Chapter 3

3.1 • • • •

The Concept of Force
A Force is something capable of changing an object's state of motion (its velocity), Force is a vector quantity. There must be a net force (unbalanced force) acting on an object for the object to change its velocity. Net force, ∑ F, is the vector sum or the unbalanced force acting on an object. Unit : Newton (N)


Newton’s First Law

• • • •

Newton’s First Law describes the state of motion of an object when there is no net force acting on the object. "An object at rest remains at rest, and an object in motion will keep moving with constant velocity (constant speed and direction) if the net force on the object is zero". If ∑ F = 0 , then v =0 , or a = 0 . Also known as Law of Inertia. Inertia is the natural tendency of an object to resist any attempt to change its motion. Example: What happen to the passengers in the bus when the driver suddenly had an emergency brake?

3.3 •

Newton’s Second Law

“Newton’s Second Law states that the acceleration of an object depends on the net force ∑ F and on the mass m, of the object”. a =∑F/m or ∑ F = m a 2 S.I unit : Newton (N) or kg.m/s • 1 N is defined as the force that, when acting on a 1 kg mass, produces an acceleration of 1 m/s2. ( 1 N = 1 kg / ms2 ) Example 1: A 20 kg box sitting on a horizontal surface is pulled by a horizontal force of 5.0 N. A friction force of 3.0 N retards the motion. What is the acceleration of the object?

F12 = . Mathematically . the force exerted on object 1 by object 2 is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the force exerted on object 2 by object 1”.4 • Newton’s Third Law “Newton’s Third Law states that if two objects interact.1 m/s2 Example 2 : Find the weight of a 3.4N in deep space: w=0 N 3.67)=8.0kg(moon) Weight Is the gravitational force acting on an object.Ans: a = + 0. What is the different between mass & weight? Mass -Is a measure of the inertia/resistance or resistance to change in motion of an object.0kg earth: w=(5)(9.50-kg object. Eg: 5.3 N downward.0kg(earth)=5. Ans : 34. -Depends on the acceleration due to gravity and mass. Mass of 5.F21 (action and reaction) • 1 F12 F21 2 • Applications of Newton’s Third Law : . -Constant for a given object.8)=49N moon: w=(5)(1. -Independent of where mass is located.

Resolve all forces into x and y components. slides down a smooth 370 inclined place. Hence . Add. v=11m/s Objects in Equilibrium and NFL -If there are no forces acting on an object. This state of motion is called translational equilibrium. the net force on the object is zero and the object will not accelerate. Example 3: A student pulls a box of books on a smooth horizontal floor with a force of 100 N in a direction of 37o above the horizontal surface. That is why the car experiences greater impact force. Fg = Fg’. what will be its speed at the bottom of the plane? Ans : a=5. Select a rectangular coordinate system. Let’s say the force exerted on the truck as Ft and on the car as Fc. mt at = -mc ac Since mc < mt . What is the acceleration of the box and the normal force on the box by the floor? Ans : a=2.0 kg.5 Some application’s of Newton’s Laws Problem solving strategy i) ii) iii) iv) v) Draw a free body diagram for the object under consideration and label all the forces acting on the object. The reaction to this force is the force of the object on the earth.i) The Earth exerts a force Fg on any object. Fg’ .Fc. or if there are equal and opposite forces acting on it. As in Newton’s Third Law. b) If the plane is 10m long. . If the mass of the box and the books is 40. 3. all the x and y components of the forces. then the acceleration of the car is much greater than the truck. a) Find the acceleration of the mass and the normal force by the inclined plane on the mass. Ft = .9m/s2. respectively. For a system in equilibrium. N=332N Exercise 1: A 5. N=39N. Hence. [The object will accelerate in x-direction and not in y-direction]. Set ∑ Fx = ma and ∑ Fy = 0 and solve for the unknown quantities.0kg box.00m/s2. algebraically. starting from rest. ii) A large truck collides head on with a small car and causes a lot of damage to the small car.

6 Force of friction FRICTION FORCES STATIC FRICTION KINETIC FRICTION . that is ∑ F =0.0kg sign hangs in a hall in the Science Department as shown in Figure 1. A 3.∑ F=0. 3. and ∑ F =0 x y Example 4 . What is the minimum tensile strength necessary for the cord that is used to hang the sign? 450 450 Figure 1 WELCOME TO SCIENCE DEPARTMENT Ans: At least 21N.

40 and 0. page 97 .18 N. What is the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the plane? 370 3. That is τ ∑ =0 Conditions for Static equilibrium: 1.coefficient of static friction N . .Both are parallel to the contact surface No relative motion Relative motion Fs ≤ µs N fk = µk N fs max = µs N µk is the coefficient of kinetic friction.0 N ? Ans: The net force. table 4.0 kg box and a desk are 0.7 Torque and the second condition for equilibrium The second condition for equilibrium asserts that if an object is in rotational equilibrium. fs is not a fixed value fk is a fixed value Always equal to the applied force • Both coefficients of friction are nearly independent of the area contact between the surfaces. The resultant external force must be zero.2 ) Example 5: The coefficient of static and kinetic frictions between a 3. Exercise 2 : A block slides with a constant velocity down a plane inclined at 370 to the horizontal.30 respectively. direction is horizontal. ∑ F = 6. but depend on the nature of the surfaces ( refer serway. What is the net force on the box when the horizontal force applied to the box is 5. µs .normal force. the net torque acting on it about any axis must be zero.

00 kg ( − . and a 4. How to determine the location of the center of gravity??? X cg = Example 4: ∑m x ∑m i i i Ycg = ∑m y ∑m i i i Four objects are situated along the y-axis as follows : a 2. a 3.00 kg = 1.50 m) 3 2 0 = 2.7 cm mark when placed on a fulcrum. When a 50. If g is constant.50kg object is at the origin.00 kg + 2.50 m) + 2. What is the mass of the meter stick?? ∑m y ∑m i i i .00 m) +3. τ ∑ =0 Example 3: Three masses are suspended from a meterstick as shown in Figure 1. Where is the center of gravity of this system? Solution : Ycg = 2.50m.00 kg ( + . a 2.00 kg +3.∑F 2.00 kg ( + .2cm mark for balance. the fulcrum must be moved to the 39. =0 The resultant external force must be zero. How much mass must be suspended on the right side for the system 3.00 m.0g mass is attached at the 10.50 kg (0) + 4. The center of mass of a system is the point at which all the mass of the system may be considered to be concentrated. then the center of gravity is at the center of mass.00-kg object is at +2.8 The center of gravity A rigid body is an object/systems of particles in which the interparticle distances are fixed and remain constant.500m.0kg object is at +3.0cm mark. Example 5 A meter stick is found to balance at the 49.00-kg object is at -0.00m.50 kg + 4.

3. 2.Solution: xcg = = = 39.00 m). Draw a simple. The beam is uniform.866T)(6. From ∑Fy = 0 T = 343 N. and apply the equilibrium condition for torque. 49. Draw a separate free-body diagram for each object.00m) .2mstick + 1960g mstick = 139 g.P8.0N. 3.866T = 683 n. .14.00m long.7mstick + 500 g = 39. the goodies weigh 80.0. Arbitrarily choose an origin for calculating the torques acting on the object. V = 980 N . neat diagram of the system.(80. Example 6 A hungry 700N bear walks out on a beam in an attempt to retrieve some goodies hanging at the end as shown in Fig.00m) . 4. find the tension in the wire and the components of the reaction force at the hinge. When the bear is at x=1. a) b) Draw a free-body diagram for the beam.00m. and is 6. Solve for the unknowns in the set of simultaneous equations obtained from step 3 and 4. 5. Equating this to zero gives: τ ∑ From ∑Fx =0 H = 0.00 m) + (0.500T = 171 N.2 cm. Resolve the forces into components and apply the equilibrium condition for the forces.9 Examples of objects in equilibrium Problem-Solving strategy 1. weighs 200N. then =(-700N)(1.(200N)(3. c) If the wire can withstand a maximum tension of 900N.0 N)(6. what is the maximum distance the bear can walk before the wire breaks?? Solution: (a) (b) left end See the diagram below: If x = 1 m.

00 m) + (500 N)(4.00 m) = 0.m-long uniform.00 m high is suspended from a horizontal.00 m) .00 angle with the vertical. in the cable.866 T)(6. τ ∑ left end =(-700 N)(x) . Summing the torques about the left end of the rod yields -Wrod(3. giving (0.00 m) = (100 N)(3.00 m) -Wsign(4.(c) If T = 900 N Equating this to zero and solving for x gives: x = 5. or Fv = 216 N .00 m wide and 3.00. Find the horizontal and vertical components of force exerted on the left end of the rod by the hinge.00 m). Summing force components in the vertical direction yields Fv + Tsin60° .(80.00 m) + (779.14 m.00 m)+ (Tsin60°)(6. ICE CREAM SHOP SOLUTION: (a) The free body diagram of the horizontal rod is shown to the right.00 m).0 N)(6. Example 7: A 500N uniform rectangular sign 4.(200 N)(3. The left end the rod is supported by a hinge and the right end is supported by a thin cable making a 30.Wrod .Wsign = 0. or T = 443 N. 100N rod. (b) Summing the force components in the horizontal direction yields Fh . a) b) Find the tension.Tcos60° = 0. or Fh = 443 cos60° = 222 N.4 N)(6. 6. as indicated in figure below. T.