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Instructor Dr. Rajiv K. Varma
UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO LONDON, ONTARIO CANADA
Kinds of DC Links a) Monopolar link b) Bipolar link c) Homopolar link .
Power per Conductor and per Circuit DC power per conductor pd = Vd Id AC power per conductor pa = Va Ia cos Φ Taking cos Φ = 0.945. • Vd and Va are the conductor-to-ground voltages • Id and Ia are the currents per conductor • cos Φ is the power factor Ratio Pd / Pa = 1 Ratio pd / pa = √2 / cos Φ . pd / pa =1.5 DC power per circuit Pd = 2 pd AC power per circuit Pa = 3 pa Both lines carry the same power.
• No charging current. • Ground return can be used. • Cables can be worked at a higher voltage gradient. .Advantages of HV DC Transmission • Greater power per conductor. line does not require reactive compensation. • Simpler line construction. • No skin effect. hence each conductor can be operated as an independent circuit. • Line power factor is always unity.
hence distance is not required for stability. for a certain conductor diameter and rms voltage. • Tie-line power is easily controlled. • May interconnect ac systems of different frequencies. especially in foul weather.Advantages of HV DC Transmission (cont’d) • Less corona loss and radio interference. • Low short-circuit current on dc line. . • Does not contribute to short-circuit current of AC system. • Synchronous operation is not required.
Converters have little overload capability. Converters require much reactive power.Disadvantages of HV DC Transmission • • • • • Converters are expensive. Lack of HV dc circuit breakers hampers multiterminal or network operation. Converters generate harmonics. . requiring filters.
Principal Applications of DC Transmission • For cables crossing bodies of water wider than 20 mi (32 km) • For interconnecting ac systems having different frequencies or where asynchronous operation is desired. • In congested urban areas or elsewhere where it is difficult to acquire right of way for overhead lines and where the lengths involved make ac cables impractical. . • For transmitting large amounts of power over long distances by overhead lines.
. three-phase bridge.Three-phase two-way. or Graetz rectifier circuit.
. (b) secondary line-to-line voltages and in heavy lines. ec and in heavy lines. unfiltered voltages of positive and negative DC poles with respect to transformer neutral point . (c) secondary line-to-line voltages and.(a) secondary line-to-neutral voltages ea. in lower heavy lines. (e) Transformer secondary current ia=i1-i4 . eb. unfiltered direct pole-to-pole voltage vd . (f) Primary alternating line current ia=(ic-ib) / T. (d) Condensed representation of valve currents . voltage v1 across valve 1 .
.Bridge converter – schematic circuit for analysis. The valves are numbered in their firing order.
ea. eac. eb. ec. line to line. eba.Waves of instantaneous EMFs of ac source: line to neutral. . ecb.
Instantaneous direct voltage (shown by heavy line) of bridge converter with ignition delay angle α but no overlap. .