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This article presents interesting generalizations of Neuberg's theorem and two other results related to pedal triangles and distances, as well as the famous Simson-Wallace line.

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**From nested Miquel triangles to Miquel distances
**

MICHAEL DE VILLIERS This article presents interesting generalizations of three well-known results related to pedal triangles and distances, and the Simson-Wallace line. Nested Miquel triangles The triangle whose vertices are the feet of the perpendiculars from a point P inside a triangle ABC to each of its sides AB, BC and AC, is called a pedal triangle. The pedal triangle has many interesting properties, but the following one is particularly interesting (see [1]). Neuberg's theorem: If a sequence of nested pedal triangles from the same point P is constructed, then the third pedal triangle is similar to the original triangle ABC.

A

C1

A2 B3 C3 P

B1

B2

A3

C2

B

A1

C

Figure 1

Neuberg's theorem can, however, be generalized by starting with a point P and constructing lines to the sides of a triangle ABC so that these lines all form equal angles with the sides as shown in Figure 1 (i.e.

**∠PA1 B = ∠PB1C = ∠PC1 A ). Following [2], we shall call the triangle A1B1C1
**

formed by these lines, a Miquel triangle. From the same point P, construct a second Miquel triangle in the first Miquel triangle, and then another Miquel triangle in the second one. Then the third Miquel triangle is similar to the original triangle ABC. What makes this generalization even more surprising is that the subsequent Miquel triangles can be constructed entirely arbitrarily. Indeed, when I first constructed these lines on Sketchpad to make equal angles with the sides, I assumed that the next set of lines needed to form the same angles with the sides as for the first Miquel triangle (or that the next set of angles needed to be supplementary with the

preceding ones). However, on constructing a proof and reflecting upon it, I realized that this condition was not necessary at all, and that arbitrary Miquel triangles would do. This is therefore another good example of proof as a means of discovery as discussed and illustrated in [3] & [4]. Proof A proof immediately becomes apparent when one draws the segment PA. From the construction of the lines to the sides, we have that quadrilaterals

**AC1PB1, A2PC2 B1 and B3PA3C2 are all cyclic. Therefore,
**

Similarly, we can show that

∠PAC1 = ∠PB1 C1 = ∠PC2 A2 = ∠PA3 B3 .

**∠PAB1 = ∠PA3C3 . Thus, ∠B3 A3C3 = ∠BAC . In the same way, the equality of
**

corresponding angles at B and B3 or C and C3 can be established. Q.E.D. Reflection Since the Miquel triangles can be constructed arbitrarily at each stage, I realized that this implied that they are all similar at each stage; indeed they all had to be similar to the respective pedal triangles at each stage.

Published in Math Gazette, Nov 2002, 86(507), pp. 390-395. Copyright Mathematical Association.

So an alternative proof would simply be to establish the similarity of all the Miquel triangles at a particular stage. This is now given below.

A B1

θ

Z P

Y

θ

C1

θ

B X A1 C

Figure 2 Alternative Proof Consider Figure 2 containing a pedal triangle XYZ and an arbitrary Miquel triangle A1B1C1 falling on the sides of ABC (or the sides extended if necessary). Since right triangles PXA1 , PYB1 and PZC1 are all similar by construction, it follows that

∠XPA1 = ∠YPB1 = ∠ZPC1 . Therefore, a

spiral similarity with P as centre - i.e. a rotation of pedal triangle XYZ around P through ∠XPA1 , and an enlargement of it with the ratio

PA1 PX

maps the pedal triangle XYZ onto the arbitrary Miquel triangle A1B1C1 . Similarly, all Miquel triangles at each nesting stage are directly similar to the unique pedal triangle of that stage, but since the third nested pedal triangle is similar to triangle ABC according to Neuberg's

theorem, any third nested Miquel triangle would also be similar to triangle ABC. Q.E.D. Stewart found the following interesting generalization: the nth pedal ngon of any n-gon is similar to the original n-gon (see [5]). In exactly the

same way as above, it is easy to prove that a spiral similarity would map the pedal n-gon at any stage onto an infinite number of similar Miquel polygons. Thus, Stewart's theorem immediately generalizes to Miquel n-gons. Sum of Miquel distances A reasonably well-known result is that the sum of the distances from any point P inside an equilateral triangle to each of its sides is constant. This result also generalizes to P outside the equilateral triangle,

provided one uses directed distances. It also further generalizes to equisided polygons, as well as to equi-angular polygons. If we let the lines from any point P all form fixed angles θ with the sides and call the distance from P to a Miquel vertex, the Miquel distance, then the sum of the Miquel distances to the sides of equisided (or equi-angular) polygons, is also constant. Proof This is immediately apparent from Figure 2. Since PX + PY + PZ + ... is constant for any position of P for equi-sided (or equi-angular)

polygons, it follows that PA1 sinθ + PB sinθ + PC1 sinθ +... is constant, and 1 therefore also PA1 + PB1 + PC1 +... . Q.E.D. The Miquel line If point P lies on the circumcircle of triangle ABC and perpendiculars from it are dropped onto the sides of ABC, then the pedal triangle degenerates into a straight line, the so-called Simson line. In general, if point P lies on the circumcircle of triangle ABC and lines from it are drawn to the sides of ABC (suitably extended if necessary) to form fixed angles θ with the sides, then the Miquel triangle degenerates into a straight line, which we shall call the Miquel line. Proof

Published in Math Gazette, Nov 2002, 86(507), pp. 390-395. Copyright Mathematical Association.

This generalization of the Simson (or Wallace) line is apparently not well known, though it is explicitly stated and proved in [2, p. 137]. To establish the general result, it is also possible to simply generalize the proof for the Simson line given in [1, p. 40]. A slightly different proof to either of these two will now be given below.

Z

C1 A

P

Y B1

B X

A1

C

Figure 3 Consider Figure 3 with a Simson line XYZ and a Miquel triangle A1B1C1 . Exactly as in Figure 2, a spiral similarity with P as centre - i.e. a rotation of the Simson line XYZ around P through ∠XPA1 , and an enlargement of it with the ratio

PA1 - maps the Simson line onto the Miquel triangle PX

**A1B1C1 . Therefore, A1B1C1 is also a straight line. Q.E.D.
**

The Simson (Wallace) line has many interesting properties that

generalize directly to the Miquel line. However, for the purpose of this article, we will only consider a few properties of Miquel lines that either follow directly from the spiral similarity or can be proved by the reader by generalizing corresponding Simson proofs in [1, pp. 43-45].

C1 C' 1 A P

Y

B1 P'

B' 1 X B2

B

A2 A1 A' 1

C

C2

P2 U

Figure 4 Consider Figure 4, which shows a Miquel line A1B1C1 in relation to point P. The following results then hold: (1) If line PA1 is extended to meet the circumcircle at U, then the

line AU is parallel to the Miquel line A1B1C1 . (2) If from another point P' on the circumcircle, lines parallel to those from P, are drawn to the sides of ABC to form another

Published in Math Gazette, Nov 2002, 86(507), pp. 390-395. Copyright Mathematical Association.

Miquel line A' 1 B' 1 C' 1 , then the angle between these two Miquel lines ( ∠C1YC'1 ) is half the angular measure of the arc PP'. (3) The Miquel lines of diametrically opposed points P and P2 on the circumcircle are perpendicular to each other - provided lines from P2 to the sides of ABC are drawn parallel to those from P to the sides of ABC. (This result follows directly from (2) above). (4) Lastly, as shown in Figure 5, from the spiral similarity between the Miquel line and the Simson line, it follows that the Miquel line would also envelope a beautiful deltoid (or Steiner's

hypocycloid) as P moves around the circumcircle [6].

Figure 5 Note Dynamic Geometry (Sketchpad 3) sketches in zipped format (Winzip) of most of the results discussed here can be downloaded from:

**http://mzone.mweb.co.za/residents/profmd/miquel.zip
**

(Note: these sketches may not work properly in Sketchpad 4 as there is some incompatibility between the two versions. If not in possession of a copy of Sketchpad 3, these sketches can be viewed with a free 1 MB demo version of Sketchpad 3 that can be downloaded from:

**http://mzone.mweb.co.za/residents/profmd/gsketchd.zip)
**

References 1. H.S.M. Coxeter & S.L. Greitzer, Geometry revisited, The

Mathematical Association of America, (1967). 2. R.A. Johnson, Advanced Euclidean geometry (Modern geometry), New York, Dover Publications, (1960). 3. M. de Villiers, Some adventures in Euclidean geometry.

University of Durban-Westville: Durban, South Africa, (1996). 4. M. de Villiers, Rethinking proof with Sketchpad, USA: Key

Curriculum Press, (1999). 5. B.M. Stewart, Am. Math. Monthly, Vol. 47 (Aug-Sept. 1940), pp. 462-466. 6. Lockwood, E.H. A book of curves. Cambridge University Press, (1961). MICHAEL DE VILLIERS University Durban-Westville, South Africa e-mail: profmd@mweb.co.za http://mzone.mweb.co.za/residents/profmd/homepage.html

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