These she has her eye upon as they pass along. and endeavours to turn them aside out of the way they are going. nor knows Christ. nor the Gospel. and who walk outwardly according to the rule of the divine word." Piscator. the priests and Jesuits are compared to noisy. works of supererogation. and is "clamorous" and noisy. nor the ways. and being set in direct opposition to Wisdom. innocent.

and idolatry. but such who are dead in a moral or spiritual sense. furtiva munuscula. and sweet in the enjoyment of them. which are no other than spiritual adultery. private sins. or the mighty ones she has cast down there. as the Targum. 13. so the word "rephaim" sometimes signifies: and some think that reference is had to the giants of the old world. addresses him in such language as follows: Verse 17. and the pleasure promised by them is what makes them so desirable. rolled in the mouth. for which he was indebted to Solomon. that. and speak lies in hypocrisy: and such that she fixes upon as proper persons to work on are the simple. Pindar. She uses the same form of words that Wisdom does. the credulous and unwary. But he knoweth not that the dead [are] there. Proverbs 5:15. about which there were sometimes great strife and contention. So Propertius. though they live in pleasure. is sweeter to an unclean person than a lawful enjoyment of his own wife. into which she invites passengers to turn. and secretly committed. or. Ep. and a drinking water out of another's cistern. that all prohibited unlawful lusts and pleasures are desirable to men. has not a spiritual and experimental understanding of them: she saith to him. now waters got by stealth from such wells and fountains were sweeter than their own... being forbidden and unlawful. which is a sort of theft {r}. are more grateful and pleasing to a corrupt mind than the true and pure worship of God. or what might be had in common and without difficulty. does not consider that there are none there to be his companions.chapels and churches. {t} "Quas habeat veneres aliens pecunia nescis." Junius & Tremellius." Catullus ad Mantium. 3. 28. or eaten there: the sweet morsel of sin. particularly idolatry. Satyr. p. and obedience to their commands. 140. Michaelis. superstition. 1. and they were sometimes sealed and kept from the use of others. and are easily persuaded and imposed on. and where the giants are... l. and is taken and hid in secret places. 2. "Furta Jovis. and were the property of particular persons. Vulgate Latin. hidden bread. who are not on their guard. Proverbs 9:4. a show of religion. Wells and fountains of waters in those hot countries were very valuable. and the more so because forbidden: and particularly as adultery.. l. that which is stolen and is another's {t}. {s} Myrto "latebraram. gluku ti kleptomenon melhma kupridov. "bread of secret places" {s}. to which the proverb alludes. {r} "Furtiva Verus. Paedagog. as the Vulgate Latin and Syriac versions. that corrupted their . and Syriac versions.. is not well grounded in the principles of Christianity he professes. her priests are wolves in sheep's clothing. Stolen waters are sweet. the inventions of men. secret lusts. l. they are dead while they live. the same thing is designed by this clause as the forager. and [as for] him that wanteth understanding. v. so false worship. Deuteronomy 13:6. and bread [eaten] in secret is pleasant. 66. Piscator. and where those that are slain by her have their everlasting abode. fetched out from thence. v. where her guests are.. having a form of godliness." Ovid de Arte Amandi. and which they privately commit. 145. the simple. to which men are secretly enticed. By which in general is meant. see Genesis 26:18. and kept under the tongue. Aben Ezra refers this to "hell" in the next clause. according to Clemens of Alexandria. 30. 252. that is persuaded by her. Verse 18. eleg." Juvenal. as the Targum.. but without the power of it. In the house of this foolish and wicked woman.

the former is clearly to be understood of Christ. Revelation 14:9. &c. who are no other than the followers of Christ and antichrist. Verse 1. but who are so in a moral sense. shows the profit and advantage of it.. or as if a foolish son only caused grief to his mother. and prepares for the reception of those wise sayings that follow. see Proverbs 7:26. the one as wise. since here begin those pithy sentences of Solomon. conduct. being opposed to him. and consist generally of clauses set in a contrast to one another.. gives directions about it. Some interpret the words mystically. but as being equally joyous or afflicting to both parents. and the fruits and effects of them. which are for the most part independent of each other. to whom he had committed the charge of building the house of the Lord. good or wicked.way on earth. The proverbs of Solomon. and children for their conduct towards their parents and in the world." of . the preceding chapters being a sort of preface or introduction to them. in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone. because more at home. and persuaded to turn in there. the "father. and all that worship the beast.. and to observe the effects of it. and more abroad to hear the fame of it. and not separately of each. the whore of Rome. brings grief and trouble to her. and mother of harlots: now in the following part of this book two sorts of persons are spoken of. good. describing righteous and wicked men. a wise son maketh a glad father. which made David rejoice that he was placed on the throne before his death. as perhaps Rehoboam did to his mother: though all this is to be understood conjunctly of both parents. Nor is this to be understood of such who are wise and foolish as to their natural capacities only." the other is called the "foolish" woman and a "harlot". must be antichrist. righteous. as Solomon made glad his father David: for no doubt there were appearances of his wisdom before he came to the throne. This title is repeated from Proverbs 1:1. not only in the way to it. and the other as foolish. which bear the name of proverbs. and have their portion in hell fire. which they do not consider that are drawn into her idolatrous practices. either virtuous or vicious. and on the brink of it. but in the very midst of it: there are many in hell she has invited into her house. and actions. one goes by the name of "Wisdom. and the latter. whose behaviour much depends upon it. not as if a wise son only was matter of joy to his father. &c. that frequently in the preceding chapters two persons are represented as women. since their joy and grief are influenced by it. though greater afterwards. and commit fornication with her. setting forth their different temper. without any very apparent connection or coherence with each other. [and that] her guests [are] in the depths of hell. and often expressed by similes and metaphors. which observation is a key to the whole book. It should be observed.. wicked. will go down to perdition with her. Wherefore parents should be concerned for the education of their children. but a foolish son [is] the heaviness of his mother. and more privy to his foolish behaviour. CHAPTER 10 Proverbs 10 From this chapter to the "twenty fifth" are various proverbial sentences. and very properly stands here. in which Solomon recommends the study of wisdom. who may be thought to be a better judge of his wisdom. or commit spiritual adultery with the whore of Rome. and brought a deluge on it.

These are oftentimes the means of saving the lives of persons ready to perish. the souls of such shall not be famished for want of spiritual food. The Lord will not suffer the soul of the righteous to famish. and those which are got by ill means. or bring to heaven. or put to wicked uses: what are not used profit not the possessors of them. nor can he by them save himself from a corporeal death one year. and the like. though in the wilderness.. which is created in righteousness and holiness. they that fear the Lord shall not want any good thing. nor will they be of any service to him in the day of judgment. the one being wise. though not from a corporeal death. or else what is liberally dispensed. Moreover. "perish by evil travel. as with marrow and fatness. and this is either imparted and implanted in men. cannot justify. or the righteousness of men in obedience to the law. Matthew 25:34. by fraud. Nor can anyone by his riches either redeem himself or his brother from destruction. Or are either not used at all. living in which is no other than death: or this righteousness is imputed. for by it they are quickened. yet not so as to be destroyed by it. oppression. the one acceptable to God. or as a punishment for sin: and it delivers from a legal death. and live to him. and keeps their souls from famishing. and have communion with God.. either that which is righteously got. and entities them to life everlasting. and to Christ.." of the church. Proverbs 11:4. the "mother. a death in trespasses and sins men are in. the other foolish. for in "famine" the Lord redeems such from death. and from the second and eternal death. or put to an ill use. one hour. their souls shall be fed. and though their good deeds are not meritorious of eternal life. and from it as a penal evil. Verse 2. the other not. Proverbs 10:3. which is the righteousness of Christ. yet from the sting and curse of it. and with honey out of the rock: the church. Or to perish by famine: not but that good men may be afflicted with it. nor does it nor can it separate from the love of God and Christ. the "sons. on whom they are bestowed. a legal righteousness. and this delivers from a moral or spiritual death. or from the sentence and condemnation of the law. with the finest of the wheat. when the famine was in Egypt and in other lands. and are kept alive when threatened with death. one month.God. received by them. yet they are rewarded with it in a way of grace. when wrath comes forth against him. By which are meant either a large abundance of riches in general. wrought out for them. Psalm 41:1... Moreover. righteousness may be considered as legal and evangelical. were often in hunger and thirst. and such liberal persons are oftentimes blessed with long life. and as the apostles. though it be ever so little. shall not have a famine of the word and ordinances." of the children of them both: and so may fitly describe the different followers of Christ and antichrist. though the young lions lack and suffer hunger. and to righteousness. is a means of preserving life." Ecclesiastes 5:13. reckoned to them. or an affluence of them. it is not properly a righteousness." Psalm 112:9 Daniel 4:27. at least whatever they may suffer this way does not arise from the wrath of God. is .. which for the most part are enjoyed by wicked men. particularly the Apostle Paul. this delivers them. as Jacob and his sons were. for they are "kept to the hurt of the owners" of them. save. it is imperfect. or give to God a ransom for him. and. Job 5:20.. one day. notwithstanding this a man must die: but there is an evangelical righteousness. being freed from the servitude and dominion of sin. and who will venture their lives to save their benefactors. or entitle to life. Verse 3. for alms are called "righteousness. and by which they are justified. one moment. but righteousness delivereth from death. cannot deliver from the sentence of death the law has passed. Treasures of wickedness profit nothing. live a life of faith on Christ. and abused to wicked purposes. is the new man. obtained in a wicked way.. have his image stamped on them. see Micah 6:10.

"a deceitful balance maketh poor" {w}. Blessings [are] upon the head of the just. "fraudulenta manu. 2. he makes them throw it up again. are slack and negligent in duty. whether they will or not. and casts it out of their belly." Bochart. in consequence of his faith. par. such who are slothful in attendance on the means of grace... made." who is Christ. Cocceius. That seeks for righteousness. but acts deceitfully.. that is. or that is negligent and slothful in his business... and to his parents and relations. in the time of health and youth. bring a spiritual poverty upon them. such who are "sharp" {x} and acute. so Junius & Tremellius. but does not.. and is justified by it. as in Proverbs 10:22. righteously. frequently grow rich: or rather who are like those that dig in the earth for gold. "that worketh with a deceitful hand". who pretends to work. that lives by faith upon the righteousness of Christ. makes a show as if he did. and lives soberly. for he is "the head of every [such] man. the word and ordinances. as others. {w} So Mercerus. Schultens. as sometimes he causes it to diminish by little and little. and. does justly. Aben Ezra observes. these grow rich in grace and in all good works. Proverbs 3:14. l. or who uses many tricking and deceitful ways and methods to live. c. and causes it to take wings and fly away. and do the honest part. and times. it may be rendered and interpreted." 1 . according to his abilities. who search for it with great eagerness and diligence.. Verse 6." Montanus. as usually slothful persons do. 668. but by faith. {x} Myuwrx "acuti. and laying them up against winter. as the ant is said to do. not by the works of the law. such who are diligent in the use of means are frequent at the throne of grace. Proverbs 6:8. and half a time. who. blind and naked: on the other hand. or it does not long prosper with them who use such unlawful methods. that which is got in a wicked way. That is either remiss in giving to the necessities of others. thinking to enrich himself by such fraudulent practices: or. [but] he that sleepeth in harvest [is] a son that causeth shame. Michaelis. "he becomes poor that makes a deceitful balance". He becometh poor that dealeth [with] a slack hand. so that it does not profit them. and godly: upon his "head. Job 20:15. of doing or receiving good. Verse 5. The sum of the proverb is. but the hand of the diligent maketh rich. Revelation 12:14. though it has been swallowed down with great greediness and in great abundance. persons should be active and industrious in their several callings and stations. or. {u} hymr Pk "vola doli. neither in a natural nor spiritual way. and as cases require. as it may be rendered. 55. constantly wait at Wisdom's gates. Which is the time of gathering the fruits of the earth. to himself. who are careful and industrious.. forsake not the assembly of the saints.. became poor and wretched. and like the Laodicean church. and reckoned just through it..nourished for a time. All this is true in a spiritual sense. mind their business. such seldom or ever thrive. and that they should lose no opportunities. as the word signifies. 1. accounted.. col. with the blessing of God along with it. with a divine blessing. blessings are. through her lukewarmness and carnal security. "with a hand of deceit" {u}. these. but he casteth away the substance of the wicked.. for from this root is a word often used for gold. at other times he forcibly and suddenly drives it away." Tigurine version. that. and provide against a time of sickness and old age. He that gathereth in summer [is] a wise son. Hierizoic. Verse 4. Or.

and are a scandal to him. either in temporals or spirituals. as well as entail a curse on him. the Targum renders it. palliates and excuses it. from whence they are denominated just. they make an abbreviation of the word by the initial letters. the blessing of adoption. that they reside. and from him they descend to them. such as are blessings indeed. or wish all blessings to him while alive. The Jewish writers take it for a command. 2.Corinthians 11:3. that he that transgresses it breaks an affirmative precept. as the husband is the head of the wife. and he has not one word to say against the just judgments of God upon him. Or else. only. not the pope of Rome. whether here or hereafter. spiritual ones. he is a political head to them. that is. or rather the fruit and effect of his violence and oppression. and render it. his people are blessed with them in him. So in an ancient writing of the Jews {y}. see Psalm 112:6. Verse 7. a part being put for the whole. for his violent usage of men.. the middle pillar. and after death they speak well of him. see Psalm 107:42. this passage being mentioned. Who is the head of the righteous? The answer is. and he is in such sense a head to them as a natural head is to its body. it is asked. and Arabic versions. as the word is used in Proverbs 11:26. that blessings are upon the persons of righteous ones. continue. and everlasting head. or hides and conceals that which is in the heart. but violence covereth the mouth of the wicked. though in the end bitterness. ... may denote that they come from above. Men to whom he has been useful. their head. the punishment due thereunto. that his mouth is stopped. either his violent dealings are open and manifest. for such are had in everlasting remembrance. a perfect." Montanus. and a right to eternal life: these being said to be on the "head" of them. and say. an economical one. and such are all the blessings before mentioned. the Messiah. Correct. {y} Tikkune Zohar. Vulgate Latin. "the mouth of the wicked covereth violence" {z}. and always spoken of with honour and commendation. and for ever. both in eternity and time. just as the oil on Aaron's head ran down his beard to the skirts of his garments. "operit iniquitem. and pronounce him blessed." Vatablus. he is the representative and federal head of all the elect. and descend in a way of grace upon them. Upon him all the blessings of grace and goodness are. "in the mouth of the wicked rapine is covered. the memory of them is sweet and precious. and a master the head of his servants. and remain upon them. "the heads of the righteous. The Septuagint. superior to them. every sanctifying grace. by whom they seem to mean a middle person. Mercerus. whenever they make mention of his name. Baynus. bless him. their name is famous and valuable. particularly a justifying righteousness. peace of soul. everliving. and calls it by another name. and join them to the names of their celebrated men. and does not utter it. is head of the church. The memory of the just [is] blessed. {z} omx hoky Myevr yp "os impiorum operiet injuriam. 47." All covenant blessings. fol. as a king is to his subjects. see Proverbs 10:18. read. pardon of sin. solid and substantial. The Targum is. irreversible. "let the memory of the just be blessed". "the blessing of the Lord [is] upon the head of the just". the meaning is. 87. a father the head of his family. that they are as an ornament and crown unto them." as a sweet morsel under their tongue. is so righteously inflicted on him. Some render the words. the members of his body. that they are visible and manifest. the Mediator. Ephesians 1:3.. he is of the same nature with them. and that they are a security of them that no wrath and vengeance can fall upon them. but Christ.

he walks on "terra firma. by their own names. and has moreover the testimony of a good .. safely. yet these. so that he has nothing to fear. who walks by faith on Christ. and will be his guide even unto death. Proverbs 2:7. interpret the word. in order to transmit their memory to posterity. and in the truths of the Gospel. He that walketh uprightly walketh surely. so they leave an ill savour behind them. and never mentioned: and though they may call their houses. who walks uprightly according to the truth of the Gospel. not only the angels of God that encamp around him. and in all the ordinances thereof. in imitation of him. be buried in oblivion. see Ecclesiastes 8:10. as such that fear the Lord.. which goes before him. using him as the way to the Father. 9. "the fool by his lips shall be taken. 51. hearken to those of their masters. who. lands. and in all holy conversation and godliness. that prated against the Apostle John and other saints. honour their king.but the name of the wicked shall rot. believing in him for salvation." as in a snare." {a} Orat. will receive and cheerfully obey the commandments of God and Christ. and lead him in the way everlasting. and into hell in the next. and their memorials perish with them. Such an one has nothing to fear in his walk. and attend to his lawful commands. and. he falls into disgrace in this world. and speaks the truth in his heart to his neighbour." or securely. Philip. when the good name of the righteous is as precious ointment. not only that the Lord will be a buckler to him. as good subjects. as faithful servants.." on good ground. and all the Oriental versions. who makes the word of God the rule of his life and actions.. &c. which leads to life eternal: he has a good guide. Or. integrity. who walks in and after the Spirit of Christ. regard those of their parents. studying to exercise a conscience void of offence towards God and men. in whom is no guile.. It is a saying of Cicero {a}. as things putrefied are abhorred. in a good way. patience. out of the abundance of it in his heart. Verse 9. Not that walks without sin. as dutiful children. he has a good guard about him. speaks and pours it out by his lips: such an one falls into sin and into mischief. are destroyed. unto the land of uprightness. and if their names are mentioned after they are gone. the Spirit of God. confidently. but that walks in the sincerity. meekness. but a prating fool shall fall. as Christ did. Ecclesiastes 7:1. who worships God in spirit and in truth. but God himself is a wall of fire to him. walking on in him as he has received him. {b} Mytpv lywa "stultus labiis. Such who have true wisdom in the hidden part of the heart. "that walketh in perfection" {c} as the Targum. and even through the valley of the shadow of death. who is an Israelite indeed. and cities. Or.. whose folly is proclaimed and made known by his lips. as the Septuagint." Montanus. no man does that. by one means or another. as he did. both before God and men. and in all humility. that "the life of the dead lies in the memory of the living.. and self-denial.. who walks in love. but. who walks. "a fool of lips" {b}. and. but will withhold no good thing from him. it is with detestation and abhorrence. and especially dealing with his uprightness or righteousness for his justification before God. of which the fear of the Lord is the beginning: these will not only. Vulgate Latin. like Diotrephes. Verse 8. Such a man "walks surely. shall be forgotten. and uprightness of his heart. The Targum is. The wise in heart will receive commandments. he has many precious promises to support him. when he passes through the fire and water of afflictions. he has the gracious and supporting presence of God. and his power surrounds and protects him.

things that are pleasant and profitable. and such like filthy and corrupt communication. and which tend to the good of the life that now is. or.. wholesome. and forgives them. See Gill on "Pr 10:6. and are for the use of edifying. who so does. or as a token to another of its being the proper time to circumvent his neighbour. or awake. whom he corrupts and draws into his evil company and conversation.. and refreshing. which minister grace to the hearers. whom he allures and deceives.. but others. though they think to hide it." Pagninus. rejoices in hope of the glory of God. what savours of rapine and violence. nothing but lying and deceit." as the Targum is. The Syriac and Arabic versions add. and even path. A man. as the word {d} signifies. He that winketh with the eye. and they be known to be what they are." as the Targum. however he may for the present please himself with his evil doings. so the righteous man's mouth. "heaps afflictions" or "sorrows on men". or by way of scorn and contempt of others. and pleasing. but winds about here and there. Proverbs 6:13. Such an one causeth sorrow. "he shall be broken. Love spreads its mantle over the sins of its fellow creatures and Christians. but he that perverteth his ways shall be known. yet at the last judgment. grateful and acceptable. and having a good hope through grace. and that which is to come. continually running and flowing with water. but violence covereth the mouth of the wicked. to himself in the issue. hides . and to others. as the upright man. not its own. Verse 10. who does not walk in a plain. Gejerus. Like a fountain of living water. "with fraud.. by raising lies." as the Vulgate Latin..conscience. either to draw and allure persons to go along with him. and join him in his evil practices." A descriptive character of a wicked man. even all of them: instead of exposing them. these he renews by tale bearing. which covers all the sins of his people with the blood and righteousness of his Son. but a prating fool shall fall. "the mouth of the ungodly covers injury". in imitation of the pardoning love and grace of God. whose heart is full of hatred and malice against his neighbour. overflows with good things.. refreshing. and evil surmises. Hatred stirreth up strifes. or "beaten. if not in this life. Mercerus. 1 Timothy 5:24.. {c} Mwtb Klwh "qui ambulat perfecte.. but love covereth all sins. they and their wickedness shall be exposed. out of the abundance of his heart. Jarchi and Aben Ezra observe another sense of the word." Verse 11. Verse 12. which is meditated in the heart.." and compare with it Judges 8:16. The mouth of a righteous [man is] a well of life. "be taken. and deceive men. so the Vulgate Latin version. yea. walks in craftiness as deceitful workers. goes into crooked paths. See Gill on "Pr 10:8. their tricks and artful methods shall be laid open. comforting. whose folly shall be made manifest. so that nothing comes out of it but what is pernicious and hurtful." The Targum is. reviving. and by virulent reproaches and slanders.. will stir up. or do him an injury.. The Arabic version is. cursing and swearing. direct. spreading false reports and calumnies.. he "walks in hope. according to the rule of the word. contentions and quarrels which were happily laid asleep. and holds fast that rejoicing to the end. and whisperings.

" V. 1 Corinthians 13:7. of the wisdom of God in his works. sooner or later.. and as a rich treasure they highly value it. Ecclesiastes 7:12. while the foolish man gets both stripes and disgrace. "occultant. as foolish men do. Or his wealth is so in his own apprehension and conceit. wisdom in the inward part. but the mouth of the foolish [is] near destruction: who rashly and unguardedly utters things which bring swift and sudden destruction on himself and others." {e} bl rox "carcutis corde". and conversation with good men: this they lay up in their hearts. {f} wnpuy "abscondent. these may fly away from him in life... and to the great credit and honour of the understanding man. and so brings himself to shame and confusion.and conceals them. Wise [men] lay up knowledge. read this clause in connection with the former. for the benefit of others. by it he can defend himself from the injuries of others. Syriac. "he that brings forth wisdom out of his lips smites with a rod him that is void of understanding. wisdom will be found in his lips. see Matthew 12:35. for money is a defence... or. of inward experience of the grace of God. conceal it. and support himself and family in times of public calamity. Verse 15.. from his lips will drop wise sayings. he puts his trust and confidence in it. "abscondunt. that they may bring it forth at proper times. and memories. do not boast and brag of it. Montanus. prayer. instead of loading and aggravating the infirmities of others. In the lips of him that hath understanding wisdom is found. very instructive and informing. The Septuagint. and leave him exposed to distress and danger.. or as contrary to Christian reproofs and rebukes for it. Michaelis. He that has an understanding." Vatablus. or hide {f} it. as the word {g} also signifies. especially of divine." Michaelis. and.. hearing the word of God. hopes and bears. and. What a fortified city is to persons in time of war. and evangelic things. Verse 13.. however. and answers all things. of the Gospel. and believes all things. "but the mouth of the foolish is near to confusion". where the apostle seems to have respect to this passage. Which they get by reading.. see 1 Peter 4:8. is chastised for it. not of mere natural wisdom. that is a rich man's wealth to him. This is not to be understood as conniving at or suffering sin upon others. but spiritual wisdom. which those that seek for and observe may find to their profit and advantage. when he is trusting to uncertain riches. and on proper occasions. his mouth will speak of it. will not secure him at death from the wrath of God . {g} htxm "terrorem accersit. "wants a heart" {e}: that has no understanding of spiritual things in his heart. The rich man's wealth [is] his strong city.. The Vulgate Latin version is. but a rod [is] for the back of him that is void of understanding. which is the pure gift of God. that they may not forget it. Montanus." Cocceius. and.. as follows. Mercerus. and thinks himself safe and secure by it. of Christ. and Arabic versions. Gejerus. or terror and consternation. Verse 14. "terror. "consternatio propinqua. {d} rrwet. spiritual. meditation. Psalm 37:30. the hidden wisdom. puts the best constructions on them. L. betrays his ignorance." Pagninus." Tigurine version. thus. and so utters nothing but what is foolish and wicked. he boasts of his knowledge. minds. which will fail him. the Wisdom of God.

and death. Now he to whom this instruction comes with . are all used to sinful purposes. springing up unto everlasting life. the destruction of the poor [is] their poverty: or their poverty is their consternation. and by way of eminency. to signify that is not intended. that is all he desires. to pride. not that the works of a righteous man (so the Targum. a life free from all the inconveniences of the present life. knowledge. who truly believe in him. to seek for eternal life in this way. a life of pleasure. and hearing the word. and despises others. since by these the law is not fulfilled." Mercerus. which is truly. even death eternal. John 6:27. and through his blood. sufferings. Of eternal life. Verse 16. and Arabic versions. peace. when they are made new creatures. Gejerus. or whatever way acquired. Christ is the only true way to it. his labour may be said to tend to life eternal. lawfully or unlawfully. as war. are afraid of everybody and of every thing. or pestilence. "life. The labour of the righteous [tendeth] to life. Verse 17. and so tend to death. thinking himself safe. is in high spirits.. not being able to defend themselves against their enemies.. as displayed therein. and a vain thing. Michaelis. who. as the word {h} signifies. and wantonness. properly. yet. the instruction in righteousness which the Scriptures give. and life. who have a sight of Christ. Or he is lifted up with his riches. and salvation by him. animal or spiritual.and everlasting destruction. have a tendency to promote and maintain a spiritual life in him: or to eternal life. render it in the plural number) are meritorious of eternal life. has opened the new and living way. and joy." Matthew 19:17. or whether left him as an inheritance. knowing their circumstances. through him. secretly in election. into the doctrines of peace. He [is in] the way of life. whether got by labour. and have that principle in them which is a well of living water. nor justice satisfied.. are quickened by the Spirit and grace of Christ. as the righteous man labours for the meat which endures to everlasting life. righteousness. and waiting upon ordinances. of perfect holiness. love. righteousness. into the grace of God. but by the grace of God. obedience. especially the Gospel part of them. dangerous. as some observe. though the word seems purposely omitted. openly in the effectual calling. all that he labours for is to get a livelihood for himself and family. into the person and offices of Christ. pardon. and which will last for ever: the "way" to it is not by works of righteousness done by men. all his revenues and riches. or support themselves in times of public calamity. it is sinful. distresses. which is an instruction into the mind and will of God about man's salvation. given by the Son of God. as in a strong castle. To natural life. and which is a life of glory. or death. for life and righteousness are not to be had by the works of men. and fears nothing. {h} htxm "consternatio. way is made for all that believe in him to enter into eternal life: and such are in the way to it who are in Christ. and therefore no justification of life by them.. they. a life of perfection. Septuagint.. the fruit of the wicked to sin.. the just wages of sin. diseases. famine. with which eternal life is connected. whatever he enjoys.. the increase of his substance and fields.. so his spiritual exercises in praying. Particularly he is in the way unto it that keepeth instruction. by his obedience. nor does he seek great things for himself: or to spiritual life. and come unto him by faith. reading. or what entitles to eternal life. and the support of it. and sacrifice. luxury. it frightens them.

"vel fallacium." Tigurine version. takes notice of and follows its direction. as Aben Ezra. and outwardly behaves as one. or by parents and masters." . {l} txkwt bze "qui relinquit increpationem. "he is in the way of life that keepeth instruction. the men of Anathoth to Jeremiah. and founded on close meditation and study. and forsakes or rejects the reproof of him that causeth to err. and finds the word of the Gospel. the admonitions and reproofs. "he that multiplies words brings on or brings unto sin. the one as well as the other. and be saved. He that rejects the counsel and advice. and the other a fool. Or. that is. and is his duty to do it. and with a multitude of words detracts from his good name. "derelinquit. and that the former is more abominable and pernicious than the latter. instructing to look to him and believe in him. Where a great deal is said. and in the most public manner. pointing out Christ as the way of salvation. "deserens." Cocceius. Aben Ezra reads this clause in connection with the former. "he that hideth hatred [is a man of] lying lips" {m}." {i} rmwv "observat. "deserit. "facit oberrare. he is most assuredly in the way of it. and abides by it. and eats it. who "observes" {i} it. each of these is a fool.. Joab to Amasa. who receives it in the love of it." Pagninus. but much falsehood. Verse 19. and who retains and holds fast such instruction. "sin ceaseth not" {n}.. as Jarchi: and then it may be understood of him "that forsaketh reproof" {l}. he wanders far off from the way that leads to life. Or. not but that much and long speaking may be to great profit and advantage.. or both himself and others. when it is with care and judgment. Verse 18. friends or relations. "observans. as the word here used signifies." Gejerus. such a man is a fool. {m} "Est vir laborium falsitatis. and consequently is in the way of death.. who openly defames his neighbour. and goes into the paths of sin. and Judas to Christ. which cannot be excused from sin. from the way of life. but the secret dissembler. "causeth to err" {k}. and at least many idle things. {k} hetm "faciens errare." Cocceius. that declines giving reproof. which ceases not as long as that continues: it is a saying of the Jewish Rabbins. Some render it. "seduceus sese. that brings it out by wholesale. "errare facit. as the person next described is a fool." Montanus." which is much the same. not only the public slanderer.. a very wicked man: yea. by the ministers of it.power." Cocceius. but inwardly nourishes and cherishes hatred in his heart. and is nourished by it unto everlasting life." Piscator. as said of one and the same person. who thinks himself a cunning man because he hides himself. Gersom thinks there is a comparison made between the dissembler and the slanderer. and loads him with calumny and reproach. till he has a proper opportunity of showing it. without care and forethought. Schultens." Piscator. which he covers and conceals. Gejerus. along with a torrent of words is a flow of sin. and hides it not. as it may be rendered." some in Vatablus." Schultens. "servat.. that wish him well. the one being a liar. either others. as Absalom to Ammon. but he that refuseth reproof erreth.. given in the word of God." Montanus. when it lies in his way. that is. there will not only be many weak things uttered." Tigurine version. and reputation. And he that uttereth slander is a fool. In the multitude of words there wanteth not sin. he is a liar. Or he whose "lying lips hide hatred. who pretends to be a friend.. credit. He that hideth hatred [with] lying lips. see Proverbs 26:24. and is the savour of life unto life.

. they have under their tongue. the affections are inordinate. and persons to whom he speaks. these the righteous feed. all that is in it is sinful. conducts accordingly: such a man is a wise. does not suffer his lips to utter anything rashly and inconsiderately. pure. Junius & Tremellius. prudent.. incurably so without the grace of God. no sin can be named but what is in his heart. and comes out of it. see Psalm 37:30. words are but wind. and understanding man. and. pleasant. but they continue under the power of a spiritual death. and they are fools that trust in them: this shows the necessity of regeneration. and his tongue talks of judgment. good for nothing. {n} ldxy al "non cessabit. fetched out of the mines of the sacred Scripture. consistent and all of a piece. and the rich experience of grace he has been favoured with: things pure and incorrupt. and by the good counsel and advice. and that continually. see Jeremiah 3:15. and his lips feed many. Verse 21. are with grace. are only evil. all circumstances weighed. things the reverse of a corrupt communication.. lays a restraint on his mouth. but fools die for want of wisdom: not a corporeal death. and so die an eternal death: not for want of natural wisdom." Piscator. place where. "non cessat. like silver free from dross. things for worth and value as choice silver. very wickedness. the heart of the wicked [is] little worth. the precious promises of it. wise men die even as fools. and that powerful and efficacious grace is requisite to it. for the righteous man's mouth speaks wisdom. all manner of evil is in it. the understanding is darkened with it. Not their bodies. The lips of the righteous feed many.. the thoughts of it. as in Proverbs 10:21. they give them. nothing filthy and unclean. there is no good thing in his heart naturally. faith. free from the dross of error. but for want of spiritual wisdom and knowledge. and set on sinful lusts and pleasures. as the Vulgate Latin version. and the . it is wickedness itself. it is not enough to say to the distressed. and bent upon it: his heart is wicked." Montanus. things profitable and edifying. Which utters things precious. The righteous man's tongue is better than the wicked man's heart. see Proverbs 17:27.. the doctrines of the Gospel. and the imagination of his thoughts. by communicating the spiritual knowledge and understanding of divine things they are partakers of.. and which tend to purity of heart and life. and will not feed. without any human mixture. and exceedingly wicked. "be ye warmed and filled. the mind and conscience are defiled with sin. and considers well the time when. the knowledge of Christ. and profitable. the power of which he has felt upon his heart. and the will is obstinate and perverse. Michaelis. unless this can be understood of obtaining food for others by their prayers. the honey and milk of the Gospel." and give nothing. by setting before them the bread of life. desperately wicked. which is common to men of every rank and quality. which they may have a greater share of than those who live spiritually and eternally.. Verse 20. as the doctrines of grace. and minister grace to the hearers. as Jarchi interprets it: but the souls of many. of prayer and thankfulness: things which are grateful and acceptable. the language of repentance.. and the way of life and salvation by him. for want of enlightening and quickening grace. that it is true and proper to be spoken. is sparing of his words and is careful of what he says. comforts and admonitions.but he that refraineth his lips [is] wise. which have been applied unto him. Such therefore know not their hearts who say they have good hearts. The tongue of the just [is as] choice silver. the language of Canaan. and love. a pure language. bridles his tongue.

which are able to make a man wise unto salvation. a "bridle" or "restraint" upon him.. The blessing of the Lord. riches are from the Lord. a very depraved nature indeed: or rather "to commit sin" {o} of any sort. and humbled for it. and of the reproofs and admonitions of good men. Baynus. to avoid sin. but a man of understanding hath wisdom. see 1 Timothy 6:9.. instead of being ashamed of it. good will. which he has devised in his own heart. see John 4:34. joy. he enjoys them. Verse 22.. and cheerfulness. distress. he makes a mock at it. {o} hmz twve "facere scelus. laughs at it. that he cannot do mischief and delight in it. This is eminently true of spiritual riches. and commits it as openly and freely." Montanus. Cocceius. and. there is no sorrow attending them. that makes them rich in faith and in good works. that bestows upon them his unsearchable riches. and not always for the want of the means of such wisdom and knowledge. to do it. without much thought about them. so it is a delight to an understanding man to do that which is wise and good. and a jest of it. over and above. as well as of all religion. and not attributed to the industry. as it may be rendered. To do any injury to the persons and properties of men. or the ways of Christ. as one observes. and losing them. it is as a "laughing" {p}. . and he addeth no sorrow with it. not only takes pleasure in doing it himself. Job 28:28. he takes as much pleasure in it as men can do in their sports and pastimes. which is the wisdom of God in a mystery. and not to do it. Sin is pastime. which shows a most wicked and malicious spirit. while the wicked man is full of anxiety. that enriches them with all spiritual blessings in him. as the Scriptures. and when they come this way they come as a blessing. he has a truer pleasure and a better relish than they have. see Ecclesiastes 5:12. but through the neglect and contempt of them: though sometimes men perish through want of the means of knowledge... Hosea 4:6.. or expectation of them. and should be acknowledged as such. but should be looked upon as had through the blessing of the Lord upon the labours of men. diligence. [It is] as sport to a fool to do mischief. he delights in the law of God after the inward man. as the riches of wicked men unlawfully gotten are. riches enjoyed through the blessing of God are not attended with that sorrow in getting.knowledge of God in Christ. and the Gospel. for he has. pleasure. he seeking the kingdom of God and his righteousness. it maketh rich. no sorrow goes along with the blessing. it is a laughing matter to him. see Proverbs 14:9. but in them that do it. Junius & Tremellius. that makes men rich in Christ. In the diligent use of means. but what is a blessing itself. it is the blessing. the fruit and effect of them are peace. and merit of men. which is true wisdom. yea.. and favour of God. and with the riches of grace and of glory. Matthew 6:33. all these things are added to him. as the words may be rendered. he runs the ways of his commandments with great alacrity and cheerfulness. as it is a pleasure to a feel to commit sin. without any anxious care and sinful solicitude. and with one: it may be understood of being made rich in a spiritual sense. so it is with great delight. are pleasantness to him. for as the good man comes by them easily. and the neglect of those who should instruct them. keeping. Verse 23. from the use of the word in the Arabic language {q}. sagacity.. see Proverbs 10:4. when he has done it. he commits sin. as the fool does: or "so [is] wisdom to a man of understanding" {r}. and readily communicates them to others. that is. it is "meat and drink" to do the will of God. and sorrow. he takes as much delight and pleasure in it as men do in their sports. and comfort. and Wisdom's ways.

Michaelis. as expressed in Proverbs 10:25. so that they are "not": not that . sooner or later it comes upon him. so the wicked dig a pit for others and fall into it themselves. {r} So some in Gejerus. Michaelis. God shall give it. after glory and happiness.. boisterous. and the wild beast of the field: and these "pass away" like a whirlwind. who were afraid of being scattered upon the face of the earth. and is according to it. The wicked themselves are like a whirlwind. by which they are caused to pass away. Heb." Tigurine version. that the very thing which men fear comes upon them by the means which they take to prevent it. and all tyrannical persecutors. now they are seen in great power and authority. s. Gejerus.. and it is in the whirlwind and storm of divine wrath. who are as the boar out of the forest. Some understand this of the righteous man's desire upon the wicked. bearing down. after the righteousness of Christ." Piscator. what is for his own good and the glory of God. have at times their frights and fears about these things. for the most profligate and abandoned wretches. that is. it shall come upon him. Psalm 7:14. who speaks like a dragon. Jeremiah 4:13. that his fear might come upon him. after more communion with God and Christ. Schultens de Defect.. Montanus. {q} Vid. for which rejection of him the thing they feared came upon them... As the whirlwind passeth. which falls upon the head of the wicked. or Apollyon. and blustering. in God's own time and way. so when the wicked perish there is shouting. fierce and heady. and like a whirlwind. The fear of the wicked." Pagninus. suddenly. Proverbs 11:10. that he might be cleansed and kept from sin. 216. the Romans would come and seize their city and nation. noisy. and anon they are not any more. and with submission to the divine will. but the desire of the righteous shall be granted. Verse 24. so the Jews were afraid that if their people believed in Jesus of Nazareth. and so it sometimes is.. or "he shall give" {s}. and of eternal wrath and vengeance hereafter. living and dying. "justis dat quod cupiunt. and as a whirlwind passes away to the joy of men. such is the man of sin. Verse 25. the destroyer. and a being with them to all eternity. who endeavour to work themselves up to a disbelief of a God and a future state. and fresh supplies from Christ. so the locusts of the bottomless pit. after holiness of heart and life. as Jarchi's note is: what a righteous man desires from right principles. {s} Nty "dabit. Ling. who has it in his hands or power to give it. Psalm 90:11. breathing out slaughter and threatening against the saints. and judgments in this life. so will his wrath be. carrying away. makes a circle and buries itself in it. which digs up the earth. what he asks in faith. and so are his followers. "patrare facinus. the greatest atheists. Jarchi illustrates this in the instance of the builders of Babel. after more grace.." Junius & Tremellius. and at once. his fear of distresses.. an increase of it. and conformity to them. Jeremiah 23:19. What he dreads in his own mind will be his unhappy case. "dabit Deus. and therefore endeavoured to persuade them to reject him." Mercerus. "dat Deus. Hod. pernicious and destructive. Baynus. so [is] the wicked no [more]. which thing feared came upon them through and for their building of the tower. Gejerus. as will be at the destruction of antichrist more especially. and preserved to the coming of Christ. "perpetrare scelus. Piscator. under their king Abaddon. swiftly. and the glory of divine justice appear in his swift and sudden destruction. and with right views. calamities. and destroying all before it. and to be found alone in that." Schultens. granted unto him: particularly his desires after righteousness. and as are their fears of God. so Aben Ezra." Mercerus. {p} qwxvk "veluti risus. Michaelis. is sooner or later. as the whirlwind.

though the wicked pass away as the whirlwind. and eternal redemption wrought out by Christ. and is very pernicious and vexatious: so [is] the sluggard to them that send him: that is. and he is the only one. and sacrifice. joy. righteousness. they are somewhere. Jesus Christ the righteous. in his offices of Prophet. they will rise again and come to judgment. with its coldness and sourness. in hell they lift up their eyes. is dilatory. the righteous shall not. which foundation is not external privileges of birth and education. which will answer for him in a time to come. having a share in everlasting salvation. and live in torment for ever. in their own houses. {u} "Fundamentum mundi." Junius & Tremellius. being sent on an errand. but the righteous [is] an everlasting foundation. and love. and having everlasting strength and everlasting consolation in Christ. and is a foundation which is sure. but sandy foundations. he is in a firm and stable state here and hereafter. when they pass away. dissolve the earth. or a mere outward profession of religion. their own corruptions. they are not in their grandeur and prosperity. the "righteous. he is the foundation of the church. "is an everlasting foundation". render it.. but they are in their own place. he is the foundation of every particular believer. Some render it. 2 Peter 3:9. and he is the same today. but Christ is the righteous man's foundation. being justified by his everlasting righteousness. in the efficacy of his blood. enjoying their riches and honour." Tigurine versions. Which. and King. when they are called and gathered in. who. Verse 26. as the Targum explains it. the sense is the same. the slothful messenger. and by one. which will know them no more. on which they were laid. which are a well of living water springing up to everlasting life.. "the righteous [is] the foundation of the world" {u}. were it not for the sake of the righteous. they are rooted and built up on him. hope. he is the foundation of their faith. Some take the sense to be. they are the stay of it: the whirlwind of God's wrath would tear up the course of nature. "as the sour grape is hurtful to the teeth. he is so in his person as God-man. as formerly. he is the foundation of the apostles and prophets. blunts the teeth. in which he is rooted and grounded. and Arabic versions. they are on a foundation. love. As vinegar to the teeth. Hence. the rock on which it is built. and for ever. and comfort. hope. and cannot be blown off of it by the storms and tempests of Satan's temptations. and of their eternal glory and happiness: and an "everlasting one" he is. though they wish they had no being.they are annihilated at death. they are "not" indeed in the land of the living.. and all things in it. causes the eye to water. as the righteous are the salt of the earth. dims the sight. 1 Corinthians 3:11. {t} Mlwe dwoy qyduw "atjusti fandamentum perpetuum est. there will be a general dissolution of all things. secured in an everlasting covenant. or works of righteousness done. faith. and a title to eternal life through him. the persecutions of men. and makes it troublesome to eat: the Septuagint. and by whom they are saved. vel est fundamentum perpetuum. "but the righteous [has] an everlasting foundation" {t}. and a partaker of those graces of the Spirit. and will never fail: he has been the foundation of his people in all ages. and. peace. or by the whirlwind of divine wrath and vengeance. and as smoke to the eye. "justo vero sit. yesterday." sets them on edge." Hebraei in Mercer. Or. does not make haste to . ordered in all things and sure. the errors of the wicked. Syriac. the pillar and support of it. these are not everlasting. Piscator. Priest.." that is. interested in everlasting love. Maimonides apud Grotius.

in which is fulness of joy. which they hide or use not. as well as it has length of days. see Psalm 34:11. all which. but the expectation of the wicked shall perish. in consequence of which they walk uprightly. Proverbs 10:9... who have the uprightness or righteousness of Christ imputed to them. being grounded on a wrong bottom.. "[is] gladness" {w}. godliness has the promise of this life and of that to come. their sins.. even eternal life. Long life is promised to them that fear the Lord. but longer than some others. be it on what account it will: so slothful and unprofitable servants. and die before their time. Or. as were Ananias and Sapphira. annexed to it. Junius & Tremellius. and by leading to his Son. and the way which he prescribes and directs his people to walk in: the way in which he walks in providence towards them is the strength of them. the . he rejoices in hope of the glory of God. Matthew 25:26. and the weakness of their constitutions. in the communications of his grace. To these "the way of the Lord [is] strength". for ever and ever. raises their passions.bring back the answer. as the God of providence. in all human probability they might have arrived unto. and he will not be disappointed hereafter. serving the Lord. and so of prolonging their days. and of escaping the wrath of God. the than of his right hand. even a wall of fire round about them: and the way he takes in the discoveries of his love... and the issue of his hope will be an abundant entrance into the joy of his Lord. Not beyond the time fixed in the unalterable purposes and decrees of God." Pagninus. or than those that fear the Lord expect to live. or longer than... his hope and expectation. according to the course of nature. shall be frustrated.. Who are upright in heart and life. are very provoking to Christ. or are taken off in their full strength by the immediate judgment of God. which cut them off before they have lived out half their days. both the way which he himself takes. Job 14:5.. it is now attended with joy. he has a pleasure in the exercise of the grace of hope as to future things. in the application of precious promises. by granting the influences of his Spirit. The way of the Lord [is] strength to the upright. to whom talents are given for usefulness.. but fervent in spirit. and before the time. The fear of the Lord prolongeth days. or by means of which.. or of a long life in it. makes them fretful and very angry. {w} "Est. is very strengthening unto them: so likewise the way in which he leads his people. Psalm 55:23. he shows himself strong on their behalf. Piscator. and pleasure in this world. it could be thought they should live. those who have gifts for sacred service ought not to be slothful in business. and so they die in the midst of their days. and the common period of life. Michaelis. Verse 29. the fear of the Lord is the means of preserving persons from those things which are pernicious to the health of men. they come into the hand of the civil magistrate. Verse 28. which. according to the course of nature. and right spirits renewed in them. and honour. see Job 8:13. which their sins bring upon them. he is their fortress and strong tower. Verse 27. a being brought into his presence. which is very vexatious to those that send him. through diseases. Romans 5:2. The hope of the righteous [shall be] gladness. and whom he will order into outer darkness. and is enabled to hold fast the rejoicing of his hope firm unto the end. or of happiness in the other. and the vengeance of eternal fire. he is their shade on their right hand. but the years of the wicked shall be shortened. either of riches. he is not ashamed of his hope now. made strong for himself and them.

which will be swift and sudden. it will continue for ever. once children. as Job was. and will be more so in his awful procedure at the last judgment. but destruction [shall be] to the workers of iniquity. and they will be removed out of this world into another. no more servants. destruction and misery are now in all their ways. their spiritual strength is renewed: moreover. the way of the Lord in his works of providence. and there will be no deliverance from it. here they have no continuing city: but they shall never be removed from the love of God. who has put them there. yet be children. and such seize on a wicked man at death. Verse 30.. and there is no removing them from thence. and shall hear him pronounce him cursed. for good frames are very precarious and uncertain things. men or devils. Pagninus. argue weakness in Christ. yet not separated from his affections. Nor can they be removed out of the family of God. make a trade of it. "consternatio. but go on their way cheerfully and pleasantly. walking in the way of the Lord gives them spirit and courage. the more they walk in them. they may be corrected and chastised. so that they fear no enemy. The righteous shall never be removed. Gejerus. nothing can separate them from that. and suppose danger to them. in which he oftentimes does terrible things in righteousness. come upon them before they are aware. they may judge themselves unworthy of the relation. as it is pleasant. and yet the relation continues: nor will they ever be removed from their state of justification. which. their justification is complete. they shall never be removed out of the hands of Christ.way of his word and ordinances. they may be removed from spiritual and comfortable frames of soul to carnal or uncomfortable ones. nor any dangers and difficulties. the stronger they are.. this their way leads to ruin. they are set as a seal on his heart. they may be without the manifestations and discoveries of it to their souls. and which will still more strongly possess him when in hell he lifts up his eyes. and hold the reins of government? Was it possible they could be removed from hence. even destruction of both soul and body." V. so strengthening. through the persecutions of their enemies. when he shall see the Judge coming in the clouds of heaven. and out of which none can pluck them. and do nothing else but sin. not to all that do iniquity. {y} So Mercerus. support all in being. and will be everlasting. they may be waiver about their interest in the love of God. or may not enjoy the presence of God in them for a time. and also at the day of judgment. they grow stronger and stronger by them. and fear they are none of them. They may be removed from place to place in this world. they may be under the hidings of God's face. how should they. by which they are denominated righteous. and will be the certain issue of them. but the way of the Lord is "terror to the workers of iniquity" {y}. whose course of life is sinful.. {x} htxm "pavor. and makes them bold and intrepid. to whom death is the king of terrors. and are engraven on the palms of his hands. for full satisfaction is given to law and justice for them. they may be removed from a state of outward prosperity to a state of adversity. as they often are. they may be at a distance from his house and ordinances. while they are waiting on the Lord in them. or through one providence or another. Gejerus. for no man lives without sin. but to those who give up themselves to it. sitting on a fiery throne. The Word {x} signifies terror and consternation.. sons of God abide in his house for ever. Michaelis. since they are in those hands that made the heavens and the earth. Cocceius. L. they are no more foreigners and strangers. Mercerus. they go from strength to strength. The clause may be rendered. into a state of condemnation. and he is very terrible to men in his judgments here. Tigurine version." Vatablus. . into which they are put for security. and be ready to conclude that their spots are not the spots of God's children. it would impeach the wisdom of God.

"the mouth of the wicked [knoweth] frowardness" {b}. and Gospel of Christ. A false balance [is] abomination to the Lord. God. things contrary to God and good men.. through faith. but the mouth of the wicked [speaketh] frowardness. as an unprofitable tree. not only the righteous know in their judgment what is acceptable. or what is grateful: and such things they will deliver out.. and to a good tree. see Psalm 37:30..." Montanus. In a word. and the time of their abode on earth is so short. or "cut down" {z}. much less devilish. see Psalm 55:22. Montanus.. Junius & Tremeilius. and even their faith which receives it shall never fail. As the earth brings forth its increase. or is used only to speak froward things. Verse 32. Gejerus. that brings forth blasphemies against God. they are not used to it. not worldly wisdom. which are forbidden by the Lord. but practise them: some men know what is acceptable. to the light of nature. see Psalm 37:9. unto salvation. and entitled to eternal life. but the contrary. as it may be rendered. to which may be added. 2 Peter 3:13. and which they know to be so. Moreover. The lips of the righteous know what is acceptable. they are kept by the power of God. or perverse things. whose mouth brings forth wise things in abundance. they shall not inhabit the earth the righteous will. that they are secured from wrath to come. Under which are included all false weights and measures." Pagninus.. but they use themselves to say those things. Michaelis. {a} twkpht Nwvl "lingua perversitatum. but the froward tongue shall be cut out. but their lips do not know it. but the wicked shall not inhabit the earth. as the tongue of antichrist does. CHAPTER 11 Proverbs 11 Verse 1. which none but righteous persons shall inhabit. or perverse things. Mercerus.. but a very little while. Such "a tongue of perversities" {a}. their hearts and mouths do not agree. and what ministers grace to the hearers. the law of God.. Verse 31. Gejerus. the righteousness by which they are justified is everlasting. they not only know them in theory. and are abominable to him.. as Gersom observes. The mouth of the just bringeth forth wisdom.. all the divine Persons and perfections are on their side. as being injurious to the estates and properties of men: and more especially must be abominable in professors .. Or. they are on the sure foundation of electing grace. Christ Jesus. they are in the immovable covenant of grace. {z} trkt "succidetur. as scarce to be called an inhabitation of it. but spiritual and evangelical. not merely natural wisdom. and a tree brings forth its fruit.it is from all sin. even the new earth. when they both flatter and lie. they are on the Rock of ages. a good man is comparable to the fruitful earth. which brings forth nothing but perverse things. deserves to be cut out. things contrary to truth and righteousness. they are used and accustomed to them. what is well pleasing to.. and all fraudulent practices in commerce and dealing. as before. To God and man. wisdom is good fruit. their mouth speaks things contrary to their hearts. his tabernacle and his saints. as the tongue of a blasphemer. hence speech is called the fruit of the lips. to truth and right reason. which are very pleasant and profitable.

as the word {e} signifies. &c. or wisdom shall come. {e} Mydgb "perfidosorum. Gejerus. which he does well to take heed to. The integrity of the upright shall guide them. and will be the case of the Romish antichrist. and not after the flesh: and besides him. disgrace. see Psalm 25:21. who reckon themselves the least of saints. if found wanting. as Jarchi: the consequence of which is honour and glory. Piscator. and there plainly signifies the perverseness of the tongue or speech. as being contrary to the grace of God. are all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. deal treacherously with God and men. for though there may be common honesty where there is not the grace of God. but a just weight [is] his delight.. such humble souls shall be exalted. Verse 3. v. even unto death. Now to give just weight. {c} hmlv Nba "lapsis perfectus. "perfidorum. to go aside into crooked paths. which will not suffer him. the harlot. and actions of such as transgress the law of God. and his followers. and unto the land of uprightness. John 5:39. and in the way to honour and glory. and own that it is by the grace of God they are what they are." Montanus. but with the lowly [is] wisdom. and also just measure. and chief of sinners. who directs to the search of the Scriptures. and so may have respect to corrupt doctrine. such as carnal reason. 12. or a "perfect stone" {c}. {d} metra nemein ta dikaia. he leads into all truth. and destruction. as with Christ. Poem. with which all doctrines are to be weighed. Luke 14:11. shall be their ruin: the perverse doctrines and worship of the man of sin. and is well pleasing in his sight {d}. . this is agreeable to the will of God: false balances are abominable to him. as soon as one comes. so with his humble followers. This may be understood of balances and weights in religious affairs. but the perverseness of transgressors shall destroy them.. is what God requires. Phocylid. they are wise unto salvation. 2 Thessalonians 2:4. as described.of religion. and. the other comes... yet there cannot be the true grace of God where there is not honesty. see Leviticus 19:35. shall bring destruction upon them." Cocceius. opposed to Wisdom or Christ. Haman. used by antichrist and his followers. The one follows the other. they are to be rejected. who. The word for "perverseness" is only used here and in Proverbs 15:4. and to do justly in all civil dealings with men." Junius & Tremellius. words. and it is right to walk after him. is true wisdom. and others. who is meek and lowly. the ancient practice being to make use of stones for weights.. and next to that is the sincerity and uprightness of his heart.. for the grace of God teaches to deny all such worldly lusts.. will fall into shame. the balance of the sanctuary is the word of God.. Verse 2. 13. and the use of them to try doctrines by. Revelation 18:7. described in some preceding chapters. Nebuchadnezzar. The Spirit of God is the best guide of an upright man. knowingly and willingly. Revelation 14:4. then cometh shame. the perverse ways. Admon. the upright man has the word of God as a lamp to his feet. or rather keep pace together. and continues to be a guide. vain philosophy. Michaelis. see Acts 17:11. as in the case of the angels that sinned. and a light to his paths. while vaunting and priding himself in his glory and grandeur. or to do amiss: integrity of heart and innocency of hand go together. and the traditions of men. Adam and Eve. [When] pride cometh. such are the followers of the Lamb.

as the beast and false prophet will. trusted in him. but the wicked shall fall by his own wickedness. which they have dug for others.. enjoying more pleasure here. he shall stumble therein.. When God takes away the soul. see Proverbs 12:28. the pathway to eternal life and happiness. the highway. or.. so neither will they profit Rome Papal. and fall into ruin and destruction. when it will come in remembrance before God. and which they have spread for others.. or however it ceases when that does. Piscator. so as to perish eternally.. Revelation 19:20.. {g} wtevrb "in impietate sua. if he does not live without hope in the world. The righteousness of the perfect shall direct his way. complete in him. Or "make [it] plain" {f}. in the very act of sin. the hope of "unjust" men to oppress and injure others ceases when they die. and of being delivered from wrath to come. or as in a pit. see Revelation 18:4. but righteousness delivereth from death. as well as it shall deliver those out of Babylon. See Gill on "Pr 10:2". perfectly justified by his righteousness. [his] expectation shall perish. "in injustitia sua. as the righteous man has. and the hope of unjust [men] perisheth. he has none when he goes out of it. and expires when a man does. {f} rvyt "rectam facit. it is the direct way. into hell and damnation: or by means or because of it he will fall." Tigurine version. When a wicked man dieth.. that righteousness makes their way plain. which he has chosen and delights to walk in. Michaelis. from the curse of a corporeal death. see Revelation 6:15. or when he dies. will then be at an end.. or into it. totally and finally... that his expectations in this world are vain. and that in the very midst of their wickedness. . "complanat viam ejus... his wickedness will be the cause of his fall. "in improbitate sua turbulenta. when he comes to die." Schultens. to be destroyed. and looked for great things from him. and from dying the second or an eternal one. Verse 6. when fighting against God and the Lamb. attaining to more honour. Revelation 18:2. from the power of a spiritual one. and from falling by sin." Cocceius. the Targum is. taken as wild beasts are taken. as it will be the cause of the fall of Babylon. taken in it as in a net.." Verse 5. and brings to it. From death. he will then find. which is as the giving up of the ghost. to give it the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. and those which respect happiness in another world are ill-grounded.. he has no hope in his death. His expectation of a longer life. "improbitate sua. but transgressors shall be taken in [their own] naughtiness. that will be found therein when that is about to fall.. and as riches profited not Rome Pagan. it is only in this life." Schultens. who are the Lord's people. and summons to judgment. The righteousness of the upright shall deliver them. Riches profit not in the day of wrath. "in his wickedness" {g}: in his own wicked way. the righteousness of those who are perfect in Christ. Montanus. or that will be of any use unto him: moreover. Baynus. and of having happiness hereafter. in the day of the Lamb's wrath upon it. Verse 7." Junius & Tremellius.. that is. the expectation of others that depended on him. and be punished for it.Verse 4. of getting more riches. as in Proverbs 11:4. "from an evil death." Cocceius.

that such a hope that is placed in strength and riches perishes at death. The word rendered unjust men is by some {h} understood of strength. such who lie in wait to deceive impose upon the simple and credulous. Deceives him with his flatteries and lies. {h} Mynwa tlxwt "expectatio virium. and the completeness of his sacrifice. through the knowledge of the law. and then they that destroyed the earth shall be destroyed themselves. through speaking lies in hypocrisy. so. of the corruption of his nature. of the plague of his heart. so some in Vatablus. as ignorance is the mother of devotion.. but rather through the knowledge of the Gospel.. of the efficacy of his blood. in short. and as in the latter day the righteous will be delivered from all their persecutors. with fair words and good speeches. of his lost and undone state.. and antichrist will be destroyed with the breath of Christ's mouth. and false teachers. spiritual experimental knowledge of . and the doctrine of justification by works: through his knowledge of the person of Christ. and draws him into destructive schemes and practices." Pagniaus. Daniel 6:24. Baynus.." Montanus. and he had prepared for him. as well as of the sacred Scriptures in general.Job 3:17. and was hanged upon the gallows the other was delivered from. and error. and the wicked cometh in his stead. yet at death.. or designed to give them. and his enemies thrown into it. though it seems rather to design deliverance from trouble in the first sense. but through knowledge shall the just be delivered. for as by this such escape the pollutions of the world. "spes confidentium in divitiis. and so the meaning may be. which is to him a perfect deliverance out of all tribulation. One after another he comes into. and atone for sin. with false doctrines. of his impotency to that which is good... that the hope of the children of such persons is then cut off. as Haman did in the room of Mordecai. he is delivered and preserved from giving into the notions of the purity of human nature. and from being corrupted and destroyed by the words of his mouth: Jarchi says. from the hypocrite and deceitful worker. Amama. An hypocrite with [his] mouth destroyeth his neighbour. the power of free will. then the righteous are delivered from the trouble they gave them. and satisfaction of Christ. Revelation 11:18. or when the wicked die. corrupt and destroy many. and through the knowledge of God in Christ." Michaelis. superstition. and particularly antichrist and his emissaries. and of the Spirit and of his operations of grace. sonship. and of the insufficiency of his own righteousness to justify him before God. Esther 7:10. and as Daniel was delivered from the lion's den. of him as a Saviour.. "roborum. as if the sense was. since it follows. Verse 8. he is safe from being carried away with any errors concerning any of the divine Persons." Gejerus. from the error of the wicked: through a man's knowledge of himself. particularly concerning the deity. as in Proverbs 11:7. as the word {i} signifies. and as the Targum renders it. substance. with their damnable heresies. which the just man has. Verse 9. The righteous is delivered out of trouble. bring swift destruction on men. so likewise they are delivered. which warns against him. which are a man's substance. 1 Timothy 4:1. are kept and secured. in the church of Rome. Jarchi interprets it of children. of his offices and relations. of his incapacity to fulfil the law. "divitiarum. "spes in viribus collocata. the excellency of his righteousness. and the exceeding sinfulness of sin. or "corrupts" him. if not in this life. of his descent from Adam. riches. and the brightness of his coming. see Revelation 7:14." Munster.

and hallelujahs. increase in riches and honour. for they do not eat their morsel alone. so in the latter day. Junius & Tremellius.." Vatablus. to be found in that apostate church. and which are profitable to men. by their obscene and filthy talk the inhabitants of a place are corrupted. Mercerus. By the blessing of the upright the city is exalted. they increase in gifts and grace. [there is] shouting. or of their blessed counsel and advice which they give on emergent occasions.. and may be interpreted of the blessed deeds or good works which they do. see Proverbs 29:2. rejoice: and as it went well with them in Constantine's time. So Aben Ezra thinks the words have a connection with the former. there will be great voices in heaven. As it always does. Verse 10. but there are particular times when it goes well with them. and when the wicked perish. Revelation 18:20. with the gifts and graces of the Spirit of God. Montanus. but it is overthrown by the mouth of the wicked. Piscator. and when it goes well with them in spiritual things. their oaths and imprecations. when Paganism was destroyed and persecution ceased. when the pure doctrines of the Gospel were revived. by their swearing and cursing. and in prosperous circumstances. as the . when Babylon is fallen. in times of public calamity and distress. and which proves salutary. the city or church of God. Isaiah 60:21. {i} txvy "corrumpet. whether in temporals or spirituals. "corrumpit. and where there are many of these. just magistrates in a city or commonwealth are a blessing. So by the blessing of the Gospel of Christ. the humble hear of it and are glad. as it also was in the times of Constantine. which is matter of joy to others.. and these are either temporal or spiritual: when good men are blessed with temporal blessings. That is.. and when the kingdom shall be given to the saints of the most High. and when enemies rise up on all hands. either by the blessings with which they are blessed. when the Lord's people will be righteous. with blessings indeed. and to all eternity.the above things is the best preservative from all errors and heresies which corrupt and destroy the souls of men.. shoutings. when they prosper in the worm. and especially the poor. the city rejoiceth. the city of the living God was greatly exalted in their times. When it goeth well with the righteous. Verse 11. and this now is a reason why the city rejoices at its going well with the righteous. which were both times of joy to the city of God. So by false doctrines. and which is the more blessed for their sakes. by their lying and perjury. evil communications corrupt good manners. or rather for their blessed prayers which they put up for the peace and prosperity of it. and at the reformation. and which succeed. even in the worst of times. and the kingdoms of the world become the Lord's and his Christ's. as there will be great rejoicings. and are advanced to places of authority and trust.. and at the time of the reformation. it is the exaltation and glory of a city taken in a literal sense. or elsewhere. so Pagninus. the church will be the joy of many generations. and a new song sung. they bring the judgments of God upon a city. as well as they themselves are a blessing to it: and as the upright are blessed with spiritual blessings. to the overthrow of it.. those upright and sincere ministers of the word. rejoicings in the church. when they are fruitful and flourishing in grace.. in death. the place where they live is the better it. Gejerus. by the corrupt communication which proceeds out of their months. and so cause joy. the community of the saints. see Isaiah 3:10. it is well with them in life. or by the blessed doctrines of his apostles." Schultens. and for the good of the city. the city or church of God is in an exalted state: or rather this is to be understood of the blessings with which the upright bless others.

who is like a walking merchant or peddler.. and despises others: or a man "that wants a heart" {k}. but a man of understanding holdeth his peace: and will not despise his neighbour. Verse 14. or visible congregated churches. Mercerus. or so righteous as he. but by giving him opprobrious language. and as by his going about he gets into the secrets of persons and families. as those who are most destitute of wisdom conceit they have the largest share of it." as the Septuagint version. as the word {l} signifies.. the people fall. he speaks contemptibly of him. so a talebearer. he goes from house to house.. and so breaks the trust committed to him see 1 Timothy 5:13. and by so doing he shows himself to he a man understanding. the secrets which are imparted to him. The Arabic version adds. as the word signifies. is silent. Not only in his heart. as with the Arian heresy and others. if he cannot speak any good of him. as the Pharisee who trusts in himself that he is righteous. and in strict friendship: or he "covers the matter" {n} or thing. a kingdom. Verse 13. Baynus. sound and good counsel. in the congregation." Schultens. and therefore calls him fool at every turn. or he holds his peace. but he that is of a faithful spirit concealeth the matter. as the poor is generally despised by the rich. or city." Schultens. or give him ill language. he will not speak evil of him. "destitutus est corde. he hides the infirmities of his friend and neighbour.. have been corrupted and destroyed. that trusts him with his secrets. of which there are but few. they are like a ship . or because he fancies he is holier than he.. when he is reviled he will revile not again. Montanus. so whole cities. he reveals them to others. or so rich. "qui incedit nundinator. which his neighbour gives him for his good.... Piscator." Junius & Tremellius. or is intrusted with them. "velat negotium. Verse 12. and has been spoken to him in privacy. that goes about with tales from place to place. that despises and reproaches him. a commonwealth. nation. who takes up his wares at one place. or wants grace in his heart.. and despise others. The Targum and Syriac version render it "an accuser". that is "faithful" to his friend. {m} rbd "verbum. see 1 Peter 4:8. and will not answer the man void of wisdom. a people. he despises the counsel and advice. He that is void of wisdom despiseth his neighbour. as it may be rendered.faith of particular persons is subverted." Pagninus. {n} rbd hokm "tegit rem. and indeed such a man is no better. Mercerus. A talebearer revealeth secrets. openly and publicly. {l} lykr Klwh "obambulat ut mercator. Where no counsel [is]." Montanus. {k} bl rox "carens corde. because he is not so wise.. and vends them at another. and the same name is given to the devil in the New Testament.. his character not being known." Tigurine version. or of intellects. or better. and picks up tales at one place and carries them to another and tells them. a wise and prudent.. there had as good be none. he "conceals the matter" he is entrusted with: "the things. where that is not. and does not expose them as the talebearer does. or into schemes which bring them to it. or else because he is richer than his neighbour. he will not render railing for railing. the admonitions and instructions. that wants a good one. or "the word" {m} that he has heard. Where there is no wise and prudent. Gejerus. and exposes them to sale." Schultens. fall into ruin and destruction. either because he thinks he is wiser than his neighbour.

ruined and undone. whose abilities are not to be questioned. which David says should be the men of his counsel. see Isaiah 9:6. between herself and her husband. with the hand. and by both amiable and lovely to others." {q} ewry er "frangendo frangetur." Schultens. such an one is safe from coming into trouble by such means." and so the Septuagint version. and. and what is fit to be done: it may be rendered. Verse 16. and he smarted for it.. has lost all honour of these things. of Gospel discipline.." and the Arabic version. he was bruised and wounded for our sins. "where there is no governor. when the harlot." as leaves fall in autumn. "they that have no providence (or forecast) fall as a leaf falls. {o} twlbxt "gubernationes. "a gracious woman divides glory. or one to steer it: the Targum. Psalm 119:24. he engaging or becoming a bondsman for one whose circumstances he knew not." and it may be applied to the true church of Christ.. {p} Uewy brb "in amplitudine consiliarii. A gracious woman retaineth honour. and." that is. "a gracious woman raises up glory to her husband." Mercerus. that is.without a pilot. if they agree in their advice. {r} Myeqwt "complodentes." Jarchi interprets it of the congregation of Israel. in one that is abundantly qualified for a counsellor.. for the word is in the singular number. Verse 15. Syriac. and of Gospel conversation. "and hates those that place their hope in God. Piscator." Michaelis. of Gospel ordinances. He that is surety for a stranger shall smart [for it]. and became a surety on purpose to pay the whole debt and set us free. and these being bad bring a load upon him.. "in the greatness" or "largeness of a counsellor" {p}. The Targum is. which he was capable of doing: without being broken or becoming a bankrupt himself. his note is. Mr. and who that answers to this character as Jesus Christ. it may be the more depended upon. to which the Arabic version agrees. "they that have no government fall as leaves. or those "that strike" {r}. Cocceius. which she deserves. and what the consequence would be.. and retains the glory of Gospel doctrines. that is. a person may the better judge which is best to follow. the apostate church. the wonderful Counsellor? in whose counsel we may rest with the greatest safety. render it. in the Scriptures. because what one may miss another may hit upon." Junius & Tremellius. Or "a woman of grace" {s} one that has the grace of God in her heart. as she receives honour or glory from them. used in suretyship. which renders it. Jarchi's note is. which seeks the glory of Christ. and the reasons of them. and Vulgate Latin versions. in the advice of such an one a man may safely confide.. "defigentes. and which may be found in his word. "the wicked shall be broken. in allusion to a ship. if not.. but in the multitude of counsellors [there is] safety. to whose heart idolatry is sweet. nor did he fail. but then he knew our circumstances. Isaiah 42:4. see Proverbs 6:1. so she retains the same. "the congregation of Israel continually draws nigh to the glory of God and his law. and the word signifies the helm of government {o}. The Targum is. so Pagninus and others." and he that hateth suretyship is sure. or without a helm. Henry observes that our Lord Jesus Christ became a surety for us when we were strangers. in the large capacity or endowments of a counsellor." Junius & Tremellius. for he was not broken. . yet their different sentiments being compared together. Or in "breaking shall be broken" {q}. such an heavy debt as crushes him to pieces. and is of a virtuous conversation.

{s} Nx tva "mulier gratiae.. and abide in it. and all other good works. Schultens." Schultens. but [he that is] cruel troubleth his own flesh. that neither enjoys the good things of life he has. "formidabiles. nor will he provide that which is fit and convenient for his family. Such a wicked man as before described.." Junius & Tremellius. cruel persecutors. it promises him that pleasure. keep them. whose principal care it is to amass the riches and wealth of others. which it does not give him. R. and he does good to others with it. as well as he is solicitous in a spiritual sense for the good and welfare of his immortal soul. and so deceives his own soul.. instead of being given up to believe a lie. Verse 17. Colossians 2:23. by which they deceive the simple. and in the issue is the ruin of him. Gejerus.. see Isaiah 58:7. shall have a true. which the law does not require. Baynus. and whippings and scourgings.and strong [men] retain riches: some render it. or profit. and belief of the truth. The wicked worketh a deceitful work. are deceitful works. or. "as strong men retain riches" {t}. and at last themselves. Verse 18. they "obtain a deceitful reward of [their] work.. [shall be] a sure reward. as the word {u} signifies." Piscator. not in any honour to the satisfying of the flesh. and so all false doctrines. "uxor gratia pollens. and thereby does good to himself also. he hides himself from his own flesh. may be meant the beast of Rome and his followers. does acts of beneficence and liberality. all which may be called a troubling his own flesh. 2 Thessalonians 2:10. {u} Myuyre "violenti. and the manner in which he sows. which God has created for use. . he comfortably enjoys what God has given him. Piscator. Michaelis. Levi Ben Gersom interprets this of such who place religion in afflicting and macerating the body by fasting. solid. as they. wisdom.. who do this by penances and fastings. and will not communicate to the wants of his nearest friends and relations. instead of a deceitful reward. Ecclesiastes 5:18. against all that would take them from them. and conduct: or by those "strong men. propagated by deceitful workers.. according to what a man sows." Gejerus. so a gracious woman is as tenacious of her honour for chastity. but to him that soweth righteousness. a liberal bountiful man.. and. he being chosen to it through sanctification of the Spirit. nor suffers others to enjoy them. Schultens." as Gussetius {w} renders it. or liberty. it being in the power of their hands so to do. which will bring him to eternal glory and happiness. see 2 Corinthians 9:9." or "terrible [and] violent" ones. 2 Corinthians 9:6. and indeed every sin which a wicked man commits is a deceitful work. a sordid avaricious man withholds from himself that which is meet. or works of righteousness. Or "to himself": a man of mercy or grace. "quae gratia praedita est. and all to accumulate riches. modesty. The merciful man doeth good to his own soul. real. when they have got them into their possession. "a reward of truth". and which the apostle calls a neglecting of the body." Tigurine version. which are deceitful and perishing. and it may fitly be applied to the Papists. and who abstains from meats. they hold fast. under a pretence of religion. he shall receive the love of the truth. when they have got. so shall he reap. {t} w "ut. and shuts up his bowels of compassion against his own brother. will not allow himself the necessaries of life." Montanus. which. and substantial one.

the wicked shall not be unpunished. it makes a man alive in a law sense. indeed the best righteousness of man's is no justification of life. Internal grace. that say one thing and mean another. and are contrary to all men. 692. Godliness. Revelation 21:8. enter into combinations. is unto life: not mere outward acts of moral righteousness. and speak lies in hypocrisy. and will have their portion in the lake of fire. Comment. and in the paths of truth and holiness. and. Or. "unto lives" {x}. and being upright in all. and issues in it. and make a lie.. but such who eagerly follow after it and overtake it. yet are sincere. in the hottest place in hell. nor is meritorious of it. Christ. and are no other than dead works. Romans 6:23. in the plural number. that are contrary to the light of nature. where the same words are used as here: or.. please not God." Montanus. They that are of a froward heart [are] abomination to the Lord. the just wages of sin. these often by their sins bring diseases upon them. and gives a title and claim to eternal life. are double hearted men. or falls into sin through the infirmity of the flesh and the force of temptation. like the Jews of old.. but [such as are] upright in [their] way [are] his delight. who are the "undefiled in the way. yet they shall not go unpunished. Verse 21. he is well pleased with their persons in Christ. unite in their counsels. or though with both hands. so he that pursueth evil [pursueth it] to his own death. blameless. there being no need of a supplement: such as are in the way. [Though] hand [join] in hand. these work abomination. who give up themselves unto it. p. nor can it entitle to it. Verse 19. confederacies. Verse 20. or true holiness. the law of God. or. Though they give the hand to one another. it issues in that: not he that is overtaken in a fault.. has the promise of this life and that to come. however. as hypocrites will. under the pretence of religion..{w} Ebr. Such as are men of perverse dispositions and principles. and in their walk and works. and gather their armies together. particularly the righteousness of Christ. it is "to his own death". that will join each other. and strict alliances. or by means of which they come into the hand of the civil magistrate... who. as they flow from right principles. do the vilest things: such of all men are abominable in the sight of God. and will never bring to everlasting life.. and walk uprightly according to the truth of the Gospel. are "perfect" in Christ. gives a meetness for everlasting life. and are directed to right ends. die the second death. these may be done where there is no principle of spiritual life. to all good men. {x} Myyxl "ad vitas. and. and are capitally punished.. and walk by faith in him. These the Lord takes delight and pleasure in. to make .. see Psalm 84:11. draw iniquity with cords of vanity. weary themselves in committing it. hypocrites. which is the new man that is created in righteousness. "in the way". nor in their walk and conversation. endeavour to secure themselves. and Gospel of Christ.. as antichrist and his followers. As righteousness [tendeth] to life. and join all their force and strength together. which end in a corporeal death. as that is a perfectly justifying one. and so here in the Hebrew text it is." as in Psalm 119:1. 1 Timothy 4:8. in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord. or an eternal one. Israelites indeed. or. and sin as it were with a cart rope. though not in faith.. or powerful godliness. with all their might and main. This may be exemplified in the kings of the earth.

to prevent their rooting up the earth." and explains it thus. Verse 23. yet acting . which he explains by taste or sense: but it may be better applied to the scarlet whore." Piscator. and slain.. and the ordinances of it.. "what is good" {z}. Good is what he is continually desirous of. of idolatry. for himself and others. as in the affair of transubstantiation. wishing and praying for.. and good man. and that only. which is much more proper and suitable than a gold ring. will. that keep the commandments of God. to which her beauty was the snare. he desires all spiritual good things. but they escaped his hands. from the doctrines of the Gospel. and good is what he has eventually here and hereafter: though there may be many irregular and unlawful desires in him at times. and would be conformable thereunto.. and precious stones. holy. in order utterly to destroy them. yet at last just punishments will take place. {y} Mej trow Heb. and whereby it is quickly sullied and lost. but the seed of the righteous shall be delivered. or apostate church of Rome. "cujus recessit sapor." which is valuable and desirable. Revelation 17:4. and preserved by the power and grace of God. particularly the remnant of the woman's seed. and all things do work for and issue in his good. communion with him. or a scholar that departs from the good way. which is very unbecoming such a creature. and serves it with his mind. and their substance may be handed down from the one to the other. As her beauty is fitly expressed by a "jewel of gold. [As] a jewel of gold in a swine's snout. is ornamental. and given up herself to the embraces of others. or.. and have the testimony of Jesus Christ. forsaken her husband.war against Christ. he desires his favour. against whom the dragon. Revelation 19:19. "recedens a gusta. once her professed husband. Or. and which he desires in submission to the will of God. lost all sense of modesty and chastity. "from hand to hand. Verse 22. and superstition. wallowing in the impurities of lust. taken. the old serpent the devil. To which is opposed. and communications of grace from him. Revelation 12:17. when they will be conquered. and wallowing in all the faith of fornication. these are the seed of the church in all successive ages. The desire of the righteous [is] only good." Schultens. His desire is to do good. the discoveries of his love. and other things. his desires are to the Lord. the seed that are accounted of by the Lord for a generation. from a taste of virtue and honour. and there defiled.. and yet "drunk with the blood of the saints. and. from the hand of God into their hand shall come the reward of their work. or a jewel set in gold. Jarchi applies this to a disciple of a wise man. or to some miry place. Jarchi interprets it. and everything that is good. were delivered from him. and may be fitly compared to a swine with a jewel of gold in its snout. and pearls". being "decked with gold.. after the inward man. and all things he has may not seem good. and shall not go unpunished: to which may be added. though be does not always do what he would do: as he delights in the law of God. and is soon had to the dunghill." and "martyrs of Jesus". so she is properly represented by a swine. and to the remembrance of his name. and even from common sense and right reason. as he is a righteous. from all taste and savour of true religion. as well as in all manner of other sins and iniquities. as a seed to serve him. even though there may be a succession of parents and children. was wroth.. The allusion seems to be to the ringing of swine. "has departed from taste" {y}. only good is the object of it. or from the law. [so is] a fair woman which is without discretion. which has departed from Christ. and went forth to make war. and affections. which is usually done by putting an iron ring into their snout. rightly placed and used.

as a good man, his desires are only good, and there is nothing attends him but what is for his good; [but] the expectation of the wicked [is] wrath; what he is desirous of, wishing, and looking for, is wrath and vengeance upon all that displease him, and he is angry with; he desires no good to them, but evil; he desires and hopes for nothing but what is offensive to God, and will bring upon him his fierce wrath and sore displeasure; so that eventually nothing else will be the fruit and consequence of his expectation and hope; and some are so shockingly profane, and so dreadfully hardened, that they wait for hell, as Jarchi on the place observes; they look for damnation and expect it, and are easy about it. {z} bwj Ka "tantummodo bonum quid est," Michaelis; "tantum bonum," Cocceius; "nihil cupiunt quod bonum non sit," Mercerus; "tamen bonum quid," Gussetius, p. 39. Verse 24. There is that scattereth, and yet increaseth,.... That scattereth "his own," as the Septuagint, Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Arabic versions add: that disperses his money here and there, among many poor objects, plentifully and liberally; and his substance is so far from being lessened by such a conduct, that, by the blessing of God, it is increased more and more; or "become richer," as the Vulgate Latin; see Psalm 112:9. So he that disperses and dispenses the word of God, and spreads the truths of the Gospel, and freely and fully preaches them, increases himself in spiritual knowledge and understanding; and [there is] that withholdeth more than is meet; or, "right" or "just" {a}, by the, laws of God and men; from himself, from his family, from his friends and relations, and from the poor of the church and of the world; and from the cause and interest of Christ, and what is necessary to support that, according to his ability; but [it tendeth] to poverty, or "want" {b}: such a man is often brought to beggary; there is a moth and rottenness sent into his substance, which secretly consume it: so he that withholds any truth or doctrine, that keeps back anything that may be profitable to the saints; this tends to the impoverishing: of his soul, and the souls of them that attend on his ministry. {a} rvym "plus aequo," Vatablus, Mercerus, Gejerus; "plus quam aequum est," Cocceius; "prae quam rectum est, seu plus aequo," Michaelis. {b} rwoxml "ad egestatem." Junius & Tremellius, Picator; "ad penuriam," Cocceius; "ad rasam egestatem," Schultens. Verse 25. The liberal soul shall be made fat,.... Or, "the soul of blessing" {c}: that is, as the Vulgate Latin version renders it, "the soul which blesseth"; not that merely prays for a blessing upon others, and wishes them well, and gives them good words; but bestows blessings on them, gives good things unto them liberally, cheerfully, and plentifully; and so is a blessing to the poor, and receives a blessing from them again; as such also do from the Lord, by whom they are "made fat"; or are blessed with temporal and spiritual blessings; and are in thriving and flourishing circumstances, both in soul and body. So he that comes full fraught with the blessing of the Gospel of Christ to others is enriched with it himself, and becomes more and more flourishing in gifts and grace; and he that watereth shall be watered also himself; he that largely shares with others,

like a flowing fountain of water, shall have an abundance communicated to him again from God, the inexhaustible fountain of mercies. Watering the plants in Christ's vineyard is one part of the work of a Gospel minister; "I have planted, Apollos watered," &c. 1 Corinthians 3:6; and such who do their work well are watered, rewarded, refreshed, and comforted of God, being largely taught and richly furnished for such service by him; so the Targum, "and he that teacheth, also he himself shall learn." {c} hkrb vpn "anima benedictionis," Montanus, Baynus, Cocceius, Michaelis; "anima benedictioni dedita," Schultens. Verse 26. He that withholdeth corn, the people shall curse him,.... That hoards it up for a better price, in hopes of a better market; and does not bring it out, and expose it to sale, when there is a scarcity of it; so the Targum adds, "in famine"; or, "in straits," as the Syriac version; in a time of distress through, famine: this will bring the curse of the poor upon him, who will imprecate the most dreadful things on him and his family. Jarchi interprets it of the law, and of withholding the teaching of it; but it may be better applied to the Gospel, and the withholding the ministration of that, and so causing a famine, not of bread and of water, but of hearing the word of the Lord; which is done by the Papists, by prohibiting Gospel ministers preaching the word; forbidding the people to read it in their own language; locking it up from them in a language they understand not; and so starve the souls of men, which brings upon them a curse; but blessing [shall be] upon the head of him that selleth [it]; at a moderate price, so that the poor may be able to come at it; such will have their blessing; they will wish all happiness to them and their families, here and hereafter. Or, "that breaks" {d} it; separates it from the heap, breaks and grinds it into flour, and then sells it: or imparts it freely; so the Septuagint version, "that communicates": and the Arabic version, "that gives"; and may be fitly applied to a faithful minister of the Gospel, who breaks the bread of life, and freely and plentifully imparts it to the souls of men; and who has the hearty prayers and good wishes of the people to whom he ministers. The master of a family used to break the bread, as Christ often did. {d} rybvm "frangentis," Montanus. Verse 27. He that diligently seeketh good,.... Or "early"; who rises early in the morning, as the word {e} signifies, and seeks both to do good, and to enjoy it all the day; who, in the first place, seeks the kingdom of God and his righteousness; who, in the morning of his youth, inquires after the best things; and diligently pursues what is for his own good and welfare, and that of others, and for the glory of God: procureth favour, both of God and men: or, "seeketh favour" {f}; or that which is acceptable and well-pleasing unto God; but he that seeketh mischief, it shall come unto him; that seeks to do hurt to others; that which he seeks to do to them shall come upon himself; see Psalm 9:15; so antichrist, that leads into captivity, shall go into captivity; and that kills with the sword, shall be killed by it, Revelation 13:10. {e} rxv "qui mane quaerit," Vatablus; "quarens mane," Montanus; "qui mane vestigat," Schultens; "bene consurgit diluculo," V. L. so the Targum and Ben Melech.

{f} Nwur vqby "quaerit favorem, beneplacitum," Vatablus, Michaelis; "benevolentiam," Junius & Tremellius, Mercerus, Gejerus. Verse 28. He that trusteth in his riches shall fall,.... As leaves in autumn, which are withered and dry. To trust in riches is to trust in uncertain things; things not to be depended on, being here today and gone tomorrow; it is like leaning upon a broken staff, which giving way, the person falls: and so the fall of Babylon will be, while she is trusting in and boasting of her riches and grandeur, Revelation 18:7; but the righteous shall flourish as a branch; that abides in the tree, is alive and green, full of leaves, and laden with fruit: so the righteous are as branches in Christ, and receive life and nourishment from him, and abide in him; and bring forth fruit and flourish, like palm trees and cedars, in the house of the Lord, and grow in every grace, and in the knowledge of Christ; see Jeremiah 17:7. Verse 29. He that troubleth his own house,.... His family, his wife, and children, and servants; by being bitter to the one, and by provoking the others to wrath, and continually giving out menacing words to the rest; or through idleness, not providing for his family; or through an over worldly spirit, pushing on business, and hurrying it on beyond measure; or through a niggardly and avaricious temper, withholding meat and drink, and clothes convenient for them; see Proverbs 15:27; or through profuseness and prodigality. Such an one shall inherit the wind; nothing but vanity and emptiness; he shall come to nothing, and get nothing; and what he does, be shall not keep, and on which he cannot live; and the fool [shall be] servant to the wise of heart; he who has both got and lost his substance in a foolish way shall be so reduced as to become a servant to him who has pursued wise measures, both in getting and keeping what he has; and to whom perhaps the fool formerly stood in the relation of a master. Such a change will be with respect to antichrist and the saints, Daniel 7:25. Verse 30. The fruit of the righteous [is] a tree of life,.... Either the fruit which grows upon Christ, the tree of life, and which they receive from him; even all the blessings of grace, peace, pardon, righteousness, and life, Revelation 2:7; or the fruits which the righteous bring forth under the influence of divine grace; they are trees of righteousness, and are filled with the fruits of righteousness by Christ, and have their fruit unto holiness, and their end everlasting life. Aben Ezra interprets it, "the fruit of the righteous is as the fruit of the tree of life;" that is, lovely, beautiful, desirable, salutary, and issues in life; and he that winneth souls [is] wise; antichrist trades in the souls of men, that is one part of his wares, Revelation 18:13; but his negotiations about them are to the loss, and not to the saving of them: whereas wise and faithful ministers of the word, such as are here described, use all prudent methods to gain and save the souls of men, 1 Corinthians 9:19; even their precious immortal souls, which are of more worth than a world, are the immediate production of God, made after his image, which by sin they come short of; and having sinned, are liable to eternal death; the redemption of which is precious; the charge of which Christ has taken, and therefore is called the Shepherd and Bishop of souls; and which he commits to the care of his under shepherds, who watch for them, as they that must give an account. To "win" them is to teach them, for the word {g} has the signification of teaching or doctrine; see Proverbs 4:2; the

ministers of Christ are teachers, qualified and sent by him as such; and their business is to teach men their state by nature, how sinful, miserable, and helpless they are; and also Christ, and the way of life by him; that salvation is in him, and in no other; that justification is only by his righteousness, peace and pardon by his blood, and atonement by his sacrifice: they also teach various other things; as the fear of God, faith in Christ, love to him, and obedience to all his commands. To win souls is to proselyte them and convert them to the true religion; to bring them into a love and liking of it, and to embrace it: the souls that Abraham got or made in Haran are supposed to be such; and the same with those trained or instructed in his house, whom he armed for the rescue of Lot, Genesis 12:5; the former of which texts Jarchi compares with this, as explanative of it. The phrases of "turning many to righteousness," done by the "wise": and of "converting a sinner from the error of his way," whereby a "soul is saved from death," Daniel 12:3, are a proper comment on these words: which, moreover, may be rendered, "he that taketh souls" {h}; as a fort or castle is taken, and which is sometimes expressed by "winning"; see 2 Chronicles 32:1. The soul of man is a hold, and a strong hold, of foul spirits; it is Satan's palace or castle, which he keeps and holds against Christ, but is won and taken by him; which is usually done by means of the word, and the ministry of it, which are made effectual to the pulling down of strong holds, 2 Corinthians 10:4. Or the allusion is to the taking or catching of birds in a snare, or fishes in a net. The souls of men are got into the snare of the devil, and they are taken out from hence by breaking this snare; by which means they escape the hands of the fowler, Satan, and come into better hands: the old serpent laid a bait for our first parents, by which he gained his point, and that was the fruit of the forbidden tree; but the bait which wise men lay to catch souls is the fruit of the tree of life, mentioned in the former clause, the blessings of grace in Christ. Again, Christ's ministers are called "fishers" of men, and are said to "catch" men, Matthew 4:19; which they do by casting and spreading the net of the Gospel; the Gospel is the net; the world is the sea into which it is cast; where natural men are in their element, as fishes in the sea: the casting of the net is the preaching of the Gospel; and by means of this souls are caught and gathered in to Christ and his churches, Matthew 13:47. Once more, the words are by some rendered, "he that allures souls" {i}; which is done, not by the terrors of the law, but by the charming voice of the Gospel; by which souls are drawn to God and Christ, and brought among his people: and one that is an instrument of all this had need be "wise," and so he appears to be; he that teacheth men the knowledge of divine and spiritual things had need to be as he is, as a scribe well instructed in the kingdom of God; he who is to be the instrument of converting sinners must have a mouth and wisdom to address them in a proper manner; as he that wills a castle, or takes a fort, ought to have military skill as well as courage; and to cast a net well requires art as well as strength. {g} xql "qui docet," Pagninus, Baynus, Mercerus, Gejerus. {h} "Capit," Vatablus, Tigurine version, Junius & Tremellius, Piscator; "capit salutari doctrina," Michaelis. {i} "Allicit," Drusius, Gejerus. Verse 31. Behold, the righteous shall be recompensed in the earth,.... Which Aben Ezra understands of the recompence of their good works. There is a reward for the righteous, and which they have now in keeping, though not "for" keeping, the commandments of God; they have the promise of this life, as well as of that which is to come, and which is made good to them; they have every good thing now which is proper and convenient for them; and they shall be recompensed in the new earth, in which only righteous persons will dwell. But it seems better, with Jarchi, to interpret

it of the recompence of their sins and transgressions; that is, of their chastisements and afflictions, with which they are chastised by their heavenly Father, when they sin against him; which are all in love and for their good; and which they have only here on earth, while they are in this world; they will be all over in another, when there will be no more sin, and no more chastisement for it, much less condemnation; see 1 Corinthians 11:32; much more the wicked and the sinner; who shall not only be punished on earth as they often are, but in hell to all eternity. The Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic versions, render the whole thus; "if the righteous be scarcely saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?" Which words are used by the Apostle Peter, to show, that if judgment or chastisement begin at the house of God, or with the righteous, that the end of the wicked must be very bad; which entirely agrees with the sense of this passage; see 1 Peter 4:17; a "behold" is prefixed to the whole, as a note, either of admiration, or rather of attention to what is sure and certain, and worthy of regard and consideration. The Targum is, "behold, the righteous are strengthened in the earth; but the wicked and the sinners shall be consumed out of the earth;" which seems to agree with Aben Ezra's sense of the words; see Psalm 104:35.
CHAPTER 12

Proverbs 12 Verse 1. Whose loveth instruction loveth knowledge,.... That loves the instruction of Wisdom, or Christ, Proverbs 4:13; the means of instruction, the Scriptures, which are profitable for instruction in righteousness, and are written for our learning; the Gospel, which instructs into the person, office, and grace of Christ; the ministers of the word, who are so many instructors in Christ; and even the rod of afflictions, by which men are taught their duty, and the will of God: and these are to be loved; and he that loves them clearly shows that he loves knowledge; since the means of instruction, making use of them, and getting instruction by them, are attended with labour, trouble, and difficulty; which a man would not choose, had he not a love unto and a desire after knowledge, and an increase of it; as the knowledge of God, of Christ, and of his truths. Aben Ezra inverts the words; "he that loves knowledge loves instruction;" but the sense is much the same; but he that hateth reproof [is] brutish; or a "beast" {k}: as the man that is willing to be instructed, in order to gain knowledge, shows himself to be a wise and understanding man; so he that hates the reproof the word of God gives, or the ministers of it, or God by them, appears to be no better than a brute, than the horse or mule that want understanding: so the man of sin hates the Scriptures, the Gospel, and the ministers of it, and the reproofs and convictions they give of his idolatry, superstition, and will worship; nor does he care that his doctrines and practices should be brought to this test, or that the people should have knowledge of them; but keeps them from them, and sets up his own infallibility as the rule of judgment; and it is one character of his followers, that they "receive not the love of the truth," 2 Thessalonians 2:10; and both he and they are represented by a beast, Revelation 13:1; and are more brutish than any man; see Proverbs 5:11. {k} reb "instar bruti indocilis est," Michaelis. Verse 2. A good [man] obtaineth favour of the Lord,.... One that is made so by the grace of God, for no man is so naturally; there is none good, nor does good, no, not one, until some good thing is put into him, or the good work of grace is begun in him.

he is encompassed with it. which is immovable. so as not to be rooted out of it. "haurit. as the word {l} signifies.. Verse 3. yet he cannot be so established by it as not to be removed from a prosperous state and condition into an unhappy and distressed one. through any goodness of his own. he shall be banished from the presence of the Lord. A virtuous woman [is] a crown to her husband." Mercerus. not defiled with the corruptions. against his interest and people. "I sit a queen. and idolatry. constant and faithful. and so are as Mount Zion. as springing from it. "hauriet. her destruction shall come upon her. which may be said to be ad and enjoyed. he may seem to be in a firm and settled state of prosperity. the temptations of Satan. because they have no root in them. and is no more: so Babylon will seem to be in a settled state of grandeur." Pagninus. and rest.. and layout. the root of the matter. that join with him in forming and executing his wicked devices. . or rather the good will of God. heresy. the errors of the wicked. and by fresh repeated acts of faith upon it. when on a sudden it is blown down and rooted up. which can never be lost.. to a woman of fortitude and courage. and though they may be shaken with the persecutions of men. that he shall be pronounced guilty of death. and seemingly immovable. L. of grace here. A man shall not be established by wickedness. that is diligent in the affairs of her house. yet they afresh take root again downward. and whose true members love not their lives unto death.And such a man obtains favour or good will from the Lord. and be punished with everlasting destruction. error.. and shall see no sorrow". One that is loving and chaste. not by merit. who is compared to a woman. temptation. spreading itself. and keeps up a good order and decorum among her servants. these abide. even unto blood. against Christ. Such is the true church of Christ. amidst all his wickedness. and in one hour. though he may be established in his wickedness.. but freely lay them down in the cause of truth. go into perdition. and he also obtains and enjoys all the blessings. Gejerus. but the root of the righteous shall not be moved. and the imaginations of his heart. is an honour and credit to her husband. while others wither away. they are rooted and built up in Christ. or of grace. Revelation 18:7. or by means of his obedience but he draws it out. they are rooted and grounded in the love of God. what he himself wills. to a woman of purity and chastity. by prayer and supplication. Not any man. {l} qypy "educet. consumed with the breath of his mouth.. and be cast into the lake burning with fire and brimstone: and this will be the portion of all his followers. or his heart is directed into it. he shall be condemned by the Lord. but a man of wicked devices will he condemn. whose thoughts. and their own corruptions. when it is remembered to him. errors. be like a green bay tree. that is. Montanus." V. obsequious and submissive to him. takes care of her family. is in them. or it is shed abroad in his heart. are evil continually. ease. and superstition of the apostate church. his grace. when in one day. whose members are virgins.. Verse 4. who resists sin. and say. such an one is an honour to Christ her husband. brings up her children. As the man of sin is continually devising wicked things against God. who is always contriving mischief to others: such a man shall be so far from enjoying the favour of God. as out of a fountain.. which can never be removed. as Gersom explains it. as the word {m} signifies. fresh manifestations and discoveries of which he obtains and enjoys. and bring forth fruit upward. for the will of God is his will. Revelation 12:1. and glory hereafter. and condemned to it.

Thus the apostate church of Rome. to their ruin. Thrypes.. and overreach." Montanus. that such should be killed who would not worship his image. Cocceius. nor can any think a good thought of themselves. by her levity and wantonness. {n} Such as are called Cossi. and through whose importunity he will avenge his elect. {o} jpvm "judicium." Pagninns. a pressure upon his spirits. Nat. as in the times of Pagan persecution. Hist. or through their apologies for them. The coming of the man of sin was with all deceivableness. l. & l. as the Targum has it. to deceive the hearts of the simple in religious ones. they are judiciously framed according to the rule of God's word. "mulier fortis. and draw them into their net. c. his truths and ordinances. 1. that professes to be the spouse of Christ. and whose doctrine and superstition eat. and to cleave to him with full purpose of heart [but] the counsels of the wicked [are] deceit. The thoughts of men's hearts are naturally evil. which are of great avail with him.. makes her husband ashamed. so the Septuagint. Gejerus. but the mouth of the upright shall deliver them: the innocent laid in wait for.. {m} lyx tva "mulier virtutis. "as a worm in wood.. Which some understand of perjury and false witness. The words of the wicked [are] to lie in wait for blood.. the vitals of religion.but she that maketh ashamed. and prevent . 33. like a canker. 2 Thessalonians 2:10. his ways and worship. she [is] as rottenness in his bones. concerning Christ and his Gospel. and defraud their neighbours in civil affairs. she is. and a consumption of his estate. but the thoughts of the righteous are directed and influenced by the grace of God. Vatablus.." which rots and consumes it {n}. the designs. Verse 5. 16. the revelation he has made. and contrivances of wicked men. 41. and Arabic versions. Cocceius. or to be known that he stands in such a relation to her. Revelation 13:15. and whereby the eyes of many princes were opened. and are formed according to that Word which is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart. antichrist and his emissaries make use of to entrap the innocent. and with the blood of these innocent ones the whore of Rome is said to be drunk. a wasting of his body. or rather through the doctrines of the reformation. Tabani. and all the gaudy show and pageantry he makes. see Psalm 10:7. c. that seduces his servants to fornication or idolatry. Syriac. whereby the lives of innocent persons are taken away: or it may be interpreted either of the smooth words and fair speeches. either by their prayers to God. schemes. and him only. Piscator. as the Jews attempted to deal with Christ. as being the Jezebel. has made him ashamed of her." Junius & Tremellius." Pagninus. a constant grief to his mind. and were stirred up to protect those innocent ones. who were in danger of being ensnared.. their thoughts concerning God and religion. whereby many simple and unwary souls were delivered. Gejerus. are to trick. and of false teachers. and so are right. are to deceive the inhabitants of the earth. or of the laws and edicts of the beast. Teredines. Plin. Or "judgment" {o}. Verse 6. as Jarchi. "uxor strenua. and deliver them.. her negligence and slothfulness. and defences of them. Mercerus. and pretended miracles he works. Montanus. Luke 20:20. The thoughts of the righteous [are] right. so that he is ashamed to be seen with her. and such are their resolutions and designs to serve the Lord their God. and secret artifices. and by his sorceries all nations are deceived.

an everlasting one. for the family of the righteous may be extinct. and is pure and peaceable. its pillars are firm and stable. especially that which lies in sophistry and subtlety. and be in the utmost confusion. which stands opposed to "the house of the righteous. but it shall be brought to ruin and destruction. not according to his riches and wealth. as the wise man is by Christ. A man possessed of this is commended by all wise and good men. and Babylon shall sink like a millstone into the sea. notwithstanding the craft of false teachers to undermine it. With such an overthrow as God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. because it is the Lord's house. which comes to nought. because they dwell in it. and because it is built on a rock. have a place and a name in it better than sons and daughters. . and be no more. This house stands. whereby men trick. and especially not continue as righteous. and who walk uprightly. and where he presides as a Son. these Heathens shall be no more in the land. which he. the beginning of which is the fear of the Lord. the mountain of the Lord's house.. Christ. and though it may sometimes be in a waste and ruinous condition seemingly. which standeth for ever. and defraud one another.. when all flesh is as grass. either natural or civil. which is Christ. but the church of God. not according to the wisdom of the world. notwithstanding all the persecutions of men. sensual. it has stood against all the fury of Rome. and where he delights to dwell in. and be no more. has built. Matthew 16:18. and glorify this house of his glory. which he discovers in his words and actions. the beast. and indeed none but they ought to be in it.. and make it beautiful and honourable: it shall stand. that have on the wedding garment. and here called "the house of the righteous". and of God in Christ. but the house of the righteous shall stand. and therefore shall continue tilt everyone are brought in. the doctrines of it are the word of God. the supporters of antichrist. the man of sin shall never revive again. not his material dwelling house. compare with this Matthew 7:24. the house of the living God. Not according to his birth and pedigree. nor his family. the wicked shall be consumed out of the earth. in wicked craft and cunning. the robe of Christ's righteousness. and which comes from above. of his building.. as in the preceding verse. shall be overcome by the Lamb. and because it is the house where his people are born and brought up. Verse 8. yet the Lord will raise it up again.their blood being shed. and King. overreach. Matthew 7:24. as the gloss upon the text. and devilish. not according to the places of honour and trust he may be in. The wicked are overthrown. as the generality of interpreters. its foundation. Now this house shall stand." in the next clause: the ten kings. who will be to the end of the world. who builds his house on a rock. for which reason it stands. but according to his wisdom. the pillar and ground of truth. and by the Lord himself. and the household of God. his body. Verse 7. the ministers of the word. The kingdom of the beast shall not only be full of darkness. Wisdom. nor the earthly house of his tabernacle. Pagan and Papal. and still will continue. Priest. This is the same with the household of faith. and work righteousness.. in his life and conversation: not according to the wisdom that is earthly. and destroyed. the ordinances of it will continue till Christ's second coming. which shall be established upon the top of the mountains in the latter day.. as a Prophet. when the kingdom of antichrist shall be overthrown. which lies in the knowledge of Christ. with whom they will make war. against which the gates of hell cannot prevail. as at the pouring of the fifth vial. the church which is built on the Rock.. but according to that which is spiritual and evangelical. and the false prophet. A man shall be commended according to his wisdom. shall be taken by him. because it is the house of Christ.. and of those things which belong to salvation. and [are] not. is sure.

but one in mean circumstances of life. and would have none if his debts were paid. the compassionate methods they take to convert heretics. and mean in his own eyes. and which appears by the perverse words he speaks against God and Christ. Deuteronomy 25:4. and. and so gets himself a competent living." Vatablus. and because he has not that substance as others have. that righteous man. and so Jarchi and Gersom interpret it. {r} yrzka "sunt ." Montanus. makes a great figure abroad.. to deliver them up to the secular power. for such who despise him are lightly esteemed. as antichrist and his followers do. and such who are so will be more especially pitiful and tenderhearted to their fellow creatures. to the law of God. this their kindness to men. are dark dungeons and stinking prisons. Michaelis. see Proverbs 13:7. by various laws and rules which God has given. and by his perverse actions. at least does not make that show and figure in the world as some. whom he brings to righteousness. Meaning not the same person as before. against his people. and yet neither has nor gives the bread of souls. Or "knoweth" it {q}. Genesis 33:14. And so. but allows it proper rest from labour. ways. will make use of all suitable means to heal it. while the beast of Rome looks like a lamb. is preferable to the pope of Rome. who is adored by all. but the tender mercies of the wicked [are] cruel. or "[are] the mercies of a cruel one" {r}. for which he was reproved. as they call them. or. and brags of his wealth. the least shepherd (under Christ) that has ever so few sheep. "sibimet. "suiipius. the most tender things which are expressed or done by them are nothing but cruelty.. and worship. to inflict pains and punishments on them the most grievous to save their souls. one or two under his care. and does not affect grandeur. as Cocceius observes... which are contrary to the light of nature. as some render it. Revelation 13:11. dresses out in fine clothes. he does not overwork it. of his cattle. he provides sufficient food for it. racks and tortures. {q} edwy "novit. Rome Pagan. Thus. Numbers 22:28. so Vulgate Latin." Mercerus. Verse 9.. see an instance of a wicked man's cruelty to his beast in Balaam. is "a servant to himself" {p}. and. he speaks like a dragon. He [is] better than he that honoureth himself. see an instance of the care of Jacob. and Gospel of Christ: and such vile persons are contemned in the eyes of all good men.. and has scarce bread to eat at home. {p} wl dbe "servus sibiipsi. A righteous [man] regardeth the life of his beast. these are their wholesome severities. has just sufficiency to keep a servant to wait upon him. and by whom he is loved. and what then must be their more severe expressions and actions? so the most tender concern which antichrist and his followers show to the souls of men breathes nothing but cruelty. in the house and in the field. keeps a fine equipage. on the other hand. and lacketh bread. it is his will that men should be merciful to their beasts. see Proverbs 18:3. if in any disorder. as Jarchi. the former is much the better man on all accounts. and are had in abhorrence by the Lord himself. and to look greater than he is. fire and faggots. and hath a servant. knows the worth of it and values it. and gives it. and without the offerings of others has not anything to eat. and takes care of it. and is concerned for the preservation of it.. who does his own work at home and abroad. Verse 10." Schultens.but he that is of a perverse heart shall be despised. and exercises all the cruelty of the first beast. and more to be commended. that boasts of his pedigree.. to this purpose the Septuagint. [He that is] despised.

The wicked desireth the net of evil [men]. of the fruit of grace. Junius & Tremellius. the person of Christ is the source of all spiritual blessings. this he was doomed to do with the sweat of his brow after his fall. whose words eat as do a canker. and all false teachers. or he. compare with this Ezekiel 13:18. Verse 11. hope. shall be filled with the bread of life. that it may bring forth fruit. empty. and give heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of devils. to get them and their substance into their hands. "yieldeth fruit." see Revelation 9:20. or "desireth the evil net. see Psalm 10:9. and this is what all wicked men are desirous of. or "shall give" {w} that. empty of all that is spiritually good.. {s} bl rox "deficiens corde. the righteous have their being in him as a root. or business.. but he that followeth vain [persons is] void of understanding: that neglects his business. or "wants a heart" {s}." much more desirable than the net of evil men the wicked covet: righteous men are compared to trees. and righteousness. firmly fix them that they shall not be moved. and makes diligent use of all means to promote its spiritual good.. "shall give the righteous root" {x}. "carens corde. or some calling. and such as are shall not want bread.. that have only empty notions of religion. and to prevent any besieging them." Pagninus. in which they fortify and secure themselves to do mischief to others. and it becomes him to be diligent therein. their minds are deficient. sown therein. and in the grace of the Spirit. and the Arabic version renders the last clause. or who attend to the profane and vain boastings of antichrist. work. "they that run after false demons. every man has his land to till. or as we supply it. but the root of the righteous yieldeth [fruit]. but shall have a sufficiency of it. that revolves it in his mind.. which he lays for the poor. Some render it the "fortress" or "strong hold" {u} of evil men. God." as the Targum. and holiness. He that tilleth his land shall be satisfied with bread. This was man's work in innocence. the evil net of antichrist. that security and protection from real evil and mischief which the wicked cannot obtain.. these. so Gersom. Verse 12. so some Jewish writers in Vatablus. the love of God is the root and source of all good things. Jarchi interprets the former clause of a man that is studious in his doctrine. to improve his time and talents. and so Aben Ezra. of all the blessings of grace.. To be master of all the wicked arts and methods evil men use to ensnare and oppress others. or who is careful about the welfare and salvation of his immortal soul. and this root yieldeth fruit. to be employed in. and. have all their life. spends it in the company of vain. Piscator. grace. that he may not forget it. he that associates himself with vain persons." Isaiah 61:3." Schultens. to the joy and rejoicing of his heart. Aben Ezra in Mercerus. they are called "trees of righteousness. Thus he that is concerned to have the fallow ground of his heart ploughed up. as he shows himself by such a choice that he is void of understanding. on the contrary." Montanus. and of evangelical obedience. they are bore by him. holiness. "deficitur corde. that is. so they are and will be brought into starving and famishing circumstances in a spiritual sense. truth. faith. in the person of Christ. and love. whom he draws into it and catches them. loiters away his time. . as they show themselves to want wisdom." Montanus. Jarchi understands it of "hunting" {t} and of wicked men desiring to be fed and nourished with what evil men get by hunting. so before long it is much if he does not want a piece of bread. of salvation and eternal life. and unprofitable persons. these have a root in the love of God.miserationes crudelis. either civil or sacred.. shall find it and eat it.

and sound doctrine he delivers to others. Baynus." Mercerus. who sues him for these things: or "in the transgression of the lips [is] an evil snare". Verse 14.. of another man. as in Job 21:15. and the grace of the Spirit in the heart.. which the simple and incautious are taken in. or "the snare of an evil man" {y}." see Proverbs 12:3. he gets out of it again by giving good words to those in whose hands he is. as well as various outward afflictions. but because of these he is filled with good things. Junius & Tremelllus. when the world of the ungodly were destroyed by it. the hidden man of the heart. by the account he gives of his own experience.... The wicked is snared by the transgression of [his] lips. and by his prayers and supplications unto God. Michaelis. {t} dwum "venationem. or of a faithful minister of the word. or be established." Gejerus. Mercerus. A man shall be satisfied with good by the fruit of [his] mouth. by the conversation he has with him about the truths of the Gospel. but the just shall come out of trouble. detraction. so heretics ensnare men by their good words and fair speeches. Cocceius. or a "man shall be satisfied with good from the fruit of the mouth"." Tigurine version. . Michaelis. Satan's temptations. or escape it. of which he is convicted in open court. Schultens. "the root of the righteous shall remain. who escaped the flood. even to satiety.. sometimes by treasonable speeches against his sovereign. with the wholesome words of our Lord Jesus Christ. or "be satisfied from the fruit of the mouth of a man" {z}. by his prayers. even to satisfaction. and plausibility of their doctrines." Munster. {w} Nty "dabit. and when he by any means falls into trouble.fruitfulness. The righteous are sometimes in trouble. either of a private man. which is the root of the matter. Jarchi exemplifies this in the case of righteous Noah. The Targum is. saying. a just man escapes trouble by not giving his tongue the liberty wicked men do. and so the trouble consequent upon it. with the bread of life. Verse 13. Piscator. A wicked man often brings himself into trouble by giving his tongue too great a liberty. he escapes the snare that is laid for him. out of all which the Lord delivers them sooner or later. and by making free with the characters of others. from hence are fruits meet for faith and repentance. in life or in death. Schultens. so Junius & Tremellius. for the transgression of their lips. {u} "Praesidium. and by his deceivableness of unrighteousness. by the wicked things they say they lay a snare for others. and perseverance therein. "what is the Almighty?" &c. so antichrist. and good works. Gejerus. that is. reproaches. both in this life and that to come. and in such sort of trouble as others are not. and scandal raised by him. the good instruction. with the sincere milk of the word. by reason of their own corruptions. and by lies and perjuries. who is the means of feeding the souls of men with good things. these redound to his own advantage.. by lies in hypocrisy." Mercerus. Piscator." Pagninus. the hidings of God's face. and cast on his neighbour. and by calumnies. which are both pleasant and profitable. which are the fruit of his lips. Montanus. are not only a satisfaction to his mind upon reflection. and come forth by them from his heart. Psalm 34:19. "venatum. {x} "Radicem justorum dabit Deus.. even with the finest of the wheat. from him. sometimes by bearing false Witness. see 1 Timothy 4:6. The wholesome advice. "vel laqueus hominis mali. {y} er vqwm Mytpv evpb "in praevaricatione labiorum laqueos malus." Montanus.

Gejerus. and especially to Jesus Christ the wonderful Counsellor.. corrupt reason. the disgraceful words that are spoken of him.. in the same hour. Revelation 3:18. {b} Mwyb "eo die quo irritatur. Verse 17. in the gnashing of his teeth. it is to be seen in the fire of his eyes. takes no notice of the offence given him. Verse 15. and in the stamping of his feet." or of his works which his hands do. and who not only hears his words. Having no command of himself. which serves not to establish the doctrine of merit. worship. Montanus. but a prudent [man] covereth shame. {z} vya yp yrpm "de fructu oris viri. see Ecclesiastes 7:9. and bears it patiently. much more his works. conceals his anger and resentment at any injury done him by words or actions. "a fool is presently known by his wrath" {c}. Mercerus. or he covers the injury itself." Pagninus. Mercerus. "eodem die. and he finds it pleasant." Pagninus. such an one is a wise man. no sooner is he provoked but he shows it in his countenance. and obeys it. that asks advice and takes it of such who are men of age and experience. and to the advice he gives. in the same day in which the provocation is given. who consults the word of God about the right way of walk. and for his sake.. "restituet ei. which if suffered to break out would bring shame and disgrace to him. it is to be seen and observed by everyone: or thus.. A fool's wrath is presently known. in the frowns of his face. nor takes the advice of others. for by so doing he creates less trouble to himself. and in the same moment. that utters it freely and fully without ." Munster. [He that] speaketh truth showeth forth righteousness. who renders to every man according to his works. trusting to carnal sense... which are able to make him wise unto salvation. and makes the testimonies of God the men of his counsel. or it is openly known. and the shameful actions done unto him. {c} "Cognoscitur ex ira sua. as well as in the bitter expressions of his mouth: or "a fool's wrath in that day is known" {b}.. or self-righteousness.. if his words turn to his account. so Aben Ezra. much more will he be recompensed in a way of grace on account of the other. Whether it be the way of open profaneness. and having a high opinion of himself and his own knowledge. it appears to him to be the right way. Merceras. "he shall render to him" {a}. He that "blows" or "breathes out truth" {d}. "ei refundet. and not for the one without the other. that is. he cannot repress it. who hearkens to the counsel of Gospel ministers. if he is filled with good things for the sake of the one. in which he acts a prudent part. he puts up with the contempt that is cast upon him. {a} wl bwvy "reddet ei." Tigurine version. Matthew 7:24. but does them. Schultens. and. and much less seeks revenge." Junius & Tremellius. Michaelis.. Gejerus. it seems to him a very plain one. The way of a fool [is] right in his own eyes." Munster. yea. and gains more credit and reputation from others." Schultens. but to show the goodness and grace of God in taking notice of and accepting the imperfect works of men through Christ. so Banyus.. men of longer standing... Verse 16. never asks after the right way. and a false judgment. but he that hearkeneth unto counsel [is] wise. he cannot defer showing it for the least space of time. as the word signifies. and salvation.and the recompence of a man's hand shall be rendered unto him. nor for words without works: or "the recompence of a man's hands. and are wiser than himself. God. and by his words and actions. nor keep it in. Montanus.

by giving a faithful testimony which sets matters right. will. that is. and reconciling persons at variance through the detracting and lying insinuations of others. Cocceius. it is soon discovered. Verse 18. having no regard to truth and justice. what is true is just. which directs to Christ for healing. what is the righteousness of the law. peace. whether upon his oath or not. and separate chief friends. to whom he ministers the Gospel of the grace of God. by making up differences. how free and full.. will utter deceitful doctrine." Piscator. abides the same to day. though it may be opposed. excellent and glorious. and what is just is true. but a false witness deceit. the necessity of the righteousness of Christ.. dividing. Verse 19. such a man upon every occasion will declare that which is just and right. {d} xypy "effiat. as Popish teachers. and what is the righteousness of faith. there is a connection between truth and righteousness.any hesitation. and talebearers. and directing them to the righteousness of Christ for justification. {e} aprm "medicinae. suitable and useful it is. righteousness. by clearing and defending the character of those who are falsely accused and wrongfully charged. the ministers of truth and righteousness will be continued to the end of the world. wound their characters. "sanatio. "medicina. cutting. killing. and eternal life. to wounded souls. if a liar speaks truth for once. or rather the lie he tells is very short lived. "sanatrix. instead of showing men the insufficiency of their own righteousness. wounding. or "healing" {e}. or healing. So a false teacher.. will show forth righteousness. Revelation 13:11. and build up their hopes upon the sandy and deceitful foundation of their own works. such are the words of false witnesses. such are the words of slanderers. or is a faithful preacher of it. The man that speaks truth is and will be established in his credit and reputation among men. he is uniform and all of a piece. the word of truth. especially the tongue of a wise minister of the Gospel is health. he that uses himself to speak truth in common conversation." Michaelis. cheerful. but a lying tongue [is] but for a moment. one that is used to lying. and for ever. and by speaking comfortable. and he comes into contempt and disgrace. will stand for ever. who grieve the innocent. and what he says is believed." Schultens. and speaks out the whole truth without any reserve. how insufficient a man's own righteousness is to justify him in the sight of God. and such as verge towards them. who looks like a lamb.. but speaks like a dragon. and refreshing words to the injured and abused. Romans 1:17.. who by their false testimonies and perjuries are as guilty of the murder of men as cutthroats. truth. Christ. in a court of judicature. so he that speaks the truth of the Gospel. and show himself to be an honest and upright man. pardon.." Junius & Tremellius. testify that which is just and the real matter of fact. he does not continue in it long. backbiters. see Psalm 57:4. who is truth itself. when he is called to give testimony upon any affair in judgment. the Gospel of Christ. that speaks nothing but truth." Junius & Tremellius. destroy their good name and credit. but quickly returns to his former course. but the tongue of the wise [is] health.. will prevail against lies and falsehood." Schultens. and such are the words of antichrist. "spirat. for though they are distinct things they go together. he will declare that which is false and deceitful. Whose words are like sharp swords. There is that speaketh like the piercings of a sword. The lip of truth shall be established for ever. and .. yesterday.

and unity.. . and Ben Melech. in order to answer some base designs of theirs. and some in Vatablus. the mischief contrived by them shall fall upon themselves." or "for ever. interpret of sin not being agreeable. as Ananias and Sapphira... but Jarchi and Gersom render it "for a moment. they have a satisfaction. and the Septuagint.. The evil of sin: no iniquity.. see Matthew 5:9. or "with evil" {h}. the punishment of their sin has been inflicted on Christ their surety. the joy of salvation. the Lord. and whatever afflictions may happen to them. as Aben Ezra interprets the word.loses all his credit and reputation among men of honour and honesty. {g} yvrx. will be brought to ruin in a moment. {f} heygra de "at dum nictem. but to the counsellors of peace [is] joy: such who consult the good of others. with many distresses here. from being overcome and carried away with it. which. and antichrist. and an eternal one hereafter. Some understand it of the mischief they devise to others. as the Targum. as Aben Ezra calls it. There shall no evil happen to the just. and. in reality. no evil thing. Verse 20. spiritual and eternal. with the terrors of it. as the word {g} signifies. no penal evil shall befall them. with malice and wickedness. but by the decree and will of God. weakens the power of sin in them. but sooner or later they are deceived themselves. That secretly devise mischief in their hearts against their neighbours. as if they were the words of God. convenient. and is sometimes suddenly snatched away by death. concord.. with ignorance and error. Aben Ezra. and so with all the consequences of sin: with the evil of punishment. are disappointed of their views. these work together for their good. if not. that plough evil. in which. yet no evil shall happen to the righteous.." or a very short time. so soon is such a person removed. and sow discord among men." or "be at rest" from speaking. so that. Verse 21. "but. render it.. or. see Psalm 91:10. and therefore shall never be laid on them. threatening to cut off the lying tongue. Or the evil of punishment is here meant. prevents and removes occasion of sinning. the evil of sin. which they are full of and big with. in the twinkling of an eye. or." Schultens. and by many artful and deceitful methods promote contention and division. and "though" they are. suit able. the consequence of which is vexation and sorrow. as Montanus. all error and heresy in a short time will cease and be no more. properly speaking. Or whatever does come to them comes not by chance unto them. both against the first and second table of the law. but the wicked shall be filled with mischief. they have joy and pleasure. and Arabic versions. and with everlasting destruction hereafter. and in the church of God. by his Spirit and grace. with all impiety and unrighteousness. who are followed by some Christian interpreters. the direct opposite of the lip of truth. Deceit [is] in the heart of them that imagine evil. with an evil conscience. which have the name and appearance of evil. Syriac. in their own minds and consciences that they have done what is right and good. by his providence. as we and others do. happens to them. who seek to cultivate it in their families and neighbourhoods. with all kind of sins. Kimchi. and is overruled for good. at least finally and totally. if they succeed. such have a conscience peace now. who advise to peace. and by his power preserves from it. "whilst one winks" {f}. Moreover. and pleasing to a righteous man. whose coming is with lying wonders. I will cause the lying tongue to cease.

in proper places. that faith which works by love... wherefore an abomination and a lie are joined together. Aben Ezra interprets it of a wise man's hiding his knowledge in his heart. according to Proverbs 10:4. he is well-pleased with them. {k} hnwma yve "facientibus veritatem. agree together: it is not enough to embrace. as are the doctrines of Rome. he must be true to his word and promises. Piscator. Not only such that speak the truth. and faithfully perform what he has agreed unto.. Verse 24. L. otherwise it is criminal to reveal secrets. see Proverbs 22:29. these are abominable unto God. but the heart of fools proclaimeth foolishness. see John 3:21. diligent men become masters of families. and that deliver out doctrinal lies. even of that which may be lawfully divulged. Gejerus.. contrary to the Scriptures of truth he has endited. he does not make a show of it. or faithfully. that which they have in their hearts and minds.. Hebrews 11:6. but "do the truth" {k}.. lies in hypocrisy.." V. {i} wnwur "est beneplacitum ejus. "Shall become rich. and have servants and workmen under them." Montanus. whose words and actions. contrary to his Son. the "slothful" or "deceitful hand" {l}. but they that deal truly [are] his delight. Through diligence men get riches. contrary to the truth of the Gospel he has published. Mercerus. become magistrates in cities. Verse 22. their incoherent and unconnected ideas of things. Cocceius. and through riches they arrive to power and authority over others: from apprentices and journeymen workmen they become masters of their business. Such that speak lies in common talk. Or. which is a point of prudence and modesty. as the word {i} signifies. profound and recondite learning. who is truth itself. which leads into all truth. and to the Spirit of truth. as ostentatious men do. but he does not needlessly and unseasonably speak of it. he must deal truly with God and men. as it is in Jesus. at proper times. The hand of the diligent shall bear rule.. and while they declare their ill shaped notions..{h} er "malo. A prudent man concealeth knowledge. Verse 23." so Jarchi interprets it." Pagninus.. Mercerus. Lying lips [are] abomination to the Lord. they betray their ignorance and folly." Vatablus. but he must practise it. as the words may be rendered. that work the work of faith. "facientes veritatem. as he should. or preach the truth. without which faith it is impossible to please him. that he may not forget it. or the objects of "his good will" and pleasure. they are grateful and acceptable to him. Michaelis.. or boast and brag of it: he modestly forbears to speak of what he knows. and bear rule over their fellow citizens. that live on Christ and his righteousness. profess. or publish what should be kept private or should not be known. Of things natural or divine. "accepti sunt ei. not but that he is willing to communicate it. and are advanced to places of power and authority in the commonwealth. they proclaim with their mouths in a noisy and clamorous way. Gejerus. as being contrary to his nature as the God of truth." Junius & Tremellius. and which they take for deep knowledge. "that work faith". but when there is a necessity for it. false doctrines. Pagninus. "qui faciunt veritatem. for so it . such are well pleasing to God. which he is furnished with. and to proper persons. Revelation 21:27. as the Targum and Vulgate Latin version. and delights in them. doctrine and life." Cocceius. but the slothful shall be under tribute. Montanus..

." and such the Gospel is. The Septuagint and Arabic versions render it.may be rendered and supplied. Montanus. one righteous man may have more faith than another. Heaviness in the heart of man maketh it stoop.." Montanus." Mercerus. which. Gejerus. bows and keeps under the spirits of men. though his neighbour may be of more noble birth. this lifts up the heart and inspires it with joy. or a larger measure of grace. who is ungodly and unrighteous. The righteous [is] more excellent than his neighbour." Tigurine version. and of a larger capacity. or sorrow and grief. cheering. righteousness. and encouraging word from any friend. "solicitudo anxia. or however who has no other righteousness than his own." or tributary. Piscator.. it is good news from a far country. that it cannot take any pleasure or comfort in anything. yet not more righteousness. Vatablus. it being the righteousness of God. that compassionates their distressed case." as the Syriac version. it depresses them. Mercerus. and gives it comfort and joy: such a good word is the Gospel itself. such is the word of peace. which is a word of terror. because those that are tributary are in subjection to those to whom they pay tribute. causes joy in it. the righteousness of Christ. and have even the title of "his excellency" given him.. when it seizes a man's spirits. is far better than the best righteousness of his neighbour. get their living by deceitful methods. but a good word maketh it glad. every truly righteous man is justified by the same righteousness. be a man of brighter parts. depressed with the terrors of the law. and such become subject to others.. "dolosa. "a word of fear in the heart of man causes fear:" such is the law. from whence he is denominated. pardon. for usually such who are slothful. his is the righteousness of a creature. works wrath in the conscience. being righteous. Not than his neighbour who is righteous also. by tricking and sharping. The Septuagint and Arabic versions here render it." Michaelis. {l} "Manus fraudulentiae. imputed to him. . and though he may have attained a greater degree of natural wisdom and understanding. Kimchi instances in Psalm 55:22. as the word {m} signifies. "anxietatem. and eternal life by Christ. raises up a soul that is bowed down.. and therefore one cannot be more excellent. when brought to the heart of a poor sinner. or "troubles the heart of man. considered as righteous: but the righteous is more excellent than his neighbour. he is more excellent than he: his superior excellency lies in his righteousness. it sinks and bows it down. and induces a spirit of bondage to fear. Verse 25.. on account of some calamity and distress. "a good message. "solicita anxietas. and do not care for business. Gejerus. spoken by a Gospel minister. when it gets into a man's heart. for though one may have more excellent gifts than another." Tigurine version. very refreshing and reviving." Schultens. through a fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation. fills the mind with terror. Verse 26. Matthew 9:2. a "terrible word troubles the heart of a just man". Junius & Tremellius. a perfect righteousness." Junius & Tremellius. Either an anxious care and solicitude about living in the world. so a word in season. to them that are diligent. "fraudulenta. a comforting. hence said to be "under tribute. though he may have a larger share of wealth and riches. such is the word that he himself spoke. which speaks terrible things to men. and keeps them down: or a fear and dread of adversity. {m} hgad "solicitudo. Michaelis. the Targum is. even the righteousness of Christ. yet. which is like cold water to a thirsty soul..

and are done to the glory of God. and hereby they are led to wander from the way of the righteous. nor in outward circumstances. this has the Spirit of God for its author. he cannot keep it. it is taken away from him. with a view to the glory of God: only to be seen of men. it deceives. but in the. to which the allusion may be. or advantage by it. The slothful [man] roasteth not that which he took in hunting.. and of an observance of a few rituals of religion: the one spring from a heart purified by the blood of Christ. "explorat pro compascuo suo justus. who at most and best is only externally and morally righteous: his superior excellency does not lie in nature. {n} qydu wherm rty "justus explorat viam suam prae socio suo. perhaps by a dog or some man. with whom the saints are the offscouring of all things. Because he takes none. the external works of righteousness done by a truly righteous man are preferable to his neighbour's. "the deceitful" {p} man. but the way of the wicked seduceth them. Nay. he does not enjoy it. and faith unfeigned. whereas the other is only the produce of nature. by promising the honour. the one being a course of obedience to the will of God. whereas. when they catch fowls. and make it fit for eating. whereas the other's is only a shadow of holiness. destitute of the grace of God. by hunting or otherwise.. as it may be rendered.whereas his is imperfect. that they may not fly away. an everlasting one. or receive any comfort from it. observes. notwithstanding the other." Cocceius. that they may not fly away at . and a respect to all his commandments. imparted to him and implanted in him. Or. this makes a man all glorious within. his filthy rags. his like the morning cloud and early dew that passes away." Gejerus. yet what he roasts is not what he has got himself. and a curious piece it is. that will answer for him that has it in a time to come." Schultens. in which they may differ. burn the top of their wings. a splendid and glorious one. the man is inwardly full of all manner of iniquity. and gives him a meetness for heaven. the inherent righteousness of a righteous man. and the grace of the Spirit. though he may get much in a fraudulent way. esteem of Christ. a form of godliness without the power. by which all the seed of Israel are justified. but what another has laboured for. nor in the opinion of men. his such as not one individual person can be justified by it. "explorate ducit proximum suum justus. "the righteous explores [his way] more than his neighbour" {n}. just as a man that has took anything in hunting. or causes them to err. and through his grace and righteousness. that principle of holiness in him is greatly better than the righteousness of his neighbour a Pharisee. Ben Melech. Some render the words. for this is true and real holiness. a very extensive one. pleasure.. or the grace of Christ. The slothful man takes no pains to get anything for a livelihood. and which they find not in it. in which they are both alike. yet it does not prosper with him. and gain credit and reputation among them. and perish. truth in the inward part. by which they attain a superior excellency to them. and from principles of grace and love. nor are they done sincerely. whereas the other do not arise from a pure heart.. before he can roast it. and eat roast meat. it is taken away from him before he can partake of it. see Psalm 16:3. from Joseph Kimchi. that fowlers. Verse 27. when the other consists only of a little negative holiness. and in these respects the righteous man is more excellent as such than his neighbour. it is his workmanship. and has neither a right nor meetness for eternal glory. yea. and profit. seeks and finds out a better way than he does. and though he loves to live well. and is careful that he is not seduced and carried out of the why. which it does not lead unto and give. It is observed {o} that fowlers burn the wings of birds taken by them.

and a strait gate. life and immortality are the sure effects of being in the way of righteousness." Pagninus. Michaelis. as the Targum. arising from the love and favour of God. so the Targum. and in an honest way. the law's sentence of death shall not be executed on them. CHAPTER 13 Proverbs 13 Verse 1. Stockium. and lost suddenly. it comes with a blessing. Mercerus. {q} Vid. and has good reason to do. but the most read as we do. it shall have no power over them. entitles him to eternal life. and are justified by his righteousness. there is comfort in the enjoyment of it. it does not last long. col. which shows him to be wise. nor shall they be hurt at the second death. Christ. "the way of the perverse": and the Septuagint version. Schindler.. and all in this way now live spiritually. and this righteousness. he likes and approves of it. One that is in the true way of righteousness is one that is instilled by the righteousness of Christ. so Ben Melech. and which the Jewish commentators follow. {o} Vid. and enjoys true spiritual peace and comfort. and righteousness and holiness in and by him.. so some in Mercerus. and eternal life.. which is figuratively to be understood of riches and wealth. for before that it flies out of his hands. What is ill gotten does not spend well. as well as the effect of age and experience. and his substance is daily increasing. unto death". and reckons himself alive in a law sense. the truth. faithful. {p} hymr "vir dolosus. is well pleased with it. p. "the way of angry men is unto death": and so the Vulgate Latin version. and appear beautiful to them that buy them: but the slothful or deceitful man does not let the fowl remain in his hands till he burns it. he is directed and enabled to walk in. 388. "the substance of a man is precious gold. and acceptance with him. He "asks for it" and "loves" it. Or he will not shut it up within lattices {q} and reserve it. but spend it directly. what is gotten by industry and diligence. in which he sees his interest. since it must be cordial. and what he gets spends well.. In the way of righteousness [is] life. the way. it is presently gone. but the substance of a diligent man [is] precious. John 14:6. are the way.. and acts agreeably to it.. p. As he should. as Jarchi supplies the text. by which he is justified before God. "of those that remember evil": and the Syriac and Arabic versions. 653. which justification is the justification of life: such an one is made alive. is valuable. 255. he "receives" it. or the true way to eternal life. instead of "no death.. and delights in it. though it passed upon them in Adam. and disinterested. and it is lost to him. see Song of Solomon 2:9. leads.once. {r} Uwrx rqy Mda Nwh "substantia hominis pretiosi est aurum. and the life. Gejerus. "the out of the way path leads to death:" and so some Hebrew copies read." Gussetius. and shall live eternally. to which the path of holiness. The Targum renders it. "fraudulentus.. seeing it tends to his profit and advantage. "substantia hominis praestantis est aurum. Matthew 7:14. that they may be left. as Aben Ezra." De Dieu. and this is the way to . and they do not cut their wings off. Verse 28. "the substance of a precious man [is] gold" {r}. as Gersom. they shall never die that death." and to the same purpose the Vulgate Latin version: a diligent man grows rich. A wise son [heareth] his father's instruction. and [in] the pathway [thereof there is] no death. he listens to and obeys it. though it is a narrow way." Montanus. Some render it. and in which is life. no condemnation to them that are in Christ. or spiritual life. spiritual death shall not again prevail over those who are passed from death to life. The life of the soul. and it continues. gathered by violence and deceit. Lexic. there is no true enjoyment of it.

which will issue in their destruction. or even to the rebukes of Providence. Verse 3. will. though it is supplied by the Targum. because instruction often comes by it. and to the same purpose is the note of Gersom: but Aben Ezra supplies it from the former clause. Aben Ezra. while he feeds others with knowledge and understanding. that a good man brings forth good things out of the good treasure of his heart by his mouth. even using violence. as the word {w} used signifies. The sense is. and doing mischief to others. that he will scoff also at that. So scornful men. as by us. and the reward of it here and hereafter. cordially to embrace and obey it. he teaches and instructs himself: so a good minister of Jesus Christ. he himself is nourished up with the words of faith and good doctrine. {s} rowm "obedivit castigationem. Schultens. see Matthew 7:24. choose.be wiser and wiser. and he that is a wise man will hear the rod and him that has appointed it. attending to. whose instruction is the doctrine of the Gospel. vel castigatus patris. the Vulgate Latin. and receiving the rebuke and reproof of his father." Baynus. and receive instruction from it: or is "chastised by his father" {t}. what their souls desire. even the bread of violence. The word also signifies "correction" {s}." I should choose to translate the whole thus: "a good man shall eat of the fruit of his mouth": so Aben Ezra interprets it.. p. And this will be the case of all perfidious and treacherous ones.. Piscator. so Jarchi refers it to a man's doctrine.." Revelation 18:6.. see Proverbs 4:16. who stands in the relation of an everlasting fin. but a scorner heareth not rebuke. {w} Mydgb "perfidiosorum. Proverbs 5:11. {u} "Anima cupido praevaricatorum est violentis.. and the sons of Eli and Samuel. and Arabic versions render it.. which a wise man hears. and scoffs at religion: such a man will be so far from hearing. but the soul of the transgressors [shall eat] violence. 524. and learn to know his mind by it. as the Targum and Aben Ezra. and are for the use of edifying to others. and approve of it. {t} "Castigatur a patre. while he comforts others. what they give others to eat. "of the mouth". and so the Septuagint." Gussetius. of false teachers and cruel persecutors. it is of service to himself. will not hearken to the reproof of God's word. and the sense is. such as were the sons in law of Lot. "perfidorum." Scultens. Micah 6:9. So one that is spiritually wise will attend to and receive the instruction of Wisdom or Christ. that the same measure they mete out to others shall be measured out to them again. and while he teaches and instructs others. a son who is a scorner. "reward her as she rewarded you. that make a jest of everything that is sacred. to the rebukes of Gospel ministers. which not only minister grace to the hearers. "the delight of transgressors is violence." Junius & Tremellius.. her to his children. Jarchi interprets it. so De Dieu. Verse 2. "a good man shall eat". The Septuagint and Arabic versions render it. so Gejerus. while he gives wholesome counsel and advice to others." Cocceius. A man shall eat good by the fruit of [his] mouth. and take pleasure in. and Syriac versions. of whom it will he said. so as to understand it. one that makes a mock at sin. since the word his is not in the text." {u} that is. Or. they shall eat themselves. but also to himself. He that keepeth his mouth keepeth his life. to love and like it. Syriac. He that keeps his mouth shut . and put it in practice. he comforts himself. and of Babylon. as we do. either another's or his own. "shall eat of the fruits of righteousness. and takes it well. that is..

keeps it as with a bridle; keeps it from speaking things of other persons, particularly of such as are in high places, of kings and princes, and civil magistrates: he keeps himself quiet and comfortable; keeps himself from many troubles, which otherwise he would come into; keeps his life from danger, to which it would be exposed, should he speak evil of dignities, or give himself the freedom, as some do, whereby they are brought to an untimely end; see Proverbs 18:21; besides, persons ought to be careful of their words, since by them a man will either be justified or condemned hereafter, Matthew 12:37; [but] he that openeth wide his lips shall have destruction; or "consternation" {x}: he that is rash and inconsiderate, hasty with his lips, a talkative man; that speaks freely everything that comes into his mind, regardless of the characters of men, or consequences of things; is often brought into frights and fears, through the menaces and threatenings of men in power, whose characters he has made too free with, and oftentimes is brought to ruin and destruction: so he, whose throat is as an open sepulchre, belching out filthy words, horrid oaths, curses, and imprecations, destruction is near him, even in all his ways; and the man of sin, that opens his mouth in blasphemy against God, and his tabernacle, and his saints, shall go into perdition, Revelation 13:5. {x} htxm "consternatio," Mercerus, Cocceius, Michaelis; "terrebitur," Tigurine version. Verse 4. The soul of the sluggard desireth, and [hath] nothing,.... He desires knowledge, but does not care to be at any pains to get it, and so has it not; he desires riches, but chooses not to make use of the means, to be diligent and industrious, and so he is without them; he desires to wear good clothes and rich raiment, but is unwilling to labour for them, and therefore is clothed with rags; he desires food, and plenty of it, but refuses to work for it; and he that will not work should not eat, and therefore he has it not, but starves and famishes: and, in spiritual things, the sluggard desires heaven and happiness, but does not care to do the duties of religion; he would die the death of the righteous, but is unwilling to live his life; to abstain from sin, and live soberly and righteously, is too hard service for him; he does not choose to do or suffer anything for the cause of Christ and true religion. Jarchi's note is, that "in the future state he shall see the glory of the wise man, and desire it; but shall not attain to it;" but the soul of the diligent shall be made fat; become rich; increase in temporal things, and have great plenty and prosperity; and so, in spiritual matters, such who are diligent in the use of means, constantly attend on the word and ordinances, and labour for the meat which endures to everlasting life; such are filled and satisfied, as with marrow and fatness; and become fat and flourishing, and fruitful in every good word and work; and shall at last arrive to that state where there will be no more hunger and thirst. Verse 5. A righteous [man] hateth lying,.... Or, "a word of falsehood" {y}; as being contrary to honour, truth, and conscience. He hates it in himself and others; he hates all sorts of lies, lies in common conversation, religious lies, doctrinal ones, false doctrines, lies spoken in hypocrisy; such as the followers of antichrist spread, being given up unto them that they might be damned, 1 Timothy 4:2; these are an abomination to God and all good men, Revelation 21:27;

but a wicked [man] is loathsome, and cometh to shame; or, "causes" or "spreads a stink" {z}: all wicked men are loathsome and abominable, being very corrupt in principle and practice; all over defiled with sin, and covered with wounds, bruises, and putrefying sores, from the crown of the head to the sole of the feet; and especially liars, who are often brought to shame and confusion in this life, and will hereafter come to everlasting shame and contempt. Or, "makes himself to stink" {a}; in the nostrils of all good men, and so brought to shame: or "digs"; a metaphor, as Cartwright thinks, from those that dig in the earth, where such as are covered with shame would gladly put their heads. {y} rqv rbd "verbum falsitatis," Montanus, Michaelis; "verbum fuci," Schulteus. {z} vyaby "foetere facit," Vatablus, Mercerus; "foetere faciet," Montanus; "foetere fecit foetorem," Gussetius, p. 114. "foetorem spargit," Schultens. {a} "Se ipse foetere facit," Coccei Lexic. col. 77. "foetidum se reddit," Piscator. Verse 6. Righteousness keepeth [him that is] upright in the way,.... Men of uprightness and integrity, whose hearts are sincere in the ways of God; the principle of grace and righteousness in them keeps them in those ways, and will not suffer them to turn aside into crooked paths; the word of righteousness, the doctrine of the Gospel, is a means of preserving them from sin, and of keeping them in the right way; particularly the doctrine of Christ's righteousness, and justification by it, is a great antidote against sin, and a powerful motive and incentive to the performance of good works, and all the duties of religion: it engages men to observe every command of Christ, to walk in all his ways; and is a great preservative from false doctrine and antichristian worship; but wickedness overthroweth the sinner; it is the cause of his utter overthrow, of his being punished with everlasting destruction. It is, in the Hebrew text, "sin" {b} itself; the sinner is so called, because he is perfectly wicked, as Jarchi observes; he is nothing but sin, a mere mass of sin and corruption. Aben Ezra renders it, "the man of sin"; and it may be well applied to him, who is emphatically called so, and is likewise the son of perdition; who, for his wickedness, will be overthrown and destroyed at the coming of Christ, and with the brightness of it, 2 Thessalonians 2:3. {b} tajx "peccatum"; Montanus, Vatablus, Cocceius, Michaelis; "lapsationem," Schultens. Verse 7. There is that maketh himself rich, yet [hath] nothing,.... Some persons make a great show of riches, and would be thought to be rich; put on fine clothes, live at a high rate, and appear in great pomp, and yet not worth a farthing; which they do to gratify their pride and ambition, and to draw in others to trust them with their substance. So in spirituals; some persons, as hypocrites, would be thought to be rich in grace, and to be possessed of all the graces of the Spirit, faith, hope, and love; and yet have nothing of true grace, only what is counterfeit; the root of the matter is not in them; no principle of life and grace, only a name to live; nothing of the power, only the form, of godliness; no oil of grace in the vessels of their hearts, only the lamp of an outward profession: some, as the Pharisees, would be thought to be rich in good works, when they have no good thing in them, and do nothing that is spiritually good; either what they do is not done according to the revealed will of God, as many things done by the Pharisees formerly, and by the Papists now, or they do not flow from love; nor i are they done in faith, nor in the name and strength of Christ, nor to the glory of God by him: some, as the same persons, would be thought to be rich in

righteousness, when they have no true righteousness at all; not the righteousness of the law, which requires perfection of obedience; not the righteousness of faith, which is the righteousness of another; the righteousness of God is imputed, and is without the works of men; they have no righteousness that can justify them, or save them, or bring them to heaven: some, as the Arminians, would be thought to be rich in spiritual strength, and in the power of their free will, when they have neither will nor power to do anything spiritually good; neither to regenerate and convert themselves, nor to come to Christ, nor to do any good work: some, as the Perfectionists, would be thought to be so rich as to be free from sin, and perfect in grace, when they have none at all, as says the apostle, 1 John 1:8; their picture is drawn in Ephraim, and their language spoke by him, Hosea 12:8. The apostate church of Rome would be thought rich with the merits of saints, and works of supererogation, when she has no merit at all; nor is it possible for a creature to, merit anything at the hands of God; compare with all this Revelation 3:17; [there is] that maketh himself poor, yet [hath] great riches; there are some, on the other hand, who greatly degrade themselves; live in a very mean way, as though they were very poor; either through covetousness, or because they would not draw upon them the envy of their neighbours, or encourage their friends to borrow of them, or invite thieves to steal from them, or for some low end or another: the pope of Rome sometimes affects to seem poor, though at other times, and in other respects, he would be thought rich; at the Lateran procession the newly elected pope scatters pieces of brass money among the people, saying, as Peter, whose successor he pretends to be, did, "Silver and gold have I none," Acts 3:6; yet comes into great riches. These words may be applied spiritually, in a good sense; there are some who are sensible of their spiritual poverty, and own it; they ingenuously express the sense they have of their own nothingness and unworthiness; they declare they have nothing, and can do nothing; they renounce all their own works in the business of salvation, and ascribe it wholly to the grace of God; they have very mean thoughts, and speak very meanly of themselves, as less than the least of saints, and the chief of sinners: yea, some carry the matter too far in the expressions of their poverty; will not be persuaded that they have the true riches of grace, at least will not own it; but give way to their doubts and fears about it, when they are possessed of much; to whom some think these words are applicable. However, they are to such who are "poor in spirit," Matthew 5:3, as before described; who have, notwithstanding, "great riches," the riches of justifying grace, the riches of Christ's righteousness: the riches of pardoning grace, a large share thereof, much being forgiven them; the riches of sanctifying grace, faith, more precious than that of gold that perisheth, with all other graces; the riches of spiritual knowledge, preferable to gold and silver: they have Christ, and all things along with him; they have God to be their portion, and exceeding great reward; they have a large estate, an incorruptible inheritance, in heaven; they have a better and a more enduring substance there; "theirs is the kingdom of heaven," Matthew 5:3; it is prepared for them, and given to them; compare with this 2 Corinthians 6:10. Verse 8. The ransom of a man's life [are] his riches,.... As Benhadad's were to him, when he was in the hands of the king of Israel, 1 Kings 20:34; and as the treasures the ten men had in the field were to them, for the sake of which Ishmael, the son of Nethaniah, slew them not, Jeremiah 41:8. This is the advantage of riches when a man is taken captive in war, or by pirates, or is in the hands of thieves and robbers, he can redeem himself by his money; or when his life is in danger by diseases, he can procure healing medicines; or by famine, he can get food to preserve it, when a poor man cannot: but this is not to be done always, and is only to be understood of a

temporal life; for, as to the spiritual and eternal redemption of the soul of man, that requires a greater ransom price than such corruptible things as silver and gold; nothing short of the precious blood of Christ is sufficient for that, Job 36:18. Moreover, these words may not so much design the convenience as the inconvenience of riches to men; since these often invite thieves to assault their persons, and break into their houses, and threaten their lives; and put wicked men upon forming schemes, and drawing up charges and accusations against them, purely to get their money; which bring their lives into danger, and which they can only redeem by their riches; but the poor heareth not rebuke; no charge and accusation is brought against him; no rebuke or reproof is given him; no notice is taken of him, because nothing is to be got from him; he may sleep with his door unlocked, thieves will give him no disturbance; he may travel upon the road without being bid to stand {c}. Jarchi interprets this of him that is poor in the law; that hearkens not to reproofs and admonitions, given him to depart from evil: but rather it may be applied to the poor in spirit; who trust not in themselves and their own righteousness, but in the grace of God and righteousness of Christ; who indeed hear the rebukes of good men, and take them kindly; and of bad men, and return not revilings for them; and also the rebukes of Providence, or the chastisements of their heavenly Father, yet they will never hear any rebuke in wrath from him here or hereafter; when the rich in their own conceit, who trust in their riches and righteousness, and think to ransom their souls from death by them, will have rebukes with flames of fire. {c} "Cantabit vacuus coram latrone viator," Juvenal. Sat. 10. v. 23. Verse 9. The light of the righteous rejoiceth,.... The light of joy and gladness, which is sown for them, and arises to them; the light of spiritual knowledge and experience they have; the light of sound doctrine; the light of good works, and a Gospel conversation; all this, as it is delightful to themselves and others, so it is increasing more and more to the perfect day, and it continues: so the Septuagint and Arabic versions, "light [is] always for the righteous"; especially it will be in the latter day, and particularly in the New Jerusalem state, when there will be no night, Revelation 21:23; but the lamp of the wicked shall be put out; the light of the righteous is like that of the sun, bright and pleasant; but the light of the wicked is like that of a lamp, lesser and not so agreeable, nor will it last; their prosperity is short lived, their joy is but for a moment; the pleasures of sin are but for a season; their candle soon goes out; it is put out in obscure darkness, and they themselves are reserved to blackness of darkness, Job 18:5; as prosperous and flourishing as the kingdom of antichrist has been or is, it will be full of darkness, Revelation 16:12. Verse 10. Only by pride cometh contention,.... Though it comes by other things, yet by this chiefly, and there are no contentions without it: or "truly," "verily," "certainly {d}, by pride," &c. Unless the words may be better rendered, "an empty man through pride will give contention" {e}, or make it; such as are empty of knowledge and wisdom; and such are generally the most proud, and are very apt to raise contentions, and foment divisions: contentions in families, in neighbourhoods, in towns, cities, and countries, and in churches, are generally owing to pride; what contentions and confusions has the pride of the pope of Rome brought into kingdoms and states, into councils, and into the church of God!

but with the well advised [is] wisdom: such who are humble and modest will seek counsel of God; will consult the sacred oracles, and ask advice of those who are superior to them in knowledge and understanding; and so will neither raise contentions themselves, nor join with those that make them, but do all they can to lay them; these show that true wisdom is with them. {d} qr "certe," Vatablus; "vere," Pagninus, Montanus, Merecrus. {e} "Levis per superbiam dabit contentionam," Gejerus. Verse 11. Wealth [gotten] by vanity shall be diminished,.... In an unjust or unlawful way, either by robbery and theft, as Aben Ezra; or by fraud and tricking, by overreaching and circumventing others; or by vain practices, as by cards or dice, and by stage playing and the like; or by curious and illicit arts, as necromancy, judiciary astrology, and such like things; whatever is gotten in a wicked way very seldom lasts long; it lessens by little and little till it comes to nothing {f}; see Jeremiah 17:11; and sometimes very quickly and suddenly, all at once; thus that mass of riches which the church of Rome has got together by her vain and wicked practices, by her idolatry, pardons, and indulgences, will in one hour come to nought, Revelation 18:17; but he that gathereth by labour shall increase, or "that gathereth by the hand" or "in [it]" {g}; by hand labour in an honest way, or with the diligent hand, which maketh rich; who labours with his hand and gets by in sufficient to support himself and his family, and to give to the necessities of others; who does not lay it up in coffers, but keeps it in his hand to distribute; such generally thrive and flourish: some copies read it, "he that gathereth, de, unto the hand" {h}, that gathers and puts it into the hands of others; that liberally communicates to the poor; he shall increase, as commonly liberal persons do; so the Targum, "he that gathereth and giveth to the poor shall increase in substance." {f} "De malo quaesitis vix gaudet tertius baeres," Herat. {g} dy le "in manu," Pagninus, Junius & Tremellius, Piscator; "super manu," Gussetius, p. 310. "super manum," Michaelis, Schultens. {h} "Usque ad manum," Montantus. Verse 12. Hope deferred maketh the heart sick,.... That is, the object hoped for; if it is not enjoyed so soon as expected, at least if it is delayed any length of time, the mind becomes uneasy, the heart sinks and fails, and the man is dispirited and ready to despond, and give up all hope of enjoying the desired blessing; whether it be deliverance from any evil, or the possession of any good; but [when] the desire cometh, [it is] a tree of life; when that which is hoped and wished for, and has been long expected and desired, comes; when there is an accomplishment of men's wishes, it is as grateful to him as the tree of life was in Eden's garden; it gives him an unspeakable pleasure and delight. This may be applied to many things in a spiritual way, as to the first coming of Christ; and some have thought this is greatly regarded and chiefly intended; this was the object of the hope of Old Testament saints; and it was hoped for on a good foundation, on the promise of God, which was frequently repeated, enlarged, and confirmed; yet this promised and hoped for blessing was deferred a long time; from the first promise of it to its accomplishment were four thousand years; though not deferred longer than the appointed time, yet longer than the saints expected, and which sometimes made their hearts sick; they became weak and feeble, fearful and dispirited, lest it should never come to pass, which occasioned fresh promises and assurances to them; see Isaiah

but when what they so earnestly desire is granted them. Or the written word may be meant. and serve it: or. hope and wait for. is "a tree of life. and to whom it is so. but he that feareth the commandment. which must be a great evil. "fruetur pace. and who is the "desire of all nations" that was to come. being sometimes without. it was exceeding joyful and delightful to all that expected him. Michaelis. and sometimes it is deferred a long time. his mediatorial qualifications. at least they think it so." or "be in safety" {k}. the work of redemption and salvation he came about. Verse 13. and the Arabic version. and who is desirable for the excellencies of his person. that being the word of God and of truth." the author of life. that despise or abuse them. this is the object of hope in the present state. receives the word with reverence. great ingratitude. and fears to break them: he shall be rewarded. and keeps his commandments. life. plucking the fruit of the tree of life: likewise it may be applied to eternal glory and happiness. they bring destruction to themselves. and which may be meant by the word. how sweet will it be! and the sweeter for having been so much longed and wished for. and the language of the soul is. and were looking for redemption in Israel. and even sick of love. and never hunger more. and salvation. see Proverbs 3:18. Song of Solomon 5:8. for their contempt of it. or rather in the paradise above. "the coming desire" {i}." Judges 5:28. Pagninus. as it may be rendered. because of the contempt of it. for in keeping the commandments of God there is great reward: or." or "lives. It may be applied also to the spiritual presence of Christ. Whoso despiseth the word shall be destroyed. and when this desired happiness is enjoyed. and eat of the tree of life in the midst of it. which are given by inspiration of God. "donatur pace. but when "the desire" came. L. for great peace have they which love the law of God." Junius . Christ the desired object. the word of righteousness. Haggai 2:7. The word of God. and so make them of none effect: such are all false teachers. when those that despise it "shall be corrupted" {m}. [and] in health" {l}. and eternal. and yet are greatly slighted and despised by the man of sin and his followers. "shall enjoy peace. for so the words may be rendered. "shall bring destruction to himself. and according to them: or." or shall receive detriment from it: so the Targum. this is what believers. who set up and prefer their unwritten traditions to them. it is sometimes impatiently expected and desired. with good. Mercerus. natural. considering the grace of his office." V. and powerful Word he is: and such may be said to despise him who despise his ministers.. come quickly. "because of it". and be punished with everlasting destruction." Vatablus. "Why is his chariot so long in coming?" . the Scriptures.. trembles at it. and therefore ought to be had in the greatest reverence. which makes them very uneasy. considering what a quick. fears God. they shall perish. from the word itself. the Syriac version. and is to them that perish foolishness. "come. considering the dignity of his person. Either Christ. and disobedience to it. peace. Schultens. and the Gospel preached by them.. "by the commandment itself". or Christ. by the threatenings in it. very dangerous. and communion with him. {i} hab hwat "desiderium venieus.35:3 Malachi 3:1. "by it". sharp." V. spiritual. as the Targum adds.. and when the saints will be in the paradise of God. Cocceius. L. "shall be sound. it is as if they were in Eden's garden. the essential Word. and the blessings he brought with him. as the church was. {k} Mlvy "in pace versabitur. Lord Jesus. as the word in the preceding clause may be rendered.

and filled with terror. or "spreads" {q} it. Schultens. which are given forth by one Shepherd. with which men being entangled. The law of the wise [is] a fountain of life. Good understanding giveth favour." as the Vulgate Latin version. "salvabitur. but the way of transgressors [is] hard.. Verse 16. and of reviving and refreshing the souls of weary saints. he both acts and speaks with knowledge. the issue of which is life eternal. Or "doctrine" {n}. are brought to destruction and death. is the means of conveying grace into the hearts of men. were accounted by others a wise and an understanding people. Sept. when he increased in wisdom. for having and keeping the statutes of the Lord. Pagninus. all he does is with knowledge and discretion. Junius & Tremellius. or "right doctrine. Michaelis. considering well time.. Verse 15.. 1 John 5:20. Verse 14.. in which they stumble and fall. that an understanding to know God and Christ is a gift of grace. and cannot walk with pleasure themselves. and must be very disagreeable to those who have seen the evil of them. In order to get more.& Tremellius. {n} trwt "doctrina. "grace gives a good understanding" {p}? since it is certain. Schultens. and the mysteries of it. by his foolish talk and indiscreet actions. Cocceius. and studies to grow in the knowledge of the Gospel. Psalm 111:10. {p} "Successum bonum dat gratia. Vatablus.." Junius & Tremellius. the words or doctrines of the wise. he does not meddle with things. and so a good understanding in divine and spiritual things gives a man favour among religious people." Junius & Tremellius. Drusius." Cocceius. cautiously. and such appear to have one that do the commandments of God.. and are wise unto salvation. Michaelis. and persons: and every wise and good man deals with evangelical knowledge. "good doctrine. Piscator. "pacabitur. well instructed themselves unto the kingdom of heaven: these are as a fountain of living water. and bring life and immortality to light. Montanus. Montanus. the instructions of such who are like Scribes. grew in favour with God and men.. What if it should be rendered. unless it be given him. but a fool layeth open [his] folly. makes him taken notice of by them. which are the means of quickening dead sinners. {m} lbxy "corrumpetur". Satan. and Christ. it is a rough and rugged way.. to shun and avoid them." as the Arabic version. and they are loaded with guilt. when their consciences are awakened. place." Mercerus. nor has he to do with persons. A good understanding in things natural and civil gives favour among men. "gives grace" {o}. and with men of knowledge for the same purpose.. The Israelites. Every prudent [man] dealeth with knowledge. Mercerus. {q} vrpy "expandit. Gejerus. the snares of sin. and of God in Christ. and point and lead to eternal life: and so direct souls to depart from the snares of death.. wisely.. ungrateful and unpleasant to themselves and others." Syriac version. . as man. It may be rendered. he knows nothing of. and the world.. the doctrine of those who are taught by the word. {l} ugiainei. {o} Nx "gratiam." Pagninus. and exposes it to the view of everyone. and acceptable to them: and such an understanding no man has. in the knowledge of Christ. and of increasing it.

Verse 17. A wicked messenger falleth into mischief,.... That does not do his errand right, nor deliver his message faithfully; such an one falls from the degree of honour in which he was into disgrace; he loses his master's favour that sent him; he is degraded from his post and office: he falls "by evil," or "into evil" {r}; by the evil of sin, into the evil of punishment. So wicked ministers and false teachers, such who transform themselves into the apostles of Christ and into angels of light, who corrupt the word of God, and handle it deceitfully; these shall receive their just condemnation; since they do a deal of mischief to the souls of men, and therefore shall fall into mischief themselves, even into everlasting perdition; but a faithful ambassador [is] health; or, "an ambassador of truths" {s}; one that performs his embassy well and truly, he is salutary, useful, and profitable to himself, and to them that send him: the word for ambassador is translated an "hinge," Proverbs 26:14; and he is so called, because upon his negotiations abroad the hinge of political affairs turn at home. An ambassador of Christ, who does his work faithfully, keeps back nothing that is profitable, but declares the whole counsel of God; the sound doctrines he delivers are health to the souls of men; as well as he is approved of God and Christ; and so it turns to his own health and advantage, who will hear one day said unto him, "Well done, good and faithful servant," Matthew 25:23. {r} erb "in malum," V. L. Pagninus, Montanus, Tigurine version, Junius & Tremellius, Pisccator, &c. {s} Mynwma ryu "legatus veritatum," Montanus, Vatablus. Verse 18. Poverty and shame [shall be to] him that refuseth instruction,.... Of parents, masters, and ministers of the word; the instruction of wisdom, the instruction of the Gospel, in things relating to their present spiritual peace, and to their eternal welfare: such generally come to poverty and disgrace in this life, and to everlasting shame and contempt in another; see Proverbs 5:11; but he that regardeth reproof; the reproof of the word, and of the ministers of it, and of all good men, and takes it kindly, and acts according to it, shall be honoured; with riches and reputation; if not with the riches of this world, yet with the riches of grace and glory; and shall have honour among the saints, and from the Lord himself; who will honour those that honour him, as they do who regard the reproof and instruction of his word, 1 Samuel 2:30. Verse 19. The desire accomplished is sweet to the soul,.... Whether the desire be after riches and honour, after wisdom and knowledge; or after the best things, the knowledge of God, and communion with him; an interest in Christ, and the blessings of his grace, as pardon, righteousness, &c. and a right and title to eternal glory and happiness, and the enjoyment of that: and how sweet are these things the soul desires, when they are possessed! see Proverbs 13:12; such are "the desires of the godly," as the Septuagint render the word; but [it is] abomination to fools to depart from evil; they cannot bear the thoughts of parting with their lusts; they are so delightful to them, not knowing anything of the sweetness of the things before mentioned; and which they can never enjoy without departing from sin, to which they are exceedingly averse. Verse 20. He that walketh with wise [men] shall be wise,.... Who is a companion of

them that fear the Lord; converses frequently with them in private about spiritual and experimental things, and walks with them in public in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord; he by those means grows wiser and wiser, gains a large stock of spiritual knowledge and experience; for this holds good both in natural and spiritual wisdom, a man of any capacity at all will improve by keeping wise company; but a companion of fools shall be destroyed; the Vulgate Latin version renders it, "shall become like them"; be a fool as they are, and grow still more and more foolish. The Septuagint version is, "shall be known"; known by the company he keeps to be a fool also: or rather, "shall be broken" {t}; ruined and destroyed, "evil communications corrupt good manners," 1 Corinthians 15:33, and so bring to ruin and destruction. {t} ewry "conteretur," Pagninus, Montanus, Piscator, Mercerus, Gejerus; "conquassabitur," Cocceius; "fragetur," Michaelis; "infringetur," Schultens, so Ben Melech. Verse 21. Evil pursueth sinners,.... They pursue the evil of sin, and the evil of punishment pursues them, and at last overtakes them; their damnation, though it may seem to slumber and linger, it does not; it is upon the full speed after them, and will quickly seize upon them. Some understand this of the evil of sin in the conscience, which pursues the sinner, and fills him with terror; but to the righteous good shall be repaid; or, "he shall recompense the righteous with good" {u}, or "good to the righteous"; that is, God shall do it; for all the good things they have done, from a right principle, and to a right end; which good works of theirs will pursue and follow them; and for all the ill things they have suffered for righteousness's sake, a reward of grace, though not of debt, will be given them; as they have had their evil things here, they shall have their good things hereafter; as well as are often recompensed in this life, either in themselves or in their posterity, as follows. {u} bwj Mlvy Myqydu taw "et justis reddet bonum," Pagninus, Montanus, Mercerus, Gejerus; "justes remunerabit Deus bono," Michaelis; "justis autem bonum rependet," Tigurine version, Piscator, so Cocceius. Verse 22. A good [man] leaveth an inheritance to his children's children,.... He not only has a sufficiency for the present support of himself and family; but is so prospered and succeeded, as to leave an inheritance after him; and which is continued to and enjoyed, not only by his immediate offspring, but theirs also; for being got honestly, it wears well; see Proverbs 13:11; and the wealth of the sinner [is] laid up for the just; the riches which wicked men get are laid up in the purposes of God for good men; and in his providence they are translated from the one to the other: so the riches of the Egyptians were designed for the Israelites, and by the providence of God were put into their hands; see Job 27:16. Verse 23. Much food [is in] the tillage of the poor,.... The poor are generally employed in tilling land; from whose labours in ploughing and sowing much food arises to men, bread to the eater, and seed to the sower: or a poor farmer, that has but a small farm, a few acres of land, to till; yet through his diligence and industry, with the blessing of God upon it, he gets a comfortable livelihood for himself and family; much food, or a sufficiency of it for the present year, and seed to sow land again the

following year; but there is [that is] destroyed for want of judgment; or discretion in tilling his land, and managing the affairs of husbandry, which is God's gift, Isaiah 28:26; or, "through injustice" {w}, as some render it; for want of doing that which is right and just; not paying his labourers their hire and wages, as he ought, and so it is blasted, and comes to ruin. This may be spiritually applied. By the "poor" may be understood the poor ministers of the Gospel; who, though poor, make many rich, 2 Corinthians 6:10; much spiritual food is to be had under their labours and ministrations, they being employed in cultivating the churches: or else the poor saints and poor churches themselves may be meant; who are tilled by them, among whom is plenty of spiritual provisions; as in the poor Protestant churches, who, though in the wilderness, are nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, when there is no food in the apostate church of Rome: and so by the "tillage" may be meant the church of Christ itself, which is "God's husbandry," 1 Corinthians 3:9; his agriculture, his tillage, his arable land; which he has separated and distinguished from the wide world, and employs his power and care about. For he is the husbandman, John 15:1; it is he that breaks up the fallow ground of men's hearts; that makes the ground good which he tills; who sows the seed of the word, and the seed of his grace there; who waters it with the dews of his grace, and causes his people to grow as the corn, and ripens them for glory: and when the harvest is come, the end of the world or of life, he sends his reapers, his angels, to gather them, the wheat, into his garner. And he employs the ministers of the word as under husbandmen, as labourers under him and with him; these are the ploughmen that hold the plough of the Gospel, and manage that; these are his sowers that go forth, bearing the precious seed of the word, and sow it under his direction; and these water the ground that is sown and planted; their doctrines distil as the rain and dew upon it; and these bring in their sheaves with joy at last. And now in this tillage is much spiritual food; in God's husbandry, the church, are the word and ordinances, in which are milk for babes, and meat for strong men, salutary, wholesome, nourishing, and strengthening food; here Christ, the best food, is set forth to faith to feed upon; true and real food, meat and drink indeed, spiritual, savoury, satisfying food; soul reviving, refreshing, and nourishing food; here is plenty of it, enough and to spare: and yet there are some that are destroyed for want of spiritual judgment and discerning; who take the poison of false teachers instead of the food to be had under a Gospel ministry; so the followers of the man of sin are given up to believe a lie and be damned; for want of judgment, they receive the grossest absurdities, and perish; as others also give in to damnable heresies, denying the deity, satisfaction, and righteousness of Christ, and other soul destroying notions; see Hosea 4:6. {w} jpvm alb "ob non jus," Vatablus; i.e. "ob injustitiam," Michaelis; "sine justitia," Gejerum. Verse 24. He that spareth his rod hateth his son,.... Who withholds or withdraws his rod of correction, which is in his hand, which he has power to use, and ought to exercise at proper times; he, instead of loving his son, may be said to hate him; for such fond love is no better than hatred; and, if he really hated him, he could scarcely do a more ill thing by him than not to correct him for a fault; which was the sin of good old Eli, and both he and his sons suffered for it; but he that loveth him; that has a true love for his son, and a hearty concern for his welfare and future good; he will regulate his affections by his judgment, and not give

way to a fond passion, to the prejudice of his child: but he chasteneth him betimes, or "in the morning" {x}; in the morning of his infancy, before vicious habits are contracted, or he is accustomed to sinning, and hardened in it; or as soon as a crime is perpetrated, before it is forgot or repeated: or every morning, as Jarchi and Aben Ezra; that is, continually, as often as it is necessary, or as faults are committed. {x} wrxv "mane castigat eum," Munster; "matutinat ei disciplinam," Michaelis. Verse 25. The righteous eateth to the satisfying of his soul,.... He is blessed with a sufficient competency to live upon; and he is contented with what he has, and uses it moderately; he has enough to eat, and is contented with his portion, and eats no more than sufficeth; he eats to the satisfying of his appetite, and no more; he does not indulge to luxury and excess: and so as to spiritual things; he eats to the satisfying of his soul, with the goodness and fatness of God's house, with the word and ordinances, with the promises of the Gospel, and with Jesus Christ, the bread of life; with these he is satisfied, as with marrow and fatness; but the belly of the wicked shall want; not only spiritual food, which he has no appetite for, but corporeal food; he shall starve in the midst of plenty, not having a heart to put that food into his mouth, and fill his belly with it, as nature requires, through his covetousness; or, having spent his substance in rioting and wantonness, wants bread to satisfy the craving of his appetite.
CHAPTER `14 Proverbs 14 Verse 1. Every wise woman buildeth her house,.... Not only by her fruitfulness, as Leah and Rachel built up the house of Israel; but by her good housewifery, prudent economy; looking well to the ways of her household; guiding the affairs of her house with discretion; keeping all things in a good decorum; and bringing up her children in virtue, and in the fear and admonition of the Lord. So Christ, who in this book goes by the name of "Wisdom," or the wise woman, builds his house upon himself, the Rock; and all his people on their most holy faith, by means of the ministry of the word, and administration of ordinances: he guides and governs his house, where he is, as a Son in it and over it; and of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named, taken care of, and wisely and plentifully provided for: and so Gospel ministers, who are wise to win souls, being well instructed in the kingdom of God; these "wise women" {y}, so it is in the original text, or wise virgins; these wise master builders lay the foundation Christ ministerially, and build souls on it; and speak things to the edification of the church and people of God, and the building of them up in faith and holiness; but the foolish plucketh it down with her hands; the Vulgate Latin version adds, "being built"; this she does by her idleness and laziness; by her lavish and profuse way of living; by her negligence and want of economy;

by her frequenting playhouses, and attention to other diversions; and so her family and the affairs of it go to wreck and ruin. Thus the apostate church of Rome, who is called a "woman," and may be said to be a "foolish" one, being a wicked one and a harlot; see Revelation 17:2; pulls down the true church and house of God with both hands, as much as in her lies, by her false doctrines, and superstitious worship and idolatry; and by her murders and massacres of the saints, with the blood of whom she is said to be drunk; nay, not only pulls it down with her hands, but treads upon it with her feet, Revelation 11:2. So likewise all false teachers do as this foolish woman does, by their impure lives and impious doctrines, defile the temple of God, subvert the faith of many; by means of whom the tabernacle of David, or house of God, is fallen down; the ruins and breaches of which Christ will repair in the latter day. {y} Myvn twmkx "sapientes mulieres," Munster, Baynus; so the Septuagint and Arabic versions. Verse 2. He that walketh in his uprightness feareth the Lord,.... It is plain that the fear of the Lord is upon the heart and before the eyes of such that walk according to the word of God, with a sincere desire to glorify him; for it is by the fear of the Lord that men depart from evil, and because of that they cannot do what others do; and therefore when a man walks uprightly, and his conversation is in all holiness and godliness, it shows that the fear of God has a place in his heart, which influences his outward behaviour; but [he that is] perverse in his ways despiseth him; either God himself, whom the upright walker fears; for he that acts perversely, contrary to the law of God, or transgresses that, and goes out of the way, despises God the lawgiver, tramples upon his authority, stretches out his hand, and commits acts of hostility against him; and he that perverts the Gospel of Christ despises his ministers, and despises Christ himself, and him that sent him. Or else the meaning is, that such a perverse walker despises him that fears the Lord; so Aben Ezra interprets it; and such are generally the contempt of wicked men: to this sense is the Vulgate Latin version, "he that walks in a right way, and fears God, is despised by him that walks in an infamous way;" but the Septuagint and Arabic versions render it, "is despised": meaning the perverse man. Verse 3. In the mouth of the foolish [is] a rod of pride,.... A proud tongue, or a tongue speaking proud and haughty things; with which foolish or wicked men smite others and wound and hurt their reputation and credit, and in the issue hurt themselves also; their tongue is not only a rod to others, but a scourge to themselves, or is the cause of evil coming upon them; such was the tongue of Pharaoh, as Jarchi on the place observes, Exodus 5:2; and of those the psalmist speaks of, Psalm 73:9; and particularly of antichrist, whose mouth is opened in blasphemies against God, and his tabernacle, and his saints, Revelation 13:5;

granary. names which most properly belong to ministers of the word: the other word comes from a root which signifies to "see. or in the barn. Oxen were used in Judea in several parts of husbandry. "is without wheat".. There is a likeness in ministers to these creatures. Now where there are no such laborious and diligent ministers of the word." "guides. So ministers of the word had need to have good sight.but the lips of the wise shall preserve them." "granary. thus." or "in the barn. there is no food for souls. creatures." and "govern". what coaxes out of their mouth is confounding and destructive to their enemies. or not used. Or "empty" {z}. within. "where no oxen are. to look into the Scriptures." or storehouse. and to look into their own experience. and tread out the corn. there is no instruction in the constitutions. and before. and much less food for men.. and into things both past and to come. By supplying the negative particle. they are clean. and search them. and. the one comes from a root which signifies to "teach. or there is no wheat "on the floor. Now where these are not. or rather." &c. and behind. as to the nature of them. The ox was one of the emblems in the cherubim. and as John's living creatures in Revelation 4:6. or from being hurt by the tongues of men or their own. for so the same word is rendered. the threshingfloor. as such should be that minister in holy things. one of which was an ox. yea. because these creatures are sharp sighted. like them." But much better is the mystical sense. so Jarchi and Aben Ezra. as such should revolve in their minds and constantly meditate upon divine things." Amos 8:5. were full of eyes. in ploughing the land. and in this manner it is interpreted by Gersom here. overseers. Deuteronomy 22:10. as also by Kimchi {c}: the word translated "clean" is used for "wheat. and are not only strong to labour. Oxen are an emblem of faithful and laborious ministers. "where there are no scholars of the wise men. the mysteries of grace. but very laborious in the word and doctrine." "leaders.. Ministers are seers. Here are two words used of them in the text. to look to themselves and to their flock. Where no oxen [are] the crib [is] clean. and to look out to discover enemies. Revelation 11:5. where husbandry is neglected." and "governors". that where there are no ministers of the Gospel. Jeremiah 50:26. from speaking such proud and haughty things against God and men. the names by which oxen are called agree with them. the note of Jarchi on the text is. are patient and quiet under the yoke. and chew the cud. bring home souls to Christ. out of the sacred writings. the whole may be rendered thus. as there are none in the . bringing home the corn." "guide. Verse 4. draw the plough of the Gospel." "lead. and to heaven." to "look". or storehouse. no corn or "wheat" {a} on the "threshingfloor" {b}. and danger by them. and the same word for "oxen" signifies "teachers. to his church.. submit to the yoke. and in threshing or treading it out. which design Gospel ministers. there is no straw in the crib for beasts.

This may be applied to Gospel ministers. L. is owing to God. nor will they.." 1 John 2:21. l. {d} "Fortis arat valido rusticus arva bove. so neither will he tell a lie in common conversation. 14. whose strength is employed in ploughing the ground {d} and treading the corn. v. Pagninus. there is much spiritual food. so the Syriac version. which they are given up to believe. There is an increase of converts." Baynus. through the ministry of the word. and of the doctrines of the Gospel relating to himself. So false teachers. will not scruple to lie in common talk. knowingly and willingly. 2. and the method of salvation by him. Schultens. will utter them as fast as he can. For that would be contrary to his character as faithful. and he is "faithful" to him that appointed him. through the tillage of it by proper instruments. Mercerus. Or the words. and plenty of provisions. Joseph Kimchi in Abendana in loc.. 1 Corinthians 3:6. he that accustoms himself to lying." V. lesser sins lead to greater. rad oba & R. A faithful witness will not lie. for one that fears not to bear testimony to a falsehood upon oath. p. Amama. which is put for all means of husbandry. or a doctrinal lie. "he that uttereth lies [will be] a false witness". and antichrist. and of spiritual light and knowledge. and as he will not witness to a falsehood upon oath in a court of judicature. and they bear a faithful witness to the truth. which spiritual increase. since "no lie is of the truth. but much increase [is] by the strength of the ox.. but a famine of the word. Gejerus. and men perish for lack of knowledge. and spread them abroad in great plenty. see Proverbs 13:23. the Gospel they preach is a testimony concerning him. {b} owba "area. Eleg. . 14. {c} Sepher Shorash. and an increase of gifts and of grace. doctrinal ones. in his conversation with men in private company. speak lies in hypocrisy. the character of a faithful witness is given to Christ. Munster. will become a false witness upon occasion in a public court of judicature: such an one is not to be depended on. or "blow" {e} them out. nor can he nor will he lie. having no conscience. but a false witness will utter lies. and such as do so are false witnesses. 2. Revelation 1:5. and. of his mind and will. lying to perjury. deliver out a falsehood. who are witnesses of Christ. and the followers of the man of sin. who is a "witness" of his father's love and grace. {a} "Triticum.. with all boldness and confidence. Michaelis. he will not stick to tell them. as by the strong and laborious ox. deceivers." Gussetius." Tibullus. Verse 5. {z} rb "vacuum. "nay" be rendered. a harvest of souls is brought in. as there is a large increase of the fruits of the earth. the blessing of God attending them. for he is "truth" itself.apostate church of Rome. there is no spiritual food for the souls of men. where that is used or not: so through the unwearied labours of Gospel ministers.

A scorner seeketh wisdom. were ever learning. as Cocceius on the text serves. but professing themselves to be wise they became fools. that boasted of their evangelical wisdom. "for there is no knowledge in his lips." Junius & Tremellius. "go to a foolish man.. as the scoffing Athenians did. what does not minister grace to the hearers. and thought they found it. and [findeth it] not...{e} xypy "efflabit. and seek it of wrong persons. in the use of wrong means.. and so perish for lack of knowledge of him.. and never came to the knowledge of the truth. and some seek for wisdom. Verse 7. nor is for the use of edifying. and false teachers. Verse 6. join in company with him. in a scornful manner. or of Christ. see Proverbs 8:8. being dangerous. or some other false teacher. they are all plain to man whose understanding is opened by the Spirit of God. A wicked one. So the scornful Greeks. see John 7:34. and of their great attainments in Gospel light. but knowledge [is] easy unto him that understandeth. what his holiness and infallibility says. avoid him. would seek him. nor Christ the substance of it. whose lips would teach knowledge. depart from him. that mocked at the true Messiah." or learn anything by him. and to the way of life and salvation by him. there is nothing perverse or froward in the words and doctrines of Christ. shun his company. especially such as relate to the glory of Christ's person. Acts 17:18. Piscator. "and thou shalt not know the lips of knowledge.. since thou dost not approve of wise and knowing men. and the doctrines of it.. and derided others. some understand this ironically. even evangelical wisdom. "efflat. "go right against a foolish man" {f}. so Jarchi and Gersom: or rather to this sense the words may be rendered. and professed they had. keep company with a foolish man. sought natural wisdom." Montanus. and so seek amiss and find not. seeing thou knowest not the lips of knowledge" {g}. nor any ways improving in useful knowledge. and the scornful Jews. if you have a mind to be ignorant. and with all their wisdom knew not God. in a jeering sarcastic way. have no fellowship with him. the knowledge of Wisdom. but all the reverse: the Targum is. is easy to him to whom it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven. that scoffed at the plainness and simplicity of the Gospel. and render the words thus. and to wrong ends and purposes.. . infectious. is easy to him that has a spiritual understanding given him. the Wisdom of God. it. when it is observed that his lips pour out foolishness. what is corrupt and unsavoury. and hurtful. as they have done. unchaste and filthy. Men often seek for wisdom in a wrong way and manner. Go from the presence of a foolish man. and hear him. and find him not. when thou perceivest not [in him] the lips of knowledge. and despisest the Gospel." in what is expressed by them. and find it not. and Gospel ministers the pope of Rome. the knowledge of the Gospel.

"where is the promise of his coming?" Some. they make light of them.. and in a scoffing manner say. and is exposed to derision and contempt by the Papists. that he may walk inoffensively both towards God and men. and interpret it of the sin offerings and sacrifices under the law. it promises them pleasure." De Dieu. they make a mock at reproofs for them. {h} Mva Uyly Mylywa fronav cleuazei plhmmeleia. "sin makes a mock of fools" {h}. sacrifice. as Aben Ezra observes.. the way of his duty. Verse 8. Aquila & . in which he should abide. who made his soul an offering for sin.. but all the reverse. sport themselves with the mischief that arises from them unto others. Fools make a mock at sin. but may be better applied to the sin offering or sacrifice of Christ. and by their merits and works of supererogation. not only the deceiving of others.. but gives them neither. that they are willing to do all good offices unto men. this is itself "deceit"." as elsewhere. or honour. call evil good. so Gussetius. The words may be rendered. which to understand and to walk in is the highest wisdom and prudence. but among the righteous [there is] favour: they enjoy the favour of God and man. who deny it. but themselves also: such is the folly of the man of sin and followers. it deceives them. and laugh at a future state. it lies in tricking and deceiving. and is what the Holy Ghost calls "folly. which lies in deceiving the inhabitants of the earth with their sorceries and superstitions. take pleasure in doing them themselves. Verse 9. as derided by wicked men. and an awful judgment they are warned of. and the way of life and salvation. and by love to serve their friends and neighbours: or "there is acceptance" {k}. their own or others. yea. they are accepted with God upon the account of the sin offering. which fools mock and despise. see 2 Thessalonians 2:10 Revelation 13:14... it is science. but the folly of fools [is] deceit: or "the wisdom of fools. to make satisfaction and atonement for the sins of his people." Cocceius.{f} lyok vyal dgnm kl "e regione viri stulti. and is meant. At sinful actions. and how to manage it in the best manner. this is mocked at by false teachers.. and satisfaction of Christ. and the issue of it is. with their lying wonders and miracles. 1 Corinthians 3:19. and scoff at those that instruct and rebuke them. and Schultens {g} "Abi ut stes cora in viro stolido. good will towards men. p." which the opposition requires. which is by Jesus Christ. or "there is good will" {i}. which they prefer to the sacrifice and satisfaction of Christ. The wisdom of the prudent [is] to understand his way. by their bloodless sacrifice of the mass. and taking delight in the mischief that comes by it to others. The way of his calling. 495. a jest of them. falsely so called. and good evil.. and in those that do them. they are so far from making a mock at sin. render it "a sin offering". or profit.

Pagninus. fills them with shame and confusion of face. are in that distress and bitterness of soul which no tongue can express nor heart conceive but what has felt the same." Montanus. it passes the understanding of a natural man. "non . the distress of his conscience. it is so to their taste. Gejerus. reaching his ears and his heart. L. Montanus. 1 Samuel 1:10. the heart of man only knows the whole of it. nor take it away. his words. Gejerus. Gussetius. and can see all his sins expiated and stoned for by his sacrifice. crosses. Baynus. Piscator. men may be in the gall of bitterness. and of the spiritual and eternal salvation he has wrought out for him. the anguish of his mind. and enjoys communion with him. and meetness for it: now a stranger. something of it may be known to others by his looks. at the revelation of Christ in him and to him. "non miscebit sese. The heart knoweth his own bitterness. bitterness of soul often arises from outward troubles. {m} brety al "non immiscet se. and severe reflections upon themselves. "delictum illudit fatuos.. and gestures. and diseases of body. this is more especially true of spiritual joy. so Tigurine version. Michaelis. and his interest in it. Verse 10. and disappointments. to the Gospel and the doctrines of it. which. {i} Nwur "benevoleatia.Theodotion in Drusius. it makes hitter work for repentance in them. losses. and he has a view of the complete righteousness of Christ. as it is unspeakable to the man that possesses it. but this is not the case of every heart. {l} wvpn trm "amaritudine animae suae." Baynus.. but not all of it. knows nothing at all of the above joy. Mercerus. see 1 Corinthians 2:10. to the saints and communion with them. nor can he interrupt it. one that is a stranger to God and godliness. only such who are awakened and convinced by the Spirit of God.. causes self-loathing and abhorrence. he can form no true idea of it: spiritual joy is what a sensible sinner partakes of upon the Gospel. they are cut to the heart and killed with it. and. they are pressed down with the guilt of sin. he does not share in it or partake of it. and the load of it. or "mingle himself with it" {m}. the joyful sound of salvation. Mercerus. and likewise when he is indulged with a visit from him. Cocceius. and a well grounded hope of right unto it. to Christ and the way of salvation by him. Or "the bitterness of his soul" {l}. to the Spirit and his work of grace upon the heart. {k} "Acceptatio. seeing sin in its own colours. and have no bitterness of soul on account of it. it brings trembling and astonishment on them. as sin is a bitter thing in itself. and a stranger doth not intermeddle with his joy." Cocceius." Michaelis. to his own heart and the plague of it." Gejerus. when he is favoured with a sight of the fulness of grace in Christ." V. when an application of pardoning grace is made to his soul. Sometimes it is upon spiritual accounts.. and when he has a glimpse of eternal glory. having no views of pardon. the sensualist and voluptuous worldling feels nothing of it. to these. as a Saviour. nor the hardened and hardhearted sinner. pains.

Piscator. and despises others. in girls and grace. Psalm 107:41. and when the tabernacle of God will be with men. seems to be a right way. when they imagined they would continue for ever. so the way of the hypocrite and Pharisee that trusts to his own righteousness. their riches and wealth. shall flourish in the courts of the Lord. or however does not submit to it. Psalm 49:11. especially that gotten dishonestly. they shall flourish in worldly things and grow rich. and which.intermiscet se. let it appear in what shape it will. fancies himself to be in a fair way for heaven and happiness. . it is a broad road. Psalm 92:13. Houses built to perpetuate their names and eternize their memory. shall waste away: and in a spiritual sense the house or hope of such.. especially they will be in such flourishing circumstances in the latter day. that hold of every foul spirit. Psalm 72:8. yet by one accident or another shall come to ruin. or something of their own. through the lying miracles of the priests... or an outward profession of religion. so Popery. and counts the blood of the covenant an unholy thing. or however in spirituals. and cage of every unclean bird. that synagogue of Satan. like palm trees and cedars. that habitation of devils. or their families shall become extinct. Proverbs 15:25. their external duties.. and transmit their name to posterity. and tabernacles of the most High. and even the righteousness of Christ. Revelation 18:2. though they lean upon it and would hold it fast.. and their dwelling places to all generations. as to eternal salvation. yet on account of his good works. but it leads to destruction. it promising much carnal pleasure and mirth. when antichrist will be destroyed. being built on the sand. for that is the wages of sin. and great shall be the fall of it.. and so is deserving of sorer punishment than the profane sinner." Junius & Tremellius... for the allusion is to the flourishing of trees. shall be overthrown with an utter overthrow. there is a great deal of company in it. their families shall become numerous like a flock of sheep. The house of the wicked shall be overthrown. or the substance of their house. which are put up quickly. like tents movable from place to place. and particularly the apostate church of Rome. but it shall fall. and is pleasant. and seems right. through the pomp and grandeur and gaudiness of worship. As the way of sin and wickedness does. shall fall and never rise more. strong and firm. yet shall be established. but the end thereof [are] the ways of death. none to be their heirs and inherit their estates. Verse 12. which lead unto eternal death. and the air of devotion that appears in them. but the tabernacle of the upright shall flourish: their low and mean cottages. and their substance increase. Verse 11. shall not stand. but tramples upon him. as he calls them. There is a way which seemeth right unto a man. though built high and stately.

and have peace and satisfaction therein. or for them: he shall be satisfied with the grace of God bestowed on him and wrought in him. this was the case of the rich man who had his good things here.. by mocking at sin and jesting at religion. and guilt load his conscience and fill him with sorrow. {m} wylem "de super eo." V.. from which backslidings the Lord's people are recovered. shall be satisfied that he has in heaven a better and an enduring substance. and mourns for his wicked mirth. or the full and due punishment of their sins. shall be better tilled. it may be rendered. De Dieu.. shall be blessed in his deeds.. The backslider in heart shall be filled with his own ways. though not salvation by them. Verse 14. As Belshazzar's was in the midst of his feast and jollity. and the end of that mirth [is] heaviness: sometimes in this life a sinner mourns at last. when his soul was required of him. in whom there is an evil heart of unbelief in departing from the living God. and oftentimes when it is too late. The simple believeth every word. from a feeling experience of the grace of God within him.. amidst his merriment. out of the fulness which is in him." Schultens. they shall have their bellyful of their own wicked ways and works. and ." Montanus. The Targum is.. and. and indeed apostasy begins at the heart.. as by the Vulgate Latin version. and which are healed by his grace. Verse 15. and his evil things hereafter. that is. when he shall awake in his likeness. so the end of that mirth the fool in the Gospel promised himself was heaviness. and shall be filled with all the fulness of God he is capable of. when his heart is very sorrowful. and oftentimes this sorrow comes by sinful laughter. but here such an one is meant who willingly and heartily backslides. and be more happy than he." and so the Syriac version. "a good man shall be above him" {n}. but is through the infirmity of the flesh and the force of temptation. with the fear of his soul. or that he has made himself so merry with religious persons and things. Every thing that is said to him every story that is told him. when he saw the writing on the wall. L... above the backslider. whose heart departeth from the Lord. Even in laughter the heart is sorrowful. so sin may stare a man in the face. {n} "Et super cum erit vir bonus.. "de super semet. and especially in the other world. or he shall be satisfied "from above himself" {m}. and feign a laugh.Verse 13.. and a good man [shall be satisfied] from himself. One that is a backslider at heart. the just recompense of reward for them. and such shall have the reward of their hands and actions given them. shall eat the fruit of his own doings. from the grace that is in Christ. "a good man shall be satisfied with his fear. and every promise that is made him. and shows itself in the life and conversation: there may be a backsliding when the heart does not wickedly depart from God. a man may put on a merry countenance..

the cunning sleight by which he lies in wait to deceive. or doctrine of his. if we receive the witness of then. who is a teacher sent from God. who are tossed to and fro with every wind of doctrine. he cannot lie. to the going of the deceiver and impostor. and are deceived with good words and fair speeches. but every spirit. and which seems to be the sense of our version. the doctrine of transubstantiation: these are "simple" or fools with a witness. and for the increase of peace. whether right or wrong. believe every word and doctrine the pope and councils say they should. or not. the artifices he makes use of. his words are more than human. or for the depreciating of the one. to the course and tendency of the word he hears. that he is not in . true or false. whose mission is confirmed by miracles. they are children in knowledge. he is the faithful witness. his word is profitable for instruction. and carefully observes." weak. and. as our Lord says. another. that believe all they hear. and he takes notice of his moral walk and conversation. but the prudent [man] looketh well to his going. and besides are pleasant and wholesome: and every word and doctrine of his apostles. whether it makes for the magnifying the riches of God's grace. he takes heed to his ways. he observes narrowly the methods he takes. Or. who give up their understandings. he considers well whether it is agreeable or is contrary to the perfections of God. and truth itself. who received their mission commission. the witness of God is greater. and comfort. "ye shall know them by their fruits. and pin their faith upon. free from all error and falsehood. that believe with an implicit faith. every word of his is pure. that he looks well unto. but the words and doctrines of ordinary men and ministers are to be first tried by the unerring rule of the sacred Scriptures. and doctrines from him. whether it derogates from the glory of any of the divine Persons. besides. who believe as the church believes. and setting up of the other. they are "simple. and handles the word of God deceitfully. but his Father's. foolish persons. This truly describes the followers of the man of sin. though ever so absurd. is also to be believed. Or else the meaning is. and for the debasing of men. joy. as. it is a tried word. and whether it is a doctrine according to godliness. because whatever he says is true. that is. is not to be believed. yea. or the doctrine which is proposed to his faith. see 1 John 4:1. and even their senses unto. and whose doctrine is not his own as man. Ephesians 4:14 Romans 16:18. or everyone that pretends to be a spiritual man. and doctrines of devils. good or hurtful. for instance. who give heed to seducing spirits. the doctrines of the apostles were examined by them. silly. and found to bear a faithful testimony. ought to be believed. or to indulge a loose conversation. "to his going". and drawn in to his hurt: every word of God. or "its going" {o}.so is easily imposed upon. how craftily he walks. and is effectual to saving purposes: every word of Christ is to be believed. that tends to promote holiness of heart and life. and." Matthew 7:16. his own goings. and according to these criteria he judges and determines whether he shall believe it or not. that they are right. and to have spiritual gifts.

and the Spirit for a guide. and that every step he takes in doctrine is according to the word of truth. which forbid the practice of such sins he delights in. he fears the Lord and his goodness. and departeth from evil. he "rages" in heart. of the advices and counsels of his friends. though just upon the precipice of ruin. he says and does many foolish things. sc. Verse 16. and that his walk is as becomes the Gospel. and he is to be pitied and forgiven." nothing can stop him. he sets his mouth against both.ways of his devising and choosing. in the way of life and salvation by Christ.. so some in Mercerus. as it is through the influence of divine fear that men depart from evil. which he afterwards is sorry for. stands at a distance from it. if not with his mouth. and is ashamed of. wherefore he departs from sin. and that such a man is a wise man. in the path of faith on him. A man that is quick and short. yet. that he has chosen the way of truth. but the fool rageth... Proverbs 16:6.. but in God's ways. and as he has Christ for a pattern... and a man of wicked devices is hated. Verse 17. the foolish sayings and proverbs. and walks in that. and now. sermonis. contrives schemes to revenge himself. that admonish him of them. and presently discovers anger and resentment in his face. {o} wrval "gressum illius. and repents. against God and his law.. . they are born like wild asses colts." and so he does. It is natural and hereditary to them. or of what will be the issue of his desperate courses in another world. and against all good men.. and that it is circumspect and wise. and therefore avoids all occasions of sinning against him: his motive is not merely fear of punishment.. he fears neither God nor men. abstains from all appearance of it. Verse 18. one that hides his anger. and waits an opportunity to put them in execution. he pushes on. and such a man may be truly said to be a "prudent" man: the Targum is. he has no concern about a future state. He fears God. and is fearless of hell and damnation. and that whatever he does in worship is agreeably to the divine rule. regardless of the laws of God or men. is justly hateful to God and men. as Jarchi. or dissuade him from them: and "is confident" that no evil shall befall him. of a hasty spirit. but a sense of goodness. and that every path of duty he treads in is according to the same. so to do this shows a good understanding. and is careful not to offend him. "he attends to his good. "he goes on confidently... A wise [man] feareth. as the words may be rendered. covers his resentment. The simple inherit folly. [He that is] soon angry dealeth foolishly. and is confident." Baynus. being influenced by the goodness and grace of God unto him. worthy of the calling wherein he is called.. and in the way of holiness. rebuke him for them.

encompass. and own that she and her members are the favourites of heaven. and there may be some now. which is the same with the spiritual reign of Christ. now shall hate the whore. and by bringing others to it. and attain to a large share of it.. "coronant se scientia. like. especially the latter. so Ben Melech. they will not relinquish it. Or. when the kingdom under the whole heaven shall be given to the saints of the most High: for though there may have been some few instances of this kind. their posterity. but the prudent are crowned with knowledge. and the Heathen emperors before Constantine. customs. or. who before have been in confederacy with antichrist. and have persecuted the saints. Or. though they have been demonstrated to be mere folly.. {p} ted wrytky "imponent coronam sibi scientiam. follow on to know the Lord. handed down from father to son." Piscator. This. by adding to it temperance. they love. principles. yet these. shall come and worship before the feet of the church. yea. "come to the gates of the . they are honoured with an acquaintance with them. the kings of the earth. and even great personages too shall bow down and lick the dust of her feet. evangelical knowledge. of the church of Rome. they labour after it. Verse 19. Such are the foolish traditions. and retain them as their patrimony. as Haman bowing before Mordecai. pursue it with eagerness. Philippians 3:8. and gird themselves about with this girdle of truth. approve them. is itself life eternal. and the wicked at the gates of the righteous. yet this is far from being general. and lay hold upon it. and of Gospel truths. in some cases where obligation requires. even the latter day glory. and they esteem the knowledge of these above all things else. and honour the true church of Christ: this will be in the Philadelphian state. as it will be in the spiritual reign of Christ. and reckon all things else but loss and dung in comparison of them. and are an ornament to it in their lives and conversation. "ornant scientiam. though so foolish and absurd. "they crown knowledge" {q}. they are as a crown unto them. do honour to that." Baynus. Job 11:12. as Jarchi observes. Daniel 7:27 Isaiah 49:23.. Wicked men before good men. they adorn the doctrine of God their Saviour. and the knowledge of them is the way to the crown of life. they "crown themselves with knowledge" {p}." Drusius. civil. surround. and because Popery is the religion they have been bred and brought up in. of their ancestors.. and of God in Christ. the knowledge of Christ." Montanus. and they that have despised her shall bow themselves down at the soles of her feet. natural. The evil bow before the good. and are not. {q} "Coronabunt scientiam. and doctrines. and every virtue. such who called themselves Jews. respects future time. by putting it in practice. and spiritual. or the spiritual times of the Messiah. when the sons of those that afflicted the church will come bending to her.customs and practices.

they come and knock there. He that despiseth his neighbour in his heart. they are blessed in . and the low circumstances he is in." Ovid. in his purse or in his understanding. stand and wait. will neither converse with him.. is not friendly to him. v. "many [are] the lovers of the rich" {r}: for the sake of their riches. for these tend to humble men." ib. Trist. happy [is] he. and be condemned and punished. Fasti. and as they generally are that are in affliction and poverty. and so be unhappy and miserable. or because the rich want nothing of them. that is.." as the Targum.. at them. as beggars do. or lay themselves down. become prostrate and humble supplicants for relief and protection. on public ordinances. but he that hath mercy on the poor. overlooks him. is but little regarded. as Gersom observes. 1. l. or. or be friendly with him. but the rich [hath] many friends. whether in money or in knowledge. so Phocylides. Poverty brings a man into contempt and disgrace. and so the Septuagint and Arabic versions render it. either for the sake of honour or profit. census amicitias. in affluence and indigence. Verse 20. that is. as the word {s} may be rendered. the same man. "shall serve thy gates". he does not care to take any notice of him. and such who regard them in their low estate are "happy" or blessed. which before they despised. such an one sins very greatly. multos numerabis amicos. for it seems to be understood of his poor neighbour. see Isaiah 60:11." Piscator. Eleg. {r} Mybr ryve ybhaw "et amatores divitiis spissi. is guilty of a heinous sin. 926.... The poor is hated even of his own neighbour. nor relieve him in his necessity. at the gates of Zion. The Septuagint version is. that despises him for his poverty. who has compassion on him in his distress. As well as of strangers. and shows it by relieving him: he that shows favour to the meek and humble ones. or because they themselves may gain something by them: this also is observed by the above Jewish commentator to be true of the rich in substance or in wisdom. 925.righteous. This may also respect their attendance at Wisdom's gates. "that gives to the poor. for counsel and instruction. or. "Donec eris felix. if poor in the world. "he that despiseth the poor". "dilectores autem divitis multi sunt.." Schultens. because of his pedigree and education.. and he will be reckoned and dealt with as a sinner. speaks slightly of him. is respected or disrespected: this is true. or on account of his weakness and incapacity. of a man that is poor. but the former sense is best. Proverbs 8:34." as the Syriac version supplies it. for a wise man. he is shy of him. lest he should be burdensome to him. He that despiseth his neighbour sinneth. 8. Verse 21. "Dat census honores. or any outward circumstance that attends him.

and he that is laborious in his calling. and religion. working with his hands that which is good.things temporal and spiritual. much reading. who contrive schemes to commit sin. the enticing words of men's wisdom. from the word of truth. to the enriching of the mind. and his "truth" will appear in making good all promises to them. food. empty casks make the greatest sound. and expect a fine harvest. "verbum proprie significat arare. wholesome words. of food and raiment. tend indeed to edification. their fellow creatures and fellow Christians: such receive grace and "mercy" at the hands of God. neither from the doctrines of grace and truth. {t} vrx "arant. Or "abundance" {u}. and both here and hereafter. "arantibus. they tend to spiritual poverty and leanness of soul. and nothing is to be got without labour. tends to the poverty of the mind. and sow it. either with the labour of the hands or head. mercy and truth will preserve them from the evil way. but vain words. raiment. and none more sadly and fatally err. wealth. that talk and brag most of it. who devise liberal things. Certainly they do. the common necessaries of life. boasting of what he can do and does. "mansuetos. logomachies. . and generally they are most empty of knowledge.. so that they shall not err as others do.. much is got by it. or who "plough" {t} it. but they will be mistaken. and knowledge. is in a fair way to come to beggary: so all talk about wisdom. riches. good discourse. natural or spiritual. honour. a man that spends his time in idle talk. Verse 22. without making use of the proper means of improvement." Baynus. Mercerus.. striving about words to no profit. whether it be by manual operation.. and find it will not turn to account. and all great swelling words of vanity. and guide them in the right way. In all labour there is profit. they go astray from the right way... and do mischief to their neighbours. Verse 23. from the Gospel of Christ. but the talk of the lips [tendeth] only to penury. wisdom." Cocceius. or by hard study. nor from the practice of them.. and yet does nothing." Montanus. to their neighbours. and constant meditation. or "want" {w}." Piscator. is like to gain much for his own use and the good of others. {s} Mywne "modestorum. Do they not err that devise evil?. thoroughly digested. sound doctrine. which are all mere lip labour. and that they have took a wrong course. but mercy and truth [shall be] to them that devise good. and have gone out of the way: none more mischievous devisers or contrivers of evil than the Papists." Amama. to do good to the poor and needy. see Psalm 41:1.

Such is the man of sin. {a} hmrm "dolus. but many. Or. spending them in the gratification of their sinful lusts. and such are his emissaries.. from the loss of their good name. Piscator. In the fear of the Lord [is] strong confidence. by wholesale. Gejerus. in danger of being lost by false accusations: so a witness of the truth of Christ. he blows them out {z}. and making no use of them for their own improvement in knowledge. {w} rwoxml "ad defectum." Montanus. or more.. speaks lies in hypocrisy. A true witness delivereth souls. not one man only. such fools are wicked men. Cocceius. and will . from the oppression of their enemies. from evil charges and accusations brought against them." Tigurine version. "from evils". Gejerus." Tigurine version. [but] the foolishness of fools [is] folly. he "delivers souls"." Schultens. that otherwise would have come upon them. {z} xypy "efflat. "the glory of fools is their folly. extreme folly. Schultens. "a witness of truth" {x}: one that witnesses truth upon oath in a court of judicature. of the innocent. or a faithful minister of the Gospel.. not only saves himself. "fraus. openly. Verse 26. "efflabit. and in which they glory. as the Septuagint and Arabic versions add. he delivers them.. Montanus. Verse 25. see Ecclesiastes 7:11. are an honour to them. yea. just the same as it was. Such who fear the Lord may be confident that he has a love to them. their folly is oftentimes made more manifest through the ill use they make of their riches. Cocceius. Baynus." Montanus. {x} tma de "testis veritatis. and to the destruction of the lives.. Piscator. The Targum is. to the ruin of the souls of men. Mercerus. boldly. and so a false teacher. "ad egestatem. Verse 24. but a deceitful [witness] speaketh lies." Gejerus. he delivers their "lives" {y}.. a delight in them. men. "spirat. The Targum is. and is an instrument of delivering the souls of men from error and damnation." Monatnus." Pagninus. a whole family. or for the good of their fellow creatures." he is "deceit" {a} itself. to the ruin of the good names and characters.. Riches being used by them to increase and improve their knowledge and wisdom.." and that is no other than their shame." Tigurine version. "he that speaketh lies is deceitful. animam pro vita usurpari notum.. doctrinal lies.. but them that hear him. as it may be rendered." Cocceius. riches make them never the wiser. and for the good of men. The crown of the wise [is] their riches.. mere folly. and from ruin and destruction. that his eye is upon them. in danger of being ruined.{u} rtwm "abundantia. and his heart towards them. as in the Hebrew text. {y} twvpn "vitas. one that lies in wait to deceive. and give them credit and reputation among men of sense and goodness.. Vatablus.

so of spiritual and eternal life. and to continue under his reign and government peaceably. and so this is interpreted of the King Messiah. who is the object of fear. as well as from the rage and persecutions of men. Where the true fear of God is. as Mediator. In the multitude of people [is] the king's honour.communicate every needful good to them... of Jesus Christ. eternal life is connected with it. such as he had in the first times of the Gospel. but in the want of people [is] the destruction of the prince. sins. a place of defence to those that fear him and trust in him. and prosperity. these are the works of men's hands. and so die without instruction. and his children shall have a place of refuge. now the fear of the Lord is a means of delivering from and of avoiding those snares. as Aben Ezra interprets it. called the fear of Isaac. springing up unto everlasting life. is supported and maintained by him. who is the object of fear. lead to death. transgressions. when those prophecies shall be fulfilled in Isaiah 60:4." John 4:14.. temptations to sin. Proverbs 18:10. he is the fountain of life: as of natural. the wages of them are death. and from the curses of a righteous law. or. to depart from the snares of death. of liberty and property being enjoyed. of clemency and righteousness being exercised. hence follows a decay of trade. and . even death eternal: likewise there are the snares of the world and of the devil. as numerous as the drops of the morning "dew. and protect and defend them: or the Lord himself that is feared. in which they are snared. of peace. who is King of saints. which encourage subjects to serve their king cheerfully. Verse 28. both among the Jews and among the Gentiles. as those that fear him are. Verse 27.. if his people are destroyed in wars his ambition or cruelty has led him to. Genesis 31:42. lies in a large number of voluntary subjects. plenty.. from the storm and tempest of divine wrath. and so of escaping death. This is true of the King of kings. or they are driven out from his kingdom by persecution or oppression. there is a real principle of grace. from the avenger of blood. he is a strong tower. his honour and glory.. and issues in it: or the Lord. it makes meet for it. and which invites others from different parts to come and settle there also. the consequence of which is life everlasting. with which being ensnared.. these are the cords in which they are holden. in an ancient writing {b} of the Jews. "the consternation" {c} of him. made "willing" to serve him "in the day of [his] power" upon them. from the vindictive justice of God. The fear of the Lord [is] a fountain of life. the children of God. by which the strength and glory of a king are much increased. and as he will have more especially in the latter day. which is "a well of living water. spiritual life springs from him. the Lord is a place of refuge to them. For it is a sign of a good and wise government." Psalm 110:3..

" Baynus. "contritio maciei.. "terror tenuitatis. 4.. they and their kings will hate him. as well as of his own flesh. presently discovers resentment in his words. and such like passions and perturbations. 67. the man of sin. "consternatio. fol." Schultens. or that is kept in health and vigour. as there are but few to carry on trade and till the land. he is thrown into the utmost consternation. yet before long he will be deserted by them. 785." Schultens. who. and nations. {d} "Consternatio macici." Mercerus. Merceus. Michaelis. this contributes much to the health of the body. that." Vatablus.consequently of riches. it is long before he is angry. and so from many diseases." Schultens. and makes it his master: or he "lifts" it {g} up. bears much and long. but [he that is] hasty of spirit exalteth folly. and envy. though however populous he may be. Vatblus. these preserve from sin. and has a great command over his passions." prefers it to wisdom. Schultens.. and defend his country. the life of others.. Piscator." Cocceius.. [He that is] slow to wrath [is] of great understanding. Verse 30. "longus naribus. Or "long in wrath" {e}. anger." Gejerus. {c} ttxm "formidat princeps. A sound heart [is] the life of the flesh. "curtus spiritu. or a "quiet heart" {h}. and is brought to destruction. kind. a heart free from wrath. Gersom. in which are sound principles of truth. looks. so to fight for their prince. A heart made so by the grace of God. antichrist. lack of cultivation of land. and friendly. and burn him with fire. "consternatio tabifica. "the consternation of leanness" {d}. "alte proclamat." Gussetius. such an one appears to understand himself and human nature." Schultens." Montanus. This will be the case of the prince of darkness. Michaelis. 3. or is "short of spirit" {f}. is very patient. {b} Zohar in Exod. Some render it. wherefore. he is longsuffering. one nation after another will fall off from him. such an one contributes to the comfortable . Revelation 17:15. Cocceius. {e} Mypa Kra "longus iris." Tigurine version. which shows him to be a man of great wisdom and understanding. exposes his folly to public view." or "spirit" {i}. or has been. when attacked by a foreign power. and the comfort of life: or a "healing heart. ruling over tongues. and so want of provision: in course of time there is such a decrease. such an one "exalts folly. Verse 29. and gestures. or of men. {g} Mwrm "attollit.. and makes up differences between persons at variance: such an one is "the life of fleshes" {k}. sets it above himself. p. of the same flesh and blood. so that it is seen of all men to his disgrace. make him bare and desolate. {f} xwr ruq "brevis spiritu. as in the original text. is soon angry. whereby the life of the flesh or body is kept safe and sound. such consternation as causes leanness in a king. that is humane." Montanus.. "longus narium.. that pities and heals the distresses of others. and holiness. people. righteousness." Mercerus. "elevat.

" and so Martial {m}. which are his all. either by scoffing at him.. The driver is not mentioned." Junius & Tremellius. and such are his followers. p.. will relieve him. so is envy in the bones. they would fain flee out of the hand of God. will give of his substance to the poor. and that will be their end. go they must. and not only wastes his flesh. it is as a "moth" within him. which is a place of torment. That is. he is driven out of the world. {i} "Animus sanans." Baynus. they are driven forcibly and irresistibly: and it may also denote the suddenness of their death. Verse 31. "as rottenness in wood.. a lake burning with fire and brimstone. so Ben Melech. Michaelis. as the Arabic version: the Targum is. Amor. but the wicked are driven. with whom he has lived a merry and jovial life. "he that hath mercy on the poor honoureth him". The words may be rendered. "cor lenitatis. but envy the rottenness of the bones. whose image the poor man bears. or by vexatious law suits. 1." V. in and by a . the bones. as the opposite clause shows. {l} Amorum. and desire to depart. and reproaching him for his poverty. Ep. Pagninus. but weakens and consumes the stronger parts of his body. and who has commanded him so to do. this preys upon his own spirits. his portion. a man that envies the happiness and prosperity of others. He that oppresseth the poor reproacheth his Maker." Gejerus. 1." hence Ovid {l} calls it "livor edax. and the swiftness of their destruction." Mercerus. he that is desirous of honouring God. The wicked is driven away in his wickedness. he shall be driven as a beast is. the righteous depart. 1.." Gussetius. 800. from all the good things of it. {m} Epigr. but a poor man. having compassion on him in his necessitous circumstances.living of others as well as of himself. l. even into outer darkness. and from all his friends and acquaintance. which will know him no more. and yet they have no power to withstand.. l. it may be understood of the Lord himself. he shall be driven out of light into darkness. "sanator. but reproaches God that made him. 11. That does him any injury.. 15. "he that hath mercy on him that suffers injury honoureth him." Verse 32. in fine. L. {k} Myrvb yyx "vitae carnium. that is. or by withholding from him his wages. so the Tigurine version. and go unwillingly. not only a man.. at death. and in so doing he honours God. who shall go into perdition.. but he that honoureth him hath mercy on the poor. Revelation 13:1. into hell. {h} aprm bl "cor leve. driven: and such is the man of sin. he shall be driven sore against his will. "cor lene. who. v. with reluctance. and glorifying him. from the place of his abode. "vita carnium. l. and who is the Maker of the rich man also. & de Remed. a prison. 21. Proverbs 22:2. his heart is so much set on. Eleg. his Maker: so the Targum." Montanus. or not giving him that relief which he ought: such an one not only injures the poor man.

It is in his heart. or paradise. immediately upon his dissolution. or any ostentation of it. he trusts he shall enter into the garden of Eden. unforgiven. as Aben Ezra. or think they have. Wisdom resteth in the heart of him that hath understanding.. "in his wickedness. he dies in Christ. and guilt of it. in the midst of them. or of death. or of letting others know what they have attained to. "into his evil" {o}. in the faith of him." {n} wterb "propter suam malitiam. and thereby. yet not from a corporeal one. though he dies. and so will have all their wickedness to answer for." may denote their dying in their sins. Gejerus. under the power. Amama. and above the fears of it. in their full career of sin. Verse 33. as having a commission from him. faith. his righteousness. as the treasury where it is laid up. hurls them out of their place. and to die his death is very desirable: he has a hope of interest in the blessings of grace and glory. not in the death of the wicked man. does not lie long in the midst of them. when he shall be delivered. even the righteousness of Christ. for so it may be rendered and interpreted. for evermore. angels and good men. and in hope of eternal life by him. and he can do him no more hurt." Pagninus. Mercerus. unmolested and undisturbed. and he hopes to be in heaven and happiness. they take every opportunity of showing it to others. it carries him through the valley of death. and so denote the everlasting punishment into which he shall go. namely. Jarchi's note is. instead . in the horror of a guilty conscience. in black despair. and without faith in Christ. it dwells quietly and constantly there. unrepented of. though it delivers him from eternal death. and to all eternity. The circumstance. be with Christ. so some in Mercerus.. and is of singular use and advantage to him in life: and this grace he exercises at death. but in his own death. he hopes to see God. and is founded on that righteousness from whence he is denominated righteous. but [that which is] in the midst of fools is made known. employed by the Lord in driving their souls to hell upon their separation from their bodies. he dies as other men. he shall rise again. his wickedness. it being not taken away. no noise is made about it. and where it is kept in safety. which is a good hope through grace. good or bad. is wrought in him at regeneration." Junius & Tremellius. and as sometimes.. here it lies hid and undiscerned. he hopes. without any hope or view of pardon. but found upon them: or this may be expressive of the cause of the wicked man's being driven away. being driven. {o} "In malam suum. "because of his wickedness" {n} it is for that he shall die and go to hell: or it may be rendered. or of angels.storm of his wrath. though the death of a righteous man is different from others. when a man has no power over his spirit to retain it. but the righteous hath hope in his death. the least share of knowledge which such persons have.. "when he dies. the reverse of the righteous man.

and peculiar people. where it obtains. nor help their neighbours." Vatablus. p." It may be put for the whole of true religion. the same with righteousness." Matthew 9:13." Gussetius. as Gersom remarks of the idolatrous nations. The Syriac version is. "velut sacrificium pro peccato. and superstition. Administered by the government. and promotes and exalts them to heaven and happiness. Some understand this of aims deeds. a people become mean and despicable. while practised among them. "in the heart of fools it shall not be known. and seasons. and particularly the righteousness of Christ makes such who are interested in it really great and noble. and to proper persons. and exercised by subjects towards one another. or as one: or it is so "to the nations". "who will have mercy. 74. which fools do not observe. impiety. though a prudent man is communicative of his knowledge to others. profaneness. yet it is nothing else but sin. Righteousness exalteth a nation. and high in the esteem of God and men. places. and so are despised by them. it is at proper times. as Aben Ezra observes: such is the religion of the antichristian nations. which make a nation great and honourable. but. and though they may afflict themselves.. The word rendered "reproach" most commonly signifies "mercy" or goodness. with fasting and penance. or beneficence to the poor. See Gill on "Mt 6:1. Mercerus. of which the word is sometimes used. which. which is an honour to a nation. even beneficence and kindness to the poor. this sets a people above their neighbours.. "studium nationum peccatum. {q} "Pietas nationum est peccatium." Cocceius. and not sacrifice.. "and the mercy of a people is a sin offering" {p}." Munster." Tigurine version. they fall into poverty and contempt." it has no place there. and immorality of all sorts prevail. both in the Hebrew and Greek languages. Gejerus. iniquity abounds. as it did the people of Israel.. but sin [is] a reproach to any people. and so proclaim their folly. as before. vainly thrust out their knowledge. doing justice between man and man: this exalts a nation. it being idolatry. .of getting the character of wise and prudent men. so truly illustrious. or better. are neither able to defend themselves. obtain that of fools. is called righteousness. and is what makes the holy nation. without any manner of judgment or discretion. and in proper places. more acceptable to God. {p} tajx Mymal dox "beneficentia expiatio est populi. with whippings and scourgings. will worship. or regard to persons. "sacrificium expiatorium. who worship idols of gold and silver. I think it may be as well rendered. "the piety" or religion "of the nations is sin" {q}. for. it is as good as a sacrifice for sin. and some render it. "gratuita beneificentia nationibus est aliquid sacrificium peccati expiatorium. where vice reigns. Verse 34. and is attended with privileges and blessings." Grotius.

A soft answer turneth away wrath.. CHAPTER 15 Proverbs 15 Verse 1. Verse 2. and evangelical. or does it foolishly.. the King of kings. civil. and David by Abigail's very submissive and respectful address. p. scornful and sneering.Verse 35. Luke 12:42. haughty. Who does his prince's business well. who neglects his business. and either were or like to have been attended with bad consequences. and of Nabal to David's servants. moral. these will work upon a man's passions. shows favour to his wise and faithful servants. who discharges him from his service. delivered with kindness and tenderness. and of Rehoboam.. in proper places." Montanus. reproachful and reviling. and the good of his subjects. such as are rough and menacing. such an one has a share in royal favour. "grief" {r}. 177. but his wrath is [against] him that causeth shame.. and of the Ephraimites to the Gileadites. who answered the people roughly: in all which instances anger was stirred up. manages all his affairs wisely and prudently.. all which provokes the anger of his master.. or rather expressing. in such a manner as his prince is ashamed of him. and this fixes a mark of infamy upon him. Vatablus. as well as to be protected and defended by him: so Christ. Thus every . just breaking forth in a very boisterous and blustering manner. The tongue of the wise useth knowledge aright." as the word {s} signifies: such an use of it recommends it. so as it may be for their comfort.. and which brings shame and disgrace to himself. and is sure to be promoted to honour by him. and overbearing.. and minister grace unto them. so high winds are sometimes laid by soft showers. Mild words. is diligent and careful to do everything for the king's honour. Or a "word" causing.. Judges 12:1. adapting it to their case and circumstances. but grievous words stir up anger. Judges 8:1. and exalted to higher places of trust and profit. concerning him. like those of Jephthah to the Ephraimites. {r} bue rbd "verbum vel sermo doloris. proud. at proper times and seasons.. so he takes care to communicate it. upbraiding others with being the cause of grief to them. which is using knowledge "well. and makes it appear beautiful and lovely. and to proper persons. committed to him. vid. spiritual. Michaelis. decorates and adorns it. weaken his resentments... Gussetius. a place in the affections of his master. humility and submission. gentle expressions. and instruction. Thus the Ephraimites were pacified by Gideon's mild answer. edification. and break and scatter the storm of wrath raised in his breast. The king's favour [is] toward a wise servant. see Luke 12:45. As the heart of a wise and good man is filled with useful knowledge.

The eyes of the Lord [are] in every place. from above. ebullit. Proverbs 12:23. Hebrews 4:13. but the mouth of fools poureth out foolishness. and declare their sin. Schultens. to abase them. from heaven. Which are expressive of his omniscience. fundit. since he fills heaven and earth. he has his eyes upon. such as are under a disguise of religion. "pulchre." Vatablus. brings forth his good things seasonably. the other with pleasure." Junius & Tremellius.. in a hurry. "ebullit. clear. as water out of a fountain. so that nothing is hid from him. and as he is infinite and immense. "scaturire facit.. By "evil" men may be meant both profane sinners and carnal professors. {s} byjyh "utitur bene. to speak a word in season to weary souls. as well as their more open ones. which he has of all creatures and things. omnipresent and in all places of the world. this they throw out in great plenty. they "babble" it out. as the word {t} signifies. but evil men and good men: he beholds them as from a watch tower. he discerns between that and true grace. had the tongue of the learned. their graces. scribes well instructed in the things of God. {t} eyby "effutit." Vatablus. to places most distant and secret. and their mouths proclaim it. the works done by them in the dark.. and perfect knowledge. see Psalm 33:13. and corrects them for them. their hearts are full of it. or more secretly so. he sees into all the wickedness there is in their hearts.good man. and have a form of godliness. as they take it to be. observes the springs and progress of their apostasy. so his omniscience and providence reach everywhere. he sees through all their disguises. but it is no other than folly. beholding the evil and the good. to the profit of those to whom they minister. and his eyes are upon all of them. and also of the providence of God with respect to all persons in general. and the exercise of . but all open and manifest to him. L. Verse 3. in like manner. Piscator. and to his own people in particular. as they are to Christ the essential Word. and will fix his eyes on the man without a righteousness. of the full. He also beholds "good" men. bring forth both new and old. where he is. he sees all their bad things. Tigurine version. such as are more openly wicked. without fear or wit. he sees how they retain their lusts with their profession. the one he beholds with dislike. to bring them into judgment at the last day: his eyes are particularly on the proud. out of the good treasure of knowledge in his heart. as Sodom. all their secret devices against his people. and order him into outer darkness. distinct. as man and Mediator. to the use of edifying.. so Christ. ministers of the word. "eructat. their good things. he knows on what foot they took up their profession. though that is true. not having on the wedding garment. and to persons in them." Castalio. their sins. who cannot be concealed from him. Jeremiah 23:23. their knowledge. as the word {u} signifies." Michaelis." V. meaning not evil things and good things.

." Schultens. which are written for instruction in righteousness. does mischief to the spirits of men. whose love. and make sad wounds and breaches there. which delivers out the wholesome words of our Lord Jesus Christ.. A tongue that delivers out salutary instructions. such as peace. righteousness. their persons. their wants. Verse 4. a "healing tongue" {w}. their weaknesses. impure. the fruits of his own grace." so some in Vatablus. and especially a father's instruction. to protect and defend them.them. and supports and strengthens them.. whom he would not have made sad." Michaelis. tender affection. knowingly. nor will he leave them till he has brought them safe to heaven. and heals the divisions between them. unsavoury. and that both in the spirits of speakers and hearers. and show the way of eternal life unto them. and corrupt language. to have the benefit of such a man's company and conversation is like being in paradise. Junius & Tremellius. which are both very aggravating. "speculatores. which are never healed. and of which he may be himself convinced when it is too late. so they bring distress and despair into the spirits of others. unchaste. and never withdraws his eyes from them: these are on them continually. which pacifies contending parties. sound speech and doctrines. evil communications corrupt the heart and manners. good." Montanus. and say. but perverseness therein [is] a breach in the spirit.. These are the means of quickening dead sinners. for damnable heresies bring swift destruction on the propagators of them. these and unsound doctrines eat as a canker. and supplies them." Cocceius. defile the soul and the conversation. and them that receive them. to give any but what is good and wholesome: wherefore to despise it is not only a contempt of his authority. declared in the sacred Scriptures.. will not suffer him. and as they make the heart of God's people sad. He is a fool that despises the instruction of anyone superior to him in years and experience. and profitable. Verse 5. and atonement by the blood of Christ. as it may be rendered. wholesome advice and counsel.. "speculantes. reviving and comforting distressed ones. "how have I hated instruction [and] despised reproof?" Proverbs 5:12. Such is the tongue of a Gospel minister. of ministers of the word. see 1 Chronicles 16:9.. and sufficiently demonstrate his folly. {w} aprm "sanans. They are fools that despise any instruction that is wise. "speculatur. which cannot be condemned. and care. and especially of our Father which is in heaven. pardon. healing truths to wounded consciences. but a slight of his love. Piscator. their good works... A wholesome tongue [is] a tree of life. A fool despiseth his father's instruction. {u} xwpwu "prospectantes velut a specula.

. Mercerus. they have much trouble in getting their riches. and especially of the Father of spirits. and their sound to the end of the world. for he has no solid substantial knowledge in him: or.. and received with reverence. if they have but little.. but the heart of the foolish [doth] not so. or. and to the utmost of his power feeds souls with knowledge and understanding.. they have God for their portion. true and right things. and all this is but a pledge and earnest of what they shall possess hereafter. but. and all good things along with him. and the ministers of it. he is a wise man that regards the reproof of the word of God. stripped of them. the reproof of a father. as in Proverbs 15:2. and indeed of any Christian.. but in the revenues of the wicked is trouble. when they are. Christ.. Amama." Pagninus. or inferior. as David did. In the house of the righteous [is] much treasure. on one account or another. Verse 6. and. they are communicative and diffusive of it unto others. and the knowledge of them. it is full of folly and wickedness: or "the heart of the foolish [does] not [disperse that which is] right" {y}. Scatter it about for the benefit of others. God sometimes blesses the righteous with great riches. their words went into all the earth. a rich experience of the grace of God. "the heart of the foolish [is] not right" {x}. and so every Gospel minister will speak according to the oracles of God. The sacrifice of the wicked [is] an abomination to the Lord. Baynus." Junius & Tremellius. by one providence or another.. lest it should be taken away from them. and according to the abilities and measure of the gift which he has received. that fruit may abound to their account: so the first ministers of the Gospel diffused the savour of the knowledge of Christ and his Gospel in every place. whose corrections are to be submitted to. besides. however. . they have them with a curse.. whether his superior. and are ever attended with uneasiness. because they have what they have with a blessing. Cocceius. "eventilant non rectum. and for profit and advantage. "non est rectum. they have much trouble in keeping them. {y} "Spargit quod abest a recto. yea. whose rebukes are in love. Verse 8. The lips of the wise disperse knowledge.. and they are content with it: and they have abundance of spiritual treasure. does not disperse knowledge. it is better than the riches of many wicked. Verse 7. equal. on the contrary. as he did Abraham.. Psalm 141:5. the rich graces of the Spirit." {x} Nk al "non erit rectum.but he that regardeth reproof is prudent. and they have much trouble in parting with them.." Piscator.. "pours out foolishness. cannot rest nor sleep because of their abundance. by which they pierce themselves through with many sorrows." Schultens.

under which they sheltered and satisfied themselves. and so comes from God. which were not of his appointing. have the truth of grace and root of the matter in them. when these were used as a cloak for sin. and the fruit of his body for the sin of his soul: and so likewise Papal sacrifices. when offered by wicked men. in the sincerity of it. the cry of the humble. must be well pleasing to him. such as used by the Papists. wrought in his heart by the Spirit of God. and which were many of them very inhuman and shocking. This stands opposed to the pompous rites and ceremonies. . are Israelites indeed. and importunate. the offering up again of the body and blood of Christ. but from the heart. contains humble confessions of sin and unworthiness. and expresses thankfulness for favours received. Wherefore much more must Pagan sacrifices be an abomination to him. and went on in sin. or were not their own. when either what they brought were not according to the law. which comes perfumed with the incense of his mediation. and all their good works. and reformation from it. mean. without any sense of sin. the prayer which is addressed to God as a Father. of wicked men. the sacrifice of the mass." as in Proverbs 21:27. was the case. see Isaiah 1:11. sincere. that which is fervent. being never commanded by him. when either of these. but the prayer of the upright [is] his delight: the prayer of such. and with no good view. and is his own breathing in him. which is an inwrought one. or they are not done in faith. despicable creature in his own eyes. and were offered to devils. and sacrifice. as it is wicked and blasphemous. being hypocritically done. and perhaps is chiefly intended. are honest. the gaudy worship and costly sacrifices. which cometh not out of feigned lips. Sacrifice may stand for every religious duty performed by a wicked man. is an abomination to the Lord. but are done with a heart full of enmity to him. and so sin. and is put up with a true heart. it is an abomination to the Lord. and used to the setting aside of his righteousness. but robbery for burnt sacrifice. and in the eyes of others. let it have ever such an appearance of devotion and goodness. or all this. who have right spirits renewed in them.Even those sacrifices which were of divine appointment under the former dispensation. whatever is done by them. and are not directed to his glory: in short. they pretend to. earnest. without faith in Christ. and upright in heart: the prayer of such. yet if it is placed in the room of Christ. the prayer of faith. in the name of Christ the Mediator. when they brought them "with a wicked mind. satisfaction. whose hearts are right with God. repentance for it. ascribes all blessings to the grace of God. and do not spring from love to God. and are either not according to the word and will of God. though it is the prayer of a poor. which. and not to him. Psalm 102:17. or supposing that these would atone for their sins of themselves. introduced with the celebration of the divine perfections. the bloodless sacrifice. as giving a man's firstborn for his transgression. of which sort are many among the Papists. the lame and the blind. which seem to be so. it was an abomination to the Lord. is very acceptable and delightful to God.

when they have. sometimes expressed by hungering and thirsting after it.. and so an abomination to the Lord.. The way his heart devises. see 2 Peter 2:15. "he [has had] bad discipline" or "instruction {z} that forsakes the way". all his religious exercises will be of no avail.. see Proverbs 22:6. as here by a pursuit of it. and all his external duties of religion performed by him. masters." or him to err from his way. is very disagreeable to them. the same with the way of righteousness. nor any justification by it. a view of the glory. nor is righteousness to be had by the works of the law. while he continues in a course of sin. which the carnal Jews followed after. without which there is no seeing the Lord. so they are loved by the Lord. and though perfection in it is not attainable in this live.. for. nor can he be diverted from it. and is revealed in the Gospel: to follow after this supposes a want of one. which means no other than an earnest and importunate request to be found in it: and such. and are acceptable to him through the righteousness they are seeking after: or else it may be understood of following after true holiness of heart and life. suitableness. dying in impenitence and without faith in Christ. not the righteousness of the law. "the discipline of an evil man causes his way to err. had he. which.. a sense of that want. This is a way not good.Verse 9. And such deserve severe correction. he has not been properly instructed. in which he walks. [and] he that hateth reproof shall die. The way of the wicked [is] an abomination unto the Lord. turn aside from.. and does not act agreeably to it: and such a man. but the righteousness of Christ. which is well pleasing in the sight of God. an eager desire after it. they behave under it like a bullock unaccustomed to the yoke. nor can a man be acceptable to God on account of it. the way of God. which he has wrought out. due care has not been taken of him. as they shall be satisfied or filled with it. the chastisement of a cruel one. either after a justifying righteousness. and the whole tenor and course of his life. and ministers of the word. which is meant by his way being evil: hence his sacrifices.. dies in his sins. nor will he leave it. and yet they are but dealt righteously with. he would not easily have departed from the way in which he should go. nor seasonably corrected. Correction [is] grievous unto him that forsaketh the way. but he loveth him that followeth after righteousness. having known and walked in. fulness. but by the powerful grace of God. and sometimes . are abominable to the Lord. the way of his commandments: the Vulgate Latin version is. The right way. and excellency of Christ's righteousness. which he chooses and delights in. as he may be said to do that neglects and rejects it. Verse 10. Or the words may be rendered. correction in wrath and hot displeasure. but did not attain unto. yet a gracious soul presses after it. which apostates. that hates the reproof of parents. but evil. "the way of life".. The Targum is. cannot be pleasing and acceptable to God.

designs. he knows where their dust lies. and speaks evil of him. who are there. {z} er rowm "fuit illi mala disciplina.. makes a mock at good men.. and observe it all. putrefy." or "to reprove himself" {b}. Verse 12. and reproaches him. see Job 26:6. bears him a grudge. and may be called "destruction. and all that is good. or an untimely one. who is the searcher of the hearts and the trier of the reins of the children of men: he to whom hell is naked. known by the name of "hell". which is the pit of destruction. Now though we know not where this place is." where soul and body are destroyed by the Lord with an everlasting destruction. treats the Gospel and the ministers of it with contempt. everlasting fire is prepared by the Lord for devils and wicked men. and can look into that outer darkness. the blackness of darkness. an eternal one. or a shameful death. as the Septuagint and Arabic versions. Some render it. and does all he can to the injury of his person and name.shamefully. and especially if publicly.. he "loves not reproving himself. even the grave of everyone from the beginning. he needs no testimony of man. and abhors him. wicked purposes." Baynus. and is the destruction which the broad way of sin leads unto. and devices. nor argue with and reprove himself for it.. A scorner loveth not one that reproveth him. he thinks ill of him. vel castigatio. nor to check himself in the pursuit of sin. or the invisible state of the departed. Hell and destruction [are] before the Lord. see Jeremiah 17:9. what their condition and employment be. scoffs at godliness and godly men. Hades. he knows what is in man. {a} lwav "sepulchrum. and what the torments endured in it. though desperately wicked. and known to him: "tophet" is ordained of old.. yet all is before the Lord. Verse 11. neither will he go unto the wise. Abraham. he knows where departed spirits are. where bodies being put. Mercerus. a pestilent fellow." Munster. in which all manner of wickedness is. as well as dies the second death. to the private houses of wise and good . are known by him. and will raise it up again at the last day. all his secret thoughts. Abel. or to call himself to an account for what he does. but hates him that reproves him. he does not care to look into his own heart and ways. for more is intended than is expressed. Piscator. He that makes a jest of religion. Proverbs 9:7. the graves of Adam. how much more then the hearts of the children of men? which. is manifest before him. can look into a man's heart.. and are destroyed by worms: this is known by the Lord. as the Septuagint has it. Or "the grave" {a}.. a second hell. so Ben Melech. and so the place and state of the damned. Amos 5:10. as the Vulgate Latin version: such an one not only does not love.. hence the advice of the wise man.

that rejoices in Christ Jesus. and sometimes. as it is in natural things.. who has peace in him. the one is much affected by the other. is filled with joy and peace through believing in him. thy sins are forgiven thee. {d} "Frangit fortia corda dolor. a sense of sin and guilt of it. l. and pray and meditate. 54. his spirits sink. or cause him to lift up his head with joy. 7. Verse 13. will seek earnestly and diligently in the use of proper means after more knowledge. he will hear and read the word. a man is dejected. he will follow on to know him. and the body emaciated. and of those things which relate to his spiritual peace and eternal welfare. a "joyful heart" {c}. and destroys the spirits. as he will desire to know more of Christ. that has a comfortable view of his justification by his righteousness. that is joyful in the God of its salvation. 6. 2. nor to the house of wisdom.. lest they should be reproved for their evil ways." V. {e} Fernel. and the effects of it.. {c} xmv bl "cor gaudens. of peace and pardon by his blood.. 9. blood. and be advised leave them. Eleg. a legal sorrow. The heart of him that hath understanding seeketh knowledge. "The sorrow of the world worketh death.. l.. where wise dispensers of the word give good advice and counsel. Verse 14. the Gospel brings. c. Baynus. This is the effect of a mere work of the law upon the conscience. the whole frame." Gejerus. see John 3:20. Medendi. which produces a legal contrition of spirit. of nature is enfeebled. but by sorrow of the heart the spirit is broken. and it is seen in his countenance: there is a great sympathy between the body and mind. Or. and grace. A merry heart maketh a cheerful countenance. and not be content with the present degree of knowledge he has attained unto. and sacrifice. so it is in spiritual ones. the nerves are loosened. but the mouth of fools feedeth on foolishness. of the Gospel and of the truths of it. on foolish talking and . v. in order to come to a more perfect knowledge of the son of God." Tibullus. righteousness. this is often the case through outward troubles {d}: physicians say {e} that grief weakens the strength. of the atonement of his sins by his sacrifice. scorners do not choose to go to either. his person.. and stands opposed to the spiritual joy. p." Matthew 9:2. though tribulation in the world: as such a man's heart must be made glad. He that has in his heart an understanding of divine and spiritual things.. when the heart is full of sorrow. to whom he has said. {b} wl xkwh "corripere. or place of public instruction.men. Method. more than labour does. 3. this will make his countenance cheerful. in his person. the animal spirits are low. offices. through spiritual troubles. and such "a wounded spirit who can bear?" Proverbs 18:14." 2 Corinthians 7:10. "be of good cheer. neither of which is agreeable to them. L.

which is the common portion of good men. though he has but little. on foolish and false doctrines. be has enough. his secrets are with him. and God in it. having a .jesting. being destitute of it: and besides. and is content. where Christ dwells by faith. and he enjoys it. because they had been filled up with affliction and trouble of one sort or another. on wind and ashes. such a man's little is better than another man's abundance without the fear of the Lord. in which they have no pleasure. yet he does not lack. but as these are attended with different circumstances: if a man has but little of worldly substance. Michaelis. Verse 15. what he has he has with a blessing. "all the days of the poor" {f}. on foolish and unlearned questions. and has also other bread to eat. poverty is not better than riches. as Gersom and Aben Ezra observe. but he that is of a merry heart [hath] a continual feast." Romans 14:17: which has the love of God shed abroad in it by the Spirit. as the things of this world are in themselves. that fear which has God for its author and for its object. Or. And some are afflicted all their days. a deceived heart having turned them aside: they take pleasure and satisfaction in those things. either in purse. Piscator. than another with his great abundance and affluence. as the Septuagint and Arabic versions render it: for such a man. his hand communicates unto him both temporal and spiritual meat. L. feed their fancy with them and feast upon them. All the days of the afflicted [are] evil. and sympathizes with him in all his troubles. so that not only the days of old age are evil days. from their youth up. on foolish and hurtful lusts. {f} yne "pauperis." Genesis 47:9. made joyful hereby.. Better [is] little with the fear of the Lord than great treasure and trouble therewith." V. for the riches of grace saints are partakers of. Not that a "little" is better than "much" of that which is good. and has communion with him. Junius & Tremellius. his power protects him.. a heart that has "the kingdom of God" in it. and such all unregenerate men be. peace. and joy in the Holy Ghost. which shows what fools they are. and that lives by faith on him. simply considered. Verse 16.. and which is itself a treasure. all this is a constant continual feast to a gracious soul. his heart is towards him. which lies "not [in] meat and drink. and may be here put for all grace. all their days. or in knowledge. Mercerus. which is given to them that fear the Lord. yet if he has "the fear of God" in his heart. the eve of God is upon him with pleasure. and on the provisions of his grace.. "few and evil have the days of the years of my life been. and before his eyes. his angels encamp about him. Pagninus. who want many of the good things of life. but even the days of their youth. as Jacob says. the world knows nothing of: and particularly having the fear of God. but [in] righteousness. having the fear of God. and inconceivable and inexpressible goodness is laid up for him: wherefore he is better off with his little.

or in a family that partakes of such an one. having no better. trouble in amassing and getting it together. where the same word is used as here: and he has it also with the cry of the poor. and dressed with little trouble. vexation. or in the guests among themselves. Vatablus. or a sirloin of beef. at the feasts made by his heroes. and rebuke. Agamemnon. an ox was a principal part of them. In the times of Homer. robbers. if not the whole. an ox was abstained from. or. Better have a little with a good conscience. through a superstitious regard to it. {g} hmwhm "tumultus. Deuteronomy 28:2." Tigurine version. both among Greeks and Romans. and by the examples of Abraham and others. for fear of which he cannot sleep. the back of a fat ox. as the word {k} signifies." Mercerus. God sends upon him cursing. where love is. or taken away by thieves and. Menelaus. and Ajax. who receives them cheerfully.. and interpret it of the cries and tears of those that are oppressed and injured. in all he sets his hand to. Better [is] a dinner of herbs. and render all enjoyments unpleasant and uncomfortable. a traveller's dinner." Aben Ezra. see Psalm 37:16.great deal of "trouble" along with his treasure." made of what grows out of the earth. or in a family.. is better than a stalled ox." "a harsh and earthly supper. trouble in keeping it from being lost. or others have.. Genesis 9:3. but that in the brasen age men first began to kill and eat oxen. such as is easily obtained. with the fear of hell and everlasting damnation. "with terror" {h}. {h} "Terror. or in the person that invites them. "strepitus. and a poor one too to travel upon. than an ox kept up in the stall for fattening. so some render the word. neither in the golden nor silver age. either in the host. was a favourite dish {l}. where there are love and good nature in the host that prepares this dinner. which with the ancients was the principal in a grand entertainment. than ever so much attended with such circumstances. it must stir up strifes and contentions. an ox was in high esteem at their festivals. but the good man's little. he has no rest nor peace because he has not so much as he would have. hence the allusion in Matthew 22:4. it is not any man's little. so Jarchi and Gersom.. which is got without much cost or care. who eat friendly together. and presently cooked. because so useful a creature in ploughing of the land. with the terrors of a guilty conscience. and hatred therewith. Now. he has what he has with curse. or among guests invited. Indeed in some ages. "a noise" or "tumult" {g}. and comes cheap. with such circumstances. trouble through an insatiable desire of having more. Besides. Montanus. Verse 17. and it was carried so far as to suppose it to be as sinful to slay an ox as to kill a man {m}: and Aratus {n} represents it as not done. . or than a fatted one. and heartily bids them welcome: such a dinner. as some render it. but this is to be confuted by the laws of God. Now if there is hatred. What Plautus {i} calls "asperam et terrestrem caenam. that is preferable to the wicked man's much.

. but [he that is] slow to anger appeaseth strife: a man of a quiet and peaceable disposition. Virgil." Montanus. {o} jyqvy "faciet quiescere. Aeneid. and the house in an uproar. 45. he calms the storm and makes it quiet. bears and endures all things. of an angry temper. {l} Iliad." Cocceius. which is better than life. or their covetousness. Or. as a man stirs up coals of fire and raises a flame.. Vid. 1. 8. Sc. and indulges it. Plin. who are hated and abhorred by the Lord. {n} Phoenomena. Piscator. he allays the heat of anger. 3. possessed of the true grace of charity. v. 1. The way of the slothful [man is] as an hedge of thorns. he stirs up strife in kingdoms and states. "commeatus. see Proverbs 26:21." as the Vulgate Latin version renders it. c. v. 14. 321." Pagninus.. and secures the best of blessings. the meanest diet is preferable to the richest and most costly banquets of wicked men. and cannot be purchased with money. he stirs up strife and contention where there was none. who is not easily provoked. breaks brotherly love. has implicated and entangled himself in such difficulties.. {i} Capteivei." Schultens." Mercerus. and causes animosities and divisions. he "mitigates strifes raised. of a furious spirit. "sedabit. he stirs up contentions in neighbourhoods. Suidam in voce omhrov. by his slothfulness. whence proceed quarrels and lawsuits: he stirs up strife in churches. He stirs up strife in families. the Targum is. his way is not passable. who raises such . Act." as the Septuagint and Arabic versions. so Junius & Tremellius. "strewed with thorns. Michaelis. 182." Either really being made so by his own conduct. c. and makes all hush and still. and every evil work. {k} txra "viaticum. where this is. sets one relation against another. {m} Aelian. and the rich be abhorred by him. it is as it were hedged up with thorns. Montanus. 132. and so prevents the ill consequences of contention and strife. reconciles the parties at variance. Hist. he quenches the coals of contention. & 8. he composes differences. 37. Odyss.. l. that is under the power and dominion of such a passion. for poor men may be loved of God. 5. their luxury. v. Gejerus. l. Amama. 320. and the richest enjoyments of it. 8. but where the love of God is. 60.. at least not very easily. &. 7. Verse 18. A wrathful man stirreth up strife. A man of a wrathful disposition. Sc. v. Psalm 10:4. "sedat. v. see Hosea 2:6.. for their oppression and injustice. or where it was laid. who. as the word {o} signifies. the riches of grace and glory. 2.see Proverbs 17:1. longsuffering. and itself can never be lost. and sets one friend and neighbour against another. whence come wars and fightings. and takes all opportunities to gratify it. v. 80. that he cannot extricate himself. "the ways of the slothful are briers and thorns. confusion. 65.. or in his own apprehensions. Nat. v. 4. Verse 19. which sweetens every mercy.

which is great folly. Isaiah 35:8. Verse 21.difficulties about doing business. such a man's sin. Or "that wants a heart" {q}. which aggravates his sin and her sorrow. is like sitting upon thorns unto him. a causeway. at least which discourage him from attempting it. his commandments are not grievous. as Aben Ezra observes." Junius & Tremellius. {p} hllo "aggestum. to be present at family worship. as the word {p} signifies. and not only takes pleasure in committing it himself. in which a truly righteous and good man finds no difficulty. or the way of his duty. who has a spiritual and experimental . though fools in other respects. as the Vulgate Latin version renders it. he glories in it. see Proverbs 10:23. see Proverbs 30:17. he who has his understanding enlightened by the Spirit of God. is as troublesome and disagreeable to him as breaking through a thorn hedge. that men. and hearing the word. prayer. Proverbs 20:4. it being like breaking through thorns and briers. and hearing the Scriptures or religious discourses read. and shows him to be a foolish man. very delightful. nor go abroad because there is a lion in the streets. or treading upon briers and thorns. as Jarchi interprets it.. Folly [is] joy to [him that is] destitute of wisdom.. and that is very pleasing and joyous to a wicked he chooses it and delights in it. yea.. is highly resented by the Lord. and the Hebrew text designs one grown up to man's estate. This. instead of being ashamed of it. "eleveta. and Arabic versions. a wise and understanding one. Syriac. a highway. and sorry for it. Gejerus. hence he will not plough because of the cold." Mercerus. but a man of understanding walketh uprightly. and makes his boast of it. "a foolish son despises his mother. for all sin is folly. that bore him and brought him up. The Targum is. to attend the duties of public worship. or causes her to be despised by others. but a foolish man despiseth his mother..." Montanus. as the opposition in the next clause shows.. but the way of the righteous [is] made plain: it is a castup way. and his paths pleasant. nor is it grievous and troublesome. is very irksome to him. but. A wise son maketh a glad father. and will be severely punished. it is so plain. by "folly" is meant sin. Verse 20. at prayer. especially of virtue and religion. but also in those that do it. which to him seem insurmountable.. and without offence or stumbling. and a plain one.. who has an understanding given him by the Son of God. which makes the antithesis more clear. See Gill on "Pr 10:1". Piscator. as the ways of Christ and wisdom are. his yoke is easy. shall not err therein. is to be understood of a wicked man." and so the Septuagint. and the righteous man walks at liberty and with pleasure in them. See Gill on "Pr 10:1". and perhaps was too indulgent to him. on the contrary. "strata.

{r} tkl rvyy "diriget seipsum ambulando. and therefore goes about it with the greater spirit and cheerfulness. or a common good. and by faith on him. "vain are the thoughts (or designs) where there is no secret... "diriget viam suam ad ambulandum. and ministers grace to the hearers. otherwise it is not in man that walketh of himself to direct his steps. his goings. example. Gejerus. and that being taken succeeds. or religious. and a word [spoken] in due season." Montanus. "quum nullum est arcanum." Montanus. according to the above rule. "cum non sit secretum. and he knows how he ought to answer every man. and his purposes disappointed." Vatablus. "diriget ambulare. it is much if they are not frustrated." if a man makes no secret of what he designs to do. and generally does. {s} dwo Nyab "in non secreto. he walks as he has Christ for an example." Schultens. as the Vulgate Latin version. with meekness and fear. if a man divulges his intentions. without consulting with himself." Schultens. and guidance.. so the Targum. When his advice is asked. how good [is it]? whether by way of advice and counsel to such who stand in need of it. "ubi non est secretum. it is a pleasure to a man that he is capable of assisting his friend. having the advice of others.. as in Proverbs 20:18. Verse 22." Baynus." Cocceius. but in the multitude of counsellors they are established. and is acceptable to them. his purposes are. Jeremiah 10:23. A man hath joy by the answer of his mouth.. and after the spirit. and is to the use of edifying. If a man determines and resolves upon a matter. he is confirmed that he is right in what he has thought of and purposed to do." Mercerus. by the assistance of the spirit and grace of God. see Luke 14:28. whether it be in things natural.. when his speech is with salt. and at once hastily and precipitately goes about it. Colossians 3:6 Ephesians 4:29. and not after the flesh: or "directs himself in walking" {r}. see Proverbs 11:14. it generally comes to nothing. civil.understanding of the Gospel. and doing him service. and the truths of it: he walks according to the rule of the divine word. and he gives good and wholesome counsel. {q} bl roxl "carenti corde. "ei qui deficitur. vel ad ambulandum.. Verse 23. and these many. when with readiness he gives an answer to every man that asks him a reason of the hope that is in him. he is easily counterworked.. when that which is good proceeds from him. without mature deliberation. seasoned with grace." Montanus. and is most likely to succeed. or "without a secret" {s} without keeping one. Without counsel purposes are disappointed. and taking the advice of others in forming a scheme to bring about his designs. or of exhortation and .

. things temporal. mounting up with wings as eagles. such is a word of promise spoken and applied by the Spirit of God to the hearts of his people in a time of need. Verse 24.. as "sheol" sometimes signifies: for wise men die as well as fools. the mark for the prize. which is the house appointed for all living. it is a house eternal in the heavens. and by which men walk in him. eternal life. Verse 25. and by looking upwards. above. it is: see Proverbs 25:11. Of "the way of life"." or wise man. even those who are in the way of life that is above do not escape death and the grave: but such are secured from everlasting ruin and destruction. and happiness. at the Father's right hand. every step they take upwards carries them so far off from hell. or this is only known to such who are truly wise unto salvation.. through whom only men can come at this life. The way of life [is] above to the wise. how good.. from being destroyed soul and body in hell. is above. the life itself it is the way of or to is above. not on things on earth. it is an ascending upwards and heavenwards. by entering within the vail.. and at things unseen. it is what the most sagacious and penetrating man could never discover. this is said to be "above. "the way of life is above the learned man. Faith. the broad road of sin is the lower way. it cannot be well and fully expressed how sweet. their hearts. but on things above. that he may depart from hell beneath. things unseen. as spoken by Christ and his ministers to weary and wounded souls. or what leads to hell and destruction beneath. Matthew 6:21. and salvation. The Vulgate Latin version renders it.. the narrow way of faith in Christ is the upper way. and choose to walk in it. such a man is continually looking upwards unto Christ. the man that has no other than natural learning and wisdom. it is hid with Christ in God. righteousness. it leads to heaven and happiness above.instruction to those that want it. and come to the grave. and that leads to eternal life above." or it tends "to [what is] above". keeping his eye. or of comfort to those that are distressed. and will be there enjoyed by the saints: the way to it is above. as well as seasonable. To whom he . this way of life and salvation by Christ lies out of his knowledge. which are seen here below.. the author and finisher of his faith. not from the grave. which are eternal in the heavens. pressing towards him. and such is the Gospel of peace. it is hid from the wise and prudent. it is a going up hill. glory." as the Syriac version renders it. wherefore those who are in the way of it have their thoughts. how suitable. an inheritance reserved there. Christ is the way. which deals with Christ the way. their affections and conversations. which is the contrary way. it is an "ascent to him that understands.. See Gill on "Pr 10:17". and dwelling on high. it is plain to them. The Lord will destroy the house of the proud. pardon. and he is in heaven. and being the evidence of them. is signified by soaring aloft. and revealed to babes. they steer quite a different course and road from that. and they highly esteem it.

his house. or evil thoughts. during the reign of antichrist. and will not only destroy them. attempt to remove the landmark of the widow's border. as is said of the church of Philadelphia. when men. as the Septuagint. that is. So the church of Christ. the seat of the beast itself. enlarge her borders. who is the searcher of the heart. Moreover. and so lessen her land and enlarge their own. shall be destroyed. Verse 26. it may be rendered "the thoughts of evil. and a discerner of the thoughts and intents of it. and also their families. the idolatrous church of Rome. he will protect them and secure it for them. and therefore are hateful and abominable to him. They are known unto the Lord. where his house or palace is. and defender he is. but [the words] of the pure [are] pleasant words.. rich. which are never otherwise but evil. judge. which is the house of the foolish and adulterous woman. which are the same with their thoughts. being obliged to flee into the wilderness. and has but "little strength" to support and defend herself. yea. and so stand opposed to the thoughts of the wicked. the man of sin. the son of perdition." as by the Targum. that they are only evil. and make them of pleasant stones. and from the river to the ends of the earth. their children and posterity. the words may be supplied thus. Frequent mention is made of the establishing of the church in the latter day. he sets himself against them and resists them. with all the sons of pride supported by him. and which are pleasing to the Lord. and are the effect of them. that is. spread the kingdom of Christ from sea to sea. as likewise their words and discourse in religious conversation.. yet the Lord will secure and preserve her. and neither root nor branch left. whose advocate. whereas in a good man. the thoughts of a wicked man. Vulgate Latin. and cannot defend themselves and their property. and are very delightful and pleasing to saints. and the Oriental versions. and acceptable unto God through Christ. that exalts himself above all that is called God. unto the Lord. Psalm 48:8 Isaiah 2:2.. expressed either in a way of prayer or of praise. as widows are. and oppressive. these. such who are weak and helpless.. may be more especially intended. but their stately houses too. the city of Rome. though there are many evil thoughts which are abominable to himself. these shall be as stubble. and that continually. as follows. yea. God will not suffer it to be done. but Aben Ezra interprets as we. and shall be burnt up in his wrath. and firmly settle and establish her. Revelation 11:18.has the utmost aversion. which also minister grace unto the hearer. he knows they are vain and sinful. are sweet and pleasant. even all they that have destroyed the earth. Revelation 3:8. and all that belong unto him. yet there are some good thoughts. proud. shall be rooted up. looks like a widow deprived of her husband. The thoughts of the wicked [are] an abomination to the Lord. but he will establish the border of the widow. which their have fancied shall continue for ever. "but . but will establish it in its place.

see Proverbs 3:6. The heart of the righteous studieth to answer. meditates what he shall say. he "destroys himself". the sin is when they are given and taken for the sake of doing what is base and sinful. Verse 28. He thinks before he speaks. since they should have immediate assistance. but the mouth of the wicked poureth out evil things.." of such who are pure in heart. whose hearts are purified by faith in the blood of Christ. and by the Lord. or religious. there is the meditation or discourse of the heart. A Jewish {u} writer renders the words. this sense is mentioned by Aben Ezra. as the Targum. and. and this being about divine and spiritual things is pleasing to God. He that is greedy of gain troubleth his own house. and live an eternal life hereafter. without any previous thought and consideration. shall live comfortably in a spiritual sense. and what to return to the Lord when he is reproved by him. are "words of pleasantness. in common ones the observation of the wise man should be attended to. whether in things civil. he entails a curse and brings ruin and destruction upon his family. and have thought on his name. when offered to bribe him to pervert judgment. or what to say in prayer to him. see Psalm 16:5.. Verse 27. as . death. or to do an unjust thing.. "concupiscens concupiscentiam. and hurries on business. and a man that shakes his hand from receiving gifts on such a basis. and hell. what answer to give to men. {t} eub euwb "appetens concupiscentiam. though our Lord advises his disciples." as the Syriac version. and writes a book of remembrance for them that fear him.. otherwise gifts may be lawfully received from one friend by another. when summoned before their persecutors. it may be understood of a man that is over anxious and eager to be rich. in great abundance. that seeks riches by unlawful means. "the heart of the righteous meditates wormwood. without fear or wit. there is a language in thought which is known to a man's self.. as in Habakkuk 2:9. but this was in extraordinary cases. as the judgment of God.. doing this from a right principle of grace. an evil one. and thrive and flourish in his soul. he and his family shall prosper and increase in worldly things. and gives his servants no proper time for food and rest." Vatablus. "qui avaritiam inhiat" Tigurine version. he hearkens to it. not to meditate beforehand what they should answer.[the thoughts] of the pure. that rejects them with abhorrence. Luke 21:14. but rejected. Or "that covets a covetousness" {t}. but he that hateth gifts shall live. or by way of thankfulness for mercies received from him. natural. the Septuagint and Arabic versions are. see Proverbs 5:4.. see Psalm 19:14. that gathers the mammon of falsehood. or "his own soul. See Gill on "Pr 11:29"." or bitter things." Montanus. or unrighteousness.." so Gersom.

Verse 29... he is far from helping in distress. pleasant meadows. and from the Lord. and he draws nigh to them. they are far from him and from his law. thus an evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart brings forth evil things readily and at once. yea. justification by his righteousness. rising hills. and keeps them at a distance from him. and stand in need of. it is marvellous light souls are then called into.water out of a fountain. must be the spiritual light of the eyes of the understanding. and happiness of the world to come. Matthew 12:25. Ecclesiastes 11:7. having no concern about the consequences of things. which rejoice their hearts. as he does the righteous. and the . cheering and rejoicing. and the precious truths of it. a strong and clear eyesight. which put gladness into them. his eyes are upon them. and to be prized. for he is God omnipresent. the light. See Gill on "Pr 15:2. the faculty of seeing.. nor will he receive them to himself at the last day. and free and full salvation through him for the worst and chief of sinners: in the light which is thrown into them they see light. they draw nigh to him. The light of the eyes rejoiceth the heart. he is nigh to all that call upon him in truth.. herbs. the glories of his person and office. the light of the world. though this is a great mercy. trees. but it is much better to understand it of the light of the eyes in the Gospel.." which is a proper comment on this text: and much more pleasant and delightful. and he is far from them. and bestows upon them the favours they ask for. joy." {u} Kabvenaki. and does give joy of heart. as Christ the sun of righteousness himself.. and from hearing their cries when they apply unto him in desperate circumstances.. and from all righteousness. and creatures of every kind. Not as to his essence or powerful presence. Verse 30. his face and favour. Jarchi mystically interprets this of the light of the eyes in the law. nor does he admit them to nearness and communion with him now. the sun. but bid them depart from him. as green gardens. plants. but with respect to his favour and good will. and there is none like them that has God so nigh them as they have. the fulness of grace that is in him. he is a God hearing and answering their prayers.. flowing rivers. The Lord [is] far from the wicked. "Light is sweet. especially light itself beheld rejoiceth the heart. beasts." says the wise man. when opened by the Spirit of God at conversion. and particularly that grand luminary and fountain of light. and his ears are open to their cries. the light of God's countenance. which is everywhere. as Jarchi. and wonderful things do they then behold. in the hope of which their hearts rejoice. Not so much the visive power. birds. nor is the eye ever satisfied with seeing. but rather the objects seen by the light of the eyes. lowly vales. "and a pleasant thing it is for the eyes to behold the sun. the light of the divine word. but he heareth the prayer of the righteous. pardon of sin by his blood.

that he may have the advantage of their wise counsels and reproofs. and the glories of it. Tigurine version. the way unto it. fervent. which are come by Christ the great High Priest. which is a report. it is a true report." Montanus.. since it is made by God himself. 3 John 1:12. and such a report being heard. a report concerning God. either a good report which a man hears of himself. make glad the heart. and lively manner.. which reproves the life of another by his own. a "report" concerning Christ. L. concerning his incarnation. Mercerus. or which he hears of his friends. The ear that heareth the reproof of life. which makes his spirit cheerful. and which tends to the spiritual and eternal life of the person reproved. a man that diligently hearkens to. grace. in a warm. which is sometimes the sense of the phrase. or "a good hearing" {w}. or a quick exercise of that. sweet to the soul." V. see Proverbs 3:8. but he . which saints are interested in. and to be believed. and are marrow and health to the bones. and mercy towards men in Christ Jesus. and in good earnest. not the sense of hearing. and is pleasing to him. {w} hbwj hewmv "auditus bona. from a far country. and concerning salvation. obedience. and cheerfully obeys such reproof given him. as it was to the Apostle John that Demetrius had a good report of all men. [and] a good report maketh the bones fat. such pleasant words are as the honeycomb. and this affects his body and the juices of it. it makes them fat and flourishing. he not only chooseth to be among them. or good hearing. concerning his person and offices." Vatablus. and eternal life by him. which fill his bones with marrow. the heavenly Canaan. kindly and cordially receives. abideth among the wise. {x} "Fama bona. But rather this is to be understood of the good news. greatly contributes to the spiritual health and prosperity of the children of God. "auditio bona. Verse 31. though a very great blessing. concerning his resurrection. even the Gospel. the covenant of his grace. and embraced. who were eye and ear witnesses of the things they reported. Gejerus. as well as by words. and death. Some understand this of a good or "fame" {x}. That is given according to the word of life. sitting at the right hand of God. with zeal. and the persons that shall possess it: and this is a "good" report. the perfections of his nature... and second coming to judgment. righteousness. a report of good things laid up in covenant. a report concerning the good land. but things heard. received. as the same phrase is rendered in Proverbs 25:25. and shall partake of here and hereafter. by Jesus Christ the faithful witness. and by the apostles of Christ. the purposes of his heart. see Isaiah 53:1. pardon. his love. sufferings. peace. ascension. it is good tidings of good things. and cover them with fatness. Pagninus.mysteries of it. intercession for his people. being taken. Junius & Tremellius. and here in the Arabic version is so translated.

becomes wise himself thereby. shows that he makes no account of it. the other is the way to glory... and possesses it. the fear of God and humility go together. or carelessly and contemptuously attends it: despiseth his own soul. but he that heareth reproof getteth understanding. and are set among princes. neglects. as the man that refuses correction does. He that refuseth instruction. being made kings and priests unto God. and with it a large share of experience and spiritual wisdom. what he should shun and avoid. instruction either by the word or by the rod. Christ's humiliation was before his exaltation. it is a frequent saying of Christ's. such a man abides in the house of wisdom. "he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.." Luke 14:11. by means of it he attains to true spiritual and evangelical wisdom. masters. and to serve the Lord. embrace. he gets understanding by listening to reproof." Pagninus. Schultens.. or "correction" {y}. Verse 32. and attends upon and has conversation with the wise dispensers of the word. ministers. and of God himself. or as a man diseased and refuses proper medicines may be said to despise his health. and as the one is the way to wisdom. and do.. and attains to the character of a wise man. and is numbered among them. what he should receive. when it is so precious a jewel. which to do is the highest wisdom. the church of God. and to seek the salvation of his soul in the way God has appointed. not that a man can strictly and properly despise his soul. but comparatively. the word here used does not denote a lodging for a night. instead of losing his soul." Proverbs 9:10. "qui abstrahit se a castigatione. than for that.. Piscator. it leads unto it. and then they are raised out of their low estate. but a perpetual abiding. and despises it." Piscator. he better understands himself and his case. The instruction of parents. and the loss of it irreparable. and shall have a part with them in the church above. Michaelis. instructs a man in it. he finds the life of it. has no regard for it or care about it. It is "the beginning of wisdom. where the one is the other is. he that withdraws himself from it. having a greater regard for his body. it teaches him to abstain from sin. The fear of the Lord [is] the instruction of wisdom. Verse 33. where the wise will shine as the firmament. and at last to eternal glory. men are first humbled and laid low in their own eyes. and shall inherit the throne of glory. as it sometimes signifies. and behaving according to it. in the kingdom of heaven.. such an one is raised to a high estate of grace. that shuns. {z} bl "cor. Vatablus. or "a heart" {z}." Pagninus. and before honour [is] humility. {y} rowm "correctionem. and especially for his carnal lusts and pleasures.. which is by his Son Jesus Christ. will not be in the way of it. .

as it may be rendered. that gives them the willing mind.. the fixing them on any particular subject. that man has the marshalling and ordering of his own thoughts. Munster. this is owing to want of knowledge of the impurity of his nature. the former is said by way of concession.. are from the Lord. though not cleansed from his filthiness. and is capable of preparing matter for a discourse. as well as the preparation for it: most versions and interpreters make these clauses distinct. that is. depends upon the next clause. and the answer of the tongue [is] from the Lord. "from man is the counsel of the heart. who made man's mouth. Psalm 10:17. or in preaching to others. and proceed in a regular manner in the consideration of them.. was he sensible of this. not only some. and everything he does. is pure. as well as ability to perform it. for we cannot think a good thought of ourselves. and that continually. are not without the supernatural grace of God. which are generally irregular and confused. Michaelis. that pours out the Spirit of grace and supplication on them.." Montanus. All right and well. nor indeed anything of ourselves in a spiritual manner. the ordering and marshalling of them. and disposes and directs their minds to proper petitions." Schultens. that a man can neither think nor speak without God: the "orderings" or "marshallings of the heart" {a}. are not without the concurrence of divine Providence: and whereas the thoughts of men's hearts are evil. and furnishes his ministering servants in their studies with agreeable matter for their ministrations. yet it is as easy to observe.. or to preach in his name. and the sense may be. what he shall say in prayer to him. thus. The sense of these words. "to men [belong] the preparations of the heart. Piscator. yet they are not able to do it. both before God and man. having a high opinion of himself.. they lose what they had prepared. their tongues are overruled by the Lord to say what they never intended. 2 Corinthians 3:5. of the thoughts of the heart. and sometimes think to say one thing. the other to God. and that he can lay things together in his mind." {a} bl ykrem "dispositiones sive ordinationes. "instructiones adversae aciei in corde. the one as belonging to men. who is pure in his own eyes. according to our version. but all. whether it be to pray unto God. he would see that his best righteousness is as filthy rags and to his ignorance of the . and teaches him what to say. so as closely to attend to them.. unless the Lord gives them utterance. though about things civil and natural. and nothing but evil thoughts naturally proceed from thence. the ranging them in order. Vatablus. or as things regularly placed on a well furnished table. or a suitable frame for service. as in the cases of Balaam and Caiaphas. and fixing them to the attention and consideration of divine and spiritual things.CHAPTER 16 Proverbs 16 Verse 1.. and so fancies every way he walks in. be it so. The Targum is. for the "door of utterance" in either service is from him. and assists their memories. and think pertinently and properly on a subject. and the meaning of the whole is. and from the Lord is the speech of the tongue. and say another. all preparations for religious service and duty. for this is to be understood of a self-righteous man. The preparations of the heart in man. that men can better form ideas of things in their minds. as an army in battle array. Verse 2. and though they may be ever so well prepared to speak. All the ways of a man [are] clean in his own eyes. the they can express their sense and meaning. or deliver it in a disorderly and confused manner. Cocceius. it is he that works in men both "to will and to do". but from the Lord is the answer" or "[speech] of the tongue". and according to the opinion of men.

but the former reading and sense seem best. and he quietly waits the issues of things. and come greatly short of that purity and perfection pharisaical persons imagine there is in them. and sea. on comparing himself with it. as Aben Ezra. searches and tries the hearts.. "all the ways of a pure man [are] before his eyes": the eyes of the Lord. and sustenance in life. Natural. Commit thy works unto the Lord. as a man. having so done. Cocceius. to the Lord. fishes. where they are found wanting. "all the works of an humble man [are] manifest with God". "volve ad Jehovam opera tua. for though he is not ignorant of the affairs of his people. his ways and works. and all that are in them. and faithful. and accordingly judges of them by that.spirituality of the law. support. which. see Psalm 37:5. and leave the success of all with him: or "roll thy works on" or "unto the Lord" {b}. with a pair of scales in his hands.. or more equal to the work committed to him: the Targum is. and easy. and commit the business of the salvation of thy soul. and the important affairs of it. was he acquainted with. seek to him for strength and assistance in all. and endeavours accomplished. devolve all upon him. and they stand in need of. "volve in Dominum quae tibi facieuda sunt. sedate. but for God himself. who is able. the heaven. and not another." Piscator. so Mercerus. better able to bear it. and so the Syriac and Vulgate Latin versions. but the Lord weigheth the spirits. committed himself. the Lord weighs the spirits. yet he will be sought unto to do the things for them he intends to do. so Aben Ezra. Gejerus. can tell precisely the weight of anything put into them. and can as exactly adjust the nature and quality of them. wholly to him. Schultens. and whatever is for his good and God's glory shall be brought to pass. may sit down easy and satisfied. "reveal thy works to God". and observes the principles of all actions. who is the first cause and last end of all things: nor were those all things made for him. by his omniscience. not for the pure or good men. civil. beasts. "reveal thy works to the Lord". and he weighs all actions by his law. he sees.. the will of the Lord be done. Verse 3. All things are made by him. and. besides whom there was no other before the creation." Pagninus. or religious. his case." Michaelis. though all things are for the elect's sake. and to this agrees the Septuagint version. through any want he had of them. or hearts. {b} Kyvem hwhy la lg "devolve in Jehovam facta tua. Verse 4. to keep what is committed to him. that he and all he did was polluted and unclean: some read the words. and the Arabic version. when a man has. and not by the outward appearance. and all creatures: and these are made for himself. "all the works of an humble man are clean before God". earth. he would find.. and approves of them. men. as one that is rid of a burden by casting it on another. his thoughts are composed and settled. thy wants and necessities. make known thy requests to him. "negotia tua. angels. and circumstances. Tigurine version. his mind is made easy. condition. nor is there any other God but him.. and this makes him calm. he says. thy case. desires. from whence all actions flow.. by faith and in prayer. knows.. willing.. Montanus. he knows that he causes all things to work together for good. seek and ask for a supply of him. he sees them. being God all sufficient and blessed for . cast all care upon him and his providence for supply. birds. This is true of the Lord with respect to the creation of all things by him. and thy thoughts shall be established." Junius & Tremellius. in the balance of the sanctuary. The Lord hath made all [things] for himself. and he is in a fair way of having his designs.

Though he may dissemble his pride. to the laws of their creation.evermore. truth. the naughtiness of it.. and all this is "for himself. respecting the temporal estate of men. "all the works of God. which respects all creatures and things.. and particularly of that wicked one. which all creatures are obliged unto. to be understood of God's decrees and purposes. is for his glory. their death. nor did or does God make men wicked. he has foreordained whatever comes to pass. by his words and gestures. or the Lord. and the circumstances thereof." which some render." or "evil day. for the thing in which he is well pleased. and all which agree. Junius restrains it to "all men". p." Cocceius. "ad responsum proprium ejus. {c} whneml "ad responsum suum. the time. the time of his coming. and which is ultimately his own glory: or for his praise. that might be taken from the destruction of the wicked. Jonah or for his own sake. sufferings. they are made for his service. wicked men. there is a purpose for everything under the heavens. and. as Kimchi. and that is secured. yet the Lord sees and knows the heart. Every one [that is] proud in heart [is] an abomination to the Lord. and goodness. antichrist." is the day of wrath and ruin. Every thing is appointed of God. unto which wicked men are reserved by the appointment of God. God may justly appoint him to damnation for his wickedness. and for his honour and glory. as with the sense of the words. their calling. Syriac. This is true of wicked angels. justice. but for his own glory. It is not the sense of this text. though especially men: all things are appointed by the Lord. and of his ordering and appointing all things to bring about his own glory. is fixed by the Lord. the choice of them to salvation. but it is true of all creatures and things. with all the events leading to it: and so likewise all things respecting their spiritual and eternal estate. the place of their abode. Isaac. station of life. "ad responsum sui. agreeably to the Targum. neither to damn him. and not discover it in his looks. their birth. temptation. is conspicuous: but this is chiefly. and usefulness. and of joy and comfort. being so. and he has made himself wicked. for even the destruction of the wicked. are for them that obey him. "The day of evil. all adverse and prosperous dispensations. as R. "to answer to himself" {c}. and there is a particular providence attending the Lord's own people. as R. nor of any other passage of Scripture. nor to save him.. Septuagint. his kingdom of providence rules over all." Schultens. The Targum and Syriac version very wrongly render them. Gejerus. and of his ordering and disposing of all things in the course of that. and the time of it. that God made man to damn him. with all the circumstances attending it. place. if not solely. to answer ends of his own glory.. and communicate his goodness. all creatures are made to answer to his original design in making them. even the wicked for the day of evil. and in all the glory of his wisdom. and the pride . Verse 5. as are also all their times of affliction. against all things being for the glory of God. which is under a divine appointment. the conversion of God's elect. as Jarchi. but to show his greatness. and Arabic versions. there is a general providence. In a word. and whom all in their way obey. good and bad. in doing which he glorifies his justice. and to answer his ends and purposes. the word here used is in the singular number. whether in his salvation or damnation. Michaells. and to obviate an objection. their redemption by Christ. for his will and pleasure. so with Revelation 4:11. desertion. and means." Gussetius. 623. this is added to illustrate the general proposition in the preceding clause. and a time fixed for the execution of it. the final state of all men. and death. It is also true of his works of providence. the man of sin and son of perdition. these are all according to the purpose of God. nor is this to be inferred from the doctrine of predestination: God made man." yea. he made man upright.

. and quarrel with him about them. both he and they shall be destroyed. Or "expiated" {d}. held by a . Daniel 7:25. and particularly concerning pardon on the foot of his sacrifice and satisfaction. Gotten in a righteous way. made an end of sin. Esau with Jacob.. and by the fear of the Lord [men] depart from evil. {d} rpky "expiabitur. in the latter day. having that put into their hearts.. Michaelis. but. it teaches them to deny ungodliness and worldly lusts. men are engaged to abstain from evil. when he walks after the Spirit. and doing justice between man and man. Verse 7. "expiatur." in sending Christ to be the propitiation for sin. and despises others. Junius & Tremellius." in fulfilling his promises concerning Christ. Revelation 3:9." Montanus. exalts himself above all that is called God. and the enemies of the church and people of God with then. not by alms deeds or showing mercy to the poor. or through his atoning sacrifice. for." Tigurine version. every proud Pharisee. without which it is impossible to please God. that trusts in himself that he is righteous. it will be of no avail. and excited and influenced by the grace and goodness of God. but a proud heart. with all his might and main. through his "mercy. that repliest against God?" Romans 9:19. he shall not be able to do it. Schultens. when he walks by faith.. to secure himself and prevent his ruin. [though] hand [join] in hand. Better [is] a little with righteousness. where mercy and truth have met together: or through the grace and truth come by Jesus Christ. See Gill on "Pr 11:21". though he enters into confederacy with. and made reconciliation for iniquity. Hebrews 11:6. and may be done by persons destitute of the grace of God. he shall not be unpunished. When a man's ways please the Lord... though he endeavours with both hands." O proud vain man.. is an abomination in the sight of God. Vatablus.. and when all his ways and actions are directed to the glory of God. "from evil he shall not be cleared. and through his "truth. a look more stout than his fellows." Verse 6. Revelation 16:14. by which he has finished transgression. As they do when a man walks according to the rule of his word. or out of hand. Luke 18:9. Verse 8..that is in it: and only a proud look. though these are duties to be performed. as Abimelech with Isaac. "Nay. he maketh even his enemies to be at peace with him. and whose iniquities are not purged or pardoned: but by the mercy and truth of God. truth and faithfulness. who has not only a proud look. and does all he does in faith. and calls in the kings of the earth to his assistance. The Targum is. to whom the apostle says.. O man. in which there is a rich display of his own and of his father's grace and mercy. nor by speaking truth and keeping promises. but a proud heart. and to live soberly and godly in this world. when he walks as he has Christ for an example. his destruction will come upon him." and the Syriac version. and not only speaks big words against the most High. immediately. Mercerus. and the appearance of it. and proudly imagines he shall always continue in his grandeur and prosperity. Gejerus. By mercy and truth iniquity is purged. and atoned for: not by the mercy and truth of men. they will not atone for sin. particularly antichrist. that justifies himself before men.. and not after the flesh. is abominable to him: everyone that is so arrogant as to arraign the decrees of God. Piscator.. "he that stretcheth out his hand against his neighbour shall not be cleared from evil. but has it in his heart to change times and laws. "who art thou.

. and not what is. Revelation 18:17. Christ and his righteousness. detained from the right owner of them. not of a wicked man. See Gill on "Pr 15:16. A divine sentence [is] in the lips of the king.. and not turn to the right hand or the left. and appeared in his judging the two harlots. but it is notorious that they too often do: could this be applied to kings in common. and also along with an interest in the righteousness of Christ." Pagninus. or what is like to divination. and decrees judgment. this cannot be said of any earthly king. Verse 10. or prosper and succeed them in their ways: but of a good man.. sits upon his . as Aben Ezra." A little the true church of Christ enjoys in the wilderness. who had the word of God in his heart and in his month continually. as was in Solomon. they ought not indeed to transgress in judgment with their mouths. flow. to his kingdom and glory. the King of saints. and on whom the Spirit of wisdom without measure dwelt. having Christ and his grace. This is to be understood.righteous claim. for such are an abomination to the Lord. it is not of his own devising and finding out. and desires to walk in a right way. Or "divination" {f}. is better than all the revenues of the church of Rome gotten by the unlawful methods they are. Some understand it of the sagacity and penetration of kings. and used in an unrighteous manner. who is a King that reigns in righteousness. through a variety of troubles and difficulties. but the Lord directeth his steps: to go right on. used in a righteous manner. nor will he direct their goings. grace. as Jarchi. Verse 9. they would have a better claim to infallibility than the pope of Rome has. they should speak as the oracles of God. and to walk safely and surely. and judge and pronounce sentence in every case according to it. whose steps are ordered by the Lord. as follows. in one hour will come to nought. as the kings of Israel.. but such is not to be found in kings in common: rather therefore this expresses and designs what should be. when they do. who thinks of the way in which he should go. a good man. {e} jpvm alb "absque judicio. Montanus. a divine sentence may be said to be in their lips. for otherwise the way of man is not in himself. ought to have the book of God before them. and read in it. who taught the way of God in truth.. What be says is as an oracle. and truth. "without judgment" {e}. nor is his disposition to walk in it of himself. in kings. his mouth transgresseth not in judgment. Proverbs 6:14. attended with a life of righteousness and holiness. But this is true of Christ. and who devises mischief and evil imaginations continually. and entitles to eternal glory and happiness.. in a course of sin and wickedness: or. A man's heart deviseth his way. obtained in an unjust way. of the King Messiah.. and should be strictly true. and without a righteousness that will justify them at the day of judgment. how to make use of them aright. see Jeremiah 10:23. and who is influenced by the Spirit and grace of God to think and act in this manner. but his small pittance is better than great revenues without right. and is the wisdom and word of God. as the word signifies. These. But it is best to understand this of the King of kings. into whose lips grace is poured. and. in whose heart is frowardness. yields peace and comfort. and from whence none but words of wisdom. as Aben Ezra and Gersom interpret it {g}.. as well as the power of God. or righteous man. and it is only such a man. which renders acceptable unto God. A truly righteous man may have but little of this world's goods. and which.

and those that do it should be abhorred by them. both with respect to faith and practice. greater or smaller. and security of every kingdom. what he has put into the heart. which were formerly used in weighing. yet there are but few such. and love of power. A just weight and balance [are] the Lord's. highly valued and esteemed by kings: but the contrary is too often the case. and to do that which is most for their own true honour and the people's good. inculcate. The Targum is. justice and judgment are the habitation of his throne. and what is found wanting is to be rejected. or. but is perfectly applicable to Christ. {g} So Vatablus. Christ loves and delights in those that deliver out his doctrines in the taught words of the Holy Ghost." Montanus.. yea." as . for the throne is established by righteousness. are the balance of the sanctuary. and to the profit and advantage of those who submit to the sceptre of his kingdom. "his works. Montanus. {f} Moq "divinatio.. or by punishing them: and though there have been such kings as David. [It is] an abomination to kings to commit wickedness. for the keeping and maintaining truth and justice in commercial affairs. Righteous lips [are] the delight of kings. all of them. of men to contrive and make use of. "all the stones" {h}.. and approving.. for the benefit of mankind. which are of God. Vatablus.. which makes for the honour of kings. all the weights of the bag [are] his work. Gejerus." {h} ynba "lapides. without any mixture or corruption. Verse 14. or they should show their resentment at it by removing them from their presence. what agrees with them is to be received. are. to order and establish it with judgment: nor does his mouth ever transgress in judgment. Cocceius. Mercerus. all which is for his glory. Leviticus 19:35. this is not true of kings in common. that explain. Such that speak truth and righteousness. these are by the Lord's appointment and order. and gratify their pride. Isaiah 9:7. commanding. ambition. and faithfully declare the whole counsel of God. Schultens.. who loves righteousness and hates iniquity. Piscator. and were kept in a bag for that purpose... a wrong thing. his sceptre is a sceptre of righteousness. Pagninus. Or. and advise to the administration of justice and judgment. these are of his appointing. strength. and they love him that speaketh right: agreeably to right reason.. or ought to be. Michaelis. Michaelis. and enforce his laws and commands. this is the support. that flatter them. Piscator. are weights of truth. and it is with judgment and righteousness that the throne of Christ is established. Mercerus. and of the thrones of kings.. Psalm 45:7.. to the hurt of their subjects. in which every doctrine is to be weighed and tried. The wrath of a king [is as] messengers of death." V.. Verse 12. and the good of those over whom they rule. L.. These are of his devising. or he do. Verse 13. This may be applied to the Scriptures of truth. kings hearken to those that speak lies.. "the abomination of kings are they that work wickedness..throne. "angels of death. as King of saints. Psalm 101:4.. Verse 11." It should be an abomination to kings to commit wickedness themselves. or ever say. and therefore rather expresses what they should be than what they are. The Targum is.

see Psalm 72:6. and his spiritual coming unto his people. . as that does. see Psalm 30:5. How much better [is it] to get wisdom than gold?. the fountain of wisdom. which treasures are infinitely preferable to thousands of gold and silver. invigorate their graces. and the getting of them is above all other gettings. his presence gives life. his gracious presence. to gain the knowledge of him. and therefore the word is in the plural number. In the light of the king's countenance [is] life. but it is abundantly better. more solid and satisfying. And how delightful and pleasant is the countenance of Christ. which are more to be desired than gold. He came from heaven.. Hosea 6:3.. or signified by a messenger. When he looks with a pleasant smiling countenance on a person that has been under his displeasure. at the same time frankly acknowledging it. than fine gold. or the case of his friends. communion with him. and often as terrible as if a messenger brought the sentence of death. which is like Lebanon. who are represented as flying to rocks and mountains to hide them from it! Revelation 6:15. quicken their souls. in coming into the world in the last days to save sinners his coming is said to be as the former and the latter rain. to have wisdom in the hidden part. and refreshing. Verse 16. and especially if under a sentence of death. the comforts of his Spirit. excellent as the cedars. or expressed by his words. and came suddenly.the Targum. it is not only better. it is more profitable and useful. it sometimes has been immediate death to a person. To obtain and possess Christ. with which eternal life is connected. are life unto his people. but a wise man will pacify it. it is as life from the dead: so the light of the countenance of God. and therefore it is put by way of question and admiration. distinguishing.. Verse 15. as well as undeserved. the joys of his salvation. it cannot be well said how much better it is. as rain is. has a greater intrinsic worth in it than gold. and it is given often unasked for. see Proverbs 3:13. As the wrath of Ahasuerus was to Haman. and is as the sun when it shineth in its strength. and of God in him. and with great acceptance to those. by prayer and asking for. the objects of it are very unworthy.. and causes great cheerfulness and fruitfulness: and such is the layout of Christ. by soft answers and strong arguments. is the free gift of God. and pleads his propitiatory sacrifice for the expiation of his sin. He is a wise man that believes in Christ. as Jonathan pacified the wrath of King Saul his father against David. revived the corn and filled it: and such is the favour of God in Christ. and the discoveries of his love and free favour to them. yea. by a proper acknowledgment of the offence committed.. it is as if one messenger after another was sent on such an errand. to have a spiritual experimental knowledge of the Gospel. and in comparison of which all things are loss and dung.. which is much more precious than gold that perisheth. in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. the discoveries of his love. or by a prudent representation of his case. the King of kings. and even to kings themselves. as that. and undeserved. the manifestations of himself. are very reviving. such wisdom is more valuable in itself. all which are to be got by diligent search and inquiry. cheering.. in great abundance. it is inexpressibly so. and the truths of it. as was usual in Judea. as that is. is in consequence of a decree. yea. and his favour [is] as a cloud of the latter rain: which falling a little before harvest. and who himself is the sun of righteousness. and to be had or bought without money and without price. which is free. who knew him and waited for him. or grace in the heart. when it is either discovered in the countenance of a king. and make them cheerful. that arises on his people with healing in his wings! How reviving his love! how comfortable fellowship with him! his absence is as death. How terrible is the wrath of the King of kings.

. that keeps on in his way. and ascribe all they have and are to the free grace of God. being in the height of his glory. Montanus. knowing good and evil. or antichrist. and nests of understanding. "altitudo spiritus. Gejerus. who walks circumspectly and carefully. and as it did in our first parents. fell into condemnation. The Septuagint render it. Mercerus.... "altifrons elatio spiritus. are . signifying that this is the half or middle of the book. The followers of the meek and lowly Jesus. through pride. think that wisdom is something better than understanding. Upright persons.. "nests of wisdom." Cocceius. which was the case of Nebuchadnezzar. not content with their present state and circumstances.. and wholly trust in him for salvation. whose spirits are humbled under a sense of sin. though some. and his eyelids straight before him. the highway of the King of kings. have mean thoughts of themselves and their own righteousness. his kingdom departed from him. Better [it is to be] of an humble spirit with the lowly. Pride [goeth] before destruction. the bigger a person or thing is. sees not at what he may stumble. and an experience of the grace of God. in the plain beaten path of God's commandments. is better than silver. and submit to the righteousness of the Son of God. and not go out of it. should be advanced above theirs. and abstain from all appearance of it: this is their common constant course of life. and others. and not to his goings. Verse 19. Daniel 4:30.. and this will be the case of the man of sin." and the Arabic version. ruined themselves and all their posterity. and so shun the bypaths of sin." Schultens. shall not err. who. troubles. they are studiously concerned to walk herein. Verse 18. such a man preserves his soul from many snares and temptations. Revelation 18:7. and take delight in so doing.." Piscator. and is swelling with pride and vanity on account of it. and his fall is immediate. and so falls: moreover. As it did in the angels that sinned. and evils. and very often when a man has got to the height of his riches and honour." or "height of spirit" {i}. not being able to bear the thought that the human nature. in the person of the Son of God. these walk in the highway of holiness. Here the Masorites put the word yux. expressed in different words. looks upwards. and ambitious of being as gods. and walk uprightly. in the King's highway. though fools. in which men. who while he was expressing himself in the haughtiness of his spirit. to which it is preferred. or.. he that keepeth his way preserveth his soul. dangers. observes the road he is in. Michaelis.." Verse 17. and turns neither to the right hand nor the left. a spiritual understanding of Christ and the Gospel." Pagninus.. he is on the precipice of ruin. and a haughty spirit before a fall. "a high spirit. the greater is the fall. such who are upright in heart.and to get understanding rather to be chosen than silver? the same thing is designed as before. to keep in it. as in Haman. as Gersom. Nebuchadnezzar. as gold. "buds of wisdom. "celstudo aniimi. and buds of understanding. {i} xwr hbg "elitio spiritus. the way in which the upright walk. who.. The highway of the upright [is] to depart from evil. humble themselves under the mighty hand of God. whose eyes look right on. who ponders the path of his feet. and as it has done in many of their sons. whereby they escape many evils others fall into. which he would be otherwise liable to. a man that carries his head high.

Verse 21. no. who. That frames and composes his discourse well on any subject he takes in hand. which is the beginning of wisdom. as. and makes it the rule of his conduct in life: such a man finds good things. and acceptable to God. he shall want no good thing. and are more grateful to men. As he only is to whom an understanding is given.. than to be his. promises of good things. have the gift of elocution. can clothe their thoughts with proper words. to these he gives more grace. and think better of others than themselves: these are not in so much danger of falling as the proud and haughty. but in the Lord. or the spoils of kingdoms and states with antichrist. but is experimentally acquainted with it. "The master" or "owner of it" {k}. nor in his riches. unconcerned hearer of the word. or manages his affairs prudently and discreetly. and convey their ideas in clear expressions. edification. Verse 22. reckoned. whether it be divine or human. while they are improving others.. who is wise unto salvation. good truths. happy [is] he. Jeremiah 17:7. good counsel and advice. and instruction. things for his present comfort and future happiness. Understanding [is] a wellspring of life unto him that hath it. Proverbs 9:9. and they shall inherit the earth. that can never be removed. This is no other than the .resigned to his will.. and increase it in themselves: for. that is. in a very edifying and instructive manner: these communicate knowledge to others. accounted.. but a diligent and attentive one. and if they have proper hearers to attend them. things which are for his profit.. good doctrines.. and the sweetness of the lips increaseth learning." 1 Timothy 3:2. and have ever so much. Wherefore it is better to be of such a spirit. and spoken well of. but heart knowledge and wisdom. negligent. who lays it up in his heart. Verse 20. or that wisely attends to the affair of humility. he is in the utmost safety. the spoils of the poor with proud oppressors. not of princes.. they have none of things spiritual and divine. not to his own wisdom. for. besides a wise heart and a knowing head. in which he is concerned. and in his Word. can deliver themselves in a flowing easy style. as a prudent man among all wise and knowing persons. whose heart is opened by the Spirit of God to attend to what is spoken in it. or spoils gotten in war with proud and ambitious princes.. nor righteousness.. who knows his heart and the haughtiness of it. they improve themselves and learning also. and have but little. who is so wise and endued with knowledge. nor in his own strength. with these he vouchsafes to dwell. to show his works with meekness of wisdom. as Aben Ezra: or rather to the word. and be ranked among and keep company with the meek and lowly. these are such who are "apt to teach. than to divide the spoil with the proud. He that handleth a matter wisely shall find good. to the word of God.. who has not head knowledge and wisdom only. He that has true wisdom in the inward part.. is like Mount Zion. good directions and instructions. whatever understanding men may have of natural and civil things. unless it be given them by Christ.. is not a careless. and whoso trusteth in the Lord. out of a good conversation. who has the fear of God in it. and patiently bear all afflictions without murmuring. he is kept in perfect peace. nor in the favour of men. they will "increase in learning." as a just man does. such a man is called. divided by him among his proud followers: it is better to be the followers of Christ. and behaves wisely in his life and conversation. The wise in heart shall be called prudent. not only knows the scheme of it.

Verse 23. are pleasant to the Lord. are as "an honeycomb". The heart of the wise teacheth his mouth. and this is a well of living water. and death. are yea and amen in Christ.. which goes from flower to flower. whether expressed in prayer or in praise. and very grateful and acceptable to him: so their speech one to another. the speech of such as are wise in heart. and are suited to the various cases of God's people. as men are able to bear. but it may be much better understood of the doctrines of the Gospel. when it is with grace. and brings it into the hive. and without pressing. and as this knowledge and understanding of things is communicated by wise and knowing men. gradually. eternal election. these are all pleasant to the ear of him that knows the joyful sound. and. as in Proverbs 16:21. of remission of sins through his atoning sacrifice. eternal life is connected. nor how to say. that he shall not be at a loss what to say. the person of Christ as God-man. their words. and constantly. having no other constraint but love to Christ and the souls of men.. of life and salvation by his obedience. with the knowledge of Christ. Now all these. and issues in death. "domino suo. and it issues in it. they are like unto it for the manner of its production. instructive to himself and others. the best instruction they are capable of giving is downright folly. and seasonably applied." Pagninus. when about spiritual things. Moreover. and gathers honey. who is a spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Christ. of justification by his righteousness. {k} wyleb "domini sui. Gejerus. Matthew 12:34. then it ministers grace. and go from one to another. of peace and reconciliation by his blood. John 4:14. when they are fitly spoken. springing up unto everlasting life.. a man that is wise in heart. and addeth learning to his lips: so that he does not deliver out mere words. true believers in Christ. and before whom. out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. such as the doctrines of God's everlasting love. Pleasant words [are as] an honeycomb. all the doctrines of grace.grace of the Spirit of God. which are free and unconditional. Jarchi interprets it of the words of the law. and especially the doctrines of the Gospel.. and constantly preach the . so Gospel ministers drop the pleasant words of the Gospel freely." Mercerus. but the instruction of fools [is] folly. bring it into the hive of the church. sufferings. but solid learning along with them. they do it gradually. That is. irrevocable. never fail of accomplishment. The precious promises of the Gospel may be meant." or increases knowledge. The Targum is. by dropping freely.. his heart will teach his mouth what to say. it will furnish him with words and things. and gather something from each. which show that salvation in all its parts is owing entirely to the free grace of God. when to say it." Michaelis. which they diligently search. and is very pleasant. and are made useful. "dominorum suorum. the covenant of grace. and God in Christ. "and by his lips he addeth doctrine. it is wrought and filled by the laborious bee. they are the means and instruments of the spiritual life of those to whom they minister. and to the taste of everyone that has tasted that the Lord is gracious. it will prompt him to matter.. and there feed men with knowledge and understanding: and the doctrines of the Gospel are like unto the honeycomb for the manner of its communication. and immutable.. these are very pleasant and delightful.. Verse 24. being richly laden with the fulness of the blessing Of the Gospel of Christ. and there disposes of it: so laborious ministers of the Gospel gather their doctrines from the sacred Scriptures.

and indeed they labour to be accepted of the Lord.. and indeed he knows not for whom he labours. for the good and welfare of their immortal souls. good and faithful Servant. whose natural taste remains in him. and be more considerate and thoughtful of the issue of them. they make the bones which were broken to rejoice. "the soul of him that labours {l}. and though in the first place they labour to promote the glory of God and the interest of Christ. who calls evil good. and as slain. labours for himself". and to excite an attention to it. and that is for a man's self. who have tasted that he is gracious. such are the truths of the Gospel. There is a way that seemeth right unto a man. and good evil. for their spiritual prosperity. what heals the bones strengthens the whole man... to whom Christ is precious. "Well done. they are the wholesome words of our Lord Jesus. and the good of souls. He that laboureth. in the word and doctrine. for such who will not work ought not to eat. but to them that believe. for that meat which endures to everlasting life. that enlightened his eyes. as follows: sweet to the soul. Likewise these are as the honeycomb for the honey in it. and is not changed. and it is labouring for food and raiment which is here meant. for the nourishing of them up unto everlasting life. "he that is troublesome is troublesome to himself" {m}. and is here repeated because of the excellence. And they are "health to the bones".word. Verse 25. and like that out of the lion Samson fed upon. attending on the ministry of the word and ordinances: and this labouring is for themselves. and disagreeable things: nor are they sweet to a carnal professor. and broken bones. The same is said in Proverbs 14:12. they are excellent things. it is a part of the curse inflicted on him for sin. but the end thereof [are] the ways of death. and particularly these pleasant words are said to be as the honeycomb for its sweetness and healthfulness. the soul for spiritual things. and to hold on and persevere to the end. Man is born for labour. and purchase estates. they are the means of curing the diseases of the mind. and grow thereby. and at last shall hear. has no spiritual gust and relish of them. reading the Scriptures. yet it also turns to their own account.. in season and out of season: and as the honey which drops from the honeycomb is the choicest honey. though he may express some value for them. laboureth for himself. and may intend the various exercises of religion in which men employ themselves. The Gospel flows from Christ. and like that which Jonathan tasted. and health to the bones. such as praying. they are "sweet" to the "soul" of him that understands them. and is to be found in him. and be more cautious where and how they walk. importance. It is indeed in the original. the most excellent. See Gill on "Pr 14:12. Psalm 19:10. and his condition and circumstances are such as make it necessary. and broken hearts. who labour in the Lord's vineyard. and it may be understood of the labour of. that they may have food for their souls. and sweet for bitter. to these they are sweet. they are like the honey out of the rock the Israelites ate of. that men may be more diligent to look into their ways. tasteless. and usefulness of the observation. and that has a spiritual taste of them. not to a natural and unregenerate man. enter into the joy of thy Lord. for spiritual food. It may be applied to Gospel ministers. the Rock. and has an enlightening virtue in it. to him the doctrines of the Gospel are insipid. for if he labours to be rich and lay up money. called "life honey"." Matthew 25:23. of healing wounded spirits. as such an ." Verse 26. puts bitter for sweet. these are more for others than himself. Some render the words. who. a man's strength lying much in his bones. cause believers to go from strength to strength. these strengthen the inward man. even sweeter than the honey or the honeycomb. the Lion of the tribe of Judah.

Verse 27. to work. though he is more solicitious and diligent to search into the sins of others. entreating: him to labour to get food for it. in commonwealths. one that goes from place to place. law. "incurvat se ei os suum". A froward man soweth strife. for his mouth craveth it of him: that he should labour.. but to himself also. not obedient to the law of God. and so the Septuagint and Arabic versions render it. contrary to reason. he is the cause of great disquietude to his own mind. which have long lain buried. out of the evil treasure of which he brings forth evil things. as the Syriac version. Or "a man of Belial" {p}. and coals of juniper. in neighbourhoods. or ground susceptive of the seed he sows. {p} leylb vya "vir Belijahal. and deserves no other than sharp arrows of the Almighty. as it were. and who has a spirit of contradiction. it compels him. which a wicked man contrives and devises. Verse 28. Piscator.. a man without a yoke. Mercerus. "anima laboriosi.. for "all the labour of man is for his mouth. and whose mouth speaketh froward and perverse things. in churches. and detractions." or his destruction.. characters. though oftentimes he falls into it himself. from . Michaelis. a man's mouth. in civil and religious societies. {o} "Inflexit se super eum os suum. devours and consumer the good names. {m} "Ipse molestus molestiam affert sibi. and credit of men. whose mouth obliges them. and a whisperer separateth chief friends. L. such a man sows discord and strife wherever he comes. and Gospel. in order to satisfy his appetite." to feed that and fill his belly. and he seldom fails of finding a soil fit for his purpose. {n} whyp wyle Pka "incurvavit se ei os suum. they cannot but speak the things they have heard and seen: or "his mouth reflects upon him". and in his lips [there is] as a burning fire. Gejerus. "innititur super cum. it is set on fire of hell. in families. see Proverbs 6:19. upon the man that has been troublesome to himself and others. not intentionally but eventually. Tigurine version. and as the Papists served Beza: but perhaps the evil of mischief is here rather intended. Gejerus. puts him upon the use of means of spiritual exercises." V. he has enough in his own heart." Pagninus. its necessities are so pressing: and this holds good in spiritual things. as the Vulgate Latin version. {l} lme vpn "anima laborantis. Or "a man of perversenesses" {q}. or spiritual appetite. without which he must otherwise be in a starving condition. it obliges him. such a man digs for sin as for a treasure." Vatablus. in whose heart is frowardness and perverseness.. Ecclesiastes 6:7. a ditch he digs for others." Cocceius. where it takes root and thrives. or as a beast bows down to feed itself. An ungodly man diggeth up evil. a worthless unprofitable man. James 3:6. even the everlasting fire and flames of hell.. it is as it were an humble supplicant to him. as the Manichees raked up the sins of Austin in his youth. and it sets on fire the course of nature. Pagninus. nor need he go far for it. Montanus. the Targum is. or "his mouth boweth unto him" {n}. and dig up them. his tongue is a fire. "for from his mouth humiliation shall come to him.one is. and is contrary to all men in his principles and practices. not only to others. or "boweth upon him" {o}. see Psalm 7:15. Mercerus. Mercerus." Montanus. and with its lies.. "digs evils for himself".. calumnies." Montanus. and satisfy its wants. whether he will or not. and is true of the ministers of the word." Junius & Tremellius.

house to house. who are grievous wolves. The word for "chief friends" is in the singular number." he gives out menaces of evil things. that his thoughts might not be disturbed and distracted by visible objects. they lead them into a ditch. . separate princes. into one that is very bad. when is the proper time to circumvent an innocent person. which he does not care to come to. and pastors of churches from their flocks. and leadeth him into the way [that is] not good. and by such artful methods brings his evil designs to pass. by whom the way. A violent man enticeth his neighbour. so the Targum. or he shuts his eyes against light. so sin. so far are false teachers from leading their neighbours into the good old way of truth and righteousness. which is true of the man of sin. Or "perverse" or "contrary things" {r}. Revelation 13:5. or rather as acting a deceitful part. so that they will not come near one another. as well as from one another. of truth is spoken evil of. that whisperer and agitator. whispering into the ears of persons things prejudicial to the characters of others. Isaiah 59:2. and into destruction hereafter." Junius & Tremellius.. as a false teacher. even chief friends. that he may form and devise schemes of doctrine and worship contrary to them.. either as persons in deep thought used to do. and through desire of revenge. "biting his lips". yea. at last. moving his lips he bringeth evil to pass. so a wicked man does through indignation at a good man. when found out. from their subjects. Some render it. he gives the hint thereby to his companions. and signifies a prince or leader. but muttering out his words. The Vulgate Latin version renders it. he shuts his eyes. and performs them. according to the station they are in. and when he plots against him. or keep up any correspondence as before. and not by manifestation of the truth commending himself to every man's conscience in the sight of God. and been drunk with the same. against Scripture evidence. and husbands from their wives: and such a man.. such a man by his conduct separates one friend from another." Montanus. he shuts his eyes. As false teachers do. but might be more free and composed. The Targum is. he gnashes at him with his teeth.. separates between God and men. and will not look into the Scriptures. who drop him as a worthless person. not speaking out his mind freely. and such men. as the Vulgate Latin version renders it. and as the man of sin.. and who by good words and fair speeches deceive the heart of the simple. as a faithful minister does. at least alienate their affections from them. Baynus. yea. he alienates their minds one from another.. mere lies and falsehoods. that they lead them into pernicious ways. Psalm 37:12.. "vir perversitatibus deditus. handling the word of God deceitfully. separates his best friends from himself. and the influence they have. that have been for a long time in the closest and most intimate friendship. that has shed the blood of the saints. or as a token to others to set about the evil designed and contrived. Verse 30. Piscator. as does the man of sin and violence his followers. {q} twkpht vya "vir perversitatum. as dangerous to converse with. Verse 29. lest his principles and practices should be reproved. deceives with his miracles and sorceries them that dwell on the earth. not sparing the flock. carrying tales. and stir up the latter to rebel against them. He shutteth his eyes to devise froward things. and intent upon the things he is meditating and devising. Schultens. he winks with his eyes. "threatening with his lips. as in Proverbs 6:13. and to put in execution the scheme he had devised..

bespeak gravity... urn. [He that is] slow to anger is better than the mighty. respected by men. l. Gejerus. 4. 2. and assisted by a proper number of persons. for a lot has the nature of an oath.. and is preferable to the strongest man that is not master of himself and of his passions.. Noct. as Alexander who conquered his enemies. or into a hat. or "the judgment" {u} of it. and godly. 5. Gell. when they are found in Christ. that is.. l. it being so directed and ordered by him as to fall upon the person it should.. Mercerus. and is an appeal to the omniscient. when they walk in the ways of God and true religion. and when they live soberly. and he that ruleth his spirit than he that taketh a city. their old age is a good old age. but the whole disposing thereof [is] of the Lord. as well as constantly attend the ministry of the word and ordinances. or whatsoever he has in his lap. Verse 31." Michaelis. an old man in the open ways of sin and vice." Pagninus. Gray hairs. in dividing inheritances. it is easier to do the one than the other. greater honour was paid to age than to family or wealth. walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless. may do the one. or into his bosom. having on his righteousness. and in the stead of parents. omnipresent. Attic. thoroughly to do the other.{r} twkpht "perversitates. and omnipotent Being. cap. Verse 33. and the assistance of his spirit. but seriously and religiously. and private devotion. Than a mighty warrior or conqueror. Ep. then are they very venerable and respectable. "perversa. the judgment that is to be made by it concerning persons or things. "res perversas. with prayer. and in faith. laden with iniquity. and the elder were revered by the younger next to God. or to gratify curiosity. See Gill on "Le 19:32". with the ancient Romans {s}. that can govern himself. Montanus. {s} Vid. or for the sake of gain. Cicero says {t}. white locks through age are very ornamental. which used to be done in choosing officers. Piscator. or to make known the thing in .. look very beautiful. wisdom. [if] it be found in the way of righteousness. and prudence. if such who are old and stricken in years are like Zacharias and Elisabeth. and with a view to the divine direction. is superior in strength to him that can storm a castle or take a fortified city. civil or ecclesiastical. and yet in his wrath slew his best friends: a man that is slow to anger is esteemed by the Lord. courage of mind joined with wisdom. and not suffer his passions to exceed due bounds.." {t} Epist. and making up differences. one that has the command of his temper. and command reverence and respect. righteously. which otherwise could not be done: and this ought not to be used in trivial cases. and submission to it. and putting an end to strife and contentions. is a very contemptible and shocking sight. but it requires the grace of God. and in a short time they shall have the crown of glory which fadeth not away: but otherwise a sinner a hundred years old shall be accursed. and from whence it is taken out." Junius & Tremellius. A. Of a man's garment. and is happy in himself. 15.. Baynus. and even all the world. or rashly and superstitiously. c. The hoary head [is] a crown of glory. in all ages "fewer men are found who conquer their own lusts than that overcome the armies of enemies... The lot is cast into the lap.. keep up family worship. Verse 32. and determining doubtful cases.

and to encourage him to take care of his family. wasteful. or where there is plenty of slain beasts for food. Now a servant that behaves well and wisely in a family is observed and respected by his master. a mere piece of bread is meant. and his affairs.. a broken piece of bread. old bread. cheese. This is to be ascribed. and become "dry" {x}. and he puts his wicked and extravagant son under him. "frustum siccae buccellae." see Proverbs 15:17. Mr. for his faithful service to him in life. or to any invisible created being. and obliges his son to obey his orders. or through gifts in his lifetime shall have what is equal to what his sons have. that is prodigal. or a table ever so richly spread. CHAPTER 17 Proverbs 17 Verse 1.doubt and debate according to his will. "frustum sicci. to the influence of the stars.. angel or devil. Mercerus. mouldy. and causes shame to his parents. sc." Cocceuis.. but to the Lord only. those events which seem most fortuitous or contingent are all disposed. cibi. this is better than a house full of sacrifices [with] strife. so Ben Melech.. Montanus. L. or. Jarchi illustrates this in Nebuchadnezzar ruling over the children of Israel. with tranquillity and contentment. Better [is] a dry morsel. in a man's own mind. Schultens." Michaelis. where that is. Verse 2. but the meanest food. Piscator. butter." Tigurine version. A wise servant shall have rule over a son that causeth shame. be appointed by his master's will to a share in his estate among his children. {u} wjpvm "judicium ejus. Cocceius. or events by chance. Schultens. Dod used to say. with quietness and peace among those that partake of it. peace in the family. in which all parties concerned should acquiesce." Tigurine version. for. which were usually the best. as the Arabic version. there is no such thing as chance. as Gussetius {y}: or "shall . and quietness therewith. "brown bread and the Gospel are good fare.. a dry crust of bread. however. "buccea sicca. dry piece of bread: and the word used has the signification of destruction in it: bread that has lost its taste and virtue. is preferable to the richest entertainment where there is nothing but strife and contention among the guests. and sets him to watch over him." a ttp. {w} tp "frustrum. as the word {w} signifies. makes him a tutor to him. "brucella sicca. and shall have part of the inheritance among the brethren.. "cibi sicci" Junius & Tremellius.." Pagninus. and luxurious. by the sovereign will of God. {x} hbrx "siccum frustum panis." V. not to blind chance and fortune. Mercerus. there is confusion and every evil work: peace and joy in the Holy Ghost are better than meats and drinks. or for sacrifice. That does wicked and shameful actions: that is slothful. who blush at his conduct. and will not attend to instruction or business. and at which times feasts used to be made. or flesh: this. after his death. or growing rich shall purchase a part of theirs. as Gersom. "fregit." Gejerus. than a house ever so well furnished with good cheer. an old.. and governed. especially if he has the peace of God. ordered. which passeth all understanding. "judicium eorum. his children. Gejerus. which has been long broken off. A small quantity of bread. without anything to eat with it. and part of which the people had to eat.

as the word signifies. he carefully attends to such as speak falsehood. which destroys the good name and reputation of men. and share in the same inheritance with Abraham. backbiting tongue. Isaac. nay. but the Lord trieth the hearts. God only knows and tries them. so are the hearts of God's people. the variety of troubles they are exercised with are made useful for the purging away of the dross of sin and corruption. a man does not know. loves to hear ill reports of persons. . {z} qlxy "dividet. {a} twh Nwvl le "perniciosae linguae. Jeremiah 17:9. render it by way of similitude." Mercerus. as the Targum. when the children of the kingdom shall be shut out." {y} Ebr.. there is no vessel. as silver is refined in the pot. Vulgate Latin. and the furnace for gold. "partitur. and he that is given to lying is made up of lying. and Arabic versions." Junius & Tremellius. at it is said in Ezekiel 47:23. or. The Septuagint. and partakers of his promise in Christ with the Jews. so Syriac version and the Targum. Verse 5. Michaelis. nor can he thoroughly search and try his own heart.. such an one reproaches his Creator. and Jacob. "ad linguam exiliorum. as Gersom observes." Vatablus. to divide his substance among his children. and in time to come he shall divide the spoil and the inheritance in the midst of the children of Israel. Verse 4. and gold in the furnace. "he that hearkens to a lie [gives heed] to a naughty tongue" {b}. evil in itself. scoffs at the clothes he wears or food he eats. 263. The fining pot [is] for silver. pernicious in its effects and consequences.." Michaelis.. who roves and makes a lie. and see that everyone have their proper portion and equal share. "as the fining pot is for silver. [and] a liar giveth ear to a naughty tongue: or. "to a tongue of destruction" {a}. as antichrist and his followers. but it rather is to be understood of his being a co-heir with them. in which they purify the silver from the dross. such an one hearkens diligently to everything that may detract from the character of those especially he bears an ill will to: or it may be better rendered.. become fellow heirs of the same body. {b} So Michaelis. A wicked doer giveth heed to false lips. Whoso mocketh the poor reproacheth his Maker. and their graces tried and purified by him in the furnace of affliction. Comment.part the inheritance among the brethren" {z}.. He that mocks the poor for his poverty. being a wise man. A man of an ill spirit. Gejerus. "partieur. Verse 3. injuriarum. see Ephesians 3:6. through the will of the Lord. "linguae confractionum calamitatum.. and their children. his master shall leave him executor of his will. who sooth and harden them in their wickedness. Jarchi gives an ancient exposition of it thus. to false teachers. or is a lie itself. and goldsmiths have their crucibles to melt and purify their gold. Refiners of silver have their fining pots. to inch as speak lies in hypocrisy." Tigurine version. he listens to lies and calumnies.. in which they can be put and tried by creatures. 1 Peter 1:7." Piscator.. So the Gentiles. "a proselyte of righteousness is better than a wicked native. Upbraids him with his mean appearance. and takes pleasure in spreading them to the hurt of their characters. and for the brightening of their graces. p. and men of bad hearts and lives give heed to seducing spirits. that delights in doing wickedness.. by which assays of the worth and value of it may be made." &c. a culumniating.. for a lying tongue is a naughty one. of a mischievous disposition.. and much less the hearts of others.

as Jarchi observes. but glory in it. 109. their children should be careful to tread in their steps. when these children. a large number of grandchildren." Junius & Tremellius. or of his neighbour or companion. and as the Papists will rejoice when the witnesses are slain. A wicked man. and those who have been converted under their ministry wilt be their joy and "crown of rejoicing" at the last day. that cannot be condemned. and who can take them away. the everlasting Father. "We have Abraham for our father. and the rest frightened. l. on the contrary. particularly as it is our great honour and glory to have God for our father. it treats of . but of God. as the days of heaven: ministers of the Gospel are spiritual fathers.. to be encircled with a large family was a crown of glory {e}. or children's children. as the Targum. to have his table surrounded with children. who are an honour to their children. and it is his glory. saying. The Gospel is excellent speech. Talmud. {d} In Lex. if their fathers are foolish or wicked. and to live to see children's children. v. but were in their turn destroyed. as Aben Ezra observes. or a sublime grand way of speaking.. their children are ashamed of them. as well as the man that mocks at him. A numerous progeny was reckoned a great blessing to a man.. become not such. and do not care to acknowledge their descent from them. as Aben Ezra. col. sound speech. and who could have made him rich if he would. and be obedient ones. and righteous. as Buxtorf {d} observes. and which will endure for ever. they trained them up in. and at length were destroyed themselves by the Romans.. and therefore rich men should be careful how they mock the poor." Cocceius."provokes his Creator to anger. and give them to the poor man if he pleases. Ancient parents. we should be followers of him as dear children. Piscator. de Raptu Prosperp. to be his adopted sons and daughters. or at the calamity of any of his fellow creatures. who are wise. him who made the poor man." Claudian. because hereby he may be capable of doing more mischief. which is nothing but folly and wickedness. Excellent speech becometh not a fool.. both as a man and as a poor man. {c} dyal "ad calamitatem. at the calamity of the poor. Verse 6. "ob calamitatem.." Matthew 3:9 Luke 3:8: but. as the Edomites rejoiced at the calamity of the Jews. Grandfathers with the Jews are called old men. it is an honour to their children that they descend from them. 684. nor are they ashamed to own their relation to them. as Gersom observes. were walking in a good way. to have a numerous off spring. [and] he that is glad at calamities shall not be unpunished. and so Gersom. and the glory of children [are] their fathers. 1. in the good ways of religion and godliness. for. "calamitate. and especially. was still a greater glory. Children's children [are] the crown of old men." him who is his own Creator as well as the poor man's. at the calamity of another. as Mediator. and as the Jews rejoiced when the Christians were persecuted by Nero. to see his seed. Verse 7. as the Jews did in Abraham. a copiousness and fluency of expression. 1 Thessalonians 2:19. or such a style is unsuitable to the subject of his discourse. as the Vulgate Latin. for no man rejoices at his own calamity. as Jarchi: if they are wise and good men. whose riches are not of himself. and quickly after seven thousand men of name will be slain of them. Eloquence. and such parents. as olive plants. he that derides a work derides the workman. {e} "Te felix natorum turba coronat.. Christ is the Ancient of days. Revelation 11:10. or "at calamity" {c}. that they reflect no dishonour on them." Schultens..

as it is rendered in Isaiah 32:8. or of his friend. office.. he judges it to be so with others.. but the matter being made up. Jarchi applies the proverb thus. which. that is the owner of it.. and it draws him to do whatever is desired of him. which he is privy to. {f} Kabvenaki in Mercer. is very grateful and desirable in itself. and very unfit is a wicked man to take it into his mouth. attracts and dazzles the eyes. Verse 9. render it. "he covereth a transgression . it is like a diamond." {h} Nx Nba "lapsis gratiae. as Aben Ezra.. it is a precious stone in his eyes. Michaelis." Montanus. it succeeds far better than the most eloquent orations. that the person to whom it is offered cannot resist it. Money answers all things. as to do anything for it the giver of it directs him to. it carries the cause. committed against himself or against another. that to speak lies one to another very ill becomes them. and grace of Christ. where it stands opposed to a churl or covetous man: and some Jewish {f} writers think by the "fool" is meant such an one to whom a "lip of abundance" {g}. and no more speaks of it to his friend. and the offence forgiven. so charming and attracting. or profess false doctrines. "a just man": but the word more property signifies a liberal man. but abhor them in others. or to receive.. A gift [is as] a precious stone in the eyes of him that hath it. and never intended it. it succeeds according to the wish of the giver: or. so is a gift in the eyes of him that has it." Verse 8. and has such an influence upon him. Or "is a stone of grace" {h}. Or it may be rendered. as it may be rendered. makes him look lovely and amiable.. or to talk of his abundance. where the same word is used as here. nor spreads it among others: such a man shows that he loves his friend.excellent things. or to speak. in loc. much less do lying lips a prince. or upbraids him with it. Baynus. Syriac. who. talk of it. {g} rty tpv "labium abundantiae. as excellent speech does a prince. and bribes him with words. or to whatsoever persons. concerning the person. it is given and received. as it is valuable in his own eyes. for no lie is of the truth. judge or jury. and declare it. it is very disagreeable to the character of an ingenuous and liberal man to promise and not perform. as the Targum. of his volunteers. and this is the way to continue it. and the production of them.. "he shall find his business plain. or appeals to statutes. so sparkling and dazzling. either that has it in his possession to give. and returns unto him. they rather become a fool. nor encourage. who neither should speak lies himself. The Septuagint. and is so acceptable to him. He that hides the transgression of another. when he makes no good use of what he has for himself or others. and a man that thus seeks it finds it. "when a man comes before the Lord. and salvation by him. and fills the mind with pleasure. and engage persons by it to do as he would have them: or that is the receiver of it. He that covereth a transgression seeketh love. It is true of such who are made a "willing" people in the day of Christ's power. It is an ornament of grace. or learned pleadings in law. adorns the person that wears it. and thinks he can do what be pleases with it. a gift blinds the eyes. and in all that he asks of him he prospers. he forgets it. having it given him. and is desirous that love and friendship should be continued." done as he would have it. the note of similitude being wanting. on the other hand. as the Arabic version renders it. and Arabic versions. Psalm 110:3. as follows: whithersoever it turneth it prospereth: to whatsoever cause. is the giver of it.. and so. is master of it. is very unsuitable.

who will show him no mercy. or. Verse 10.. but he that repeateth a matter. is not humbled. which is evil in its own nature. brings him easily to humiliation." Vatablus. "reproof is more terror to a wise man". "rebellion. a contempt of his laws." Junius & Tremellius. and causing trouble." &c. a word will enter where a blow will not. and a casting off allegiance to him. Piscator. which are sometimes expressed by smiting. nor brought to a sense of sin.. and himself from him. Piscator. the matter of the transgression. it sinks deep into his mind. gently. for "love covereth all things. "he separates from himself the Governor of the world. and in the issue brings the evil of punishment on himself. than an hundred stripes into a fool. kindly. and all sin is rebellion against God. entering more easily into him. will frequently hit him on the teeth with it. Michaelis. "the rebellious man. a trampling upon his legislative power and authority. it descends into him. "verily" or "only seeketh evil" {m}. a single word has more effect upon him. upbraids his friend with it. that rakes it up again. and so a rebel against God is always seeking that which is sinful. and talk of it wherever he comes. and contrary to the law and will of God. but the heart of a wise and understanding man. he is never the better for all the corrections given him. A single verbal reproof. and pierces his conscience. Gejerus. it penetrates into his heart. Or rather the words may be rendered." {i} So Cocceius. {l} ham lyok twkhm "magis quam si percuties stolidum centies.. a messenger shall be sent by him to take him into custody. "descendit. will sooner correct and amend him. "let the righteous smite me. confession. or an executioner to dispatch him." Proverbs 10:12.. friendship cannot subsist long among men: he separates his best friend from himself. as Jarchi interprets it. Verse 11. his heart is not affected.. a man that is rebellious against his prince. the holy blessed God. {k} txt "descendet. and prudently given. who will not spare to perform his orders: and if a rebel against God. so Pagninus. and reformation.. not only enters the ear. he sets the best of friends at variance one with another by such a practice. therefore a cruel messenger shall be sent against him: if a rebel against his lawful sovereign. nor is he in the least reformed: or a single reproof to a wise man is of more service than a hundred reproofs to a fool. Cocceius. and Jarchi interprets it thus. Psalm 141:5. Mercerus. A reproof entereth more into a wise man. as the word {k} signifies." that is. leader. when it has been covered. or governor. when it has been passed over and forgiven. See Gill on "Pr 16:28". The word signifies a prince. and a transgression of them. "than smiting a fool a hundred times" {l}: a word to a wise man is more than a hundred blows to a fool. Or." so the Targum.who seeketh love" {i}. that is of a rebellious disposition. An evil [man] seeketh only rebellion.. it awes and terrifies him more. the thing that has given the offence. and spread the knowledge of it in all places: he separateth [very] friends. and stirring up sedition. but not the heart of a fool. the abstract for the concrete. stripes only reach the back. he is continually plotting and contriving destructive schemes. is continually seeking to do mischief in the commonwealth.. and the Tigurine version. for this pursued. an act of hostility against him." Montanus. and acknowledgment of it. For he seeks nothing but what is evil. some judgment of God shall fall upon him in a very .

which she has just whelped. As the enemies of David and Christ rewarded them. Verse 14. with some warmth. Tigurine version. which occasions contentions. or cuts a small passage in it. in Hos. The Septuagint and Arabic versions ascribe this to God as his act. Whoso rewardeth evil for good. Hist. there is none more fierce than a she bear. And yet. and shall be filled with dreadful apprehensions of divine vengeance. {n} Comment. shall be let loose upon him. that those who have written of the nature of beasts say. Jerom {n} observes. to the overflow and prejudice of the field. and she is still more so when robbed of her whelps. xiii. and ranging about in quest of them. Jarchi applies it to such fools as seduce persons to idolatry. Verse 12. and one had better meet a bear than him and his followers. The beginning of strife [is as] when one letteth out water. which exceeds that of a bear. Piscator. "he that letteth out water [is] the beginning of strife" {o}. from him and his family. especially a she bear. it is safer and more eligible of the two. so Schultens. spoken in anger. and whose damnation they are the cause of. Let a bear robbed of her whelps meet a man.. in the heat of his lusts.. that he shall seek to do the rebellious man evil... in great abundance. quarrels. This might be illustrated by the judgments of God on the nation of the Jews. "the Lord shall send. c.. rendering it. for their ingratitude to Christ. among all wild beasts. and is not so easily avoided. worse than beastly. As when a man makes a little hole in the bank of a river. or Satan. to terrify or destroy him.. whom to meet is very dangerous: such are the followers of the man of sin. A bear is a very fierce and furious creature. or turning him from them. but the former sense is best: the . that. and the pursuit of them. falls furiously upon the first she meets with. Animal. has been the beginning and occasion of great strife and contention. and it flows in. to meet an enraged bear in those circumstances. l. by which her fondness to them is increased. when she has lost her whelps.severe manner.. in the height of his folly. is full of rage. as terrible and as dangerous as it is.. and lawsuits. or death itself. the angel of death.. who also refers the former clause to him. they shall be continually visited with one disease and calamity or another. by the force of the water. so hateful and offensive is the sin of ingratitude to God. which some understand of letting out water into another man's field. his feet are as the feet of a bear. Revelation 13:2. 6. Psalm 35:12.. 18. and been at great pains to lick into shape and form. and therefore ought to be carefully avoided. inflict on him the evil of punishment for the evil of sin." &c." Montanus. or wants food. is really devilish. {m} er vqby yrm Ka "profecto rebellio quaeret malum. 8.. rather than a fool in his folly. the beast of Rome. which spares none. and who are implacably cruel to those who will not join with them in their idolatrous worship. this is base ingratitude. in a paroxysm or fit of that. the passage is widened.. and so Aben Ezra. evil shall not depart from his house. Cocceius. who have no mercy on the souls of men they deceive. to let the water into an adjoining field. So Aristot. The words in the Hebrew text lie thus. and therefore. contrary to the law and light of nature. especially in the heat of passion and anger. or his own conscience shall accuse him. or in a way of contradiction. and gives it as the sense of it. in which there is no stopping him. nor is it easily stopped: so a single word. being stripped of them. Verse 13.

where he stands arraigned. and not at all inconsistent with this passage. at balls and plays.. worldly substance. in taverns and brothel houses: or spiritual wisdom and knowledge. 622. vel aperiens aquas (est) principium contentionis. why or to what purpose a fool is favoured . 623. or is implicated with it. nor good men bad. before it be meddled with. accused. and Christ. frequent opportunities of attendance on a Gospel ministry. "it is not righteous. with some degree of indignation and admiration. or passes the sentence of it upon him. as Schultens {q} observes. Deuteronomy 25:1. but instead of seeking after that which he most wants. and Pilate in complying with them. that is. yet it is through the perfect righteousness of Christ imputed to him. reproaching. he spends it on his back and belly. in rioting and drunkenness. and the orders and instructions given by him to judges. but not where there is." therefore leave off contention. and the fact proved. That absolves and clears the guilty. put an end to the contention.. hearing the Gospel. that the word "justify" is used in a forensic sense. by means of which he might purchase useful books for the improvement of his mind. also renders it. a wicked man. and pronounces him righteous in open court. and procure himself instructors that might be very useful to him. in his commentary on the place.. such an abominable action were the Jews guilty of in desiring Barabbas. in chambering and wantonness.. since it cannot be known what will be the consequence of it: or rather. slights.. {o} Nwrm tyvar Mym rjwp "qui aperit aquam. He that justifieth the wicked. the just One. as the same learned writer in his later thoughts. And it is asked. in wrath and anger. Wherefore [is there] a price in the hand of a fool to get wisdom. in fine clothes and luxurious living. leave it off. and in which sense it is used in the article of a sinner's justification before God: by which act. by the help of Arabism. the means of which are reading the word. and conversation with Gospel ministers and other Christians. he neglects. By this "price" may be meant money. v. got so far into it. leave it off before it is well entered: or "before one mixes himself" {p} with it. and he that condemneth the just. instead of making use of these. of which a foolish man is possessed. 931. and that adjudges an innocent man to condemnation. though it is an ungodly person that is justified. agreeably to which is the saying of an Heathen {r} poet. Natural wisdom and knowledge. for pronouncing persons just in a court of judicature. Verse 15. to be condemned." {r} Sophoclis Oedipus Tyrann. when it is a clear case he is not guilty. Montanus. and despises them. riches. even they both [are] abomination to the Lord: being contrary to law and justice. brawling.Targum is. "he that sheddeth blood as water stirreth up strifes. cease from it as soon as begun." Junius & Tremellius. which represents the justification of a wicked man as an abomination: it is so where there is no righteousness. to the declared will of God. p. {p} elgth ynpl "antequam sese immisceat." Pagninus. in quarrelling. Verse 16.. in season and out of season. to be released. do not suffer it to proceed so far. {q} Animadv.. "before the teeth are made bare": or shown.. From this passage we learn. that it will be difficult to get out of it: or "before thou strivest with any openly". before you come to open words and blows. which sense the word has in the Arabic language. but. neither rashly to condemn bad men good. and making use of his substance to furnish him with it. and is quite agreeable to law and the justice of God.

. A friend loveth at all times. of publicans and sinners. the strokes of justice. they having one and the same Father. and through their adoption. he loved them before time. hearty. the ill usage of his own disciples. and before time began with them.. he does not desire it. but of men. in times of temptation. in the fulness of time. when it is in his power to do it. and acts the part of one in a time of adversity. as Jarchi: he is born into the world for this purpose. comfort and support him. and if he does not do this. and sends his Gospel and his Spirit to find them out and call them: and he continues to love them after conversion. nor is he ashamed to own the relation. to sympathize with his brother in distress. nor to make use of the price or means. in order to obtain it. for which he is born and brought into the world. also for the adversity of his people. as Gersom observes. and they are stripped of all riches and substance. or is. Verse 17. of sinful men. more especially of his church and people. he loves when he is forced to it. who is his flesh and bone. while they are in affluent circumstances. which he did. even "for adversity". and loves them constantly. a virgin. at Bethlehem. transgressors from the womb. and their persons and grace put into his hands." not of angels only. and he has all the freedom. by his receiving them. in times of desertion. and in times of affliction: he loves them indeed to the end of time. he is a partaker of the same flesh and blood with them. which he took the care of: he loved them in time. the temptations of Satan. such an one as here described. loves in times of adversity as well as in times of prosperity: there are many that are friends to persons. born of a woman. in times of backsliding. at least many of them: he loves them as soon as time begins with them. he waits to be gracious to them. as was the case of Job. as soon as born.. enemies and enmity itself unto him. were redeemed by his precious blood. prosperous and adverse. thus they were preserved in him. when he makes such an ill use of it. through the reproaches and persecutions of men. so early was he the surety of them. obliges him to it: but this may be understood of the same person who is the friend. by coming into a state of meanness and poverty. and by his coming into the world to save them: he "loves" them. see Isaiah 9:6. but when there is a change in their condition. seeing [he hath] no heart [to it]? to wisdom. though impure by their first birth. for a time of adversity. but a "brother [loves when] adversity [is] born" {s}. And he is a "brother" to his people.with such means. when the distress of his brother. in which he does not love them. nor is there a moment of time to be fixed upon. and the covenant of grace made with him. the desertion of his father. so early were they on his heart and in his book of life. A true. it being so ordered by divine Providence. The Jewish writers understand this as showing the difference between a friend and a brother: a cordial friend loves at all times. affection. when as yet they were not in being. to sympathize with them. when they fell in Adam. bear . than their friends forsake them. through his incarnation. that a man should have a friend born against the time he stands in need of him {t}. faithful friend. all is lost upon him. To no one person can all this be applied with so much truth and exactness as to our Lord Jesus Christ. and the sufferings of death. to relieve him. Job 19:14. and stand at a distance from them. as appears by his calling them to repentance. he is a "friend. and a brother is born for adversity. of a brother in him: and now he is a brother "born". and it is hard to account for it why he should have this price. he is a brother. so Aben Ezra. for and on the behalf of his people. compassion. he does not answer the end of his being born into the world. to bear and endure adversity himself. and condescension. it is a very rare thing to find a friend that is a constant lover. and to all eternity..

and incapable of payment at the proper time. if he does. Who is of a perverse spirit. {s} dlwy hrul xaw "et fater diligit quando tribulatio nascitur.. to show that the Messiah. Verse 20. but false and deceitful to God and men: such an one gets no good from either. otherwise to contend earnestly for the truth. and reputation among men. and to pass his word for him." Munster. credit. and that he is either thought to be in bad circumstances. to strive lawfully in a cause that is just. and shows himself to want understanding. to strive together for the faith of the Gospel. would by his incarnation become a brother to men.. for. as Jarchi and Aben Ezra interpret it. as the Septuagint and Arabic . sooner or later.. the gate being put for the whole. of dishonest principles. that opens the door of his lips.. 3. and spares none there. A man void of understanding striketh hands.. to injure himself and his family. and for truth and justice." Plauti Epidicus... Sc. "he that buildeth his house high". as antichrist. but the debtor. He that hath a froward heart findeth no good. and God in it. Cathol. {t} "Nihil homini amico est opportuno amicus. The ancient Jews had a notion that this Scripture has some respect to the Messiah. Verses Arcan. {u} Mechilta spud Galatin.. and exalts himself above all that is called God. bring destruction on themselves. and not mere words. He loveth transgression that loveth strife. Or this may be understood of proud ambitious persons. [and] he that exalteth his gate seeketh destruction. doing it in his presence may make him more careless and unconcerned about making good his payment or contract at the appointed time. he obtains not the favour of God. 28. that build houses more magnificent than their substance will allow of. and becomes surety for him.. when he is present. With his friend's creditor. and for contention's sake. so some in Vatablus. 3. or to run the risk of it. meditates and devises evil things. and speaks proudly. For strife is transgression. when it flows from a malignant spirit. by which means they bring themselves to ruin. they cite this passage of Scripture as a testimony of it {u}.. v. and Arabic versions. is with bad views. or "that turns himself. who set their mouths against heaven. Psalm 73:8. l. who opens his mouth in blasphemy against God and his tabernacle. or else that he is a bad man. and whose tongue walks through the earth. and deliver them out of it. see Proverbs 6:1. c.. by taking such a step. is commendable and praiseworthy. for matters of moment and importance. and find it as surely as if they sought for it. it is a plain case he wants wisdom and discretion. 43. under a notion of friendship. nor a good name. or who behaves proudly. Vulgate Latin. yet he is not obliged. Verse 19. when he knows his friend is engaged him. is not ingenuous and sincere. 3. Act. which may prove the ruin of himself and family: for though a man may and should love his friend at all times." or "is turned in his tongue" {w}. not the creditor. and in either case it is not advisable to become surety for such a man: and besides. being God. shows that his own word will not be taken.. who compare it with Micah 7:5. and will not. and such. have it in Proverbs 17:16. The Septuagint. whose tongue is changeable. [and] becometh surety in the presence of his friend. Verse 18. and thereby acts a very unwise part.them up under it. and he that hath a perverse tongue falleth into mischief. about things to no profit.

and reduces it to a skeleton: the joy or grief of the mind. As it proves in the issue.. "et verteus se in lingua sua. the trouble he is filled with on his account embitters all he has.. and offers it to him as a bribe. and puts it into his own. into a pit. as it weakens the nerves. and hinders him from taking that pleasure which otherwise he might enjoy. that he can take no satisfaction. and fits it for service and business: or. makes a serene countenance. from the use of the word in the Arabic language. "a gift out of the bosom of the wicked he will take" {z}. He that begetteth a fool [doth it] to his sorrow.. which he himself has dug for others. Cheerfulness of spirit has a great influence upon the body. {y} So R. and took delight in him while in infancy and childhood. though it was joy to him when a man child was born. but a broken spirit drieth the bones. who sometimes says one thing. and both are wicked. a spirit broken with sorrow. much affect even the outward man. This he takes in the most secret manner.versions. "a merry heart makes a good medicine" {x}. the concern for his son is uppermost in his thoughts. taking bad courses.. as Jarchi. and promised himself much happiness in him when at years of discretion. {w} wnwvlb Kphnw "qui verterit se. have a very great influence upon the body. the unjust judge.. the one gives out of his bosom. those passions of the soul. instead of that. it dries up the marrow in the bones. Of another. and emaciates the body. Piscator. which Schultens approves. but. A merry heart doth good [like] a medicine. "he that receives a gift in his own bosom commits iniquity". A wicked [man] taketh a gift out of the bosom. it is true of both the giver and the receiver. whether on spiritual or temporal accounts. makes that operate kindly. Gejerus. flowing from the blood of Christ." Montanus." some in Valablus. it is a good medicine of itself. either for its good or hurt. and the father of a fool hath no joy. Does the body good. "bonificat sive meliorem reddit medicinam. joy in the Holy Ghost. that it might not be seen by others. of a rich man. makes the countenance shine well. and in hope of the glory of God. who is bribed with it: . which is an heartbreaking to his godly and religious parents." Mercerus. as well as is contrary to all men: sooner or later he falls into mischief. for this is to be understood. "qui vertitur in lingua sua. raises the spirits. peace of conscience. in his son.. and goes into all the extravagance of sin and folly. Or. but of a wicked son. though it seems contrary to the accents. a rejoicing in Christ Jesus and his righteousness. and to a good purpose: or. invigorates the body. Verse 23. And the words are by some rendered... or have any comfort of life. makes it healthful and vigorous. and sometimes another. who takes it out from thence.. and is not consistent with himself. Verse 21. despises all parental counsels and advice.. "does a medicine good" {y}. see Ecclesiastes 9:7." Pagninus. and much contributes to the health and welfare of it. confirms. and." Junius & Tremellius. though the Arabic version renders it. Joseph Kimchi." Michaelis. {x} hhg bjyy xmv bl "cor hilare bonam facit sanationem. but sorrow. and the other takes if from thence. see James 3:6. "bene medicinam facit.. and has scarce any joy or pleasure in anything else in all his enjoyments. he departs from his education principles. not of an idiot. and especially a heart full of spiritual joy.. Verse 22.

." Piscator. nor strike others that do well. Verse 27. [nor] to strike princes for equity: to strike princes. which is wresting judgment. scourged. who say right things..." and so the Syriac version renders it. is unsettled and unfixed to anything. It is evil. he sets Christ. which are rolling about and turning. "propter recta facta. favouring a bad cause. Gejerus.. all the while he is running his Christian race: or. was bitterness. and whipped for doing well. and who should neither be stricken in the due discharge of their office. nor "that princes should strike for [that which is] right" {b} or cause men to be stricken. to direct and assist him. and which shows the levity and inconstancy of his mind. as well as them... p. Because of his folly and wickedness. judges. L. Mercerus. Proverbs 17:15. his mind is wandering after every object. the Wisdom of God. where wisdom is not to be found. good men. civil magistrates. Verse 24. A foolish son [is] a grief to his father. it is far off from him. such as princes are or ought to be. Jarchi." Mercerus. to turn the course of justice. Wisdom [is] before him that hath understanding. {a} hmkx Nybm ynp ta "in facie prudentis (lucet) sapientia. and bitterness to her that bare him. more distressing than the bitter pains with which she brought him forth into the world. so Vatablus. 140. and it is the mark he aims at. for doing the duty of their place and office. "in the face of an understanding man is wisdom" {a}." Schultens Verse 25. always before him. is far from being commendable. A man of spiritual understanding has the book of wisdom before him. to whom Jeroboam. the Scriptures of truth. but to punish the righteous also. "nor to smite the righteous. Or it may be rendered. and the ruin he is bringing himself to. and pronouncing a wrong sentence.. who ought to be encouraged and supported therein. the son of Nebat. the congregation of Israel. understands the blessed God. but the eyes of a fool [are] in the ends of the earth. which is grave and composed. it is to be seen in his countenance. by the father. and which may be discerned in his eyes. Also to punish the just [is] not good. Verse 26. Is near him. No. Or. it is before him as a rule to walk by.... {b} rvwy le Mybydn twkhl "principes percuiere ob rectitudinem.. and an abomination to the Lord. "he that knows . first one way and then another. for doing that which is just and equitable among men. and keeps his eye on the mark for the prize. He that hath knowledge spareth his words." V. is very criminal." Baynus. and the word signifies ingenuous liberal persons... Noldius. {z} xqy evr qyxm dxv "munus de sinu impii accipiet. Gataker. and hinder it from taking place. who caused Israel to sin. "righteous ones".. "in vultu intelligentis sapientia.. 665.. which are able to make a man wise to salvation. see Proverbs 10:1.to pervert the ways of judgment. a cause of bitterness of soul to his mother. and he steers his course according to them. The Targum is. Evildoers indeed should be punished. Piscator. and by her that bare him.

is rqy. "spareth his words". Mercerus. wait God's own time for hearing and helping them. a man that has so much command of himself as not to speak unadvisedly. The Septuagint." Junius & Tremellius. and suffers not himself to speak hastily and angrily.. {c} ted edwy "qui scit scientiam. and to be tenderhearted. {d} wyrma Kvwx "qui cohibet sermones suos. if he is but silent. will. and Arabic versions render it. of one that has a real and hearty desire after sound wisdom and knowledge. and keeps them shut. {e} xwr rqw "frigidus spiritu. and seeks in the use of all proper means to attain it. Piscator. to these he gives more grace. calm. and such an one is a right spirit. to have a spirit of prayer. and though he may be communicative of his knowledge to proper persons. and of such a spirit is a man of understanding in things divine and spiritual. and knows how to behave well before others. when he holdeth his peace. Not only one that is sparing of his words. who were for calling for fire from heaven on those that slighted their master. is to be of an excellent spirit. and through the provocations of others.." or marginal reading. and pleasure. as he told them. Baynus. has a fund of knowledge in him. and to be of a patient spirit is to be of an excellent spirit: such bear afflictions and reproaches quietly. Syriac. Through desire a man having separated himself. Gejerus. Piscator. here is a various reading. knew not what spirits they were of. and does not betray his folly by his words. is counted wise. a spirit of faith and love. and of a sympathizing and forgiving spirit. and. [and] a man of understanding is of an excellent spirit. Mercerus. such as was that of the apostles. through the heat of his own passions.. he "restrains his words" {d}." Pagninus.. Verse 28. the "Cetib" is rqw. "patient" or "longsuffering".. and. yet in this he acts the wise part. is generally a man of few words. his own desire. Vatablus. he puts a bridle on them. Montanus. "of a cool spirit" {e}. Even a fool. The Targum is.knowledge" {c}. yet never speaks of it in a boasting and ostentatious way: or. and of a sound mind. "a separated man seeketh desire" {g}. lest he should say anything rashly and hastily. "of an excellent" or "precious spirit" {f}.. and at proper times. and such show themselves to be wise and understanding men. the Lord has a great regard to such who are of an humble and contrite spirit: with these he dwells. when he is provoked to it. one that is very knowing. "humble in spirit. sedate. {f} xwr rqy "pretiosus spiritu. but a cool spirit is one that is not soon angry. in opposition to a warm fiery spirit. and have the fruits of his Spirit. and in a reproachful manner.. these are like to Christ. and in . will pass for a man that understands himself. Or. [and] he that shutteth his lips [is esteemed] a man of understanding. Cocceius. but even a feel. seeketh. whatever fool he may be in other respects. will be reckoned a wise man by those that do not know him. that he holds his peace and says nothing.. and is really a man of knowledge and understanding." Pagninus. and are very useful and ornamental." and a meek and quiet spirit is in the sight of God of great price. and not easily provoked to wrath: the "Keri." Junius & Tremellius. he thinks much and says little. CHAPTER 18 Proverbs 18 Verse 1. and live in the comfortable expectation of heaven and happiness. This is either to be understood in a good sense.

and who. like the Jews. Jarchi interprets this clause thus.. nor does he delight in reading the Scriptures. would gladly learn something of every art and science worthy of regard. as Jarchi interprets it. and also of the Gnostics among the Christians. as Aben Ezra: or of a vain man that affects singularity. and from his friends. "among wise men his reproach shall be made manifest. in a wrangling and contentious manner. nor in the conversation of men of learning and sense: or in spiritual understanding. that objects to everything solid and substantial. Saadiah Gaon better interprets it of an apostate from religion.. but that his heart may discover itself. {h} elgty hyvwt lkb "immiscet se omni negotio. meditation. and retires to his study. and will pass his judgment on things he has nothing to do with. having an high opinion of their own Wisdom and sanctify. This is true of the Pharisees among the Jews. or goes abroad in search of it." Vatablus. separates himself. from the use of the Arabic word. Or if this is to be understood of a vain glorious person. and are contrary to all men". in the understanding of spiritual things. pursuing his evil imagination and the lust of his heart. "omnibus quae sunt immiscet se." Munster. he delights in discovering that. and the folly that is in it: such men only desire to have some knowledge and understanding. as Aben Ezra interprets it. and covets the company and conversation of men of wisdom and knowledge. the sense is. as it may be rendered." and observes. and he makes use of all means of improving himself therein. he delights not in books. and prayer. that he may attain to more. who had their name from separating themselves from all others. but is weary of such exercises. renders it. not only from God. but the folly that is in it. "sed sane ut enudet cor suum.. and walks and converses with them. "but in the discovery of his heart" {k}. .order to which he separates himself from the world and the business of it. that their Rabbins explain it of Lot separating from Abraham. or he monopolizes all knowledge to himself. and in the improvement of his mind in it. A fool hath no delight in understanding. "sed in detectione cordis sui. these are foolishness to a natural man.. but from all men. who "please not God. following the desires of his heart: but R. In natural understanding. {i} "Et in omne solidum dentes destringei. being vainly puffed up with their fleshly mind." Junius & Tremellius. and to be capable of talking of things as if they understood them. and gives up himself to reading. Or. nor in hearing the word. and separated themselves from the Christian assemblies. that they may be thought to be wise. and attendance on it in the house of God. every branch of useful knowledge. "he intermeddles" or "mingles himself with all business" {h}. so such a man sets himself to despise and contradict the sentiments and opinions of others. [and] intermeddleth with all wisdom. through a desire of gratifying that lust. {g} So the Targum." Schultens. and will not allow any other to have any share with him. not the wisdom. {k} wbl twlgthb Ma yk "sed in patefacere cor ejus. when it is only to the exposing of themselves and their ignorance. he thrusts himself into affairs that do not concern him. not having the Spirit. as the Septuagint and Arabic versions. some persons attain to no more learning and knowledge than just to be capable to show that they are fools. the man who is desirous of being truly wise and knowing grasps at all wisdom. to make a show of it. and were sensual." Schultens. and "shows his teeth" {i} at it. and to set up his own in opposition to them. as Schultens. he intermingles himself with men of wisdom. who boasted of their knowledge." Piscator. Verse 2.

"there comes contempt". and with ignominy reproach: or. as Aben Ezra... as the Vulgate Latin. it is contrary to law and justice. purifying. he says things which occasion disputes. and cannot be easily fathomed: such are the deep mysteries of grace. That is. A fool's lips enter into contention. but to contemn it. and they wilt rise to everlasting shame and contempt.. but he must be meddling. and reproach. When he comes into the world. [and] the wellspring of wisdom [as] a flowing brook. as Jarchi. . and is repugnant to the will of God. themselves. and with which the Septuagint. he commences a scoffer at. yet justice ought to be done without any respect to persons.." Schultens.. when he has nothing to do with it. for he comes not to hear the word. and to whom the judge is under no private and personal obligation. and a vile person is contemned in the eyes of a good man: such bring shame and disgrace upon themselves and families while they live. or a relation. that wicked men. which is an argument of his folly. they are laid in the grave with dishonour. a well of living water.Verse 3. and offensive to him. or to the height of his wickedness. between others. in order to receive any profit by it.. but this is true of all: rather.. springing up unto everlasting life. sooner or later. Gejerus. being born in sin. none of these things should have any influence upon him to overthrow the righteous in judgment: though he may be a poor man and a stranger. and refreshing. and make himself a party in the contention. and Arabic versions agree. to "deep waters. Leviticus 19:15. The words of a great and mighty man. come into contempt. for the sake of religion.. he is liable to contempt. ignominy... communicating itself liberally unto others." Junis & Tremeilius.. when he cometh into the depth of sin. For a judge to have respect to a wicked man in a cause before him. for their edification. are like to "waters. of an excellent and valuable man. Verse 4. and. as soon as he is born. [then] cometh also contempt. as Aben Ezra. venit opprobriunu. of which a good man makes no boast. it may be said. "with the ignominious man reproach" {l}: he that despises all that is good. When the wicked cometh. Syriac. "cum probroso opprobrium. and ministering grace to the hearers. and treats divine things in a ludicrous way. spoken among them that are perfect. Mercerus. {l} hprx Nwlq Me "viro ignominioso.. but very bad.. it is doing injury to men." pure.. and condemner of all that is good: when he comes into the house of God. Verse 6. and speak evil of them falsely." Pagninus. to do otherwise is not only not good. Verse 5. and the ministers of it. Or the meaning of the whole is. The words of a man's mouth [are as] deep waters. when they die. [It is] not good to accept the person of the wicked.. because he is a rich man. will not spare to reproach the best of men. "cum ignominioso probrum." which make no noise. or he has received some kindness from him. out of the abundance of his heart. and to favour him. his mouth speaks. they that despise the Lord are lightly esteemed by him. and his heart is full of and his mouth utters. and from thence it flows freely and constantly. the wisdom of God in a mystery. The doctrines which such a man has imbibed.. there is a spring of spiritual wisdom and knowledge in him. or of a wise man. but humbly declares. an infamy rests upon their memories. so Vatablus. very sinful and criminal.

a slothful servant and a . they wound the person to whom it is told. they wound the credit and reputation of the person of whom the tale is told. from words he goes to blows. and. he says things which should not be said. qui saepenumero contusi sunt. Verse 9. Verse 8. Jarchi seems to understand it of chastisement. as they lead him to contention and strife. as well as for his idle and wicked words he will be condemned hereafter. they pretend to be affected with the case they tell. or his loquacity." Cocceius. {o} "Tanquam avide deglutita crustula. they are spoken secretly. gets many a blow to himself. in which he delights. both to the injury of the persons that receive them. when at the same time they rejoice at them: or. Gejerus. Remiss in it. The Septuagint version is.. and his mouth calleth for strokes: as he stirs up and encourages contention. He also that is slothful in his work.. in a backbiting way: or. and destroy his love and affection to his friend. and quarrels.. hurt. and glide easily into the minds of others: rather. go down pleasantly. by the ill and provoking language of his mouth. the issue of that is confusion and every evil work. "the lips of a fool lead him to evils": for. and does not care to make use of them.. and wound secretly." Montanus. as Aben Ezra interprets it. though they take different courses." Schmidt. they are smoother than oil. "brother to a master that wastes" {p}. and by which he is entangled yet more and more. he is caught by his own words and condemned by them. The words of a talebearer [are] as wounds. so he proceeds to blows. lawsuits are commenced against him. {m} Mymhltmk "similia sunt verbis eorum. "are greedily swallowed down" {o}. which are mortal. as Kimchi. but the contrary. Matthew 12:35.. though pleasing at first. but neglects his business: is brother to him that is a great waster: a prodigal man. from speaking in his own defence. and in the issue they wound. Or. {n} "Ut lenientia. for his contentions. and ruin the talebearer himself. where they have a place and remain. and evil speaking. is a snare unto him to say things which neither become him. "ut contusorum. they are as wounds in the inner parts. and issue in the same manner. "velut blanda. hangs down his hands. and provoke to wrath and anger. as the word in the Arabic language signifies." Vatablus.. and excites others to them." Junius & Tremellius. A fool's mouth [is] his destruction. James 3:6. from the hand of God.. Mercerus. and so renders it.. for. both bring to poverty and want. nor are for his advantage. as Schultens has shown.raise contentions among men. there is a world of iniquity in the mouth and tongue of a wicked man. they are "smooth" or flattering {n}.. and sink deep into the hearts of those to whom they are told. The cause of it. see Proverbs 12:13. which bring destruction upon himself and others. they are both sinful. and." Schultens. Hence it follows: and they go down into the innermost parts of the belly. "quasi blandientia. see Proverbs 26:3.. and to be grieved for the failings and infirmities of those they are secretly exposing. Verse 7. they are "as of those that are wounded" {m}. so Ben Melech.. Or rather they are wounds. they are "secret" hidden ones.. who spends his substance in riotous living: the sluggard and the prodigal are brethren in iniquity. which bring ruin upon himself and his family now. and of them of whom they are told. and his lips [are] the snare of his soul. Or.

Jarchi interprets it. in whom he proclaims his name. he is strong and mighty. a sense of danger or of want in themselves." whose name is Apollyon. and who is called Jesus. our righteousness. readiness. because he saves his people from their sins. The name of the Lord [is] a strong tower. as man. is brother to him that is a waster and persecutor of it. A man that is slothful in spiritual things. as such. it supposes a principle of spiritual life. as the strong tower and city of refuge. so deeply founded. who indeed are sinners. though a professor of religion. and who has the same nature and perfections with him. What a strong tower is to them that are within it. "domino dissipanti. and all its dreadful consequences. and these are righteous through the righteousness of Christ imputed to them. and the munition of rocks. and so is their security from eternal destruction.. his justice protects them from all injuries and insults. against an enemy without. and such an one that thus runs is safe. so fortified. and has a place in the house of God. and plant a mine to blow it up.. as the Lord their righteousness. the most mighty.wasteful master are near akin. a strong tower. as a shield. and of the reception by him which may be expected. from sin. whose name is in him. they are kept by his power. he is the man of God's right hand. {q}. they run from Christ and his righteousness. and is owing to the drawings of efficacious grace." Mercerus. the mighty God. and may be well interpreted of the Messiah. from the avenging justice of God. or by the most violent attack of the whole posse of men and devils. and godly: and it is the continual business or employment of their faith to betake themselves to Christ upon all occasions. is a brother to Satan.. receives them. they are continually coming to him. God with us. and which are the strength and security of his people. and come into the same class and circumstances. his favour encompasses them about. from the curse and condemnation of the law. Verse 10. Psalm 20:1. the righteous runneth into it. inexpugnable. and exercising faith upon him. the waster and destroyer. their fortified place. no cannon balls can break through it. By "the name of the Lord" may be meant. which are his salvation. the gates of hell cannot prevail against it. and might of Christ to his people. this supposes knowledge of him. his goodness. made strong for himself and us. that is the power. it is expressive of haste. his truth and faithfulness preserve them. are their defence. and his unchangeableness is a reason why they are not consumed: or else the Lord himself. as it is by the ancient Jew. his name is Jehovah. in and by whom God is manifested unto men as the God of grace. see Matthew 12:30. though a disciple of a wise man. from Satan. as a divine Person. "he that separateth from the law. he is the strong hold.. it is not to be taken by storm. he has all power in heaven and earth: in him is everlasting strength for his people. either the attributes and perfections of God. . and live soberly. whither prisoners of hope are directed to turn to. by which he is made known. as in a garrison. and mercy. as Mediator. no enemy can work under it. {p} tyxvm lebl "domino devaststionis. Immanuel. he is their Betzer. and Prince of peace. no scaling ladders can reach it. as sinners go to Christ. strength. righteously. or city of refuge. not to him and that. not self-righteous persons. and all spiritual enemies. and of safety and fulness in Christ. his name is put for himself. so highly built. of the way unto him. grace. and cheerfulness. he is their place of defence. which is meant by "running" to him. and some degree of spiritual strength. know and acknowledge themselves to be such. to flee unto on all occasions. but such who see their own righteousness will not justify them." Gejerus. a God gracious and merciful. who. or demolish any of its walls and bulwarks. the Almighty.

as it is a strong one.. they are apt to look above their poor neighbours." or "imagery" {t}. Schultens. nor from personal diseases of body. Verse 13. L. or heaven itself. these riches cannot secure themselves. Pagninus. {t} wtykvmb "in imaginatione ejus. xviii. He that answereth a matter before he heareth [it]." V. 18. his iron barred chests to be so mary bulwarks. Gejerus. 50. In which he dwells. higher than men." which no trouble is able to leap over. and the second death: or is "set aloft" {r}. and bring shame ." {u} rbv ynpl "ante confractionem. nor from death. or when they are ready to break... "erit in loco alto et tuto. for this tower. Piscator. as Jarchi. 1. his bags standing thick together to be so many houses standing close one to the other. where the same word is used. Gejerus. lasting. his great ordinance. and in the midst of these he thinketh himself environed with a "great wall. as he imagines. {r} bgvnw "et exaltabitur. humbled by one distressing providence or another. in which he places his trust and confidence. sooner or later. and cannot wait to hear it out. but. nor from wrath to come. for this wall shall not stand. {q} Midrash Tillim in Psal. it is a high one. referring to Ezekiel 8:12. or angels." Schultens. and therefore are to be charged and cautioned against it. and thoroughly understanding.. and with contempt upon them. and as a high wall in his own conceit: which not only separates and distinguishes him from others. their haughty spirits are. Lifted up with his riches. is on high. and thinks himself safe from every enemy and from all trouble: as one {s} observes. "et exaltatur. and durable: but all this is only "in his own conceit. Verse 11." Michaelis. Piscator. and much less the owner of them. a rock of refuge.. the telling of his money he imagines to be the walking of people up and down the streets.. what is said: it [is] folly and shame unto him. Cocceius. and will be abiding. Cocceius. "in celsoque aget. Schultens." Junius & Tremellius." Mercerus. hell. Rich men are apt to be highminded. will secure him from all dangers. {s} Jermin its loc. his answer must be a foolish one. See Gill on "Pr 15:33. Before destruction the heart of man is haughty. Montanus. they take wing and fly away. Montanus." Vatablus. or is rash and precipitate. which no misery is able to break through. and very often this haughtiness of theirs is a presage of their ruin and destruction: and those haughty airs are put on from the pride of their hearts. as the word {u} signifies. "the abundance of a rich man's wealth he conceives to be as it were the abundance of people in a "city". see Proverbs 16:18... over which he presides. but breaks in upon the speaker before he has finished what he has to say.from wrath to come. Who is impatient. and before honour [is] humility." Pagninus. "in imagine sua." As it follows. The rich man's wealth [is] his strong city. when a "breach" is near. not from public calamities.... his bonds and bills to be his cannons and demicannons. however.. and returns an answer at once. and such who are in it are out of the reach of all danger and every enemy. Verse 12. fol. without weighing and considering. in the chambers of his imagery.

and a God also. endure reproach..and confusion upon him.. "a broken spirit" {x}. which smitings are very grievous. And such a spirit "who can bear?" not without the sight of a wounded Saviour. a man of spirit. "perculsum. Or. or without some hope of salvation by him. though they tend to bring to repentance. but a wounded spirit who can bear? or a "smitten" {w} one. and not he on them. his heart is whole.. has himself been broken for them. and happy it is for them that they fall on him and are broken. and his Gospel. More knowledge. Mercerus. Gejerus. and with an excess of sorrow for it. as in Proverbs 17:22. "a wounded spirit". and are in love. will take patiently the loss Of friends and of substance. Cocceius.. and a looking for of fiery indignation. and his soul saved in Chris. Gejerus. the love of God shed abroad in his heart. and so sin committed against him requires an infinite satisfaction. smitten by the Lord." Pagninus. of power. he bears up under and goes through all afflictions with ease and pleasure. yea. Piscator. as committed against the omniscient and omnipotent Being. The heart of the prudent getteth knowledge. who is a spiritual man. for righteousness's sake. a righteous one." James 1:9. and working for his good. nor what way to take. by the law of God. which he uses as a hammer to break rocky hearts in pieces. "fractum. and which for the present is intolerable: though the Lord has a regard to such.. Verse 15. and unless the good Samaritan pours in oil and wine into the wounds. {w} hakn "percussum. and with the terrors of the law. cheerfully. and binds them up. with a view of sin. that has a spirit of fortitude. and is in the utmost confusion. Baynus. Michaelis." Vatablus. immortal." Montanus. awakening the conscience. a pure and holy God. broken with a sense of sin. and the Father of their mercies." and "slow to speak. or without a view of atonement by his sacrifice." Junius & Tremellius. will support under bodily infirmities. The spirit of a mighty man. which a creature cannot give. has no hope of life and salvation. and a considerable share. whose nature is infinite. and the loss of a good name. by the Spirit of God. and has the Spirit of God in him. and sound mind. and refuses to be comforted. that has a spirit of might upon him. an immaterial. Such a man will bear up under many trials and exercises of life.. or without the discoveries and applications of pardoning grace. and especially of Christian fortitude. which produces wrath. Verse 14. and suffer persecution for the sake of Christ. with an undaunted and unbroken spirit: the peace of conscience he feels within. Or. that is renewed in the spirit of his mind. his mind is easy. righteousness. his sins pardoned. are in order to healing. all his measures and purposes are broken. who is the author of their beings. is nigh unto them. a man of a Christian spirit. and the aggravated circumstances that attend it. or without a sense of peace and reconciliation made by the blood of Christ. all which makes sin against him the more cutting and wounding: likewise they are wounded with a view of the evil nature of sin. and having in view the glories of another world.. by the word of the Lord. credit. seeing all his afflictions flowing from love. even of natural fortitude. his wounds being healed. and reputation. and convicting it of sin. men should be "swift to hear. The spirit of a man will sustain his infirmity. when a man becomes lifeless and hopeless. that are set in array against them. the presence of God with him. as Jarchi. {x} "Contritum. as well as a rational soul. and never dying substance.. has sent his son to bind up their broken hearts. for he must have some." whether in . and judgment. he is disconsolate. he knows not what to do. his conscience is clear. as well as his heart. to be denominated "prudent.

" the judge. he listens to what others say. so some interpret it. and who are not easily dissuaded from it: or it may intend .. that the first that opens a cause is very apt to prejudice the judge and court in his favour. When a case cannot be determined among parties at variance in a private way. and shows the falsehood of his relation. He that is first in his own cause [seemeth] just. his neighbour comes into the house. drop in private conversation.. Verse 18. and parteth between the mighty. and make use of all means to attain it. and bringeth him before great men. "searcheth". as in the cases of Jacob and Abigail. for his antagonist comes and traverses the point. A man's gift maketh room for him. and makes each party easy. they submit to it. civil. and reports it in another manner. they find an increase of it.things natural.. where he is telling his tale. been pressed. as they desire to know more of Christ and of divine things. and the ear of the wise seeketh knowledge. and so in a capacity of contending with each other. {y} byxry. but his neighbour cometh... and especially such that are wiser and more knowing than himself: so such as are wise to salvation.. nor in a court of judicature.. shows the weakness of his cause. before Paul made his defence. by which they do come at a large share of it.. and makes void all his allegations. and searcheth him. It is generally understood of judicial affairs. or it makes way for him to a judge. The lot causeth contentions to cease. Mephibosheth's servant. the vanity of his pretences. men of great power and authority. and make use of all means for that purpose.. among the rest. but it is not proper to be hasty in forming a judgment till the other side is heard. but to introduce a person to another. in private conversation. Genesis 32:20. and they are ready to thing at first hearing that he is in the right. and gains him respect among men. or. or out of straits and difficulties with which he. in lawsuits before a judge and a court of judicature. and render him acceptable. which may be attended with bad consequences. or spiritual: and such will be heartily desirous of more. hearken to what Christians. inquires more narrowly into the case. Verse 16. unravels the whole affair. Verse 17... and pass a right judgment and sentence. being a fee to their servants. and of prolonging the contention. and as Ziba. As perhaps Tertullus did. brings him out of prison.. and sets the cause in quite another light. a wise man seeks to get it by hearing. and then "he. or it enlarges his acquaintance. and refutes his arguments. It is not necessary to understand it of a gift by way of bribe. or he comes out into the worm by public writing. Or "enlarges him" {y}. and for a favourable hearing of his cause. and thus seeking it. and acquiesce in it. it opens a way for him into the presence and company of great men. and exposes the errors of a man engaged in a wrong cause. the kings and princes of the earth. and particularly they constantly attend to the ministry of the word. the lot is cast. and that puts an end to all strife. of a superior class to themselves. and in theological controversies. has. in order to find out truth. and of great riches and affluence. before his master detected him: this often appears true in telling a tale. or with it he procures a place to wait on them. or he comes into a court of judicature. and appease anger.

Verse 21. especially those among brethren. Of witnesses. if a man would keep conscience easy. or by their prudent speech and prevalent intercession... they will stand it out against one another as long as a strong city. by their well or ill speaking. and others. judgment at the last day will proceed according to a man's words.such who most vehemently disagree. who are obstinate and stubborn. but.. of teachers. expressed in different words. and their love being turned into hatred. yea. so the Septuagint. .. he ought to take care what he says.. Death and life [are] in the power of the tongue. though it leaves out the word good in the last clause. of seed in the earth. according to the doctrine they preach. as it were. that delight to be talkative. and there is no parting them by arguments or legal decisions. Some. and savoury. shall enjoy the advantages or disadvantages arising from it. such is his harvest he is afterwards a partaker of. the same thing as before. and to rest satisfied with the distributions the lot makes to them. who. by their silence. shall accordingly be recompensed.. these the lot parts.. Jacob and Esau. With his own words and discourses. if otherwise. and their differences composed. show. they are satisfying to himself. secure or obtain life for themselves and others. wherefore such should take care that they fall not out by the way: this is true of brethren in a natural sense. as Paul and Barnabas. bring death or life to themselves and others. and the increase of it. and they that love it shall eat the fruit thereof. and therefore. to his own mind and conscience. [Whoso] findeth a wife. and [their] contentions [are] like the bars of a castle: which cannot be easily broken or cut asunder: so contentions." Matthew 12:37. when they are prudent. assigned them by lot. Verse 19. their resentments against each other are keener than against another person that has offended them. of all men. when they are with grace. see Proverbs 12:14. as the cases of Abel and Cain. and no other can be meant. that love to use the tongue. or of a great deal of evil. Verse 20. and causes them to cease from their quarrels and contentions. A brother offended [is harder to be won] than a strong city. and enjoys the fruits of his labour. and it is more difficult to compose differences between brethren than between enemies. according to the testimony they bear. and to his family.. or a barred castle.. and some. by the too free use of them. whether in a good or in a bad way. pious. according to the sentence they pass. Joseph and his brethren. supply it. as the children of Israel were with their portion of the land of Canaan. A man's belly shall be satisfied with the fruit of his mouth. even a good natured one. persons of great spirits. Luther and Calvin. and others.... Vulgate Latin. A good one. by their tongues. the tongue is the instrument either of a great deal of good. [and] with the increase of his lips shall he be filled... than one brother offended can be reconciled to another. and Arabic versions. "By thy words thou shalt be justified. as a man sows he reaps. alluding to the sowing. which is. are the cause of death to themselves and others.. Verse 22.. according to what a man sows with his lips. and so the Targum. and be useful to others. to all within his house. it is more bitter. of judges. it will not be profitable nor satisfying to either. or falsehood they utter. and minister it. his belly. and of brethren in a spiritual sense. Amnon and Absalom. against an enemy. A fortified city may sooner be taken by an enemy. Syriac. are with great difficulty made to cease. and will by no means yield. and by thy words thou shalt be condemned.

a man cannot obtain anything better than a good wife. but modestly tells his case. and may encourage himself to hope for others of him {z} Hesiod says. he does not demand anything. which he has shown by discovering to him his woeful estate by nature. by sending his son to save him. and obtaineth favour of the Lord. but is not in the Hebrew text. by helping him under all his infirmities. but the rich answereth roughly.. {z} Opera & Dies. and particularly the poor. {a} Mynwnxt "supplicationes. by working all his works in him. The Holy Spirit is his friend. Syriac. and finds one. as is plain by their well pleasedness with the incarnation of Christ for men. and a joint heir with Christ. and under his direction and guidance in seeking. a proper helpmeet. Piscator. Verse 24. as between David and Jonathan. and submits it. as appears by his early love to him. and in fear of none. but of grace.wise. it is from the Lord. by revealing divine things to him. and by their assistance. as in Proverbs 31:10. as is evident from his visiting him at his incarnation. by the communication of his secrets to him. but what commonly is. according to the literal sense." Junius & Tremellius. a virtuous woman.. but he that retains a whore is foolish and ungodly. and industrious. by acting the part of a Comforter to him. especially their inferiors. Jarchi interprets it of the law in a mystic sense. Friendship ought to be mutual and reciprocal.. he has many friends: God is his friend. especially one that has the grace of God. by disclosing his secrets. or otherwise he is guilty of great ingratitude. they answer others with hard and rough words. and as an evidence of his favour to him. and which they express at their conversion. Michaelis. and especially by suffering and dying in his room and stead. and provisions of grace for him. "he that casts out a good wife casts out good things.. nor prescribe what shall be done for him." which is followed by the Vulgate Latin. and the way of salvation by Christ. careful. not only in a way of providence. their protection of them.. 323. the Septuagint version adds. A man [that hath] friends must show himself friendly. showing his covenant to him. as it may be rendered. whoso seeks after such an one. but. which he should seek after among his friends. of a good wife. l.. a man that receives friendship ought to return it. This is not what ought to be. and Arabic versions. This may be spiritually applied. that he finds a good wife. and by making him meet for eternal glory and happiness: angels are his friends. by his hearty counsel and faithful reproofs. This verse and Proverbs 18:24 are not in the Arabic version. Or "supplications" {a}. Christ is his friend. both upon a civil and spiritual account. a believer is "a man of friends" {b}. by making intercession for him according to the will of God. he is an humble supplicant to others for favours he asks in a submissive and lowly manner. and in a spiritual way.. lifted up with their riches. by his undertaking and doing for him what he has. 2. Verse 23. . prudent. and by making him his heir. so such who are poor in spirit are humble supplicants at the throne of grace. and by prayer to God: findeth a good [thing]. that will be good for him. The poor useth entreaties. being proud and haughty. his choice of him.. Mercerus. and which he ought to esteem as a favour from the Lord. by their ministering to them. v. by visiting him.

by sympathizing with them in all conditions. and is opposed to a poor man." Montanus. but by making use of him. by a carefulness not to offend. and his words and actions declare he wants it. inward and outward. by speaking well of them. Saadiah Gaon. sincere. and concerning oppression speaks loftily. CHAPTER 19 Proverbs 19 Verse 1. Sc. and in the profession of his name. by taking notice of his friends. Arcadica sive. and upright in heart and life: and such an one is better than [he that] is perverse in his lips. trusts in his riches. and saints are friends to one another: and such should show themselves friendly to God. but please him. that is. "vir sodalium. and by acknowledging him as the author of all their grace: also to angels. as Jonathan and David. "that is perverse in his lips." or "whose ways are perverse. Acharn.. and giving up themselves to his influence and direction. and of his faithfulness and unchangeableness as such. Better [is] the poor that walketh in his integrity. that is. were. and studies to exercise a conscience void of offence to both.. and is a fool.. honest. by trusting in him. and lets his tongue run both against God in heaven and man on earth. by hearty counsel. In the uprightness of his heart before God and men. A man may be a poor man with respect to worldly things. and to the saints. and a matt may be rich. their covenant God and Father. and the first Christians. that acts the deceitful part both by words and actions towards those that are about him. v. This ." as the Syriac version. and inoffensive in his conversation with men. and may be expressive of the close union between him and his people. 506. by frequently visiting him at the throne of grace. so R. and by a close and faithful adherence to his cause and interest: to Jesus Christ their Redeemer. and yet a fool: or is confident {d}. and showing them respect. than a rich man. and despising him. and walks in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless. and so are of one heart and soul. as the Syriac and Vulgate Latin versions supply it. by cleaving to him. and yet wise. by not grieving. Deuteronomy 13:6. who is to a man as his own soul. may be a truly gracious good man. who is sincere in the worship of God. and is upright. Mercerus. and who uses those beneath him very roughly. and as the antithesis requires. by which he shows he is a fool: for his riches do not give him wisdom. his ministers and poor saints. men may be poor. Baynus. owning their good offices. Michaelis. Gejerus. this is true of Christ. see Proverbs 17:17. The Heathens had a deity which presided over friendship." Cocceius. and renouncing the friendship of his enemies: and likewise to the Holy Spirit. who is a friend to men himself. 2. l. by a ready obedience to his commands. harmless. and loves friendship among them. {c} Aristoph. and of his close adherence to their cause and interest. and yet be rich towards God.. p. quenching. faithful reproofs and admonitions. 3. Act. by Christian conversation with them. which they called Jupiter Philios {c}: the character best agrees with the true God. and continues herein. and there is a friend [that] sticketh closer than a brother.and the good offices they do them both in life and at death. 8. by owning and using him as their friend. {b} Myer vya "vir amicorum. Vatablus. Pausan. and by helping them in every distress. and of his constancy and continuance as a friend at all times. and reckoning it an honour that they are come and joined to such a company. not being honest and plain hearted as the poor man is. Schultens. 2.

{e} So Vatablus. or however takes no more care of it than if he had none. who knows all hearts and actions." Schultens. for want of due consideration and care. {g} Ovid. very bad. few. multos numerabis amicos". Verse 3. Or "adds" {f}. A false witness shall not be unpunished. especially without the knowledge of God and Christ. and the only way of attaining the salvation of it. The foolishness of man perverteth his way. yet God. Or. or makes things go cross with him. and to this agrees what the wise man says.. Verse 5. col.. "addit. without the law.. Verse 2. laying all the blame on him. or "without care of it." Junius & Tremellius. {h} wherm "ab amico sua. will not suffer him to go with impunity. but everything goes against him. see Ezekiel 18:25. "to be without the knowledge of the soul is not good" {e}. [that] the soul [be] without knowledge. "a sodali sua. Also.. and his heart fretteth against the Lord. to be without this is not good. as Aben Ezra. Verse 4. he is separated from his affection. and fails in the performance of it.. 384.. Montanus. "donec eris felix. so that the ways he takes do not prosper. Wealth maketh many friends.." Pagninus. like the beasts that perish. Piscator. and ascribing his ill success. Piscator. nor suffer him to come into his house or company. "he that knoweth not his soul. it increases the number of them: so the poet {g}. Without knowledge of things natural and civil. and.. {d} lyok "confidens divitiis. Michaelis. and Syriac versions. and divine and spiritual things. The sinfulness of his heart and nature. and he is brought into straits and difficulties. yea. but. he shall be in the world to come.. and the danger it is in." Schultcns.. if not punished in this world. its state and condition. he will not visit him as he did in his prosperity. who knows not the worth and value of it. and therefore frets and murmurs at him." Cocceii Lexic. the folly which is bound up in it causes him to go astray out of the way in which he should go. He that bears false witness against his neighbour in an open court of judicature. to commit robbery. instead of charging his own ways with folly. which works against him.verse and Proverbs 19:2 are not in the Septuagint and Arabic versions. and he that hasteth with [his] feet sinneth. friendship. for men without such knowledge and understanding are.. or to shed blood. nor his schemes succeed. {i} Theognis. and for lack of it do. Proverbs 14:20. and presence: so another poet {i}. who engages in anything ignorantly and rashly. but the poor is separated from his neighbour. [it is] not good. Jarchi interprets it. so the Targum.." whose feet run to evil. it is not good for him.. Junius & Tremeliius. or come near him. not to his own sin and folly. The Targum is. "he that is swift with his feet to evil is a sinner. for bearing . though be may not be detected by men." that does not know he has a soul. thou wilt have many friends. he misses the mark. or "friend" {h}. Vulgate Latin... charges the ways of God with inequality. but to divine Providence. see Proverbs 1:16. Baynus. and so escape the punishment due to such offenders by the laws of God and men.." {f} Pyoy. "if thou art rich. if poor.

"not. and fetches arguments from them. he pursueth [them with] words. not profitable to him. "they [are] not" {m}. of which nothing comes. who is both able and willing to communicate to the necessities of others: such a man not only has the poor his friends. Aben Ezra and Gersom interpret the many of great and honourable men." and read wl. or the words of others. how much more do his friends go far from him? or "his friend. "there are many that minister before a prince. This is one of the fifteen places observed by the Masoretes. "et non .. for nothing is more scandalous than lying. The Targum is.. and buoys himself up with them that such an one and such an one has promised to be his friend. and are humble petitioners to them. or perjury. {l} wherm "amicus ejus. their promises. and [he that] speaketh lies shall not escape. he presses them with earnest entreaties to relieve him. who are courtiers to kings and princes. and every man [is] a friend to him that giveth gifts. Many will entreat the favour of the prince. or "to a man of gift" {k}: who has it in his power to give. Vatablus. they neglect him. and pursues him with words of accusation. as Gersom. and. who wait upon them. Revelation 21:8. who ascended on high. such have many to wait upon them. and read. {m} hmh al "non sunt ii. "ominis amicus. Some understand this. who is both a rich man and a liberal man. or "his neighbour" {l}: for if his brethren.. "to him": both may be retained. and do not choose to own him. his petitions. is a grievous offence to God. and gives them to men. he urges their own words and promises. charging it on him as hit own fault that he is poor.e. and has a heart to it. who are his own flesh and blood. and seek for places under them. Verse 7." Cocceius. [yet] they are wanting [to him]." he has many servants. or were in friendship with him while in prosperity. show so much disrespect unto him. "quisque amicorum ejus. and uses them as far as they will go.. {k} Ntm vyal "viro doni. i. and will make application to him on account of the poor. or. either his own words. ask favours of them." Michaelis. as kings and princes generally are. in which it is written al. see Job 19:13. and some of them nobles. but of the friend that separates from the poor man. will court his friendship and acquaintance. but all signifies nothing. Verse 6. his own words and petitions are to no purpose." Vatablus." every one of his friends. nor the wrath of God. Michaelis. and received gifts for men.false witness. Luke 22:25. but others will speak well of him.. and their words and promises are all smoke and vapour. for the sake of doing good to them. All the brethren of the poor do hate him. and do not take care of him. they reckon him a reproach unto them.. Bayne interprets this "man of gift" of Christ." Junius & Tremillius. even he that useth himself to lying in private conversation shall not escape the reproach of men. all which may be interpreted an hatred of him. vain and empty. now he is poor and in distress. these wilt stand at a distance from him. which accusations are not true. "they [are] not to him" {o}.. much more will those who are only his neighbours. Or of the liberal and bountiful man.." Montanus. and not come near him. such shall have their portion in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone. not of the poor man that follows vain words {n} and empty promises. They despise him on account of his poverty.

a soft. &c. and does not depart from them.." Proverbs 1:26. Delight is not seemly for a fool." Cocceius. which is a new heart. . dwell: he who is desirous of such a he art seeks after it. and the Holy Spirit. he shall not enter into the holy city. a clean heart and a right spirit..." Pagninus. in the world to come. keeps the ordinances of it...sunt. see Proverbs 3:13. a good heart. much less for a servant to have rule over princes. and keeps it. but was very disagreeable to him. 3. tender.. abides by the doctrines of the Gospel. 2 Thessalonians 2:11. they do not know how to make a right use of their prosperity. {n} "Nihil illa." shall be undone for ever. and the mirth and delight he had in it. honour. 1 Samuel 25:25.. Montanus. as the word signifies. a heart of flesh. and are given up to believe and profess them. for. 742. he finds his account in all this. and was one of the four things the earth cannot bear. see Deuteronomy 4:6. he that keepeth understanding shall find good. in his ways and ordinances. to whose sensual appetites and carnal affections the more noble and princely powers of the soul. and a saving knowledge of him. {p} bl "cor. this was a sight which Solomon had seen. and [he that] speaketh lies shall perish. Mercerus. and uses all means to obtain it. glory. who indulge to ignorance and a wicked heart. and to fear him. Verse 8. which is committed to him. a heart of stone: a wise and understanding heart. which is very improper and unseemly. see Proverbs 29:24. and life in him. joy. as the wise man elsewhere says. when he becomes master over his superiors. Wisdom and knowledge in things natural and civil. and whose prosperity ill became him. Mercerus. which wicked men are strangers to: and a very uncomely thing it is for such persons to talk of spiritual joy and delight. It may be spiritually applied to such who are servants of sin. does possess it. Such an one as Nabal. and in which God. which it is his wisdom and understanding to do. or "be lost. p. and comfort in this world: and. he finds that which is good. He that getteth wisdom loveth his own soul. holds fast instruction. but have his part in the lake of fire: they that speak lies in hypocrisy. and especially in things divine. Amamae Antibarb. the Wisdom of God.. and delights. the insolence of a servant. whose name and nature were alike.. as the Targum explains it. l. he by all this shows that he has a regard to the good and welfare of his immortal soul. Vatablus. retains the wisdom he has got. and who. is intolerable. A false witness shall not be unpunished. Schultens. Or. pleasures. Verse 9. See Gill on "Pr 19:5". and happiness. prays for it. in opposition to a hard heart. wrong and hate their own souls. a heart to know the Lord. {o} Vid. Christ. "he that getteth a heart" {p}. doctrinal ones. and evangelical. Bibl. nor to moderate their enjoyments. he finds Christ.. Verse 10. Some understand this of spiritual delight in the Lord. become subject. when they live in sin. in which his laws are written.. good for him now and hereafter. and contrite one. when such. "the prosperity of fools shall destroy them. the understanding and mind. the graces of his Spirit are implanted. and of their communion with God. such shall be damned. peace. spiritual. such an one as Solomon had. through the grace of God. particularly he that gets Christ.. and a new spirit. see Proverbs 30:22.

. who teased him night and day with her brawls and contentions {r}. abundant in goodness and truth. Verse 14. 2 Timothy 4:7. A great unhappiness each of these must be! {q} twwh "calamitates.. Verse 12. as loss of reputation and credit in his family. and even to the kings of the earth.. especially tyrannical ones. if not to his ruin. loss of substance. are compared to lions.. which refreshes and revives it. a prudent wife [is] from the Lord.. Attic. and such an effect has the love of God and Christ on the children of men. "the calamities of his father" {q}. and [it is] his glory to pass over a transgression. of the holy blessed God. and the rage of such is very dreadful.. and renders him very uneasy in life: such a continual dropping was Xantippe to Socrates. but takes time to consider of the offence given him. "causa aerumnarum." Vatablus.. or but. Kings. l. Jeremiah 4:17.Verse 11." and "refrains from" cutting off those that offend him.. through extravagance and riotous living. and which has many distresses and sorrows in it. or like the dropping of rain. Which they are careful to provide and leave to their children. 17. The king's wrath [is] as the roaring of a lion. it is the duty and interest of a man to do so. and causes joy and cheerfulness in them. Or.. It may be applied to Jesus Christ. as Ahasuerus's was to Haman. as Nebuchadnezzar by Jeremiah. instead of being supported and increased. Such are the contentions of a peevish. {r} A. A very great affliction he is." Exodus 34:6. Verse 13. c. see Proverbs 27:15.... and causes it to grow and flourish: and so the favour and good will of a king to his subjects delights them. but his favour [is] as dew upon the grass. 1. The discretion of a man deferreth his anger. who is said to cry with a loud voice. who is "longsuffering. Michaelis. as the contrary greatly reflects dishonour on him." Junius & Tremellius. build or purchase houses. This they may and often do. and it is to his honour.. He is most like to God. the Lion of the tribe of Judah. in a rainy day. Houses and riches [are] the inheritance of fathers. Jarchi interprets the king. and which is very uncomfortable to. and tends to his disgrace and reproach.. That he does not show it immediately. A foolish son [is] the calamity of his father. and the contentions of a wife [are] a continual dropping. and the ruin of his soul and body by his wicked practices. he is a wise and discreet man that is slow to anger. massages the . and which is a continual vexation to a man. and makes use of a proper time to resent what is fit should be resented. Gell. and whose wrath is terrible to wicked men. into a house out of repair. to forgive an offence committed. and. he brings them to him. and has got it. as when a lion roareth." Piscator. "aerumnae. Which is very terrible when hungry. and procure great riches.. Revelation 5:5. and is after its prey.. see Proverbs 10:1. the inhabitants of it. Hosea 14:6. Noct. see Matthew 18:32. and Nero by the Apostle Paul. ill natured. and brawling wife. who is always scolding. which is sunk by his behaviour. Proverbs 14:29. and it is to the honour of his "name" that he "defers [his] anger. and put their children into the possession of them. Isaiah 48:9. one that behaves well to her husband.

as Aben Ezra. righteousness. in the broad road which leads to destruction. in faith. and in the sight of his eyes. the ways he himself takes in the salvation of men. by the hand of heaven. Psalm 119:165. and to the glory of God: and such a man keepeth his own soul. whose heart is full of compassion to the poor. and so the Syriac version. and indulge themselves in it." or written text. He that hath pity unto the poor lendeth unto the Lord. Slothfulness casteth into a deep sleep. and all the ways of the Lord. and the spiritual food of it. There is a "Keri. nor so much from his own good choice and industry as from the kind providence of God.. yet blessed are they that do his commands. that despises the ways of peace. which men would do well to take heed to. his parents may give him houses and lands. which that directs to. but these they neglect and contemn: or he that despises the ways of God. does not care in what ways he walks. by which it appears they have a right to enter into the city. he is dead in sins already. all whose ways are mercy and truth. "he shall be killed. as servants should. from a principle of love. Verse 16. and he shall die the second death. A man. or what is the issue of them. or one that is unconcerned about his soul. walks with a multitude. in sleep and drowsiness. and brings up her children in all orderly manner: such a wife no man has from the care and provision of his parents. or who is negligent of his ways. but the "Cetib. for though peace does not arise from keeping the commandments of God. and yet is quite careless about it: or that despises the ways of the commandment or word of God. by the Lord himself. that neglects and despises so great salvation." Verse 17. and salvation by Jesus Christ: he shall die. is. or of masters. for that is a lamp and a light. Verse 15.. though there is no reward for. as it shows them the ways in which they should walk.affairs of her house with wisdom. shall perish for want of it. yet should as much as in man lies. Slothful persons are generally sleepy. with a crowd. into eternal happiness. to which he should ascribe it. see Proverbs 6:9. but it is God that gives him a wise and discreet woman to be an helpmeet to him. as children ought to do. pardon.. they spend their time. both in a temporal and spiritual sense: an idle person. immediately. and perish with it... and an idle soul shall suffer hunger. every command of his. and are quite careless and unconcerned about either their temporal or eternal good. though salvation is not hereby. that will not work. [but] he that despiseth his ways: which are at and proper for him to walk in. ought not to eat. to do evil. or "observes" {s} it. his sins being openly known. {s} rmv "observat. before his time. he shows that he has a concern for its welfare and peace." or marginal reading. day and night.." or put to death. he walks in the ways of his own heart. yet there is a reward in keeping the divine commands. though they cannot be perfectly kept. as Aben Ezra observes. or by the judges and civil magistrates. Either of parents. and whose hands distribute to their necessities.. whether of a moral or positive nature.. or of kings and princes. ... which we follow. see Proverbs 18:22. He that keepeth the commandment. has his conversation according to the course of this world. yet such have great peace of soul who do love and keep the law of God. and are very desirous of sleep. Hebrews 2:3. and an idle soul.. which.. as is the duty of subjects in all things lawful: or rather of God.

yet thou must do it again. Michaelis. it is not cast away upon the creature. and let not thy soul spare for his crying. as his offence requires. and the case become desperate. Of parents. not as a reward of debt. Verse 18. that though parents should be careful to give due correction to their children. p. and proof against all instruction and discipline. which are able to make a man wise unto salvation..from a true principle of love and charity to men. or any man that gives way to wrath and anger and is continually quarrelling. Schultens. so long as there is hope of doing them good. 534. if he is got out of one broil. and not from any selfish principle and with a end." Piscator. as we do. or in the world to come. Hear counsel. and of his Gospel and of the Scriptures.. but of grace. and shall be returned with advantage. in things temporal and spiritual. and there is no end of appearing. and receive instruction. but unmercifully beat their children. granting him larger measures of grace.. but is a "depositum" in the hands of God. 2 Samuel 16:7 1 Kings 2:46. a wrathful man brings himself into great trouble. that then it . increasing his worldly substance. A man of great wrath shall suffer punishment. and provokes his parent to wrath. such extremes ought to be avoided.. and gentle. "ad occidendum sum. according to law. while under parental government.. while in a state of infancy. he pay him again." or to the slaying of him {t}. to the endangering of their lives: as some parents are too indolent. it must be done again and again. as the Vulgate Latin version." Pagninus. and before habits in sin are grown strong. the noise he makes. "but unto his death do not lift up thy soul.. the entreaties he uses to keep off the rod. for if thou deliver [him].. and that which he hath given will. The Targum is. as Eli was. or a parent that chastises his child in wrath. Of guiding and keeping him in the right way. as may be seen in Shimei. masters. Chasten thy son while there is hope. Verse 20.. especially the counsel and instruction of Wisdom. as long as corrections are or can be hoped to be of use.. yet not in a brutal and barbarous manner. Either a child that is of a wrathful disposition. another will be commenced against him in a short time.. Gussetius. see Proverbs 13:24. and ministers. blessing his posterity. {t} wtymh la "ad interficiendum cum. and is punished. others are too wrathful and furious and use no moderation in their corrections.. of Jesus Christ. and this sense Jarchi gives into: and then the meaning is. Mercerus. he will get into another quickly. indulging him with his gracious presence. childhood. if he is discharged and freed from a penalty he is justly subject to. in the latter end of life. for him and serving him. Gejerus.. that thou mayest be wise in thy latter end. see Ecclesiastes 11:1. Gersom interprets the word of crying. mild. Verse 19. let not a foolish pity and tenderness prevail to lay it aside on that account the consequence of which may be bad to parent and child. the Wisdom of God. if he clear of one lawsuit. each shall suffer for it. he involves himself in trouble. such a man's gift to the poor is a loan to the Lord. either in his person or estate. and youth. the tears he sheds. which passeth all understanding. the wonderful Counsellor. either in this life. and giving him peace of mind. he will fall into the same evil. at death. and he is hardened. Cocceius. and with a view to the glory of God. Vatablus. Tigurine version.

Luke 7:30. in spite of all the schemes. to gratify their carnal lusts and sensual appetites. which are evil continually." as it is sometimes used. called the whole counsel of God. which are wisely formed in his own breast. and committing the affairs of his soul. though there are many. is a better man than he. and are not frustrable. to get wealth and riches: to obtain honour and glory among men.. it being the fruit of infinite wisdom. to the end of the world. and performance of duties. may be here meant. by looking to him. is desirous of an opportunity of showing kindness to his fellow creatures and friends.. and all things are done as he has ordered them. Acts 20:27. and the effect of a divine council between the eternal Three. his counsels of old. and to perpetuate their memories after death: some about sinful things. contriving other methods of salvation than by Christ. and the scheme of salvation in it. as Ben Melech. and the ridicule of a profane world. and to do mischief to others. civility. the counsel of the Lord. coming new doctrines. his good will is his kindness.. a man that is not able to do a kindness to another. yea. and a beneficent man. Either the grace and kindness of God. for life and salvation. Verse 22. This may be applied to the Gospel. and so matter of reproach.may appear a man has been so wise as to be concerned for a future state. who denies that he has ability to relieve the poor. or his eternal decrees. in his word. and submission to ordinances. which is. as the Septuagint and Syriac versions add. Some about civil things. and opposition of men and devils. to attain to a long life. by listening to the counsel and instruction of Christ. to him.. for the good of his soul in another world. and a multitude more of the like kind. or it is his desire to show kindness. nevertheless. and understands it of the sinful desires of the heart. or promises to do it. that shall stand. by keeping to the religion they were born and brought up in. it is the beauty of a man. the craft of false teachers. and so will the ordinances of it. by mere morality. providence. Moreover. even. and full of the best advice and instructions to the sons of men. the imaginations of the thoughts of the heart. as by the light of nature. and a poor man [is] better than a liar. and the cause and interest of Christ: some about religious things. which are also called the counsel of God. contrivances. by leaning and living upon him. it will continue till all the elect are gathered in.. when he has. and grace. desirable by every sensible man. by the law of Moses. and which has stood. such men of high degree are a lie indeed! and the poor man. the purposes of God. and shall stand. that he might have it in the power of his hands to do good to others. and by a mere outward profession of religion. his designs will be accomplished in the world and in his church. whom he should relieve. and the will is taken for the deed.. [There are] many devices in a man's heart. who is a rich man. and believing in him.. devising new ordinances and modes of worship.. notwithstanding the persecutions of wicked men. all things in this world are ordered as he pleases. and better than life and anything in it. see Psalm 33:10. The desire of a man [is] his kindness. and that but one. and does it not. yet has a desire to do it. particularly the people of God. or that would relieve . A good man is desirous of riches. and external justice between man and man. as being most excellent. and according to which counsel of his will all things are done in nature. and the salvation of it. and such a disposition and conduct render a man very desirable and amiable. Verse 21. who has it in his power. and which will continue till the second coming of Christ. all his purposes are or will be fulfilled. Gersom takes the word in the sense of "reproach. and can never be frustrated by the devices of man's heart.

and they shall never separate from the love of God. and will not so much as bring it to his mouth again.. as Jarchi. but it is not in his power to do it. that he will rather starve than be at the pains to feed himself. and the simple will beware.." 1 Timothy 4:8: the fear of God is the beginning of a spiritual life.. he hears another reproved. {x} Mrey "astutus efficetur.. to take food out of the dish to feed himself with. and day after day." Junius & Tremellius. he will grow wiser and wiser. "in lebete.. and makes a jest of all that is good. he is blessed with all spiritual blessings. Cocceius. his mouth is satisfied. "astutior fiet. or learns wisdom. and becomes hereby a knowing and understanding man. and then the sense is. for though it may be of no use to him who will despise it. Verse 23. nor anything that befalls him in this life. as it may be rendered. which is an encouragement to give it. yet it may be observed. being content therewith and "godliness with contentment is great gain. and is connected with it. he is full of the blessings of goodness. Smite a scorner. and be useful to another that hears it. In cold weather to keep it warm. Verse 24. he will not take it from thence again. that they may receive eternal life. all his afflictions.. or rather it may signify his putting his hand into a plate of food. nothing shall hurt him. and his mind is filled with good things. he has all things in a spiritual sense." of which the fear of the Lord is a principal part. see Psalm 91:10. and fears. The fear of the Lord [tendeth] to life. it is the proper posture and just attitude of a slothful man. with the good things of it he has. "will become cunning" {x}." Michaelis." Schultens.. so that though reproof may be lost on one. "in paropsidem. but open to conviction. that he puts his hands under a pot over a fire to warm them. see Proverbs 9:8.. and even when his hand is in the dish. and becomes a wise man. That is. p. {u} txlub "in patinam. and lift it to his mouth." 1 Timothy 6:6: such a man has enough. "Godliness. as it follows. like a vessel full of wholesome food for the soul. as Gersom observes. and at other times. as unwilling to use it in labour. yet will not make use of the least mite out of them. who." Tigurine version. has "the promise of this life and that to come. Gussetius {w} thinks. 715. [and] he will understand knowledge." Pagninus. with his lot and portion in this life. it succeeds in another. yet not hardened in impiety as the other. Michaelis. "astutus fiet. an hyperbolical expression." Schultens.another. or in one removed at some distance from the fire. and it leads to eternal life. Verse 25.. . "in patinia.. who. give reproof to a man that scoffs at religion. his evil ones: work together for his good. he will improve in the knowledge of things. A slothful [man] hideth his hand in [his] bosom. it may have respect to such slothful men. The word for "bosom" is sometimes used for a "pot" or "platter" {u}.. {w} Ebr. Montanus. his worst things. he will not take his hand out of his bosom. "solertiam parabit. and yet so slothful. so sluggish. though void of understanding. though they have the holy Scriptures in their hands. he shall not be visited with evil. and [he that hath it] shall abide satisfied. and so he rests and abides night after night. Comment. who are careless and negligent to their souls. Romans 8:28." Mercerus." Cocceius. and reprove one that hath understanding..

Verse 27. which communicate knowledge. and take heed what they hear. and making the pope an infallible interpreter of them. [that causeth] to err from the words of knowledge. wisdom. The wholesome words of our Lord Jesus. "a witness of Belial" {z}. my son. or the doctrine of false teachers. and are the means of a spiritual. from the words of knowledge. that is. Verse 28.. forbidding the people to read them. to err from the words of knowledge. Schultens. and brings his gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. and getting him out of prison and out of broils. and after that err:" that is. or by Wisdom. see 2 Peter 2:20. the deity of Christ. than to turn from those doctrines and instructions. which is preferable to all other knowledge.. Christ. penance. "a son that causeth shame.. from whence they are called the word of peace and reconciliation.. concerning the Trinity. and chaseth away his mother {y}. my son. and give knowledge of his person. experimental. to beware of false prophets. and the word of salvation. to everyone of his children." {y} So Gejerus. Cease. [and] chaseth away [his] mother: alienates her affections from him. as well as to himself. and blessings of grace by him... He that wasteth [his] father. and bringeth reproach. cease. the God of all grace. if thou wouldest hear instruction. and improve this knowledge. the power and purity of human nature. that he is the God and Father of Christ.. those words of grace.Verse 26.. such as the instruction of the Arians.. promote. and that wastes his spirits and his health. and man's free will. His father's substance. the word of righteousness. better never hear and know at all. and everything avoided that tends to cause to err from these words and doctrines. pardons. offices. they give knowledge of his mind and will concerning the salvation of men. Socinians. which he gave him first as his portion. imputed righteousness. and afterwards by paying his debts.. my son. and a reproach upon them.. purgatory. A . the words of the living God. see Matthew 7:15. and bringeth reproach. Or. are the means of the true knowledge of God. Sabellians. incarnation. which convey. "cease. and even to everything in the world. and fiducial knowledge of Christ. &c.. concerning merit. and Arminians. and that he is possessed of all perfections: particularly that he is gracious and merciful. not being able to bear the sight of him and of his actions: [is] a son that causeth shame. An ungodly witness scorneth judgment. his satisfaction. the word of life. which come from him. wasteth his father. and therefore care should be taken. and pardons all manner of sin. works of supererogation. the salutary doctrines of the Gospel. that he is in Christ. and are profitable for instruction in righteousness. Jarchi and Aben Ezra transpose the words. indulgences. the Scriptures of truth. thus. relations. It may be read thus. as well as on his own character. to or that thou mayest hear instruction and the latter makes mention of such an interpretation. The words are spoken either by Solomon to his son. and of his ways and worship. causes her to quit her house. such as the doctrines of the church of Rome. that there is one. Now these are all words of knowledge. setting unwritten traditions upon a level with them. to hear the instruction. and knowledge. and the covenant God and Father of all his people in him. who once had too great a fondness for him. Pelagians. The counsel of bad men. may be here meant. concerning the Scriptures. causes shame to his parents.

CHAPTER 20 Proverbs 20 Verse 1. nor by the punishment of perjury." which is not a bad sense of the words. who one day will be terrible to the drunkards. and murderers of his people. and wounds. The fear of a king [is] as the roaring of a lion. which causes fear. Tigurine version. "is a mocker. the mockers. and whosoever is deceived thereby is not wise.. and he cries out for strong drink. Proverbs 23:29. and puts the spirits in a ferment. a wine bibber). {z} leylb de "testis Belijahal. and with pleasure commits it. if they are not stricken with the stripes of men. to make them plausible. and seem to be agreeable to it.. greedily. see Proverbs 19:12. Revelation 17:2. . and indeed by both. so that a man rages within.. and to the mockery and derision of others. or colours over things. does not act a wise but an unwise part: wine besots as well as deceives men. or a thirsty man drinks down water: and in like manner are false doctrines imbibed by men of perverse minds. as a hungry man takes in his food. but.false witness is not awed by the place of judgment where he is. as scorners are. and using cruelty to them. Verse 2. and if they miss the one. it exposes him to reproach and disgrace. Judgments are prepared for scorners. is not on his guard against it. The wrath and displeasure of a king.. on the contrary. and strong drink not only disturbs the brain. they shall endure the strokes of divine justice and vengeance hereafter.. and which puts them upon blaspheming God. so Ben Melech. Or this may be understood of a false teacher. though they mock at present punishment and a future judgment.. but it promises him a pleasure which it does not give. Romans 13:3. but is overcome by it. Matthew 25:41. Either by the civil magistrate. yea. see Hosea 7:5.. with which the nations of the earth are deceived and made drunk. "a man of wine" (that is. Aben Ezra gives this as the sense of the words. which shall be inflicted on them sooner or later. as well as it sets him to scoff at his companions. that scorns the rule of judgment.. Wine [is] a mocker." Montanus. This is true of the King of kings. he scorns all these. sorrow.. or by the Lord. it not only overcomes him before he is aware. and even to mock at religion. and everybody he meets with. deriding his people. excessive drinking gives him pain. but it sets him a raving and quarrelling with his company. and scoffs at them. and stripes for the back of fools. such generally get into broils and contentions. and get woe. whosoever gives himself to it. strong drink [is] raging. and so mocks him. Wine deceives a man.. the rule of judgment. This may be applied to the wine of fornication. kings should be terrors to evil works and workers. one that is given to wine. yet everlasting fire is prepared for them. Baynus. and all that is good and serious.. before spoken of. nor by the judge before whom he is.. nor by the law. that it may be given him. Verse 29. and the mouth of the wicked devoureth iniquity. though not to good ones. and eludes judgment by specious and sophistic arguments and pretences. or to the false doctrine and superstition of the church of Rome. they will certainly meet the other. and proceeds in bearing a false testimony: or he covers that which is right and just.

and of good men. the thoughts of his mind. or of wrong persons. but they shall give him nothing. but secret. as Aben Ezra. [therefore] shall he beg in harvest.. especially in some men. who have got a great deal of wisdom and knowledge in them. it is an honour to drop it.. being slow of speech. by asking proper questions. Counsel in the heart of man [is like] deep water. Pure and undisturbed.. and indolent in the use of means. especially studious men.. Verse 4. he will find ways and means to discover the secret designs of wicked men. This holds good in spiritual things. with things he has no concern in. in the time of autumn.[whoso] provoketh him to anger sinneth [against] his own soul. and the rich man for water from Abraham. or in a religious controversy. and. which. the most reserved: some men must be pumped. Most men will proclaim everyone his own goodness. will ask when too late. or it is not easily got out of them what is in them. though easily known by the searcher of hearts. and [have] nothing. Verse 3... for such as will not work should not eat. and which when got is very good. unconcerned for the grace of God. or is not equal to. when it begins to be cold weather.. and are now reaping and gathering in their increase at harvest time.. he exposes his life to danger: the Targum supplies it as we do. and so is that wisdom and knowledge which is gotten by an inquisitive man from another of superior knowledge. Or.. Matthew 25:8. As the Pharisee did. whether against church or state. and shall not have it. {a} wvpn ajwx. in the time of cold. As Abraham did. but not very diffusive of it. the devices of his heart.. as in getting water out of a deep well. when he perceives it is like to issue in no good. This is true of wicked men. to get out anything of them. who does not care to take his hands out of his bosom to feed himself.. yet will carry on the debate. he is guilty of sin. see Proverbs 8:36. his "soul sinneth" {a}. if he is in the right. but a man of understanding will draw it out. and a good deal of pains must be taken with them. especially when he finds he is in the wrong. Verse 6. see Proverbs 17:14. hidden.. or performance of duty. when the bridegroom is come. though it is to his disgrace. and silent in conversation. but every fool will be meddling. and hard to be come at: such are the things of the spirit of a man. are not easily penetrated into by men. or in a lawsuit. such who have been slothful and sluggish about their spiritual affairs.. and indeed.. an understanding man will get out useful things from men of knowledge. and if a man will not plough and sow. when in hell. "in the cold". he cannot expect to reap. which is the time of ploughing. nor should he be encouraged in begging. as well as is in danger of punishment. It may be rendered.. . The sluggard will not plough by reason of the cold. and much less to plough. Genesis 13:7. he shall ask of those who have ploughed and sowed. and is only about words to no profit.. and winter is drawing on: and this is discouraging to the sluggard. who are very close and reserved. when engaged in a quarrel with his neighbour. as the foolish virgins ask oil of the wise. who seek sleep to hide their counsel. Verse 5. [It is] an honour for a man to cease from strife. see Proverbs 19:24. but not very communicative.

there is no part clean. Matthew 23:5. as David and Solomon did.in Luke 18:11. whose eyes are as a flame of fire. This is the faithful and upright man." and so the Vulgate Latin version.. or his kindness to the poor: the Targum renders it. having boasted that he has done a kindness to such an one and such an one. walking in the same integrity as he does. Verse 7.. v. A king that sitteth in the throne of judgment. and eternal blessedness hereafter. . "his mercy" {b}. his children [are] blessed after him. and are like the Pharisees. and according to the truth of the Gospel." Mercerus. who is made righteous by the obedience of Christ. understanding.. The just [man] walketh in his integrity.. and they like to be so called and accounted. That executes judgment himself. as Aben Ezra: he will easily and quickly discern who is evil. who will clearly see into all hearts and actions. Who can say. on such occasions. in whom the true grace of God is.. so some in Vatablus. Gejerus. and shall drive the wicked into hell. or he will terrify persons from coming before him with false witness against their neighbour. though every man is talking of his good works.. who is as good as his word. and Judge of all.. 32. and to receive deserved punishment. all evil men. and. Idyll. and though there is such a thing as a pure or clean heart. the King of kings.. everyone that is evil. who did all their works to be seen of men. and sits personally there. 27. and as the Pharisees in common did. {c} Theoerit. will." Pagninus. and. and made clean the outside of the cup and platter.. The heart of than is naturally unclean. and boasting of his goodness. all are defiled with sin. Verse 9. it is difficult to find an Israelite indeed. who ascends the throne.. that good things befall the children of the godly. see Psalm 12:1. whether they are so or not. I have made my heart clean. conscience. or with a wrong cause. and walks by faith in him.. and were very careful to appear outwardly righteous to men. the mind. And the word may be rendered. with temporal blessings. having promised assistance and relief. or others upon his own representation give him. but a faithful man who can find? who answers to the character he gives of himself. it is hard and rare to find such a man. "many of the children of men are called merciful men. sounded a trumpet before them. Or. and hears and tries causes himself. see Psalm 37:26. unless it is known. as the Targum. into everlasting punishment. It is an observation of an Heathen poet {c}. and shall pass the righteous and definitive sentence.. Verse 8. And indeed this is the general cast of men. everyone is proclaiming his goodness to others. This may be applied to Christ. and drive him away from him with shame and disgrace. and not by his servants: scattereth away all evil with his eyes. and will pass sentence on him. they are blessed with spiritual blessings here. gives it. and affections. and particularly acts of beneficence and alms deeds. when he shall sit on his throne of judgment. and does not forsake him in his adversity. and cannot be easy with doing a good action. or who sticks to his friend. {b} wdox "misericordiam suam. but not the children of the ungodly. or who is in a bad cause before him. "unius cujusque misericordiam. but supports and supplies him whom he knew in prosperity. and would be thought to be good men. does the same likewise to another when applied to. who. and who. Matthew 6:2.

. no man can say this." Schultens. and to him only. though not with certainty and exactness. see Proverbs 22:6. a wise man or a fool. {d} So Montanus. it soon shows its inclination and disposition. clean and white. Verse 12. and without fault in the sight of God. and plays the hypocrite. then much more grown persons. and another to sell out with. their iniquities are caused to pass from them. There may be an ear that hears not. Verse 11. and another for selling. "non facile cognoscitur. and puts the cheat on men. see Proverbs 11:1. 1 John 1:8. or actions are.. especially when he acts a covert and deceitful part. which in some measure may be judged of. or by anything that they can do. so R. both of them [are] alike abomination to the Lord. though this does not always hold good. which may be a direction to parents in the education of their children. as not to be known by their actions.." Vatablus. that the word has a quite contrary meaning. "simulat se alium esse. So a child soon discovers its genius by its actions. and placing them out to what is proper and suitable for them.. Verse 10.. 413. . the righteousness of the saints: but then none are pure from indwelling sin. the one too heavy. and they are clothed with fine linen." i. nor what he will be. he is an ignorant man. and blood of Christ: God has promised to do it. and the seeing eye. and an "ephah" was a common measure among the Jews. Joseph Kimchi. and these ought not to be different. whose sins are all pardoned for his sake. is it to be ascribed. whereas they ought to be just and equal.. who loves righteousness and hates iniquity. and does not know the plague of his heart. and the other too scanty. Leviticus 19:35. Schulteus. Or. or create a clean heart in men. and he is a vain pharisaical man. a man that does not speak the truth. one stone or weight for buying. and if children can thus dissemble. it is not to be done by themselves. whether his work [be] pure. The hearing ear.. [and] divers measures." Matthew 7:16.. a virtuous or a vicious man. he acts so fraudulently and deceitfully..yet not as made so by men. {e} rknty "ignotus erit. whereby justice is not done between man and man. nor from the commission of sin. that they cannot tell what he is. and some shrewd guesses may be made how it will turn out. they are pure from sin. any more than the former. the other too light. yet something may be observed. "a stone and a stone." Gussetius. I am pure from my sin? the sin of nature or of action: such indeed who are washed from their sins in the blood of Christ. and to him. and an ephah and an ephah" {d}. none is to be seen in them. professors and profane. Stones being in old time used in weighing. it is God that has made the heart. "dissimulatorem agit. and requires of men to do justly. p. nor is the truth in him. Divers weights. and he does it. and whatever is detrimental to men's properties. it is done only by the grace of God. but what his later life and conversation will be.. Even a child is known by his doings. As well as a man. Some observe. not what his present work is. or found upon them in a legal sense: they are all fair and comely. and one measure to buy goods in with. that can only make it clean. that "a child carries himself a stranger by his doings" {e}..e. "ye shall know them by their fruits. yea. and abhors every act of injustice. and whether [it be] right. if he does.. and who are justified from all things by his righteousness. so that he is not known by them: he so conceals and disguises himself. the one too large.

understand what they hear. can distinguish truth from error. whose business it is to inspect. Psalm 115:5. Sleep is a very great natural blessing. and to their great astonishment: these also have the "seeing eye. civil magistracy is his ordinance.. and pray for the continuance of. and a carver can carve both. for which men should be abundantly thankful. and eyes that see not. their sinful and lost estate. but such as can hear and see are of the Lord's own make. that hearkens to the laws and directions of his governors. but it comes by the word. great mercies and blessings of life. they are the effects of his wisdom. who have the "hearing ear. and so spiritual sleep and slothfulness bring on a spiritual poverty in the souls of men. nor to be used but at the proper time for it. and what he should be thankful for. and practise what they hear. power. which must necessarily end in poverty and want. pleasantly. who opens their ears. and bring forth fruit to the glory of God: this they have not of themselves. which they have in regeneration. though not immoderately. and from him they have their qualifications fitting them for their office. gives them new ears. with eagerness and pleasure. and even stop their ears to the truth. of the fulness of his grace. and watch the souls of men. that receive it readily in the love of it. and impotence to do anything that is good. and of his suitableness as a Saviour and Redeemer. and which men may make. and heartily obey it." who try what they hear by the word of God. and not for sleep only. see Exodus 4:11.. what nature requires. approve and love the Gospel. the Lord hath made even both of them. receive it with all gladness and readiness. take the oversight of. they are means of conveying much knowledge to the mind. when they hear spiritually.. and this is not of themselves. but they are ears that hear not. they are both senses of excellent use and service. and make use of to the best purposes. and civil magistrates are ordained by him. Others think that by the "seeing eye" are meant the ministers of the word. and against its hurt. who are dark and darkness itself. lest thou come to poverty. Some by "the seeing eye" understand the civil magistrate. a sight of Christ.. open thine eyes from . converted ones. eminent in it. of their need of him. and show them to others: and by the "hearing ear" the hearers of the word. it is to be loved. he opens their eyes by his spirit and by means of his word. profitably. to pry and search into the truths of the Gospel. know it experimentally. it is sweet to a man. connecting the words with the preceding. of the loveliness of his person. and it is owing to the overruling providence of God on the hearts of men that they are inclined to yield subjection to them." a sight of themselves. and goodness. who are set in the highest place in the church. which is a work of almighty power. open thine eyes.and an eye that seeth not. [and] thou shall be satisfied with bread. comfortably. overlook it. who is that to the body politic as the eyes are to the natural body. their want of righteousness. the painter can paint an ear and an eye. and therefore should not be kept shut and inattentive to business. as Aben Ezra observes. of the plague of their own hearts. but they are made light in the Lord. and by "the hearing ear" the obedient subject. being naturally averse to and dull of hearing. Verse 13. I am rather of opinion that one and the same sort of persons are intended. that is. see Proverbs 6:9. for the eye is made for sight. it is a gift of God. and cheerfully obeys them. yet should not indulge himself in to the neglect of the proper business of life. both as to the exercise of grace and the performance of duty. and is the Lord's work. and by which it may be cultivated and improved in it. see Numbers 10:31. The words may be considered in a figurative as well as a literal sense. and owing to his mighty power. watch and provide for its good. and is desirable. keep it when they have it. Love not sleep. and both these are of the Lord's making.

Verse 14. as some men have. Which a man is cautioned against. Proverbs 6:1. he undervalues them. the Wisdom of God. and has bought the goods. and much more spiritual knowledge. and a gift of elocution to express it by. and aliens from the commonwealth of Israel. after he has brought the seller to as low a price as he can. and a capacity of expressing that to the edification of others. and who had the garment of his human nature taken from him and which was a pledge and ransom for the sins of his people. and the fatness of his house. and much more precious than gold and rubies. and the knowledge of him. [It is] naught. without a proper security.sleep. A man may have a large quantity of either. awake and keep so. it is not equalled by them. whereby the souls of men come to be satisfied with the goodness of the Lord. so shalt thou have a sufficiency of food for thyself and family. and through much difficulty gets the knowledge of it. and so glories in his frauds and tricks. Jarchi applies this to a man that is a hard student in the law.. and a multitude of rubies. and all such rejoicing is evil. or of both of thorn. but in the houses and cabinets of men. who became a surety for such who were foreigners and strangers. than a multitude of them. and to a diligent attendance to duty and the use of means... Exodus 22:26. Verse 15.. in comparison of which all things are loss and dung. who is more precious than rubies. Verse 16. these are not to be mentioned with it. and therefore should not be intrusted with anything without a pledge. then he rejoices at it. not only in mines and quarries. are a rare jewel. and gone away with them. When he comes to the shop of the seller. There is gold. or to market to buy goods. and has outwitted him.. for there is much of them in the world. and especially Christ. and take a pledge of him for a strange woman. but if a man will be so weak and foolish. saith the buyer. It has been applied to our Lord Jesus Christ.. and all desirable things. Proverbs 3:14. when he is ready to pronounce himself unhappy. but when he is gone his way. [it is] naught. for they are in a fair way for ruin. at least it was not to be kept after sunset. others ought to take care of him. James 4:16. and be sedulous and industrious in the business of thy calling.. yet it was right to take such a man's garment who had or would be thought to have such an abundance as to be surety for a stranger. see Proverbs 12:11. and have not a coat to put on. knowledge even of things natural. Take his garment that is surety [for] a stranger.. and rejoices in his boasting. a harlot. but when he is got full fraught with wisdom. and got home among his friends. how he has been too many for the seller. for though it was not lawful to take the garment of a poor man for a pledge. but the lips of knowledge [are] a precious jewel. see Ephesians 5:14. see Job 28:12. Some think these words are to be taken as a prophecy of what would be the case of such a man that is a surety for a stranger. it is greatly superior to them. and therefore nothing should be lent him without a pledge. in the issue he will be stripped of all he has. nor so cheap as he can buy them at. for he is in danger of being ruined by his suretyship.. It may be applied to awaking out of sleep in a spiritual sense. all in connection with such creatures . and be cautious how they trust him.. and glories in it. says they are not so good as they should be. such as have to do with lewd women are not to be trusted. then he boasteth. then he boasts what a bargain he has bought. how good the commodity is...

It may be interpreted of false doctrine. false teachers lie in wait to deceive. and will be bitter to her in the end. like the fruit our first parents ate of. and filling the belly with east wind. as it is by Jarchi. his own righteousness. everyone of them. but the reverse. and they are ordered and directed to the glory of God. and impunity. as to adultery. and he cheerfully pursues them.. Verse 18. but it is but poor bread. and to the cruel usage and persecution of the people of God. and with which may be compared Proverbs 9:17." Proverbs 4:17. he eats it: it is called "the bread of wickedness.. and taken down greedily by carnal persons. and he does not care to part with it. which is bread to the sinner. Which may be understood of sin in general. but afterwards his mouth shall be filled with gravel.. and. he is confirmed in his good designs. liberty. so the doctrine of the Pharisees and Sadducees is signified by leavened bread.. and especially by asking counsel of God. see 2 Peter 2:1. or whose taste remains unchanged. Gospel. and yet it is sweet to an unregenerate man. and this will be the consequence of all false doctrine. pain. and upbraids not. with a dreadful sense of divine wrath. and refresh. Verse 17. Matthew 16:6. it is natural to him and he takes as much delight in it as in eating and drinking. Revelation 17:6. who has been taking his fill of sin and pleasure in it shall be filled with remorse and distress. it affords room for boasting. wickedness is sweet in his mouth. and fearful apprehensions of it now. and especially such sins as are called constitution ones. and therefore persons should be cautious how they trade with them. in which she delights. peace. and of a man's trusting to his own righteousness and despising Christ's. and yet it is sweet to a natural man. this is not true bread. what he has thought to do. does not strengthen. which swells and vainly puffs up the fleshly mind. there is a deceitfulness in all sin. It may be applied to particular sins. it is dangerous having any concern with them in trade for they are liable to be brought to a piece of bread. and should observe to secure themselves. loss. particularly the cruelty of the church of Rome.. . Proverbs 4:17. of which it is reported that they are very beautiful to look at. and destruction. for this can only be understood of wise and good thoughts and purposes. shame. and to riches unlawfully gotten. called the bread of wickedness and wine of violence.lose their credit. and destruction and damnation will be his portion hereafter. and resolved upon. and forsakes it not. servitude distress. but eats as a canker. no other than ashes Isaiah 44:20. wisdom liberally. formed a scheme of in his mind. and is not of the truth. who has made herself drunk with the blood of the saints. or like the apples of Sodom. see Job 20:15. honour. the conscience of a sinner. and will deceive persons that trust to it. and with bitter reflections upon himself. but it is only husks which swine eat. it is contrary to the. it is in appearance fair and pleasant to the eye. particularly the doctrine of justification by works: this is the bread some men live on. Job 20:12. which he is not easily prevailed upon to part with.. yet gives neither. and distressing to him. it is his own. one of a vicious taste. who gives. it is feeding on wind. and to trust to it. is natural to him. which wicked men take as much delight in as in eating and drinking. it is bread of falsehood and lying. Bread of deceit [is] sweet to a man. nourish. sin promises pleasure. his own good and the good of others. as the Gospel does. uncomfortable. he rolls it and keeps it as a sweet morsel under his tongue. it is "bread of deceit". it is not solid and substantial. [Every] purpose is established by counsel. profit. yet these are sweet unto.. by taking advice of his friends. and what he has laboured for. their doctrines are lies in hypocrisy.. but mere chaff. but when touched drop into ashes. and is fond of. with that which will be ungrateful. Or "the thought" {f} of a man.

and fasting. but to curse them is shocking! what can such expect but the curse of God upon them? his lamp shall be put out in obscure darkness. or however pretends he master of them. He that goeth about [as] a talebearer revealeth secrets. he has a design upon you to get what he can out of you. in order to expose you elsewhere. above all. or the very light of nature shall be extinct in him. "ne admisceas te. Verse 20. the word used signifies to deceive with the lips. Piscator. but we should advise with experienced soldiers. Revelation 18:23. and without consulting the necessary charge and expense of it. or with the chief council of the nation. not that it should be any doubt with whether we should engage in such a war. therefore meddle not with him that flattereth with his lips. and designs of the enemy. goes about telling his tales from house to house. or "mingle not with him" {g}." not only a .. or his soul.. This may be applied to our spiritual warfare with sin." V. do not keep him company. the candle of the Lord. "ne commiscearis. L. Montanus. nor under its influence. {f} twbvxm "cogitationes. shall be removed. prayer. have nothing to say to him or do with him.. "unaquaeque cogitationum. Whoso curseth his father or his mother. Satan. and inquire and learn the force. and their deceptions with good words and fair speeches. Mercerus.. therefore suspect him. for when he flatters you. is highly base and criminal. or whatsoever favour from the Lord he has enjoyed. to the great prejudice of those whose secrets he is entrusted with. as well as to his own. and burn no longer. Leviticus 19:16. Montanus. and indeed such an one acts as if not guided by it. and especially with God and his word. and well agrees with the parasites of Rome. see Job 18:5. do not associate with him. shun him and avoid him. It is right in a king to advise with his privy council. a man that has really got the secrets of others out of them respecting themselves and families... and consider in whose name and strength we are to fight. It may be applied to false teachers. Cocceius." Michaelis. but. his lamp or candle of outward felicity shall be quenched. this should not be entered upon rashly. methods. this is contrary to the law of Moses. he shall be deprived of his natural sight. "he that revealeth secrets goeth about as a talebearer". what weapons to take. in him. it shall be taken from him. or he "shall die.. Michaelis. and highly praises and extols you. or pretends to be. one or other of them. and the rules of Christianity. see Proverbs 30:17. Or. Mercerus. "ne misceas te. and where to guard against them or attack them. and how to use them. that have been the instruments of his being. and what may probably be the issue of it. "ne admisceto te. to slight them. to curse his parents." Schultens. {g} brett al "non miscebis te. Jarchi interprets it of making war with Satan by repentance. and the affairs of them." Piscator. despise them. and mock at them. both he and his people should seek advice of the Lord on such an occasion." Baynus. This is dreadful indeed! a person must be got to a great pitch of wickedness to do this. Gejerus. and by whom he has been brought up and put out into the world. see Romans 16:18. and the world." Junius & Tremellius. Pagninus. Verse 19. without first considering whether there is a just and lawful cause of it. be upon your guard.and with good advice make war. see Luke 14:31. Proverbs 20:27. whether there is a sufficiency of men and money to carry it on.." Pagninus. and to the great prejudice of those to whom he tells them.

and which sometimes is got lawfully. and which is followed by the Targum. our version follows the marginal reading. nor is it good for men in the issue." Pagninus.. Mercerus. to whom vengeance belongs. the instruments of going are of the Lord. and were the first that were carried captive. do an injury to one that has done one to you. Some Jewish interpreters.. in the sight of God. and which they are not careful to keep.. Jarchi illustrates it by the tribes of Gad and Reuben making haste to take their part on the other side Jordan before their brethren.. "in nigredine tenebrarum.. and that it might be taken notice of and avoided. and put into some other hands. Jarchi. Verse 24.. Verse 23.. and so the Arabic version is. renders it "covetously got" or "possessed" {i}.. see Exodus 21:17. understand it of an inheritance which comes to persons from their friends. it lightly goes: here is a various reading. and Gersom. Of a man's setting out in the world in trade and business.. but the end thereof shall not be blessed. With evil... which signifies to be covetous. I will recompense evil.. it will prove a loss to them in the end. since it will bring a curse on all they get. "an inheritance loathsome" or "abominable". it will be taken away from them." obtained through covetousness and illicit practices. Deuteronomy 32:35. but should be left to God. which is here repeated for the further confirmation of it. See Gill on "Pr 20:10". and make a righteous retribution to him. Divers weights [are] an abomination unto the Lord. 248. but the written text is. Man's goings [are] of the Lord. and in his own way. private revenge is not to be taken. In a natural and literal sense. Jude 1:13. "an inheritance smitten with the curse of sordidness. but.corporeal but an eternal death. and a false balance [is] not good. but generally what is got hastily and in a short time is got unlawfully. and which will be his portion. Verse 22. p. commit thyself and cause to God. from the use of the word in the Arabic language.. and perhaps this sin of using false weights and measures was common with the Jews. are reserved for him in the world to come. An inheritance [may be] gotten hastily at the beginning.. by the help of Arabism. but an abomination. so the word is used in Zechariah 11:8. without any labour or industry of theirs. and wait his own time to do thee justice. as it lightly comes. an ill gotten one. and this must be excepted from this proverb. and by the Septuagint." Michaelis.. the act of motion from place to place is not . as Gersom. save thee from thine enemy. Schultens. it will not continue. Say not thou. "blackness of darkness" {h} as the words may be rendered. and Vulgate Latin versions. ad V. {i} Animadv. leave it with him to avenge thy wrongs. "an inheritance greedily desired. T. he will at the proper season. but in his late commentary on this book he renders the passage." as being sordidly got and enjoyed. Syriac. and so does not prosper. Verse 21. and he shall save thee. wait upon him in the way of thy duty. as in Proverbs 11:1. [but] wait on the Lord. {h} Kvx Nwvyab "in obscuritate tenebrarum. for though they may gain by it at present..

whether it is right for him to make a vow. and as the preservation. the issue of which is according to his will: and this may be applied to men's goings in a spiritual and religious sense. and as it is his pleasure they should be. and actions of life. and unsearchable. and have our being. for it is better not to vow. all the civil concerns. leads into it. and what his last end will be. Or it may be understood of the way of the Lord. when a thing is in . he preserves our going out and coming in. it is by the grace of God. which if a man converts to his own use is sacrilege.. it is of God. which is as the deep. and of his operation. for food and rest. or their going from strength to strength. and eternal salvation. in a civil sense. but what will be the end he knows not. what will be the issue and event of it. and the success of all depends on a divine blessing. is not of a man's self. and the way of life and salvation by Christ. is not known by the natural man. or a spiritual and experimental understanding of it. they walk on in them. not man's. he does not rightly understand what is his duty. which leads to eternal life. what is the good and perfect will of God. and preserves there.without the concourse of his providence. no man can go to Christ in this way unless it be given him of God. and indeed all good works done by them. and things are with every man in civil life according to the providence of God. than to vow and not pay. the way of the Lord in providence. and in the ways of righteousness and holiness. or he is drawn by his grace. being in darkness. what the way is in which he should go. and when it is externally revealed in the word. offerings. it is too late after the vow is made to inquire about the lawfulness or expedience of it. how can a man then understand his own way? even of a journey in a literal sense. which may be called their goings. pardon. and how to find out ways and means to dissolve it and be clear of it. brought up. it is the Lord that teaches it. and owing to his Spirit puts within his people. as firstfruits. and by the outward ministry of it. what he should do. this way of peace. and also of his civil affairs. so "in and by him we move". and with the assistance of the blessed Spirit.. [It is] a snare to the man [who] devoureth [that which is] holy. are guided by his providence. as walking in the path of truth. unless God gives a heart to know it. since all is under the direction and providence of God. which is properly a man's going to Christ as a perishing sinner for pardon and cleansing.. John 6:35. few find this way. it is not understood so as to be approved of. it is his gift. and which is for his good. in which he was born. and eternal life. and under his influence and direction. as in him we live. and move. causes to choose it. and whether he is able to keep it. and how he goes on for the present. "how can a man then understand his way?" the Lord's way. and brings ruin on him. and after vows to make inquiry: that is a sin and a snare also. is all of the Lord. and the whole is under his care and direction: and so likewise. a man should first inquire before he vows. &c. business. is devoted to the Lord. where he is going. but is despised. tithes. righteousness. walking in the statutes and ordinances of the Lord. nor the way everlasting. and this is a sin and a snare. which is of the Lord's devising and resolving on. faith. Which is separated to sacred uses. for righteousness and life. Ecclesiastes 5:4. is of him. when or whether ever he shall return to his own house again. see Malachi 3:8. and it is by him they are directed to take this and the other step. and their perseverance in faith and holiness.. he has foreordained that they should walk in them. and all spiritual actions which flew from hence are by the grace of God. there is a time for every purpose under heaven. Verse 25. and a natural and unregenerate man knows not what way he is in. so the success and prosperity of journeying are owing to his providence. and in the strength of Christ. and continues. he knows his beginning.

and engagements. which.. which are the things of a man that only the spirit of man knows. these preserve him in the affections of his people. see 2 Samuel 12:31. intents. whose fan is in his hand. of God and his worship. and especially in comparison of the sun of righteousness. there is a conscience in man. Lexic. and of what he would have done. Which are two good qualifications in a prince. 8. scatters them from his presence and court. it comes from the Father of lights. a candle of his. Verse 26. separates them from his good counsellors. c. The spirit of man [is] the candle of the Lord. courtiers. and subjects. this is what is commonly called the light of nature. and reflect upon his thoughts and schemes.. the inmost recesses of it. Verse 27. The rational soul of man is a light set up in him. not ruling his subjects with rigour and cruelty. or gave measure for measure. "as the wheel turns over. and agreeably to the metaphor in the preceding clause. p. it was a bright and burning light at first. but when he has devoted it to another use. See Gill on "Pr 20:8". Jarchi interprets the wise king of the Lord. and punished in a way of retaliation. Matthew 3:12. see Genesis 2:7. s. he is the author and maintainer of it... passes sentence on what is in man.. or heart. and discourages them. by this candle. as the case of Ananias and Sapphira shows. if happily they may find him and know his will. showing compassion to the distressed. searching all the inward parts of the belly. just in the same place.. promises. A wise king scattereth the wicked. as breaking upon the wheel has been since used.. on whom he brought the wheel. by this light men do but grope after him. and the wicked of Pharaoh and his host. 1. {i} hrzm "ventilat. and breaks their counsels and confederacies one with another. yet this is a light set up by the Lord. and the light of the divine Spirit. The Arabic version understands it of exile. and to this sense it is by some {k} interpreted.a man's own hands. but with tenderness and clemency. so as the wicked hath done. 109. Mercy and truth preserve the king. and make him safe and secure on his throne. easing them as much as he can of burdens and pressures. and he wilt thoroughly purge his floor. he discovers. but through sin is become a very feeble one. and steady in his administrations of justice. Christ Jesus. or not done. col. Verse 28. and either excuses or accuses. by which men have only a glimmering view of divine things. or done by him. & Weemse's Christ. and pardoning delinquents when the case will admit of it." It may be applied to Christ. Though some think it refers to a sort of punishment inflicted on malefactors in those times and countries. it shall be done to them. alluding to the custom of the eastern nations turning a cart wheel over the grain in threshing it out. It maybe . he may do what he will. or light.. inviolably adhering to the laws and constitution of the nation. Synagog. it is no longer in his power." Junius & Tremellius. it is but like a candle light at best. and bringeth the wheel over them. the wise King. Acts 5:1. see Isaiah 28:27. by putting them under harrows drawn on wheels. and because of these the Lord preserves him from his enemies. see 1 Corinthians 2:10 Romans 2:14.. in comparison of divine revelation. it is a spirit and understanding which is by the inspiration of the Almighty. 187. who scatters all his and our enemies. as also being faithful to his word. which has shone out like the sun in its meridian glory. or the Gospel of the grace of God. unless seared. discountenances. l.. 6. {k} Vid. the thoughts.. Or "fans [them] away" {i}. Schindler. and judge in some measure whether right or wrong.. Schultens. he can look into his own heart. and purposes of it.

the hearts of good kings. and so in the church of Christ." Vatablus.. see 1 John 2:13. young men and old men. especially when led by these stripes and corrections to the stripes. though it does not become them to glory in it.. as David. Cyrus. cleanse from all. Rubs it off and scours it away. or must have very sore correction. wounds." Piscator. the one for strength. [as] the rivers of water. Jeremiah 9:23. and all that is in it. Michaelis. the antichristian kings. some men must be beaten black and blue. the hearts of bad kings.. Gejerus. by means of corrections and chastisement men are brought to an inward sense of sin. {n} erb "in malo.. his thoughts. see Isaiah 27:9. their dross. Mercerus. and their sin. an index of wisdom and prudence. Job 36:9. "grace and truth" {l}. but there is nothing so effectually cleanses from sin as the blood of Jesus. and designs. the mind and conscience. be said to be cleansed from them. The design of the proverb is to show that both have their excellencies and usefulness. "effricatio.. so [do] stripes the inward part of the belly. they lament and mourn over sin. Mercerus. Verse 29. as the word {m} signifies. and are commanded to return from iniquity. whom the Lord hardened and softened at pleasure. as Pharaoh." Schultens.. and the beauty of old men [is] the gray head. and blood of Christ which. so some interpret it of the evil man {n}: sanctified afflictions to God's people are the means of purging away their iniquities. they are shown their transgressions wherein they have exceeded. Verse 30. {l} tmaw dox "gratis et veritas. see Job 12:12. nor either of them be despised in a commonwealth. Cocceius. which is clemency and goodness to his subjects. Michaelis. Revelation 17:17. so Aben Ezra. counsels.. and others: .. defiled with them. The blueness of a wound cleanseth away evil. {m} qyrmt "abstesio. before they can be reclaimed and reformed from their evil ways. "detersio. purposes. and which are said to preserve him." Cocceius. into whose hearts he put it to give their kingdoms to the beast. Solomon. and what is the security of his throne and kingdom. homine. and should not despise one another. being applied." Montanus. Psalm 40:11. this explains what is meant by the preservation of him. or is a clearing and rubbing it off.. That is the excellent thing in them.. CHAPTER 21 Proverbs 21 Verse 1. the other for counsel." Schultens. and especially in the service of God and religion. who is full of both. both being useful in it. and his throne is upholden by mercy. sub. or heals or cures of it as his blue wounds and stripes. or heart and conscience. sin inwardly and outwardly. The glory of young men [is] their strength. The king's heart [is] in the hand of the Lord. "in malo (homine nequam). and it is to their honour when it is employed in the service of their king and country.. and then may the inwards of the heart. and applied to Christ.rendered.. confess it and forsake it. The heart of every king.

of integrity and faithfulness. Fasti. and to answer another purpose. as Euphrates was by Cyrus. enmity. his laws. for it follows: he turneth it whithersoever he will. and for the good of his cause and interest. and will have their own wills and ways. 8. especially arbitrary princes. and vanity. the King of kings. and do with it as seems good in his sight. and that it might be . worship. and affections.. or the course of a river turned. for the confirmation of it. as rivers of water is "the heart of a king. and who are more resolute and positive. so Christ. his Spirit. his fear. l. as do the wills of despotic kings. this shows their sense.and if the hearts of kings are in the hands of the Lord. or to the turning of the course of rivers. and which are generally more untractable and unmanageable. s. This is repeated. and make it willing to that which is good in the day of his power: he can turn the channel and course of the affections from sinful lusts and pleasures. he that made the heart can operate upon it. reviving and refreshing. The heart of a king is as much at the dispose of the Lord. oftentimes towards his people. and yet the Lord can stay and settle. The Heathens very wrongly call one of their deities Verticordia {o}. then much more the hearts of other persons. and keep them steady and within bounds: or which. or to husbandmen. and he can put in what he pleases. and fluctuating. which they never designed. unstable. 158. v. that make channels for the water to run in. is said to be as "rivers of water. and the gifts and graces of if. he can change and turn it just as he will. ordinances.. hardness. to himself. pride. and turn it from its bias and bent. like a torrent of water. comes with force and impetus. from Proverbs 16:2. And so. that to turn the heart is the property of deity.. and so the Septuagint render it. and can be turned by him as easily as such canals may be made. the Lord can turn the hearts of men as he pleases. he can take off the stiffness of the will. full of wisdom and prudence. when he took Babylon. unbelief. his son. 4. however.. his truths. and fix them. that cut aqueducts from ri