You are on page 1of 7

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT

1

Fast Ship Electronic System for Seakeeping Experimental Studies
Joaquín Recas Piorno, Segundo Esteban San Roman, Jose Maria Giron-Sierra, Member, IEEE, and Jesus Manuel de la Cruz Garcia

Abstract—In this paper, a new distributed electronic on-board system for seakeeping studies is introduced. The system is based on a controller area network bus (CANbus) and includes motion sensors, actuators for submerged moving wings, an embedded personal computer (PC), a miniaturized inertial unit, and a digital radio link. This paper describes the system architecture and the main system operations along seakeeping experimental studies with a scaled ship. The on-board system can be applied to scaled or real ships. Index Terms—Control equipment, distributed control, field buses, marine vehicle control, marine vehicle electronics.

I. I NTRODUCTION HEN a ship moves in the presence of ocean waves, she experiments oscillatory accelerations. The vertical component of these accelerations may cause seasickness, particularly if the frequency of oscillation is near 1 rad/s. [1]. Vertical accelerations are different across the ship. An accelerometer near the bow will measure vertical accelerations mainly due to pitch motions. Near the ship center of gravity (CG), there are vertical accelerations due to heave motions. Passengers at the ship sides will suffer vertical accelerations in great part connected with roll motions. There are means to alleviate the oscillatory ship motions in response to encountered waves [2]–[4]. Along the study of our team [5], [6], several moving actuators have been investigated. In particular, this paper considers a fast ship that is able to surpass a speed of 40 knots, with actuators such as transom flaps, T-foil near the bow, and lateral fins to smooth vertical accelerations (Fig. 1). Such actuators must move in the most efficient way. Consequently, there is a problem of control design to be solved, combining experiments and theoretical methods. For this paper, a scaled-down replica of the fast ship with actuators has been built (Fig. 2). A distributed electronic on-board system has been developed to cope with the experimental needs. This paper focuses on the electronic on-board system. It involves several technical and functional aspects, with peculiarities associated with marine surface vehicles. The seakeeping experiments require the ship to be able to execute some predeManuscript received March 25, 2008; revised July 16, 2008. This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology Research Projects under Contract DPI2000-0386-C03-02 and Contract DPI200309745-C04-02. The Associate Editor coordinating the review process was Dr. Theodore Laopoulos. The authors are with the Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automática, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain (e-mail: jrecas@fis.ucm.es; segundo@dacya. ucm.es; gironsi@dacya.ucm.es; jmcruz@dacya.ucm.es). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIM.2009.2017658

Fig. 1. Location and motions of actuators in the fast ship. A T-foil near the bow, lateral fins, and transom flaps.

W

Fig. 2. Scaled-down ship with actuators. (Top left) General view. (Top right) T-foil. (Bottom left) Two waterjets. (Bottom right) Lateral fin.

fined trajectories and maneuvers. Consequently, the on-board electronic system must control the ship heading and speed and should provide self-localization capabilities for autonomous maneuvering. To get seakeeping improvement, alleviating vertical motions, the on-board system must adequately control the motion of the actuators. Finally, the scientific information of interest, about the six motions of the ship in response to encountered waves, must be also measured and recorded by the on-board system. The on-board system handles a set of sensors, including a miniaturized inertial unit, several radio control (R/C) servos, a digital radio link, and a memory card. The on-board electronic system can be installed in many different ships, scaled or real, for experimental work or practical application. This paper is structured as follows. Section II provides a description of the seakeeping experimental context, from which the requirements for the electronic on-board system are derived. Section III describes the on-board electronic system architecture. Section IV considers the system operation, including experimental data processing and monitoring, and the ship

0018-9456/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE

good enough to obtain reliable scientific results [3]. and 40 knots (at a 1 : 40 scale). The CEHIPAR quiet waters channel. Nodes The on-board system has several CAN-enabled nodes. and 45◦ . CEHIPAR basin with a wavemaker and a towing carriage. 4 shows a diagram with the distributed system architecture. The scaled ship is 2. Based on our previous experience [7]. . The ship has no rudder. causing magnetic fields. Finally. it is better for experiments with fast ships to devise autonomous self-propelled scaled ships. Many difficulties aroused for the PC to cope with the variety of functions taking place at the same time. Since the fast ship selected is made of aluminum. with typical wave power density spectra. coastal waters or open ocean waters. After simple initial experiments.This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. In Section V. Fig. 3. autonomous control. With the wavemaker. 30◦ . The on-board control must keep constant the ship heading and speed. Scaled waterjets are used as propellers. For instance. while counteracting vertical motions. a Microchip connection for on-field microcontroller programming. Distributed system blocks. Fig. encountered waves only cause heave and pitch motions. and several angles of attack of these wings. It is a 150-m-long 30-m-wide 5-m-deep basin with a wavemaker and a towing carriage. A ballast is added to reproduce the inertias of the real-scale ship. The 1 : 40 scale is recognized among towing tank institutions as a reasonable scale. O N -B OARD E LECTRONIC S YSTEM As an initial solution. A. Fig. at the three ship speeds. and good software support. with different sampling periods. including hull. 20. and a power regulator. The waterjets can demand as much as 30 dc amps. With oblique seas. wellestablished technology with ensured availability. corresponding to the selected 120-m-long fast ship. II. sway. III. There is a chapter on how to scale seakeeping experiments and variables in [3]. things are more complicated since roll. The design is completed with a bus transceiver. regular waves with different wavelengths and steepness can also be generated. low weight. yaw. an RS-232 serial connection. E XPERIMENTAL C ONTEXT Most of our seakeeping experiments have been done in a towing tank facility. and batteries for autonomous operation. In this paper. Content is final as presented. The simplest seakeeping experiments take place with head seas. work started with experiments in the CEHIPAR main basin. Consequently. propellers.6 kg. long-distance capability (up to 6 km). The basin has a towing carriage for conventional experiments. it was seen that the centralized solution could impose operational limits to this work. Three ship speeds have been selected. with respect to waves. in which a comparison was made between fieldbuses. and the generation of special pulsewidth modulation (PWM) signals for the actuator servos. has been used to measure the lift and drag of these actuators. have been considered. Once mathematical models of the actuator effects have been established. 4. 300 m long.5 m long. with the exception of pagination. along a straight trajectory. the lateral fins. some conclusions are drawn. showing the good results obtained. the weight of the 1 : 40 scaled-down ship must be 27. several sea conditions can be reproduced. a distributed solution was decided for the electronic system. and surge motions also appear. electronics. 2 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT Fig. Ship heading is controlled by moving the waterjet outputs. It is located near the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. actuators. can be generated. However. ballast. and the T-foil are submerged wings. 3 shows a top view sketch of the basin and the towing carriage. Spain. The onboard electronic system must have low power. and small size components. Note that there is a marine version of the CANbus. A 1 : 40-scale 3-m-long ship has been built. The nodes have identical electronic design and are based on the use of a CAN-enabled microcontroller [9]. This is the main target of this work. 30. The main reasons to prefer the CANbus are reliability. some experiment examples are presented. heading angles of 0◦ . a centralized electronic system architecture was built and tested in the scaled ship. In addition to these irregular waves. namely. including signal sampling from the different sensors. Magnetic shielding is needed. In this case. It was based on an embedded personal computer (PC) with enough analog and digital input/output channels. Madrid. The transom flaps. which will increase the operational capabilities of the towing tank facility. which must be counteracted by the moving actuators. a controller area network bus (CANbus) was selected for the application [8]. The name of the facility is “El Canal de Experiencias Hidrodinamicas de El Pardo” (CEHIPAR).

30 Hz for accelerations. a set of selected real-time data is sent via a digital radio link to an “external support system” (ESS). These two accelerometers are used to measure roll and heave accelerations. two of them govern the water output orientation. the frequency of this signal is controlled by an external clock or an internal 10-ms-period clock. It is planned to add a global positioning system via another CANbus node. Five HS-311 servos [15] are used to move the submerged wings: one for the T-foil. is included in the embedded PC. While doing experiments at CEHIPAR. This chip eases up program development and testing because it has C language support and can be programmed and debugged on chip. IV. Embedded PC A low-power miniaturized embedded PC is included to coordinate the on-board system activity. The PWM signal requires a simple processing to read the measurements using hardware interruptions. It is centered on the central processing unit (CPU) of a high-performance complex-instruction-set computer with hardware multipliers. There are four more servos for the waterjet control. and has the possibility of on-chip debugging. serial communication port. All servos continuously require PWM digital signals to control their angular position. is C+ programmable [14]. Furthermore. the paddlewheel. D.5 m. S YSTEM O PERATION A. it will be interesting in future open-air experiments. The characteristics of the digital radio unit are given as follows [16]: half-duplex 19 200-kb/s digital communications via data packets. . similar to a CompactFlash used in digital cameras. automatic transmission error detection and fixing. two for the lateral fins. and a stern Hall-effect paddlewheel is used to measure surge motion. However. there are two sensors for motion measurements. with the exception of pagination. 0. and they are temperature compensated. The accelerometers have a ±2 g range. System Sensors Two CANbus nodes are used to handle the accelerometers. and the other two servos are used to revert the water output for braking or backward motion. Content is final as presented. B. Finally. The inertial unit is an Xsens MTx-B with a bandwidth of 50 Hz for rate of turn. a weight of 200 g. and to manage a miniaturized inertial unit. The embedded PC uses a serial RS232 channel to communicate with the CANbus through a system node. and a 0. measuring yaw and pitch accelerations. System Actuators Four CANbus nodes are used to control the actuators motion via PWM digital signals. a reach of up to 5 km. These are high-torque high-speed small R/C servos.1 mA).: FAST SHIP ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR SEAKEEPING EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES 3 The microcontroller selected for the system node is the PIC 18F458 [10]. the speed of the waterjet turbines is controlled with electronic servo units. One of them is located at the bow. The chip includes a CANbus module that conforms to CAN 2. 50 mW or 17 dBm. Fig. and two for the transom flaps. A Devantech CMPS03 digital compass is used for yaw rotation measurement. and 10 Hz for magnetic field. and 200 mA dc power. it has three transmit message buffers with prioritization. The embedded PC [12] is based on an Intel-compatible low-power microprocessor [13]. a universal synchronous asynchronous receiver/transmitter module for serial communications. and six full 29-bit acceptance filters. CPU time distribution. 5 shows the time distribution of PC operations along the cycle. the embedded PC communicates with the miniaturized inertial unit via a second serial RS232 channel. The chip has input/output pins that can be programmed for PWM digital input or output. This cycle comprises two 15-ms time windows. it can reach values near 1/2 g when the ship’s speed is 40 knots and the height of the waves is about 2. All experimental data are recorded into this card with a specific storage system that is fault tolerant. E. two receive message buffers. PC Operation The PC imposes on the system a periodic cycle.0 B. C. Another function of the microcontrollers is to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of the hydraulic actuators that are used in real-scale ships. alleviating the work of the embedded PC. Three two-axis accelerometers are used [11]. A data-storage card. In addition to the accelerometers. and the digital compass. it is enough with the 10-ms internal clock.3-mW dc power (3 V. In our case. Radio Link Along experiments. The digital radio unit is connected to the CANbus through one of the system nodes (based on one CAN-enabled microcontroller). for the heading control. and it prevents message loss due to overflow.This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. Fig. a bandwidth from 17 to 160 Hz. PIORNO et al. This is the main reason for adding microcontrollers as nodes of the on-board system. 5. through CANbus messages. symmetrically with respect to the ship CG. The other two are placed at the ship borders. it is of no use because of the metallic roof. The output signal from the accelerometers is a PWM digital signal. three timers/counters. and eight 10-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) channels. In the case of pitch accelerations near the bow. with message rates up to 1 Mb/s.

with the exception of pagination. 8 shows the 3-D panel of the ESS. 1 s in the 1 : 40 scale ship is equiva√ lent to 40 s in a real ship. Next. 4 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT Fig. 6. for more PC work that may be required in the future. The purpose of the ESS is to program experiments. Consequently. and r is the yaw rate in body axes. and yaw are obtained. and 120 m corresponds to the real ship. it is expected that a version of the system could easily be used in real ships. to make the ship know the experiment specification.5 rms. In the case of ships. It is interesting to compare the ship experimental needs with the typical of other vehicles such aircraft or satellites. ESS The ESS consists of a conventional portable PC connected via a serial RS232 port with a digital radio unit. D. Then. After experimental testing. that means more information can be used by the control. 3 m corresponds to the 1 : 40 scale ship. This way. Since the on-board system is now successfully working in the scaled ship. like the one in the ship. reproducing the scaled ship motions. a three-axis gyroscope with a range of ±900◦ s−1 . a bandwidth of 50 Hz. At the beginning of the first time window. The equations to translate to Earth’s fixed axes are the following [2]: ˙ φ = q · cos φ − r · sin φ ˙ θ = p + q · sin φ · tan θ + r · cos φ · tan θ ˙ ψ = q · sin φ · sec θ + r · cos φ · sec θ (3) where p is the roll rate. The low-frequency components of roll and pitch are obtained from low-pass filtering (LPF) of the accelerometers (as inclinometers). TS . φ is the roll angle. with the ESS being at a distance from the ship. and Q as functions of ship length. a three-axis magnetic flux sensor with a range of ±750 mG. the PC prepares the CompactFlash for data recording and queries the inertial unit for data. 6 depicts Δ. Fig. Yaw low frequency is obtained from the magnetic flux sensor. In this screen. data are stored in the CompactFlash. This factor Q is the number of kilobits that can be sent through the bus between sampling periods. than in the real ship. By simple high-pass filtering (HPF). Experimental data can be recorded by the ESS for further redisplay. a bandwidth of 10 Hz. the PC sends position references to the actuators and to the radio link.95 (1) (2) HPF(z) = 1 − LP F (z) = The measurements of the inertial unit are given in body axes. There is plenty of free time. and the ship has large inertias so rotations are slow.7 rms. in the periodic cycles. Finally. Then. and a noise of 4. the user can override the control exerted by the ship embedded PC. The second time window begins by taking data from the inertial unit through the serial port buffer. the ship moves. Bus Bandwidth Scaling According to scale rules. (Dotted curve) Product Q of (continuous curve) the CANbus bandwidth and (dashed curve) the sampling period as functions of ship length. specifying maneuvers. pitch motions are small. θ is the pitch angle. a bandwidth of 30 Hz. it was noticed that the gyroscope provides good high-frequency information about ship rotations. If Q is large. and a noise of 0. then a sampling √ period TS = TR / 40 should be applied in the control of the scaled ship. roll. The discrete transfer functions of the filters are the following: LPF(z) = 0. The data of interest for the ESS animated graphics are the evolution of the pitch. the control conditions are more stringent for the scaled ship. Monitoring of the Ship Motion The ship motion data sent by radio to the ESS are obtained with a low-power moderate-cost miniaturized inertial unit [17]. roll. C.05z z − 0. the high-frequency components of pitch. and yaw angles. z − 0. It can be seen that Q is smaller for the scaled ship. . low and high frequencies provided by the filters can be directly added to recover the complete motion information. The bandwidth Δ in kilobits per second of the CANbus decreases as the cable length increases. control algorithms are computed. accelerations are oscillatory with zero mean. Suppose the on-board digital control on the real ship has a sampling period TR . taking into account the instantaneous roll and pitch of the inertial unit itself. and to represent the data with animated graphics. and ψ is the yaw angle. and a noise of 0.This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. Let us define a factor Q = Δ · TS . taking manual control from a distance.01 rms. to take real-time data from the ship. 7 shows a block diagram of the data processing designed for using the inertial unit in the scaled ship case. B. The LPF and HPF digital filters that have been designed are complementary (their transfer functions add to one). q is the pitch rate. Fig. and receives data from sensors. Fig. marked with an arrow. these data are processed and are sent to the ESS via the digital radio. having some bias at low frequencies. and the CANbus can be extended to lengths of kilometers.95 z−1 . which includes the following sensors: three-axis accelerometers with a range of ±20 ms−2 . At any time during an experiment. Content is final as presented.

The velocity profile of a typical simple seakeeping experiment in the CEHIPAR basin begins with the ship starting from stop. The settings of the PI controller were Kp = 0. . The perturbations in the ship’s speed are corrected by an outer proportional–integral (PI) controller loop. First. then. executed in the embedded PC. Block diagram of the data processing developed for the inertial unit. the action of a PI controller with Kp = 0.07 and Ki = 0.07. Ship Autonomous Control Three of the on-board system functions are related to the control of the ship motions. it is enough to change the sampling period according √ to scale (the real-scale sampling period must be 40 times the period used in our experimental ship). ESS.11. based on the study objectives. E.04. with the exception of pagination. The ship starts from −17◦ yaw. The course control loop uses the compensated digital compass for real-time yaw measurement. There is no offset since the ship is an integrator with respect to course control.05 using pitch acceleration is added to the action of another PI controller. V. The results are useful as a basis for comparison for future work on control. using roll acceleration. a 1 : 1 reference/speed relation was obtained. The orientation of the waterjet outputs is adjusted by a proportional–differential (PD) controller. refining the results of the digital filtering and control theoretical design. It is interesting to note that it is easy to translate the PID controllers to the real ship scale. was experimentally determined. roll accelerations are used by another PI controller for the lateral fins with Kp = 0. Once this is guaranteed. 8. with α = 5.18 and Ki = 0.18. Since our controllers are discrete. In the first step. This is an unusual exaggerated initial error to show the performances of the course control. for any seakeeping experiment. Pitch accelerations are used by a PI controller for the T-foil with Kp = 0. The ship’s speed control loop uses the paddlewheel for realtime velocity measurement and acts upon the waterjet power. Fig. The course is stabilized without offset from 15 to 25 s. The settings of the PD controller were Kp = 2. compiled and downloaded to the embedded PC. 9 shows experimental results about course and speed control. It has been a step-by-step procedure.: FAST SHIP ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR SEAKEEPING EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES 5 Fig. PIORNO et al. The main sensors for seakeeping control are the accelerometers. The filters and the PI and PD controllers involved in the various control activities are digital versions. First. The derivative action is somewhat large in view of the huge inertia of the ship. These results have been obtained at high a speed (30 knots at the real scale). Once the course control is ensured. which is the ship speed. The transom flaps are used for pitch and roll compensation. the development cycle is simpler and faster since the programming is made in C in a normal PC and. Likewise. This way.09 and Ki = 0.0 and Kd = 1. experimental testing of ship’s speed control along straight trajectories can be done.10 and Ki = 0. Fig.02 and Ki = 0. between u. with Kp = 0. A linear relation vship = α · u. By means of a feedforward proportional controller with gain Kp = 1/α. which modifies u. experiments in the CEHIPAR basin were oriented to establish a good ship’s speed and course control. standard proportional–integral–differential (PID) controllers are preferred since they are likely the controllers to be used in real ships. a good ship speed and course control is needed. 7. E XPERIMENTS A series of experiments have been done to check the good performance of the system in several aspects of interest.0. and vship .This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. which is the input control signal. and the electronic system properly works to correct her heading to get and keep a 35◦ yaw. experiments about actuators control to counteract the effect of waves can be undertaken. Content is final as presented.

The advantages of an autonomous ship are becoming evident during the experiments since it is possible to observe phenomena difficult to notice with towed ships. The last 5 s in the figure is used to stop the ship. 9 that the ship reaches rapidly a speed of 3 m/s. (a) T-foil motion and bow acceleration. This is an important effect.This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. gliding on a thin air cushion) navigation to conventional drag. Notice in Fig. Fig. to reach high speeds. To obtain as much data as possible. and the continuous curve shows the acceleration with controlled moving actuators. with the exception of pagination. Surface effect. For instance. Fig. The dashed curve shows these vertical accelerations. Fig. including a miniaturized inertial unit. The continuous curve is the motion of one of the fins (the other fin has opposite motion). several actuators and sensors. Course and speed control experiment. 12. A satisfactory improvement due to control is obtained. It seems that this rapid change corresponds to the ship transitioning from surface effect (i.. It consists of several CANbus nodes. Vertical acceleration at the bow is reduced by the controlled actuators. Content is final as presented. 6 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT Fig. 11 shows an example of the experimental results using the controlled moving actuators for reduction of vertical accelerations. The experiment has been made with irregular waves corresponding to those of a real sea. and a digital radio link. Notice that the experiments are made with irregular waves corresponding to those of a real sea. VI. Notice how the T-foil opposes to the bow vertical accelerations. The continuous curve with large excursions in Fig. The dotted curve shows the acceleration with fixed actuators. the complete experiment must make good use of the basin length. keeping it constant without offset from 15 to 25 s. 10(a) shows the T-foil motion in an experiment where the T-foil must counteract the vertical accelerations near the bow (mainly pitch). in the reverse sense (going from slow to fast speed). Fig. an embedded PC. 10. increasing the speed until reaching a certain constant value. 9. The dashed curve is the roll acceleration at the ship border. The system has been conceived to be usable in real-scale ships. caused by encountered waves. Fig. 12 shows the response of the ship to a waterjet shutoff. C ONCLUSION This paper has introduced an on-board distributed electronic system for experimental seakeeping studies with fast ships. keeping this speed (this is the part where the desired seakeeping data are obtained). Actually. Instead of a typical decreasing exponential curve. and the ship with the actuators moving under control. The main advantage and originality of the system is to provide an autonomous ship for seakeeping experimentation . and then decreasing the speed and stopping. it was observed a brisk downward change (marked on the figure with an arrow). the design of the hull promotes the surface effect on the aft part of the ship. The figure compares these accelerations for the ship with fixed actuators.e. (b) Fins motion and roll acceleration. 10(b) shows an experiment with fins counteracting roll motions. 11. Fig.

simulation. He received the Eng. “Motion sickness incidence as a function of frequency and acceleration of vertical sinusoidal motion. degrees in physics from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. DS41159C PIC18FXX8 Data Sheet. 47–60. Madrid. Apr. He received the Licentiate and the Ph. . “Experimental study of controlled flaps and T-foil for comfort improvement of a fast ferry. and process control. respectively. he joined the Open University of Spain. robotics. S. Med. AZ: Microchip Technol. He received the Licentiate and the Ph.com/Servos/hs311. M. 2005. pp. O’Hanlon and M. He is the author of 160 papers published in conference proceedings and journals. M. He is the author of about 180 papers published in conference proceedings. and optimization based on genetic algorithms. T-foil. C. Madrid. logistics.D. vol. His current research interests include control and simulation. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. M. He has been with Lucent Technologies. Esteban. Diaz. and fins.K. One of its functions is real-time ship behavior monitoring. [13] AMD Staff. including several books.: FAST SHIP ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR SEAKEEPING EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES 7 using actuators such flaps.. [17] Xsens Technologies Staff. The use of lateral fins for antiroll actions is a classic topic. CA: Tern Inc.” in Proc. Davis. U. New York: Springer-Verlag. PIORNO et al. no. and motion monitoring from distance.V. for fast ships. [8] W. Spain. 2001. CAMS. Seminario. This is better than the traditional study of seakeeping performances using a towed ship. real-time remote monitoring and control. J. Inc. Motion Tracker Technical Documentation MTx-B. [11] Analog Devices Staff. Giron-Sierra is a member of the International Federation of Automatic Control Technical Committee on Marine Systems. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Spain. and is currently an Assistant Professor with the Department of Computer Architecture and Automatic Control. [7] J.. airplanes and spacecrafts. F. 2002. Aranda.. airplanes and spacecrafts. New York: Springer-Verlag. Experimental confirmation of the system working correctly has been achieved. [4] T. and J. with a digital radio link with the scaled ship. 366–369. because the autonomous ship has free motions. 2003. [6] J. 2. Giron-Sierra. C. [Online]. R EFERENCES [1] J. Madrid. M. 1999. [14] Paradigm System Staff. 1997. “Distributed control system for fuel management using CANBUS. M. Salt Lake City. Hampshire. Fossen. His research covers several topics of applied automatic control and simulation: ships. ship motion data acquisition. in 1979 and 1984. and process control. Chandler. Inc. In 1986. such as course and speed control. 2000. Spain. R. and J. De la Cruz. B. Jose Maria Giron-Sierra (M’94) was born in Valladolid.D. MA: Analog Devices. M. 24. He has been a Full Professor with the Department of Computer Architecture and Automatic Control. Spain. He current research interests include embedded systems applied to real-time and distributed control. and the Federation of European Simulation Societies.hitecrcd. Content is final as presented. S. no. Esteban. Work in the near future will exploit the scaled autonomous ship for systematic experiments in CEHIPAR and for open-air maneuvering and seakeeping experiments.D. Marine Control Systems. Inc. in 2004 and 2006. However. 4. He received the Licentiate and the European Ph. UT. His research interests include high-speed ships. 2004. Jesus Manuel de la Cruz Garcia was born in Madrid. [15] 2005. De Andres.: Glasgow. The Netherlands: Xsens Technol. he became a Full Professor with the Universidad de Cantabria. Paradigm C++ Reference Manual. 2002. [5] J. E. This is used for experimental and data analysis tasks.This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. respectively. F. AS. Chandler. J. with the exception of pagination. CAN System Engineering. M. Norwood. 586-Engine Technical Manual. 2000. 23rd DASC. degrees in physics from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. He is the author of several papers published in journals and conference proceedings. Segundo Esteban San Roman was born in Madrigal de la Vera. He is the author of six papers published in journals and more than 30 papers published in conference proceedings. Insaurralde. J. from 1988. Giron-Sierra. Apr. He holds two patents for a robot and a communication system.D. [10] Microchip Staff. degree in computer science from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in 2000 and the Eng. 2000. system identification. His research is related to applied automatic control and simulation: ships. self-location capabilities.” in Proc. The system has several simultaneous real-time functions. the use of T-foils and transom flaps for antipitch actions is subject to study. [3] Seakeeping: Ship Behavior in Rough Weather. J. In 1992. Orem. NY: Paradigm Syst. respectively. He has been an Associate Professor with the Department of Computer Architecture and Automatic Control. M. Riola. 45. Jimenez. 2004. F. and could be used in different types of ships. 1998.” IEEE Control Syst. Mag. degree in computer science from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. J. Trondheim. logistics. Inc. De Andres. including several books. Ship Motion Control: Course Keeping and Roll Stabilisation Using Rudder and Fins. Inc. IFAC Int. seakeeping improvement action. Lawrenz. J. from 1997. vol. Lloyd. [12] Tern Staff. Spain.: A. Available: http://www. His current research interests include control system design. degrees in physics from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Giron-Sierra. Spain. Norway: Marine Cybern. ADXL2002E Low-Cost 2g Daul-Axis Accelerometer With Duty Cycle Output. and simulation. robotics. and in 1990. and B. Cantabria. The proposed distributed on-board electronic system integrates different functions. respectively.” Aerosp. CA: Advanced Micro Devices. [9] Microchip Staff.K. degree in electronics and the Ph. A. An ESS has also been developed. 2003. Sunnyvale. UT: MaxStream. [2] T. in 1972 and 1978. journals. Perez. he joined the Universidad Complutense de Madrid as a Full Professor with the Department of Computer Architecture and Automatic Control. Dr. pp. Spain. such as data recording and monitoring and course control and seakeeping improvement action. M. 2002. AN853 PIC18XXX8 CAN Driver With Prioritized Transmit Buffer. in 1996 and 2002. Diaz. U. “Improving the comfort of a fast ferry with the control of flaps and T-foil. Enschede. McCauley. Endwell. AZ: Microchip Technol.htm [16] MaxStream Staff. optimization. The measurements obtained with the on-board system have been calibrated with respect to the CEHIPAR consolidated measurement system that has been applied to our ship in previous experimental studies [5]. Joaquín Recas Piorno was born in Madrid. 1974. Elan SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual. Conf. Maxstream XStream Wireless Module Manual. B. Velasco.