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Special Edition on Consumer Satisfaction – Global Perspective

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E-CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR IN THE ONLINE COMMODITIES MARKET
George N. Lodorfos, Tom A. Trosterud, Chris Whitworth Abstract
This paper investigates the factors determining e-consumers re-purchasing behaviour in the ebusiness to consumer market. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is used as a theoretical framework to interpret consumers’ behaviour in the online environment and to study the antecedents of e-purchasing decisions. This study adopted a quantitative methodological approach within the context of the online CD, Books, music, magazines and DVDs purchasing industry, surveying 211 consumers with prior purchasing experience in this range of products. The questionnaires were designed using local focus groups from a similar population to identify the most salient beliefs influencing consumers’ attitude towards e-purchasing. Notably, these beliefs were found to be ‘trust’, ‘security’ and ‘convenience’. The survey’s results (n=211), revealed that consumers’ attitude towards past e-purchases had significant impact on their intent to re-purchase and that the consumers’ experience with an e-brand significantly affected their beliefs regarding the importance of trust, security and convenience in the online environment. Key words: E-commerce, E-loyalty, E-brand, E-security, E-trust, Convenience, Consumers Behaviour, Re-purchase.

Introduction
The terms “Electronic Commerce”, “Internet marketing” and “on-line shopping” are now commonly used by business executives and consumers throughout the world as businesses are recognising the potential opportunities for commerce in the on-line business environment (Karakaya and Charlton, 2001). The potential size of the world-wide market that has resulted from the exponential growth of Internet adoption has fuelled more interest in e-commerce and makes the Internet very attractive to e-retailers and e-businesses (Georgiades et al., 2000). World-wide the number of Internet users is steadily increasing. Notably, the Worldwide Internet Population in 2004 was 934 million with estimated growth for 2005 of 14% (Source: Computer Industry Almanac www.clickz.com). Similarly, the volume of internet based purchases as well as the amount of money spent on epurchases continues to increase in a steady arc as consumers’ confidence in online shopping increases. Indeed, global e-commerce revenue from e-purchases was over £3.5 trillion in the end of 2004 (Reinhardt, 2000; Wilkerson, 2004; Finfacts, 2005). Western Europe purchased products online for £0.83 trillion in 2004 compared to £ 35.7 billion in 2001 and the same year the epurchases in the United States of America were of £ 1.77 trillion compared to £ 115.5 billion for 2001 (Finfacts, 2005). Estimates from the UK online annual report (2003) also illustrate the growth of Internet users within the UK market. Notably in 2000, 28% of internet users had bought goods or services online. By 2003 this figure had reached 52%. The same report suggests that UK internet users are the second most likely to buy online after US consumers. Furthermore, the most common set of products sold online are console games, CDs and DVDs (Forrester, 2005; Kelley et al., 2003). As online gross sales are rapidly increasing, e-retailers on the Internet have multiplied over the last 5 years. Despite the increasing number of online users,

© George N. Lodorfos, Tom A. Trosterud, Chris Whitworth, 2006

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Innovative Marketing, Volume 2, Issue 3, 2006

products offered, and e-tailers trading, it has been extensively reported that there is considerable resistance amongst many Internet users to engage in online business to consumer transactions, primarily due to concerns about privacy, security and the trustworthiness of the Internet (Aldridge et al., 1997; Chellappa et al., 2002; Devaraj et al., 2003; Forcht et al., 1995). In addition, as the number of independent e-business and e-retailers is increasing the competition is getting more intense, and it becomes more difficult to maintain e-customers loyalty to the brand. Friedman (1999), and Sirdeshmukh et al. (2002) argue that consumers that engage in online business to consumer transactions can find another provider to meet their expectations just by the click of a mouse. As a result, they face minimal barriers to switching to another brand, especially in cases of little differentiation amongst competing products, – the case in the music industry, or if they do not trust the online provider. Therefore, Farmer (1999) argues that if there is little or no product differentiation and/or the e-consumers are concerned about the trustworthiness of the etailer, the need for brand recognition or established customer relationships to sustain loyalty is higher. This case is made even stronger by research conducted by The Boston Consulting Group which estimates that it costs internet-only retailers more than twice as much to acquire a new customer than for store-based retailers, and more than 7 times as much than for a catalogue-based retailer (Source: www.retailers.com). In addition, Reichheld and Schefter (2000) suggested that the high costs of acquiring new online customers may lead to unprofitable relationships for a number of years (see also Ribbink et al., 2004). The proliferation of commercial activities on the Internet has a significant impact on the business environment and on many academic traditions (Grewal et al., 1998; Malaga et al., 2000; Rogerson et al., 1999). Therefore, an investigation into the drivers of e-brand loyalty in the online marketplace assists in developing successful online marketing strategies. Consequently, based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Azjen 1985) and the adapted model of this theory by George (2002), this paper investigates the antecedents of online brand loyalty intention in the Business to Consumer (B2C) market, within the context of the online CD purchasing industry. The outline of this paper is as follows: Firstly, research models and theoretical frameworks on the factors affecting consumers’ e-purchasing behaviour are reviewed. Secondly, the methodology used to test the consumers’ behaviour in the online environment is described and finally, the research findings are presented and discussed and recommendations are made.

Background to the study
Consumer Behaviour on the Internet The Internet provides an information-rich environment offering to the consumers’ continuous upto-date information, about different suppliers, products and/or services (Bruner, 1997; ChungHoon, 2003; Settles, 1995). As a result of the information available to the consumers and the ease of switching from one supplier to another, the power as Lindstrom (2002) argues has moved away from the brand and onto the consumer. Previous researchers have studied aspects related to consumers’ behaviour online. For example, Rowley considered how consumers search the Web for information. Rowley (1996 and 2000), Morganosky and Cude (2000) studied the criteria of econsumers’ selection of products; Merrilees and Fry (2002) studied how consumers develop brand attitudes about e-retailers. The factors determining the consumers’ purchasing decisions are changing as they embrace e-commerce with expectations about efficiency, service and support. Notably, Schultz (2000) describes e-customer loyalty in cyberspace as an evolution from the traditional product driven, marketer controlled concept towards a distribution driven, consumer controlled, and technology-facilitated concept. Hence, understanding the drivers and dynamics of how customer loyalty is developed and maintained in cyberspace is a critical tool for marketers developing future marketing strategies in this area (Gommans et al., 2001). Finally, studies analysing gender issues related to e-consumers’ purchasing behaviour have shown that there are gender differences in the usage of the internet in almost every aspect (see Donthu

2002. McCole. However.. Kung et al. 1998. are: beliefs about brand. Customer loyalty has sometimes been operationalised as a behaviour (hard-core loyalty. ease and effort have also been identified as factors affecting e-purchase decision (Devaraj et al. repeat purchase probability. Quint. Donthu and Garcia.. 2002). However. 1979). 2003. Lodorfos et al. customer loyalty has been measured as the long-term choice probability for a brand (Dekimpe et al. experience and convenience (see Chung-Hoon. He also identified that those e-tailers of CDs and books with the lower prices did not make the most sales. Webber. Fayawardhena.. On the contrary longitudinal studies according to Fayawardhena et al. This may be changing now because as Fayawardhena (2003) identified the online prices have risen despite the fact that the purchasing cost is .. Sheth et al. In part this is assumed to be due to the belief that a primary role of an online store is to provide price related information and product information to help reduce consumers’ search and purchasing costs (see Bakos. 1997. In addition. Price incentives were notably the motivation for early e-shoppers expecting to find the lowest prices from e-tailers as a reward for their risk taking. Zeithaml et al. 1996). 2003. Kung et al. The belief that price is a primary purchasing determinant for online buyers is reinforced by the success of ‘auction sites’ (Kung et al. (2003). 2002. Constantinides.. time. Lodorfos and Dennis (2005). 2002. and willingness to pay a price premium (Narayandas. Jeuland. (2004) and Smith (2000). the online dispersion of prices was high (25% for CDs and 33% for books). price. Attitudinal approaches focused mainly on brand recommendations (Boulding et al. Online brand loyalty There are a number of definitions of brand loyalty focusing on different parameters such as behavioural and attitudinal brand loyalty (see East. 1996. 1997. Reichfeld and Schefter (2000). (2001).. 1993). intention-to-buy). Lodorfos et al. much less attention has been paid to e-brand loyalty with some exceptions. for the purpose of this study we use a definition of brand loyalty given by Dick and Bashu (1994) which conceptualises loyalty as the “strength of the relationship between an individual’s relative attitude towards a brand and repeat patronage”. 1997). repurchase intention (Anderson and Sullivan. 1986. Kung et al. Samuelson and Sandvik. 1999). such as: Gommans et al. In addition to the above issues. This suggests that price may not always be the determining purchase factor for e-consumers. 2002). there is the perception that the Internet will lead to increased price competition and the standardisation of prices especially when products or services are incapable of significant differentiation (Jarvenpaa and Todd. a study by Brynjolfsson (2000) which considered pricing comparisons of CDs and books on the Internet to those offered by High Street stores identified that whilst prices were between 9 and 16 per cent lower on the Internet. 2004. As behaviour. 1990. commitment. and other) and at other times as an attitude (brand preference. 2000). 1999.. Factors affecting the consumer’s online purchase decision Previous research into online brand loyalty suggests that consumers weight differently the importance of factors influencing their purchasing decisions in the online market than those in the traditional shopping environments. While academic research is continuously engaged in refining various conceptualisations for customer loyalty (see Jacoby and Chestnut. Kongaonkar and Wolin. 2003). 2003. Phau.Special Edition on Consumer Satisfaction – Global Perspective 79 and Garcia. 1990).. Kahn et al. 1996). Retlev. Factors that have been extensively covered in previous research as having a significant effect on the consumers’ purchasing decisions online.. 1999.. 1993).. Ribbink et al. trust. resistance to superior products (Narayandas. or as a minimum differential needed to prevent switching (Raju et al.. 1978. (2003) suggest that this gender bias is weakening. 1997. which in turn may affect their e-brand loyalty. 1999. 1991). 1998). Price In addition to the rapid growth of the Internet population there has been an emphasis on Internet exchanges occurring at lower prices than in conventional outlets.

1998). Mayer et al. Therefore. According to Hampton-Sosa and Koufaris (2002). 1999 and O’Keefe et al. However. However. Urban. 2004. 2001). Considering that risk is a function of the probability that a hazard arises and the consequences of the hazard (Schneider. Jarvenpaa et al. 1998. 1996). according to a number of studies previous experience with an e-brand or value recognition of a product affects the consumers’ views about the importance of the purchasing price (Fayawardhena. 2002). Trust and security Currall and Judge (1995) defined trust as an individual’s reliance on another party under conditions of dependence and risk. Szymanski and Hise’s (2000) research suggests that site design and convenience have . the etailer’s reputation or the e-buyer’s levels of confidence. Furthermore. 1992. Reynolds. Reputation and size have also been frequently suggested as factors that contribute to consumers trust in a e-seller organization (Anderson and Weitz. (1998) argued. 2003. Thus. 1997. 1984. Volume 2. 1989. however for the purpose of this study we focus on two aspects of convenience. then the trustor will engage in a risk taking relationship. 2000. an individual’s trusting behaviour depends on the nature of the consequences. and confidence (See Lynch and Lundquist. McKinsey and Co. 2003. 2001. 2002). (2003) did not find e-trust to be a very important factor affecting purchasing decision when they surveyed 350 university students. 1999. This may be due to their previous experience with the e-tailer. 1996. Quelch and Klein. Lohse and Spiller. Morgan and Hunt. which demonstrates that e-shoppers are convenience oriented (see Constantinides. both identified that trust increases customers’ intention to purchase a product from a company on the web. Forrester (2000) found that many consumers consider that lack of security is the main inhibiting factor to adopting on-line purchase behaviour. There is much academic discourse surrounding security. studies from both the consumer and business perspectives. As a result of this. the level of trust seems to be of particular importance given the absence of physical exposure and contact with the e-tailer (Kent and Lynch. and Moorman et al. 1993). If the level of trust surpasses the threshold of perceived risk. and Grunert. 2006 still one of the customers’ key concerns. 2002. Therefore. This finding is supported by other research. for firms to develop strategies based on trust in order to establish positive relationships with their customers. it is important as Hoffman et al.. Doney and Cannon. it is important to know the levels of econsumers’ trust in order to be able to understand e-consumers’ behaviour and decision making. Ganesan. 1997. Donthu and Garcia. (2000) and Lynch (2001). Studying how trust is developed on the internet. Similarly. Issue 3. risk reduction may be linked to the consumers’ experience of the service (Berry. as Rutter (2001) argued. it should be noted that Ribbink et al. perceived company trustworthiness is positively associated with customers intention to purchase and re-purchase from the same e-tailer. 1998). promise fulfilment. A number of scholars. Therefore. Urban et al. There are a number of definitions in the literature for convenience linked to e-consumers purchasing behaviour. 1994. 2002). McCole. suggested that consumer’s state of knowledge is an important dimension of trust (Butler and Cantrell. recent graduates and academics on the purchase of books and CDs online. 2000). while trusting behaviour is the assumption of risk. Doney and Cannon. trust in a brand is established over time and will grow or decline with experience (Rutter. Convenience Studies investigating e-consumers motivations to purchase products online suggest that convenience is a primary factor affecting e-consumers purchasing decision (Tracy. 1995). scholars suggest that e-buyers’ trust is based upon their confidence in the relationship with the exchange partner (Moorman et al. demonstrate that the perceived risk of using the Internet has been a major deterrent in its take up (see Eastlick and Lotz. 1998).. In the context of high-consequence systems such as etransactions. the previous experience that a consumer has had with an e-brand will greatly affect the level of trust and loyalty that shows towards the e-brand (Ratnasingham.80 Innovative Marketing. e-satisfaction and ease of use. Korganonkar and Wolin. Concluding. 1998). (1995) further clarified the relationship between trust and risk: trust is the willingness to assume risk. 1999).. Merrillees and Fry.. 1994. risk avoidance behaviour may arise.

the more likely should be its performance” (East. These findings are also supported by Brown et al. according to O’Cass (2001). Theory of Planned Behaviour The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Azjen. Szymanski and Hise. Experience In the literature on e-commerce.. According to Jiang and Rosenbloom (2005). 2000). Furthermore. Hoyer and Macinnis (2001) state that the past experience with a brand is by far the most critical factor in brand choice. Szymanski and Hise. 1990. As the principal predictor of behaviour. Wolfinbarger and Gilly. 1997. 2000). 2001). Wolfinbarger and Gilly. East (1990) explains that repetitive brand purchase action depends mainly on previous experience with the product. comfort. site speed. 1999). Jarvenpaa and Todd. (2001) suggest that the more experienced the e-buyers are. 2001. satisfaction in this context is the consumer’s satisfaction based on ease of use criteria prior to the purchase (see Alba et al. (2003) and Jiang and Rosenbloom (2005). One of the central themes in TPB is the individual’s intention to perform a given behaviour (see Figure 1). information architecture. 73 percent of e-customers will leave an internet page and/or site if it takes more than two to three clicks to get to where they want. convenience includes expectations. Therefore. Armitage and Conner. Huber et al. intention is regarded as the motivation necessary to engage in a particular behaviour: the stronger the intention to engage in a behaviour is. site design. and is a widely used and supported model to predict consumer behaviour. The Theory of Planned Behaviour . Wolfinbanger and Gilly. 2001. atmosphere. Attitude towards the behaviour Subjective norm Intention Behaviour Perceived Behavioural Control Source: Ajzen (1985). 2001). 1985). 2003. accessibility and search facilities (Constantinides. Supporting this argument. the more confident they are about doing transactions online and the less concerned about site’s credibility while. 1997. consumers satisfied with their previous purchasing experiences are more likely to express brand loyal behaviour. Kent et al. Fig. 2004. In addition to satisfaction and ease of use. as a consumer’s experience with a brand will affect the attitudes that the consumer holds towards the brand as well as its intention to purchase from the brand in the future.. Ease of use includes saving time. site navigation.. 1. Fry and Merrilees (2001) found that those consumers with high levels of perceived security risk were more likely to reduce their levels of risk perception via in-depth experience with the internet site. selection and control as attributes (Walsh et al. is an extension of the Theory of Reasoned Action (Azjen and Fishbein. (2001) as well as Jiang and Rosenbloom (2005) suggest that e-customers satisfaction criteria affect their purchasing attitude and their attitude to the eretailer. ordering and payment process.Special Edition on Consumer Satisfaction – Global Perspective 81 a significant influence on e-satisfaction levels. Experience has been recognised as an important factor leading to brand loyalty. 1970). there has been extensive research on consumers’ shopping experience and their evaluations based on perceptions concerning e-brands (Griffith et al.

These intentions were identified through previous research. Conner and Armitage. 1996. 1991. Issue 3. Experience hypotheses H1. Intent is preceded by attitudes toward e-brand loyalty (see Figure 2). H2. Sparks. 2. 1996. relevant to the behaviour.g Ajzen. intentions and behaviour. ‘price’ and ‘convenience’. These determinants are tested within the framework of the model. Godin and Kok. Ajzen’s conceptualization of the TPB implies a causal link between beliefs. 2006 A series of narrative and quantitative reviews (e. In general TPB does not specify the particular beliefs that are used in the model in relation to the behaviour. 1994. and the adapted model of this theory by George (2002). The two antecedent constructs are: the intent to be loyal to the e-brand and. Volume 2. this is left to be determined by the researcher. These salient beliefs are considered to be the prevailing determinants of a person’s intentions and actions (Fishbein. Extended Theoretical Framework: Theory of Planned Behaviour The research model used in this study and illustrated in Figure 2. The more experience the consumer has with the Internet the weaker the consumers’ beliefs about the importance of security in their purchasing decision. is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Azjen 1985). Through these hypotheses intent is measured as a result of previous experience since past behaviour is the best predictor of future behaviour (East. The more experience the consumer has with the Internet the weaker the consumers’ beliefs about the importance of price in their purchasing decision. The theory postulates that behaviour is a function of salient beliefs. The beliefs that are poised to help analyse attitudes towards e-brand loyalty were determined through preliminary primary research. from which hypotheses were deducted and tested through primary research. Price H2 H5 H3 Attitude to buy H7 Intent to repurchase Experience Convenience Intent to Buy H1 Security H4 H6 Trust Fig. van den Putte. 1991) have shown the efficacy of the TPB in predicting wide range of intentions and behaviours. attitudes. . as these factors may affect consumers’ intent to be brand loyal. which was then tested using primary data collected by questionnaire. The revised research model used for this study investigates the determinants of brand loyalty in the online environment by the arrangement of the critical variables that influence online brand loyalty intentions. Research Model Seven hypotheses have been deducted from the literature review and confimed by the focus group. 1990). 1967). and were found to be ‘trust’ (with concerns about security). then applied to the research model. Conner and Sparks. e-brand experience.82 Innovative Marketing. 1998.

1985). Music. The more positive the consumers' attitude towards an e-retailer.. Security H4. while the race and education demographics were balanced (George. previous studies have suggested that students and young professionals are relevant samples for research on e-purchasing behaviour (see Georgiades et al. The online commodity industry was deemed suitable for the purpose of the study due to its strong presence and fast growth in the online environment. ‘security’. Research Design Data Collection and Sample Data were collected by using self-administrated questionnaires distributed using purposive sampling. The strength and outcome evaluation of the identified beliefs about the perceived ‘convenience’. music. In addition. 2003. Convenience H3. 2002). In addition to the consumers’ attitudes and beliefs. 2001. Therefore. magazines and DVDs online was used (N=211). High perceived trust in an e-retailer positively influence consumers’ attitude to buy. security. O’Cass. Focus groups were used for the deduction of the most salient beliefs influencing the consumers’ attitudes towards e-brand loyalty which are positioned as pre-determinants of the consumers’ attitude in the research model illustrated in Figure 1. High perception of security on an Internet site positively influences consumers’ trust. books. price and trust on their attitude to purchase The next four hypotheses relate to the effects of e-consumers perceived convenience. as the age and income distributions are very similar. High perceived convenience on an e-tailer’s site positively influences consumers’ attitude to purchase commodities online. the study infers the respondents’ evaluations from their expressions of experience with an e-brand and intent to be brand loyal. The stronger the perceived price/(value) for a consumer in an e-retailer. Magazines or books online at least once. price and trust on their attitude to purchase. DVDs. the greater the attitude to purchase. a ‘typical case’ sample of consumers who have previously purchased CD. . 2000. they had previously purchased CDs. Results from the piloting of the questionnaire to 10 students and 7 professionals – representatives of the sample group – were also used to finalise the questionnaire design. These hypotheses are tested through a statistical investigation into the relationships between the overall variables measured through the primary research. ‘price’ and ‘trust’ provide substantive information about the attitudinal considerations that guide people’s decisions to engage or not in the behaviour under consideration (Azjen.Special Edition on Consumer Satisfaction – Global Perspective 83 The effect of e-consumers perceived convenience. security. The sample met the minimum conditions needed for this study in that they were familiar and experienced with the internet for information search. Trus H6. 2000b). This population is considered to be appropriate for this hybrid study. 2001).. The effect of attitude on intent Attitude to buy H7. and VanderHeijden. the stronger their intent to re-purchase. and finally were students and young professionals that comprises a major segment in the commodity buyer market (Forrester. Ribbink et al. Price H5.

The correlation matrix revealed many coefficients of .2 percent) were still students. the attitude variable data was measured for reliability using Cronbach’s alpha – this was selected due to the large number of question items that were used to evaluate the consumers’ attitude towards e-brand loyalty.9 percent) access the Internet once a week or less. 27 percent between 6 to 10 times and 8. and Kaiser. 23. Forty two percent of the respondents were in the age group from 18 to 24 years old. Volume 2. Prior to performing PCA the suitability of data for factor analysis was assessed.6 (Fidell. Therefore.5 percent only once. explaining 68. Similarly. The items of the attitude scales were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) using SPSS.3 percent were professionals.2 percent of the respondents have purchased commodities more than 20 times. Furthermore.70 as the basis of internal consistency whereby two constructs pass the reliability test. The second factor has a Cronbach’s alpha of 0. Therefore using Catell’s (1966) scree test. Issue 3. . 2001). three components were retained for further analysis with Varimax rotation to aid interpretation of the components.668 and the third factor has the Cronbach’s alpha value of 0. 2001). The majority of the respondents (60. The mean was calculated to find the average number of times the respondents access the Internet on an average week which was between 11 and 20 times a week. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted as a means of data reduction. Inspection of the screeplot revealed a break after the third component. to see if the face validity of the items held (Pallant. Cronbach’s alpha is typically used (Nunally.5 percent of the respondents said that they access the Internet more than 20 times a week while only 2 respondents (0.7 were considered to be measuring the same underlying attribute (Nunnally. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure was 0. age and occupation.84 Innovative Marketing. As a test for reliability of construct measurement. 1974) and the Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity (Bartlett. from which 82 percent had part-time jobs and 39. of the products that this study’s focus is on. Table 1 shows the Cronbach alpha for the three factors related to attitude. 1970. 2006 Results Sample Respondents were required to state their gender and results illustrated similar proportion to Ribbink et al. 1996. The mean was calculated to find the average number of respondents’ e-purchases.1 per cent of the variance..803. (2003) with 46 percent of the respondents being female and 54 percent male.05 level 2 tailed) and I am not loyal to e-retailers that I had a bad experience with and I feel secure making payments on the Internet show a significant difference between the age groups ‘18 to 24’ and ‘25 to 30’ at the 5 percent level.626 which can be accepted as reliable constructs because these factors are newly developed (Heijden et al. Reliability In terms of internet experience 45. Scales that produced Cronbach alpha coefficients greater than 0. 1954) reached statistical significance. factor one is very reliable with Cronbach’s alpha of 0. 1978) and were thus reliable. and 45 percent were in the age group from 25 to 30. supporting the factorability of the correlation matrix. 1967).3 and above. Notably. The variance explained by each factor is shown in Table 1. From the 39 items – The greater choice of commodities online is important to me shows a significant difference between the genders (male and female) at the 5 percent level (0.686 exceeding the recommended value of . A t-test was conducted to assess whether there are significant relationships between the consumers’ responses and their gender. Sekaran (2000) suggests that the value of alpha should be at least 0. which was between 6 and 10 purchases. PCA revealed the presence of 3 components with eigenvalues exceeding 1.

743 .000 .363 .635 .404 .356 0.695 .347 .380 .325 .644 .423 .495 .501 .416 .686 741 0.415 0.696 .803 .668 Factor Loading 2 3 Reliability Analysis 0.638 .454 .383 .573 .626 .Special Edition on Consumer Satisfaction – Global Perspective 85 Table 1 Factor Analysis for attitude variable Factors and Factor Components 1 Factor 1 "Attitude" related to "Security" I am concerned about e-security when purchasing online I am concerned about online fraud when I carry out transactions online I am concerned about private information and credit card security online I have security concerns when purchasing from a new e-retailer I am concerned about viruses and malware when purchasing online I have to trust an e-retailer before making a purchase I feel secure making payments on the internet I always buy commodities from the same e-retailer I purchase only from e-retailers that also have offline presence If my previous experience with an e-retailer has been good I would recommend it to other people I am willing to give my credit card number only to online companies that use secure payment transactions (SSL) Factor 2 "Attitude” related to "Price" If my previous experience with an e-retailer has been good I will visit this site first when I want to buy within the same product category I am prepared to pay more to purchase a commodity from an eretailer that I trust I am a price sensitive customer I will search for the cheapest e-retailer I expect commodities online to be cheaper than offline I do not switch from one e-retailer to another when buying commodities online I am not prepared to give private information and credit card details to online companies If my previous experience with an e-retailer has been good I would recommend it to other people Factor 3 "Attitude" related to "Convenience" The easiness of comparison shopping online is important to me To be able to purchase commodities at any time on any day is important to me The greater choice of commodities online is important to me I buy commodities online because it is less time consuming than offline It is less time consuming to buy commodities online than offline Keiser-Meyer Olkin (KMO) Sampling Adequacy Bartlet test of sphericity Bartlet test of significance .393 .351 0.407 .433 .

530** 1 . Issue 3.088 . Volume 2.304**).298** .236** 1 .095 .588** .474**).068 and significance p<0.312** . there are correlations between overall attitude and experience (. There are also strong correlations between overall attitude and security (. security and convenience).012). overall intent and experience (. linearity and homoscedasticity.8 percent of the respondents pay on collection for their e-purchases.155* 1 . convenience (.117 .180* . On the contrary although only 2. and the other overall variables used for this study. is illustrated in Table 3. (2004) suggest that there is correlation between consumers satisfaction and payment methods as well as satisfaction and e-loyalty.098 .370** . therefore further research should be done on different payment methods and satisfaction. 9.034 1 . there is some correlation between attitude and price (.304** . The association between the dependant variable (intent).220** 1 . but they suggest that it is important for e-tailers to offer a number of alternative payment methods to their customers. credit cards are the preferred method of epayments to 82 percent of them.052 .625** .341**) and overall intent and trust (.180*) and trust and price (.518**).146* .012 .728.688**).210** .273** 1 B C D E F G H I J Note: **Correlation is significant at the 0.146*). Durbin-Watson equal to 2.583** .751** . our empirical findings do not show significant difference between the used and preferred methods of payment. The results shown in Table 2 illustrate that the strongest relationship exists between trust and security (. Furthermore. The majority of the respondents (87.611** -.308**). .485** . there are no evidence of any correlation between price and experience (.502** .175* .156* . Preliminary analysis was performed to ensure no violation of the assumptions of normality.341** 1 .572** . FTest 171.208** . 2006 The last two questions in the general section of the questionnaire tested the respondents preferred.474** .057 . and independent variables (trust.518** . with R2=0. Validity The Pearson correlation matrix was used to state the relationship between the variables in the research model and illustrate the relationship between the factors constituting the overall attitude variable.297** . Furthermore.819** . however. Ribbink et al. and trust (. However.01 level (2-tailed) *Correlation is significant at the 0.86 Innovative Marketing. In addition.086 .073 1 . demonstrates that these data fit into the equation.166* .2.5 percent mentioned pay on collection as their preferred payment method for e-purchases.082 . However. compared to used. payment method online.004 .588**).7 percent) use credit cards when purchasing products online.688** .05 level (2-tailed) To examine the attitude factors that contribute to the consumers’ intention to be e-brand loyal multiple regression analysis was used.00.308** 1 .099 . Table 2 Pearson correlation matrix Variables Overall Experience Overall Security Overall Price Overall Convenience Overall Trust Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Overall Attitude Overall Intent Meaning A B C D E F G H I J A 1 .115 .

Pavlou (2003) supports this finding.268 0. Kung et al. Tracy (1998) state that convenience is the primary motivation to purchase products online. Discussion The results generated from testing the relationship between the consumer’s convenience with an eretailer and their attitude to purchase were found to be strong. even though trust is influencing a customer’s attitude to purchase. which indicates that trust plays an important role in consumers intent to purchase from the same brand. Lodorfos et al. Supporting this finding Constantinides (2004). only 50 percent of the sample thought that being able to purchase at any time and any day were important to them. is not a key factor to convenience something that contradicts to Constantinides (2004). and indicates that trust plays an important role for the customer when choosing an e-retailer on the Internet. trust and convenience contribute to e-consumers attitudes to re-purchase from the same brand. The multiple regression analysis presented in Table 3 shows statistical evidence that security. (2003). 50 percent of our respondents say that they would be loyal to an e-retailer that they trust. consumers said that to shop online in order to save time. Furthermore. 92 percent of the respondents stated that product information is a very important factor to their convenience when shopping online. Lodorfos and Dennis (2005). but this does not necessarily mean e- . Finally. a user friendly and easy navigable site was found to be very important to the respondents as more than 90 percent argued that a user friendly site is very important to them.000 Note: ***: P<0. which contradicts with Constantinides (2004) findings that suggest comparison shopping as a major part of e-consumers convenience. price does not have a significant impact on the e-consumers attitudes to re-purchase. there is not a clear definition of what could be perceived as an easy navigable site. Konganonkar and Wolin (1999).215 0. trust is found to be the third highest contributor to consumers’ attitude to purchase. suggesting that trust is a prerequisite for customers purchasing behaviour.Special Edition on Consumer Satisfaction – Global Perspective 87 Table 3 Multiple regression analysis. Donthu and Garcia (1999).068*** Significance 0. (2003). and indicates that convenience is the main contributor to a customer’s attitude to purchase from an e-retailer. attitude factors Dependent value: Total Attitude There is evidence to support the relationship between three of the attitude factors and the intent to re-purchase online.728 0.000 Multiple regression analysis. Furthermore. On the contrary. attitude factors Beta Trust Security Convenience R Square Adjusted R Square F Durbin Watson 2. This finding supports Hypothesis 3 (H3). This finding supports Hypothesis 6 (H6). However. our results support Jiang and Rosenbloom’s (2005) findings that ease of use despite individuals criteria is a factor that affects e-consumers overall convenience. This finding is consistent with existing/previous studies such as Joines et al. Notably. and re-purchase a product from the same e-tailer we do not have enough evidence to support the link between trust and e-brand loyalty. The results of this study suggest similarly to Ha’s (2004) and Heuvelman’s (2000) that security is the second highest contributor to a customer’s attitude to purchase commodities online especially for e-consumers shopping with an e-retailer for the first time. Although. Furthermore.590 0.000 0. (2002). 60 percent of the respondents believed comparison shopping to be an important factor to their convenience.000 0. Similarly.313 0.723 171. Wolfinbarger and Gilly (2001) and Szymanski and Hise (2000) findings. Notably.

(2003) findings that price perception is likely to influence attitudes and intentions to purchase commodities which contradicts with Gupta’s (2001) and Lodorfos and Dennis (2005 findings who suggest that attitudes related to price are not of significant influence on consumers intent to re-purchase from the same e-brand.. our findings support Brynjolfsson and Smith’s (2000) findings that the cheapest e-tailer does not necessarily make the most sales (see also Jiang and Rosenbom. intent to re-purchase. (2004) findings. 1999). our results support Hypothesis 7 (H7). experience. 2003. 2003 and Lodorfos and Dennis. Joines et al. it does not explain much of the dependent variable. 83 percent of our sample supports the statement that good experience enhances their trust to an e-retailer. based on the regression analysis these factors only play a part in explaining e-consumers intent to buy. as 82 percent of the sample indicated that they tend to repurchase from an e-retailer that they have experience with. as there is significant correlation between consumers’ attitude and intent. The correlation also indicates that price. This view is based on the fact that 75 percent of the sample will search for the cheapest e-retailer. However. These findings support Kelley et al. however. Notably. Furthermore. However. 2005. Issue 3. However. Furthermore. trust and security are related to consumers intent to purchase. 2003).’s (2002) findings. Security was also found to be the most important and second most important factor affecting consumers’ first e-purchase and their repeated purchases respectively. 60 percent of the sample suggested that experience does not change their views about price which contradicts with Kelley et al. Hypothesis 5 (H5) is supported by our findings.. as price and attitude to purchase have a strong correlation. sixty nine percent of our respondents highlighted the fact that they have to trust the eretailer first and then make a purchase. Notably. Kung et al. although it is supported from the literature review it is not supported from our empirical data. As for Hypothesis 2 (H2).. This supports extensive previous research highlighted in the literature review. In addition. 2004.... 90 percent of the sample states that the perceived value is of more importance than price. and particularly Ajzen’s (1985) research finding that “the intention to purchase is closely related to the attitude”. our empirical data do not support the relationship between econsumers experience and the importance of price to their purchasing decision. However. Finally. Volume 2. Kelley et al. and therefore the e-consumers perceived value may affect their price sensitivity. Our findings do not support Hypothesis 1 (H1) because there is no correlation between experience and security. However. similarly to Park and Kim’s (2003) and McKnight et al. which also supports Ribbink et al. This is supported by our findings in both the correlation and the regression analysis as trust is showing a relationship with intent. attitude and intent to purchase. 2005). 2002. only 34 percent of the sample was concerned about virus or malware when shopping online. only 48 percent of our sample is concerned about online fraud (see Salkin. This is also supported by our research. This is also supported by Liberman and Stashevsky (2002) as their findings showed that security concerns was the main factor affecting Internet purchasing expansion rate. despite the fact that 70 percent of the respondents are concerned with e-security only 20 percent of the sample said that they feel insecure when making payments online. et al. although price may not be the main factor affecting consumers’ behaviour online we believe that price is still an important factor both for first time buyers and repeated purchasers. (2003) and Jiang and Rosenbloom (2005) findings that customers rely on the entire experience when forming inten- . supporting Kelley et al. and in addition there is a strong correlation between experience. Hypothesis 4 (H4) is supported as our analysis shows a very strong relationship between security and trust supporting previous studies’ findings (see Ribbink et al. Similarly. contradicting Park and Kim’s (2003) findings that suggest that there is a correlation between experience and security.’s (2003) findings that loyalty reduces price sensitivity in the case of commodities. 2006 brand loyal customers. Park and Kim (2003) also highlighted that experience may enhance customer loyalty as experience is closely linked to consumers attitude and intent to purchase and re-purchase. while 40 percent will purchase from the cheapest e-retailer. Lodorfos.88 Innovative Marketing. despite Visa’s statistics that show that 50 percent of credit card fraud transactions are online.

Hypotheses 1 and 2 were not supported by this study’s primary research despite being supported in previous research studies. According to the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen. or willingness. music. magazines and DVDs online amongst those e-consumers who have previously purchased any of the above products. beliefs. the findings from the literature review indicated that the intent to be brand loyal can be considered as an accurate predictor of future intention to repurchase from the same brand. and (2) a normative component (subjective norm). 4. 1975). Another interesting finding is that intent to purchase is not correlated with convenience. The items used to measure the constructs in the theoretical model in this study. it is limited in that it is confined to a single typology. however for alternative product categories the normative component of the theory may have also to be taken into consideration. Books. e-customers show strong beliefs about the importance of convenience. the findings from this study are suggestive of the determinants of e-consumers repurchasing behaviour in relation to the purchasing of commodities such as CD.Special Edition on Consumer Satisfaction – Global Perspective 89 tions to purchase products online. Despite the fact that we did not intend to prove a relationship between intention to be e-brand loyal and e-brand loyalty behaviour. 5. Based on this study’s findings it is concluded that managers and marketers in order to acquire and retain consumers in the online environment should understand and develop strategies based on econsumers attitudes towards re-purchasing related to convenience – with concerns about ease of use and product information – trust and security. Despite these limitations. However. Hence. In conclusion. 6 and 7 were in line with the expectations stated. the results of this primary research for Hypotheses 3. behaviour can best be predicted from a person’s intention. Conclusions This study investigated the factors determining consumers’ intent to re-purchase in the online environment. proposed to be a function of two conceptually independent components: (1) an attitudinal component. Furthermore. trust and security and perceived value in their decision re-purchase. to perform the behaviour. and consequently. attitudes and intent to purchasing and repurchasing. were utilised for the first time. The primary research undertaken for the purpose of this study enabled a further exploration of consumers’ experience. The research reveals that the consumers’ experience with an e-brand significantly affects their beliefs about the importance of trust. the sample may not be fully representative of the population of web shoppers. The empirical evidence also suggest that attitudes related to convenience. they are subject to a degree of error. namely the online commodity market. specifically within the commodity market. in turn. Therefore. Due to the nature of the products it was decided to focus more on the attitudinal component. trust and security were of significant influence on consumers’ intent to re-purchase from the same e-tailer. Intention is. whereas the subjective norm refers to people’s perception of the extent to which others who are important to them think that they should perform the behaviour. . trust and security when purchasing. Overall. despite the use of testing the item for suitability and reliability. Limitations This study investigated the factors determining consumers’ intent to re-purchase. A further promotional implication for brand managers is the importance of experience to repurchase. However. this research has identified that there are a number of factors determining consumers’ intent to repurchase within the online commodity market. the findings of this research may not represent the online buying behaviour of consumers purchasing from alternative product categories. The attitudinal component reflects how favourably people evaluate the behaviour. specifically these factors are consumers’ experience with an e-brand and beliefs concerning the importance of convenience.

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