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1
For a debate on, and rebuttal of the thesis that `class is dead´, and/or that the working class has diminished to the
point of political insignificance see Callinicos and Harman, 1995; Callinicos, 1996; German, 1996; Hill, 1999b;
Cole et al, 2001; Hill and Cole, 2001; Harman, 2002; Hill, Sanders and Hankin, 2002.
Outside the Marxist tradition, it is clear that many critics of class analysis (such as Jan Pakulski, 1995) confound
class-consciousness with the fact of class - and tend to deduce the salience (some would argue, non-existence) of
the latter from the ´absence´ of the former. As noted earlier, the collapse of many traditional signifiers of ´working-
classness´ has led many to pronounce the demise of class yet, as Beverley Skeggs observes,
To abandon class as a theoretical tool does not mean that it does not exist anymore; only that some theorists do not
value it. It does not mean ... [working-class people] experience inequality any differently; rather, it would make it
more difficult for them to identify and challenge the basis of the inequality which they experience. Class inequality
exists beyond its theoretical representation. (Skeggs, 1997:6; emphasis added).
Helen Raduntz has added,
Further, after Skeggs, I would hold that class inequality under capitalism is not merely a theoretical construct or
something that is experienced but has an objective structural basis in the capitalist mode of production which finds
expression in and permeates all forms of inequities, e.g. the uneven economic relations between producers and
consumers, between developed and underdeveloped countries as well discriminatory practices of all kinds.
Inequality in capitalist schooling is but one and an inevitable manifestation since capitalism depends on inequities,
divisions and differences (Raduntz, 2002).
The recognition by Marx that class consciousness is not necessarily or directly produced from the material and
objective fact of class position, enables neo-Marxists to acknowledge the wide range of contemporary influences
that may (or may not) inform the subjective consciousness of identity - but in doing so, to retain the crucial
reference to the basic economic determinant of social experience.
2
See also Cole (1998). It is not my purpose her to discuss contrasting theories of globalization. See Callinicos,
(2001) and Raduntz (forthcoming) for a discussion. Raduntz´s forthcoming paper argues that
The marketisation of education has all the hallmarks of an entrepreneurial takeover executed with blitzkrieg
precision backed by the trappings of legality and plausibly justified on the grounds of national economic survival
in the face of global competition. Dispossession-based marketisation is a strategy that has served capitalism well in
its phenomenal growth and expansion.
For many educators and concerned citizens the dispossession of education and limiting its goals to profit
maximization for the enrichment of the few is a travesty which requires resolute rectification.
Raduntz´s argument is that
the motive for education´s marketisation lies in attempts to revive the capitalist economy in the current period of
flagging profits; that the likely consequence is a debased education limited in quality and scope despite the
dependence of the globalising economy on quality education.
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She suggests that the contradiction opens the way for transformative action and change.
3
See the film Life and Debt, about the effect of the World Trade Organisation in effectively destroying the Dairy
Agriculture industry in Jamaica. (www.lifeanddebt.org.about). See also Bircham and Charlton´s (2001) Anti-
Capitalism: a Guide to the Movement. In that book, Coates (2001) gives the example of water privatisation in
Bolivia.
In 1998 the water supply of Cochabamba, the third largest city in Bolivia, was privatised at the insistence of the
World Bank. A British company, owned by the US Multinational, Bechtel, was given effective monopoly over
their water supply. In order to make quick profits they raised prices to the point where some users were paying
double the previous price and spending more on water than food. The company´s monopoly even meant that it
prohibited the collection of rainwater in roof tanks.
Coates continues
Not surprisingly there were protests- repeated mass demonstrations on the streets people were killed, including a
17-year old boy shot in the face. The Bolivian government was forced to reverse the privatisation Under GATS
that kind of reversal would not be allowed to happen (p. 31)

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4
In the wake of a series of fatal rail disasters it has become readily apparent that public safety has been
subordinated to private profit. For example, between 1992 and 1997, the number of people employed in Britain´s
railways fell from 159,000 to 92,000 while the number of trains increased. `The numbers of workers permanently
employed to maintain and renew the infrastructure fell from 31,000 to between 15,000 and 19, 000 (Jack, 2001).
So Capital downsizes its labour forces to upsize its profits. One result has been an unprecedented series of major
fatal train crashes in Britain since the railways were privatised by the Thatcher government in Britain.
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5
For example. Dale, 1989; Jessop, 1990; Apple, 1993; Ainley, 1999, 2000; Fairclough, 2000; Hill, 2001a, 2003b,
c; Mulderrig, 2002.
6
See Hill, 2001d for a discussion of various types of government/ state policy- neo-conservative, neo-liberal,
`Third Way´, social democratic, socialist/ Marxist.
7
See Gillborn and Mirza, 2000; Hill, Sanders and Hankin, 2002 for recent data on (racialized and gendered) social
class inequalities in income, wealth and educational attainment in England and Wales- and how much inequality
has increased since 1979. And see Cole et al. 2001 for a discussion.
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ec. r -,r O ..u rcu cc u cec . e: u eOu e3r ec. r oe.uu.O. uOu c.
eO3u cOu . The World Development Movement (WDM), Globalise Resistance,
Attac e: uOu e-.e:. O..c.c e: eõ..u ..e r O.c e: O.. c -cc cr..<
e.. u e3r e.. c. uO c -cc c .. .ue. e:u cc ec.OO e:c rc3u e c (cc.·

8
In the USA, for example, the economic apartheid nature of Capitalism has been depicted in the speech to the
NAACP by Ralph Nader in July 2000.
I just bring to you a little fact from California. For those of you who are skeptical of people who tell you that
things are getting better but we got to make them even better, try child poverty in California. In 1980, it was 15.2
percent; today it is 25.1 percent. And if you take near poverty--the children who are near poverty, who I would
consider in poverty because I think the official levels of poverty are absurd, how can anyone support a four-
member family on $17,200 a year--before deductions, before the cost of getting to work, et cetera?
If you add the near poverty, 46 percent of all the children in California are in the category. This is not just a badge
of shame for our country, the richest country in the world, it´s a reflection of our inability to focus on the signal
phenomena that is blocking justice, and that is the concentration of power and wealth in too few hands.
And to give you a further illustration, the top 1 percent of the richest people in our country have wealth--financial
wealth equal to the bottom 95 percent. (cited in Hill, 2001b)
The Rouge Forum (Gibson, 2002) in the USA highlights similar inequalities citing data used by Martha Gimenez
(2002).

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9
See, for example, Ball, Bowe and Gewirtz,1994; Gewirtz, Ball and Bowe, 1995; Hill, 1997a, 2001d; Whitty,
Power and Halpin, 1998; Lauder et al, 1999; Thrupp, 1999, 2000; Ahonen, 2000; Gillborn and Youdell, 2000;
Fecho, 2001.
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10
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10
Rikowski gives some examples, mainly drawn from education research in England and Wales.
1. The Tooley Report (Tooley, 1998). This arose as the outcome of criticisms from the Education
Inspectorate in England and Wales, OfSTED (especially from its traditionalist neo-conservative then
Chief Inspector, Chris Woodhead) and the then Minister of Education, David Blunkett about the utility
of educational research. Tooley, one of the leading neo-liberal theoreticians of education in Britain,
criticised the lack of rigour in education research and the amount of studies focusing on forms of
inequality in education. Tooley favoured large-scale quantitative studies. This would give/ has given
more power to research funders, who are generally not interested in critical research in the Mode 3 of
critical research that Rikowski describes.
2. The Hillage Report (Hillage, et al, 1999). This was sponsored by the DfEE, the Ministry of Education for
England and Wales. It was more responsive to research on educational inequalities than Tooley, but it
also promoted the importance of school effectiveness and school improvement (SESI) research.
3. ESRC Teaching and Learning Programme (1999-). This multi-million pound education research
programme focuses on improving teaching and learning in schools, colleges and universities. It is
negative regarding ´ critical´ research perspectives.
4. The DfEE Agenda (Sebba, 2000). The DfEE agenda is to tie the funding of educational research more
closely to SESI. The agenda also includes overseeing ´more closely the efforts and priorities of education
research´ (Rikowski, 2000, p.8).
5. National Educational Research Forum (NERF). This was set up in 2000. Its remit is to ´ monitor, control
and instrumentalise all and every facet of educational experience´ (Ball, 2001, p.266). The NERF is ´ the
agency of relevance´ (Ball, ibid.).
6. The White Paper on Higher Education (2003). This proposes that research should be concentrated in a
small number of research (elite) universities. Many departments in the other, remaining (majority of)
universities are set to become ´ teaching only´ institutions. Thus, the function of most Universities and
university teachers becomes relegated to merely distributing knowledge rather than also creating it.
7. The Research Assessment Exercise (RAE). Research funds being increasingly concentrated in the top
research universities - making for conservatism and caution in research. Critical education research
suffers under these conditions.
8. Research Capitalism. Research is becoming more of a ´ business´. Education research is a money-spinner
for the few large university departments who receive most of the Higher Education Funding Council for
England (HEFCE) research funding.
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11
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Rikowski (2001) attempts to explain why critical space in education research is being compressed. It is being
reduced to supporting the enhancement of labour-power quality. That gives education research its contemporary ´
relevance´. See also Levidow (2002).

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12
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-e3 c o.cr e.O, O-u u. e3u o. u O.e r3, oO. O,O c e3-u .O) e: e .e..r
c.e..r -c e.õ3 c < -· -..r c: uO c c.c r o..uuOcO c.. ~c,. . e·:. ~:
ece. c.. .
ou u ouO uOc -cc O.c. u. oO..u.O.u . cu c. <O. .,u . e·:. c -c
c.e. côc.cu.r oec r e. rc.. o,u :- .,3-c (¡)ss) õe u ...c u,cce.
ec .c.cu. “u c:e eO<· o.cÖr. :. -cOu c.e..: u,ccO.c ec .c.cu.” .u
r-u . .. u õ. ec e<. rc. . -cOu .,c:u r.c c.e..r c .. .u.O oO.. Ou eu
õe. ee.u o...cu. :. c : < c < -· ere u.u : c.. ou3 .uO.c.. O.e.u
c .. .u.O ou .u u. u u.r e< r O.e.u u cu O . . -cr..r u c..<. r õ.
e·:.. . e..5. .. .ru . u e c.cu. r õ. .uO.c.O ou.O.. eO. . o.O o.O
:,r ccô.e.u r3rc,Ou e. . . .r u e.u ou ôr u Ocu.r. cc. .,u . oO..
eO. .
Ocu..u e.. c . O.e.u o..cu.. cu c,O. o,u .eu . Oc r .., ou3
uOc -ccO.c. e.u r c.e. .cO3u c:u ec oec r e. rc.:
¡. e-.e:. õO e O..u .: -,r Or .. u ec.c ou c.u r. c.cu. :c:.
cc c.u. c.cu. r õ..
z. o. O,. u cu. r< .u ouc ~c c.O -cc,3 r õ.O o. e..c. eu..u
. u .; e:. r e. o. cru o. cu ec c<. eu.r< . u..
+. u e c.cu -ce3..u , e-c. :,õ. e: : O..c,O c c .crc<. c c.c r
o. u .O c,Oõ..

11
See, for example, Hill, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1994a, b, 1996, 2001a, 2003b.

o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O
13
!. ..< : :. ee O. e·:. eO<·ec.<r u c..<. r õ.: e .e..u, e..e
o...cu :. oeur u c.e. ee O.Ou u< (.Ou c.cu., -u .u...c, ec.c e
rO. u , c3ô. O,u ) c c.c r o.e. e:... u O. c Oc.u. r õ.c o,u cO.
¯. o...cu. u < o...cue. r e.. c..u (.,r.cc e·:u rcu o.r.c.O
o...cu. c.<r eu.eOuu ) e: eu. c. .,u . :c:. o.uc ee r-u r
c .. .u.r o.u rc .,u . e·:. 'oOe O.Ou ` uc..<. r õ..
e. 'u... c `, ccOc ece c.cu. rcu c,- .. eO<·ec.<r . (er.e eOec.
e: ecõe:. , zcc¡) u u .. u c.cu. eu.rcu c-u . . eO<·ec.<r
e·:. e .. r õ3 c: uO . . -c. õr <. e: 3cc .,u. :,r rcõ. - ou3
. . u... c u.O. e·:. (o...cu. .u -cc,3 o,u rc3u ).
¯. eO<·ec.< r .e.u o.u.u. rcu c,- e..3r r<.u.rc< o.r-u .
ccu3 rce.u e . e..r c.e.e. r<.u.rc<. c u ee rc<. rõ..
o.cÖre. oO..u.O.u õe u c.ec o...cue. . c r oc. < c.cu.
rcuu. ee . O.< e ec. r. õe u o...cu. e·:. õ.c3 r< .u eu
eree c e: o. côc.cu. r< . u eu eree c .u u e·:. o.cc. ec.. .
s. c u õec. . õe3cu.u .r cu uu. e: e O..u e u õc :. o...cu. c...
c,2..
). ec.ce3 ec.u .:eu ee O.Ou oO..u.O cr rõ. :. c:u c3u
uu u O.u O e:< ..
¡c. c. c.u . . e .e..r c.e.e. rc. :,õ3 e.c..r u < c.e. e:u...c :.
e .e..r õ.c3 ou : O õ. :. o: .:eu õ.c3.

e.u.u uc O.e.u uOc -cc O.c.O oO.. Ou eu ·
¡. e.u.u uc eO<·..O, .ucu e...3OcO :. e O..õr e3cu e c. r,.O
(-< e euc O,u ) oec: o,u -..r ~Ou r õ..
z. e.u r c.e. .cOe3 c .u,. e.u ru O.r e...3 e·:. e.uc. r:. cc.r
ere r õ..
+. 'u c:e ` eO<·.. ecr3u 'oe...c<` eO<· c< eOu occ..u. rcu u u
ec. c.e ere r õ..
!. ~:u u u o.r.ce. -..r r e. oOe O.Or o,.ôr. or eu eucc.O (e:.
eOuu c . - .eu . Oc -c. e: u O Ou O) oc.< Ou eu u,u. e.O,u c.e.
~:u -..r eOuu c.e..u .u cOOu eu u.u.u cu o.cÖr :. ....
-cc,3 ..u .




o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O
14
o...cu o...cu o...cu o...cu. e3-u. .uO.ce. O.<e e,c,e. . e3-u. .uO.ce. O.<e e,c,e. . e3-u. .uO.ce. O.<e e,c,e. . e3-u. .uO.ce. O.<e e,c,e.
O:. õe uc.u .r O.e.u o...cu eO<·ec.<Oc c.ec :. o...cu.
e3-u . .:. e,c,e .O ou .u Ou eu eree c¯ .uO.ce. o...cu. e3-u.
O.< e e,c,e . r .r c¯
e3r u...cu r ..u.r r õe3 c, uO .:eu r<.u.rc<O.c., ou3
c,c< .:eu ee O.Ou e·:. c c.c r c ...u.O e3-u . ..e.O :. côc.cu
ee.c . o.ec. c<. r õ. õe u Ocu..u .:eu ee Oe. ec.c.c. e: ..e.
ee.c . õe O.cu. rc o,u. o...cu. e..e ee O.Or ece o:
o...cuv.u e.. e õ. erc c :. ..e.O ..u e.u.u uc eO<·ec.<
~cr r.u O .Ocu er.O o,u (-cu u . c e:ô. , zccz, zcc+; ecõe:.3 zccz).
. c e:ô. ecu O. ecu eu , o...cu. u...u .r O.e.u o.cÖr. :. O:.
c cc c.e. c u cu u e.. e.u e-·u.O.rO cu er.O u e-u -O. . e..
o...cu.O oc.c c.e. c u cu u o...cue. :O c rc,Ou :. o: rO. u õee.:
eO<·ec.e< õu..r.õ ocr.c.u e: Ocu.r3 Ocu cr.. u.O cu Ou
cce.. ..u .r u.crr -Or .u ccu3 eO.. oece. o...cu. eO<·..< :.r
-OO cu r õ. e: eOuu e..e ee O.Ou c.ôe.. . rrc<.O cr r õe3 u,® c,e3
or uc,c u.r ece, erõe.u .u e.. c.rc< O..c-u e. c ..u oO..u.O.r
O.e.u c. c.u e .e..r o...cu c u cu u e..:u,.. :. o O. u u..u r c r õ.
e·:. .uO.c.. o.r.ce.u e..< eec. O,c.u u,ur .u
¡z
.
õ. Oõc..c :. O-u u . O,:cc o...cu o..uuOc ..e.O ccc ece
eO<·ec.e< ..e.O ..u c u e O.cu. õ o,u. o O.e. . c,Oc,u 'u ec.cu o< .O
c.u `; 'u e c.cu. õ..u rcu ` e: 'u. ee O.c..r.u e. ~e.u.O c:e r3
eceu `; . e..u : ecr 'ee O.c..r.u ` õ o,u 'uu u Oe.u cee r<.u.rc<.
e: u e c.cu uu u O.u ` .Oeu ee O.c..re.. o: c. 3.rc .,u e3 o.r.c.O
~e.u 3 e..:. c eu.c. .uu. ouc õe3cu.u .r cu uu. Oc.u. r õe3
O,c.u r. o. -O. 'r ecu. Oc.u.` ~cô.O c Oc.u. rc o,u.

O.<e u...cu. e: o...cu.. O.<e u...cu. e: o...cu.. O.<e u...cu. e: o...cu.. O.<e u...cu. e: o...cu..
ôc.t :,cc (zcc¡, zccz) õe u c .. .u.O eO<·..O o...cu. oc®..
c ..u ~cr r ecrr cOu u -O ecu O. ec. . c<. O o. c.ec cc .u . :.
o...cu. u <u .uO.c.. :. o.cÖr c u u ec.cu. oO.. rc.. e.. o...cu.
e·:. eO<· u...cu . u < e.u r c.e. o...cu :. c : < c ucu u e.u r
c .. .u. e·:. O,: Ou O,c.u r.r cc. . e.. c. c .. .u ...r c e.. o.. .u
c.e. .,c:u õ. r< :,r ece ~u ôO cOu u. o. r : c.ru orr . :,ccO ou O
o. ce.rO eOuer e c r õ.O e..c..u :,r o..r .

12
But see Hill, 2001a, and 2003b for a structuralist neo-Marxist critique of the over-emphasis on Discourse
engaged in by postmodernist theorists and by quasi-postmodernists such as Stephen Ball.
o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O
15

c .. .u.O o...cu. oc-.. o,u ecOu ~cr r. u3 c.e,c cc .u . u <
eO<· u...cu .. . e.. u...cu . .u c c.c r o..uu, c c.c r .ucu .u O
o...cu. u < u . cc ~c,c., c c.c r c.. c,-. e: o O. c.cu. r õ.O ~:
e,ce e3 u...cu ...

c.e,c e·:. eO<· u...cu. c.e,c e·:. eO<· u...cu. c.e,c e·:. eO<· u...cu. c.e,c e·:. eO<· u...cu.
eO<·.. c. - Ou o...cu. e.. .. Ou eu eO<·..O. - ou3 c.e,c e:
O,:cc :. cee o...cu. c c.cu O.O, c.. .ue. .uO.c.. :. o.cÖr
cO.u.Ou O .Ocu r õ. e: c.e,c õe u c ...u.O o.O:u, .uO.c.. O.e.u
: e rcu c,- , .uO.c.O cr ec.u :. c u ccc.. r3rc,Ou -: rcu -OO e:u r
õ. e·:.. .
e.. c<. u...cu. .Oeu c.e,c .. u e...3 : 3.u e. oO..u.O.u
e·:. ou..u . . -cr.. u e c.cu. rõe3 e¬ u.O. ~:< u,õ. c < e c.ec
e·:. :·u O. c. . u c u ee rc< c < -· ccc e.u.u uc or.u.O.r cOu .
c.e,c e·:. eO<· u...cu . e.u.u ucO õ: ec3u cOu u ouc o. ou uce.u r
o.cÖr :. ec .c.cu c . u e. c . - eõ..u. Ou Organization for Economic
Coorporation and Development(OECD) O,u o..uu :c:. e3c.cu. r õ. :.
e-c.:,õ. e c erec.
e.. e.. c . eu .c.. u < . ec. c.u .cOe3 o...cu O..c-u .r cOu u
ouc o. c -c . ec.c.u o.cÖr :. ec .c.cu cO.u.Ou e. u...cu .
u e.. eu. rc. . e.. u...cu . cc.:c< O.e.u cOOc ¡e r c ..u . ec. c.u
e...3 u..r.u !¯ r e.u e,cu -cc,3 r< :...r (Pressure Group) Ou
. ec. c.u OOe3ee. [European Round Table, (ERT)] õõ. Ocu. ..u c r...O
cu e3. e.. . ec. c.u er.3ee3 e: o: ou-c . o..uuOc o...cu. e3-u .
c u cu u ere r õe3 c ...r -c. õ u e¬. e..u -c cc O. crOu côc 'o...cu.
e,c. . .u eO<·ec.< oOe O.Or Ou ouc o. oeceO. e,cr . . u .` .u eOu
ERT õe u cr O. u e¬. (ERT, 1998, e..u -c 2001 : 331 c O O. :,cô :. :cc, ¡))))

c.e,c u< eO<· u.. c.e,c u< eO<· u.. c.e,c u< eO<· u.. c.e,c u< eO<· u...cu. .cu. .cu. .cu.
ecOu O o.O o...cu. e: eOuu cc .crc<. rcu cc ec e3c.cu,
ee-. O,u .:eu ee O.Ou e.u c.. ~c,. .O oO....
o,e.ôr. or eu eucce. o,ecr e e..c uc (cc.· zcc¡), ôc.t (cc.· ¡))),
zcc¡), ee. ce e..u -c (cc.· zccc, zcc¡, zccz ) e e.u ec.cceu (cc.· ec.-cceu ,
e-.u.c e: etc , zcc¡) e: - uu.e. . ecu ôer.O e r (zcc¡, zccza, b , c , d)
o.cu e. ccu. u < u e.u r :. eu.u uc -: e.u r c .. .u.O c.e,c :. o...cu.
o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O
16
.. u oO.. rcu eOuu O,c.u c,u r:r ccccu. rc ecu O. - ou3 o.O oO.
c.cu. r õ. :. ou cu rc .,u e.u c.. c,-.O oO.... (c,u ôer.O e r , zccz,
cr O. o,u côc c e ur.c c:e r3 c e..O o.u ..) eu. O.e.u . er.3c,u õeu
o. u . ccu c.e,c , õc..c :. c e ur.c Oc oOe.u O.r 3 e:.u..O. cOu u eu
cc,Ou , . e..u e:. c e.O c < e eu.O e...3 : 3.u e: er.Oe : 3.u
eOu eOu .
e.ece c c.c rc<., c .. .u. .u -c oO. r õ., .:eu . ccu ec.u
c-u c ôe c ec., ee-. e..u e: c.e,c o: 3 r õ. .. u ou -: uc.r c :u
euu.OrO cc,. rcu eu .c<., ec: cr e: rec..O.O o,c c,2. c.< .

o...cu. e·:. e.u.uuc eO<· u...cu o...cu. e·:. e.u.uuc eO<· u...cu o...cu. e·:. e.u.uuc eO<· u...cu o...cu. e·:. e.u.uuc eO<· u...cu. . . . - -- - GATS e: -uu.e. e: -uu.e. e: -uu.e. e: -uu.e.
:. :. :. :. oreu eucce. e.u.uuc cc. oreu eucce. e.u.uuc cc. oreu eucce. e.u.uuc cc. oreu eucce. e.u.uuc cc.c c c c rc<e. eccO..2 e...3 rc<e. eccO..2 e...3 rc<e. eccO..2 e...3 rc<e. eccO..2 e...3

o...cu c c.c rc<e. e.u.u uc u..ru O. - uu. e...3 eOu c,Oõ.
e·:. GATS (ee O. eO<·.. c< -· e...u. or.u.O.) e: - u.u. o.< : e3
e:e.. . r....c..u c< -·O ôer.O er (zccz) õ.c.u. rc. .
.: ecu O. ecu eu zccc ec-cO.õ e O GATS e.rcc. ..c.Or . cOu O.
o,u -O. . e.. e.rcc. zcc¡ ..cu .e c,O,u O de õ3 ..c.Or u e Öc rcu
c,- < ouc GATS c < -· .r u .u r....c..r c < e Ou or.u.O.r e·:. zccz
ece3-c ece cu u .. erecu o,u. e.. c,:,cc rcu eu or eu c.e..u . u <
ec.c ee O.Ou c c.c rc<. r õ. e·:. o,u cuu cO. .
.,u eu (zccc) e·:u rcu côc, or eu eucc e: or eu c.e..u e.
o.< : Oc e:.. o,u O ec. r eO<· eõ..u. õe u ee O. o.. uOu c -cc r õ.O
~cr r rc. . e.: r e< r -cc,. Ou o,u eu o.< : õe u e3 crO. ece3u
c,Ou .:eu eeO.Ou e.:cr c c.c rc<. r õ.. . u O.e, o...cu. e: ec.
O,u ee O.Ou õr <. e·:. ce.u O -cc,3 rcu o,u ( ) c O O; ôer.Oe r , zcczb,
¡! c O O).
ec.c ee O. cc .c rc<. r õ. -ce3. r : c.r õeu ucc rc. . u. u
GATS e3-u .e.u eco.r.c.r -cc,3 ecr. -,c . :,r. c<. O ec ..
e...3rc,Ou dr.u . u .. o.. u O:. -cOu GATS r ....c..r c,3< õO
o...cu, ee-., e..e ee O.Ou e: c e ur.c O,u ee O.Ou e·:. Ou or eu
c.e..u e. o.e.. er.u õec . . e...3Oc u dr.u :,r Ou o,u.
o,u u O.e.u . e...u o.< : oec r e. rcu eu cc .c rc<. rcu cc
ec.c ee OO.u e. c..e.u O,: er.Oer or eu c.e..u . u <. decu -O
eu.e3; . c r O.e.u. o.< : OO oO.. Ou eu c c .c r e...3 õe u c.e,c ,
ec. :c , c e ur.c e: e..e ee O.Ou cOu O.e.u .u -OO Ou .u.r e..e.u
r õ. e:Ou - u.u. eu..O õr <.. . c . e...3 or eu c.e..u . u < õcc.,
o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O o...cu. eO<·ec.<rc<.O oec: O
17
ec. c-.c. ~Oe. e c. :,r . u o,e.ôr.u e:. eOuu e.u .r e...3 c..
oec r e.eOu c.e,c cOu O.e.u ..e.u .,Oc cc .u Ou -O o.< : O oc:e rc. .
ecOu O :,cc (zcc¡) e. r-u :c:. e..u -c (zccz) cr Ou eu Ocu..ue. .:eu
ee O.Ou ou cu rc.u 3u O..c u Ou oreu c.e..u e. O..c.c ~r .< u
ocu.u. e·:. e... Ou o,u -OO o.< : O õ. O.e u-. e cu -O. . e.. c,uO.u
e ceO3u cOu . cc.:c< O.e.u Nord Anglia u3 o...cu eO<· O..c.c. or eu
c.e..u . u < c.e,c :. c ec . . o...cu ee O.Ou cOu O.e.u .u ouc c,uO.u
u. ee O.Ou c,e ..O e: . r ecu.O ocu.u. rc3u u e¬. e-.e:. or eu
c.e..u e. õ.Oõc..c eOuu cOOc õc..c :. õ. Oõc..c e.. ee O. . õe 3 OcO
o<,® o,u. or eu c.e..u e. õ. Oõc..c o...cu c.e,c õe u cc., ec. cu u.,
ec.e3u ..O O,u cOOcO ccece ee O.Ou c-.c. ..u (u. c.e,c cc .u
c u ee rc<. r< . u o.r.c. c< -·O ) o.c... cc... o.< : O e.. ocu.u
.r.u.O. e,. ec.c eeO.Or erec: . O..c u r õ.O e,ce 3 rc..
ec. r eO<· eõ..u. ee O. o. ¡ec r :·u.e.u u e¬. GATS :c:.
uOu e-.e:. ccO '.:eu` ee O.Ou u. ocu.u O..c.c.u O ou .u rc ee O.
e·:. eO<·.. c -cc r< e:.u o. u - u.u. :. or eu eucce. O..c.c
õe. ee.u O.e c-u o,u. zccc Oec u < -u.u.. cO 3 -c .u e¯ r ee O.
ocu.u.r re< .. uO o...cu, ee-., c e ur.c e: oeur u e..e ee O.
O..c.c .Oeu ocu.u eO<·.. ccc r õ. e·:. uO oOe O. ec.u o,u ( ce-c,
zcc¡, ¡¡ c O O ). e.ece, ou uce.u r eO<·.. õe u ee O. e,c.. .cc ~c,. e3
oOe O.Or rce.u o,u (.,u eu , zccc, ) c O O). ec. r eO<· eõ..ue. ee O.
o.e. o..r e etõt :,c e zccc c r< ec .u.rc c,Oe e3 GATS õe u eO<·
u c:e rc< r..Oc. :. c u ee rc< ~r .u rcu o,u ouc o. o.ce :,cõ.
eu.:,r Ou o,u -O. (~:u r-u .).
GATS r ..u .r rcOu ece or eu eucc, - u.u. e: oeur u . ec. c.u
e..e. c.e..u eOu e...3 õe u rcu -cc,. ou .:u .. o,c eu ec.ec.r
ucr rcu côc, ou..u - u.u. eO<·.. e..e.O e crcu o.u . r .r cOc
.:eu ee O.Ou e.u.u uc .cO3u eO<·.3 r õ. .u cc.cOuu -OO eO<·
ou . :.r.u e: .: -,r O or.u.O.rO o<® o,u ( ec.ec.r , zcc¡).
r,c c.u e·:u rcu eu .:eu ee O.Ou e.u :,r ccô..r ecc.c r
e...3 OcO cOc. ce3 oc. < u , ee-., o...cu e: eee e..e ee O.Ou Oc
O.r e.u ce. -,:,c rõ. e·:. ec. r. c c.. o.< : õe u c,u ou ..u. rc3u
cOu u eu c c.c rc<. e: ec. c.e c : c r õe3 c u cu u .r -O. . e..O ec. r
eO<· eõ..ue. c..O u < or.u O.rO c,3< eO<· õu eOuO c.e,c
o...cu. ou uc. :<. r õ. c o,u <u e3. ocOu õO ec. r eO<· eõ..ue.
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e,c. . erec: o,u -..r o: r õ.O e:. e3cc<e.u ~Ou r õ.O or.O o,u.
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18
o...cu eO<·.e3 c ec. ..3u oucO or eu eucc., .e ec c ..O, uOe cu u. e:
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19
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20
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21
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22
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23
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