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Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, Vol. 30, No. 7, pp.

1145-1152 (2007)



Jih-Sheng Lai*, Seung-Ryul Moon, Raeyoung Kim, Feng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Hsuan Liu, and Ming-Hsien Lin

Multiphase dc-dc converters allow current sharing among phases and high-frequency ripple cancellation and are very desirable for low-voltage high-power fuel cell applications. In this paper, a versatile three-phase dc-dc converter circuit as a building block is proposed for different output voltage levels including non-isolated 48 V for telecom and isolated 400 V for subsequent stage dc-ac inverter applications. For either type of application, the proposed three-phase converter circuit is controlled by the same complementary gating control that allows synchronous rectification for the non-isolated version and zerovoltage soft switching for the isolated version. Two sets of 5-kW converters have been built and tested with a fuel cell simulator. Experimental results are given to show the superiority of the efficiency performance in two different applications. Key Words: three phase dc-dc converters, fuel cells.

I. INTRODUCTION For stationary applications, fuel cells were mostly found with low voltages such as 20 to 60 V and high powers such as 3 to 10 kW. The load may be 48-V dc for telecom applications or 110/220-V ac for household applications. For 48-V dc output, isolation is normally unnecessary, but for 110/220-V ac output, an isolated dc-dc converter is needed to serve as the first-stage voltage boost and galvanic isolation. For a typical 5 kW stationary fuel cell power plant, the dc-dc converter input inevitably sees more than 100 A for fuel cells with voltage level lower than 50 V. Such a high-current dc-dc converter requires multiple phases to achieve high efficiencies (Liu et al., 2005, Liu et al., 2006, Oliveira et al., 2003, Moon et al., 2007, Prasad et al., 1992, and De Doncker et al., 1991). Although the 3-phase 6-leg (V6) dc-dc converter in
*Corresponding author. (Tel:(540)2314741; Fax: (540)2313362; Email: J. S. Lai, S. R. Moon, and R. Kim are with the Future Energy Electronics Center (FEEC), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginina 24061-0111, USA. F. Y. Lin, Y. H. Liu, and M. H. Lin are with the Tatung System Technologies, 22, Chungshan N. Rd., 3rd Sec., Taipei 104, Taiwan, R.O.C.

(Liu et al., 2005, and Liu et al., 2006) has demonstrated a desired high efficiency for fuel cell voltage less than 25 V or current higher than 200 A, the threephase three-leg (V3) dc-dc converter circuit in is more versatile when it comes to different applications that involve both isolated and non-isolated dcdc power conversions. The V3 converter circuit can be used for non-isolated applications, while V6 converter is only limited to isolated applications. Intuitively an isolated dc-dc converter can be universally used for versatile applications. Fig. 1 shows block diagrams of stationary fuel cell power plant using an isolated dc-dc converter for 48-V dc output and 110/220-V ac output conditions. The isolated dc-dc converter consists of a bridgetype converter that converts dc to low-voltage high-frequency ac, a high-frequency transformer that converts lowvoltage high-frequency ac to high-voltage high-frequency ac, and an ac-dc rectifier plus a filter circuit to smooth the dc output. For 48-V dc load, the output side can be isolated from fuel cell ground or tying either positive or negative to the ground. For 110/ 220V ac load, a high voltage conversion ratio is required to boost the output voltage up to 400 V for the dc-ac inverter to produce 220 V ac output. The main problem with isolated design is the

Vol. To configure for –48 V output. No. and the requirement for telecom application is to have either +48 V or –48 V output assuming the negative side of fuel cell is grounded. The studied case has a voltage range from 37 V to 57 V. and (c) general-purposed half-bridge circuit. and the three-phase currents are interleaved to reduce the overall current ripple. the transformer is unavoidable. which can be used as an interleaved buck. The output and input share the same ground. and the lower MOSFETs serve as the freewheeling diode and synchronouse rectification. then the efficiency can be improved in boost mode operation. or so-called “synchronous rectification. as shown in Fig. or buckboost converter for non-isolated dc-dc and multiphase isolated dc-dc with zero-voltage soft switching. the added device cost. . Operational waveforms and efficiencies of two converters have been tested with a fuel cell simulator to show how the proposed circuit can used in different applications. 4. (b) boost switch. If this threephase converter circuit is used only for the buck mode operation. 2 Phase-leg circuit configurations: (a) buck switch. To adapt to both isolated and non-isolated highpower dc-dc applications. The gating control for upper and lower switches is complementary to achieve synchronous rectification for the non-isolated version and soft-switching for the isolated version. The upper MOSFETs serve as the active switch. if the upper switches are paralleled with Schottky diodes. the proposed three-phase converter circuit can be arranged as a conventional buck-boost converter with interleaved operation. but for 48-V dc output. The half-bridge circuit can be expanded to a full bridge or multiphase converter circuit. Fig. 3 (b) Three-phase bridge circuit configurations: (a) standard three-phase converter circuit. 2(c) becomes a general-purpose (a) Fig. II. Similarly. boost. For low-voltage applications. It is well-known that the fuel cell output voltage varies with the load current. the proposed idea is to have a general-purpose multiple phase-leg circuit. 1 Stationary fuel cell power plant using an isolated dc-dc converter for (a) 48-V dc output and (b) 110/220V ac output. 30. which switches complementarily to reduce the conduction loss through reverse channel conduction. the bottom switched can be enhanced with Schottky diodes to reduce the switching loss. switch that can perform buck and boost functions while operating in synchronous rectification mode. THREE-PHASE NON-ISOLATED DC-DC Figures 2(a) and 2(b) indicate that the buck and boost converters can be implemented with one switch and one diode. A three-phase converter circuit has been designed. and two sets of 5-kW converter have been built based on the same circuit for both nonisolated and isolated versions.1146 Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers. it is possible to adopt non-isolated version to avoid the use of expensive and lossy transformer and to avoid the output rectifier stage. Although the diode conduction loss may be reduced by synchronous rectification. Each half-bridge circuit is controlled to separate 120° apart. The switch voltage stress is the sum of input and output voltages. (b) three-phase converter with added Schottky diodes to increase buck mode efficiency. For high voltage conversion ratio. which requires ultra fast reverse recovery diodes to be used. the voltage level is nearly the same as that of the fuel cell voltage. 3(b) shows the Schottky diode enhanced circuit for buck mode operation. and control and complexity make it unattractive. Vdc a b c Vdc a b c cost and loss associated with the high-frequency highpower transformer. the diode is normally replaced or paralleled with a power MOSFET. 3(a) shows a standard threephase converter circuit as a building block that consists of three half-bridge circuits. Fig.” Thus the half-bridge circuit in Fig. Fig. and the conduction loss with these diodes is quite significant. 7 (2007) 48V DC Fuel Bridge Cell Vin Converter (a) AC DC-AC Inverter 110V220V + 110V Fiter (a) (b) (c) AC-DC Rectifier + Filter Vdc a Vdc a Vdc a Fuel V Bridge Cell in Converter (b) AC-DC Rectifier + Filter Fig.

The first stage is a three-phase interleaved boost converter. S 25 are fully turned on. three transformers connected in Y-Y configuration. When a switch is turned off. When V fc < 48 V. opposite side device can be turned on with zero-voltage across the device. The second stage upper switches S 21. When V fc < 48 V. upper and lower switches turning on and off complementarily. the converter operates in hard switching. and a set of LC filter. and lower switches S14. Fig. S.J.: A Versatile Three-Phase DC-DC Converter Circuit for Fuel Cell Applications 1147 S1 S3 A iA B S5 1:n D1 D3 D5 a ia b c D4 D6 D2 L iL Vfc Cf Co Vdc C S4 S6 S2 Vo –48V Fig. S26 . 2. At this time. S16. S22 are fully turned off. S 23 . The only drawback to such a single-stage operation Inverter V Fuel fc cell input 37-57V . S15 are fully turned on. The first stage upper switches S11. 6 Fig. and the second stage is a three-phase interleaved buck converter. only the boost stage operates to regulate the output voltage. 2001). 1. This control technique allows soft switching To obtain +48 V output using the proposed generalpurposed three-phase converter circuit. Y-Y transformer isolated converter 360° 180° S11 S13 S15 S21 S23 S25 D S1 S4 S3 S6 S5 S2 1 2 240° 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 120° Fuel Cell Vfc 37-57V S14 S16 S12 S24 S26 S22 +48V Vo Fig. S13. 5 Circuit configuration of a three-phase two-stage boost-cascaded with buck converter for positive output is difficulty to maintain smooth transition from one mode to the other mode.. THREE-PHASE ISOLATED DC-DC WITH ASYMMETRICAL DUTY OPERATION Figure 6 shows the schematic circuit diagram of an isolated dc-dc converter using the proposed three-phase converter building block. it is possible to increase the efficiency by running the converter with only one stage while keeping the other stage switches in fully on or off conditions. Once the respective capacitors are fully charged and discharged. III. the converter operates much like the phase-shift modulation in a full-bridge dc-dc converter. Three phase leg control signals are separated apart with 120º phase shift among them. 7. Lai et al. we can cascade two converter building blocks together with either a buck cascaded with boost or a boost cascaded with buck (Chen et al. a three-phase bridge rectifier. and lower switches S 24. With the proposed building block and asymmetrical control. 4 Configuration of a three-phase interleaved buck-boost converter V3 converter: three half-bridge. as shown in Fig. 7 Asymmetrical duty cycle control signal for V3 Fig. energy in transformer leakage inductance charges and discharges appropriate power switch output capacitance. With traditional pulse width modulation (PWM) using symmetrical duty cycle. only the buck stage operates. remaining current starts to flow in the anti-paralleled diode. 5 shows a threephase boost cascaded with buck type converter circuit. S12 are fully turned off. Although the above circuit can have boost and buck converters operate independently by regulating their respective output voltages or currents. The entire three-phase isolated dc-dc converter is called “V3” converter hereafter.

Second operating mode is identified where conversion ratio remains the same regardless of duty cycle. Vfc. there is a time during a switching period when all the upper or lower switches are on. The voltage conversion ratio is shown in Fig. when the duty cycle increases from 2/3 to 1. and the ideal voltage transferred to the output during this dcdc transformer mode is V dc = n . Three operating regions can be identified based on duty cycle: 0 < D < 1/3. The average output voltage during the regulated mode is controlled by the duty cycle and Gate drive PWM FIFO Fig. and the output is the average of square waveform.02 µs. Phase-B and PhaseC gate signals are obtained with first-in-first-out (FIFO) circular buffers. output decreases linearly from 1 to 0. 1/3 < D < 2/3 and 2/3 < D < 1. With 20 µs . A laminated bus bar is designed to reduce the parasitic inductance. The regions of 0 < D < 1/3 and 2/3 < D < 1 are considered anti-symmetrical mode and have the same voltage regulating range. 1:8 turn ratio is needed for 50 V input and 400 V output in ideal case. 30. A flyback converter that takes 20 to 60-V input and produces multiple isolated 15-V outputs is designed to provide auxiliary powers. 9 Hardware circuit architecture Auxiliary power Fig. and D is the duty cycle ranging from 0 to 1/3. There is a buffer between PWM output and the gate driver. n . 9 shows the hardware circuit architecture.1148 Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GENERAL-PURPOSE THREE-PHASE CONVERTER BUILDING BLOCK The three-phase converter building block that can be used for either non-isolated or isolated dc-dc converters has been designed and implemented in hardware prototypes. The V3 converter. as shown in Fig. which is not shown to simplify the explanation. 7 (2007) Fig. For example. output waveform is a square waveform. IV. which creates freewheeling period. Vol. With a period (360°) of 20 ms. D . the FIFO phase-shifter produces 6. On the other side. No. V dfc and is not controllable. the output voltage increases linearly from 0 to 1. is configured in Y-Y connection to avoid circulating current in the primary side if imbalance occurs. 10 Photograph of the three-phase converter building block thus can be expressed as Vdc = 3 . at least one primary transformer terminal transfers input voltage to the output side throughout a switching period. 8 Conversion ratio and operating mode for V3 without adding extra resonant components or semiconductor devices. In this mode. and the voltage across all the primary transformer terminals are zero.66 ms (or 120°) phase shift between phases. since the output voltage is proportional to the input voltage. 6. A high transformer turns ratio is required to provide a high conversion ratio. Each FIFO produces 120° phase shift. The first stage is a PWM controller that compares the command and feedback to produce the Phase-A PWM outputs. and it is attractive for high-power applications because of potential efficiency improvement without cost penalty. The operating mode is called “regulated mode” with which the duty cycle controls output voltage. Fig. The V3 converter has three operating regions and two operating modes. When the secondary transformer voltages are rectified. where n is the transformer turns ratio. When the duty cycle increases from 0 to 1/3. In this mode. It can be called a dc-dc transformer mode. The measurement indicates the maximum phase shift error between phases is ±0. after the rectification. 8. Major components used in this prototype are listed as follows: Figure 11 shows recorded waveforms generated by the PWM controller and FIFO at 50 kHz switching frequency. Thus. Figure 10 shows the photograph of the completed threephase converter building block.

M.4 dB -60 Freq: 1.6575(s – 2.57% P3 duty(C1) 9. Controller Design With two-stage power conversion. both input and output inductors are 29 µH. Due to a high core tolerance. Figure 13 shows experimental results of the three inductor currents running at 90% duty cycle under buck mode condition.57% P5 mean (F3) 75.: A Versatile Three-Phase DC-DC Converter Circuit for Fuel Cell Applications 1149 PWM Source Waveform Itotal = 76A IL =25A 120° Phase-shifted Waveform 240° Phase-shifted Waveform t (10 µs/div) Measure value P1 mean(C1) P2 duty(C1) 202 mV 9. With average a little more than 25-A in each phase inductor current.: 76.: 29.567 × 10 5)(s + 2128) s 2 + 3006s + 4. 40 20 0 -20 -40 G. and 4 are individual inductor currents. which has a transfer function shown in (1). 11 Experimental waveforms for designed signal generator using FIFO circuit Fig.M. The individual phase current has a peak to peak current ripple of 5A. but the total current ripple is much reduced because of current interleaving. I L. APPLICATION TO A NON-ISOLATED BOOST-BUCK CONVERTER 1.059 × 10 6 (1) By selecting a crossover frequency slightly below 1 kHz. 12 Photograph of a two-stage boost buck converter using the proposed converter building block 103 Frequency (Hz) 104 105 being one switching cycle. Hardware Prototype The circuit diagram shown in Fig.1%. 13 Experimental inductor currents at 90% duty cycle under buck mode operation. the inductor currents are not quite balanced. the control stability and interaction are major concerns.5 deg Freq: 884 Hz 45 102 101 Inductors Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) Boost stage Control settings Buck stage Fig. G vd = – 0. the total current I total is about 76 Fig.39e+004 Hz Stable loop -80 315 270 225 180 135 90 P. a voltage loop control is needed for the boost converter. 2. 12 shows the photograph of the entire assembly. The only added components are input and output inductors and control setting interface board. In this test setup. S. C(s) = 35882(s + 1700) s(s + 6. V.81 A Fig. a proportional-integral (PI) controller can be designed as follows. Fig. 5 has been implemented using the proposed three-phase converter building block for a 5-kW boost-buck converter with 37 – 57 V fuel cell input and 48-V nominal output. this error represents 0. In order to avoid mid dc bus voltage overshoot during load transient. which corresponds to the ratio of the FIFO clock period and the switching period.1 × 10 4) (2) Frequency domain plot of the entire loop gain is . Lai et al. I total is obtained from Math. 14 Frequency response of the boost stage control loop A. 3. Traces 2. Trace 1 shows the lower switch gate drive signal.J. which allows each phase current to have 10% ripple at the full load.

The buck converter transfer function is shown in (3).: 30. Thus the buck converter can have very high efficiency in a wide load range.0% 95. C(s) = 43342(s + 3800) s(s + 6. The boost converter. and the phase margin is 78.1 × 10 4) (4) Frequency domain plot of the entire loop gain is shown in Fig. Fig. 14. The resulting loop gain bandwidth is 884 Hz.5°.897 × 10 6 the control loops are stable.02% accuracy. 15.5% 98. and the mid dc bus voltage Vdc is well regulated when the load current ILoad is increased from 21 A to 33 A condition. The current sensor is a high precision current viewing resistor with 0.0% 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Power (W) Fig. Fig. The scaling factor and the cut-off frequency of the voltage sensor are 0. High efficiency of 98% power conversion can be achieved if only one converter is used. Vol. No. The resulting loop gain bandwidth is 1. Efficiency Measurement Results For efficiency measurement. however.: 78.05 and 50 kHz. The buck converter duty cycle is almost constant throughout the entire fuel cell voltage range because the boost converter runs in closed-loop condition that regulates the mid dc bus voltage to a constant of 60V.2% accuracy.6 dB Freq: 2. Voltage loop control is also needed for the buck converter because the output voltage needs to maintain constant at 48 V.0% 97.74e+003 Hz 102 103 Frequency (Hz) 104 105 Efficiency 96% Fig. Note that a voltage sensor was included in the both boost and buck converters.M.0% 98.4°.4 deg Freq: 1. G vd = 3.0% 96. 3.1 × 10 5(s + 1333) + 5187s + 6. The designed PI controller is shown in (4).M. all the instruments are high precision with 0.2e+004 Hz Stable loop Phase (deg) 99. If the seamless transition is needed. and the total system efficiency will be lower.5% 95. respectively. 15 Frequency response of the buck stage control loop 94% Vin = 57V Vin = 48V Efficiency 92% Vin = 37V 90% 88% Vds (50 V/div) Vgs (10 V/div) 86% 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Power (W) ILoad = 21A ILoad = 33A t (10 µs/div) Vdc= 59V Fig. Figure 16 shows voltage and current waveforms under dynamic load step test. The peak efficiency occurs in between 3 kW and 4 kW. and its efficiency will depend on the input voltage condition. 30. 18 Overall system efficiency with different input voltages and both boost and buck converters operating in closed-loop condition Fig. Test results verify that . 16 Dynamic response of the mid dc bus voltage under load step shown in Fig.74 kHz. then both boost and buck converters need to operate in closed-loop condition. The device voltage vds and gate-source voltage vgs indicate a small and gradual duty cycle increase after the load current step.1150 Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers. 17 shows the buck converter efficiency test results. and the phase margin is 76. 7 (2007) 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -45 -90 -135 -180 -225 1 10 G. a crossover frequency of higher than 1 kHz is selected for the buck converter. 18 shows the overall system efficiency with s2 (3) To avoid interaction between two stages.5% 97.5% 96. needs to deal with different input voltages. 17 Buck converter efficiency test results Magnitude (dB) P.

In every cycle. but not exactly with the same duty cycle. 19 shows the photographs of the prototypes of V3 converter under test. APPLICATION TO THE V3 ISOLATED DC-DC CONVERTER The isolated V3 converter shown in Fig. respectively. i B . 3 kW load Fig. 50% duty cycle. The zoom-in gate-source 98% 97% 96% 95% 94% 93% 92% 91% 90% 89% 0 1000 2000 3000 Power (W) Fig. Notice that the threephase converter building block remains the same except that additional transformers and rectifier stages are added to obtain high voltage conversion ratio. v gs1 and v gs4 are complementary. Lai et al. The top two traces indicate that the upper and lower gate drive voltages of phase-A. which has upper and lower devices switching complementarily and allows the device to be turned on at zero voltages. Figure 22 shows the gate drive voltages and output phase current waveforms for the V3 converter. Figs. 25% duty cycle.5%. The peak efficiency drops to about 95.: A Versatile Three-Phase DC-DC Converter Circuit for Fuel Cell Applications 1151 vds1 Rectifier stage 20 V/div vds4 vgs1 5 V/div vgs4 Transformer stage 20 V/div Upper Device ZVS 5 V/div 5 µs/div Zoome-in Three-phase converter building block Zoom-in Lower Device ZVS 200 ns/div Fig. The efficiency is generally higher with higher input voltage. the phase current should have two zero current regions with 60° periods where small circulating current is observed possibly due to component mismatch.J. and i C are 120° apart. Three phase currents i A . V dc = 400V. 20 ZVS for V3 at low duty cycle and light load condition V fd = 50 V. Fig. VI. 20 and 21 show experimental waveforms for 25% and 50% duty cycles. 19 Photograph of the V3 converter using the three-phase converter building block vgs1 5 V/div vds1 vgs1 20 V/div vds4 5 V/div vgs4 vgs4 5 V/div iA 20 V/div Upper Device ZVS 5 µs/div Zoome-in 5 V/div 10 A/div iB 10 A/div iC 10 A/div Zoom-in t: 5 µs/div Lower Device ZVS 200 ns/div Fig. 23 V3 converter efficiency measurement results Efficiency 4000 5000 6000 and drain-source voltages of both figures all indicate that devices are switched at zero-voltage conditions. 21 ZVS for V3 at high duty cycle and heavy load condition V fc = 50 V. 1 kW load different input voltages and both boost and buck converters operating in closed-loop condition. Figure 23 shows the efficiency measurement . S. The asymmetrical three-phase bridge converter operation is very similar to a full-bridge converter phase-shift operation. 22 Gate drive signals and output phase currents of V3 converter Fig. V dc = 300V. 6 has been implemented to have 37 – 57 V input and 400 V output at 5-kW output power.

” IEEE Transactions on IAS. 2003. D. 6373. A. 7 (2007) results of the V3 converter. Prasad. Vol. and Erickson. The building block looks the same as a conventional dc-ac inverter bridge but is constructed with low-voltage power MOSFETs. 2005 Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program Annual Report. Vancouver. J. S.” Proceedings of PESC. Liu. R. 2006. “Analysis and Design of A Three-Phase Off-line DCDc Converter with High Frequency Isolation. and Lai. 2007 and Accepted: Mov. M. and Lai. Johnson. ... As a result.. D. S. Multiple phase-legs interleaved operation for highfrequency ripple reduction 3. J. 1991. Stable control loop designs are also shown for a two-stage power conversion.02% precision or better. 19. Divan. Maksimovic. CA. “Modeling and Control of a Novel Six-Leg Three-Phase HighPower Converter for Low-Voltage Fuel Cell Applications. R. all meters and current sensors have been selected to be 0. 1292-1300. 19.. “A Three-Phase ZVS PWM DC/DC Converter with Asymmetrical Duty Cycle for High Power Applications” Proceedings of IEEE PESC. More importantly. Standard six-switch inverter circuit using low-voltage low on-drop power MOSFETs as the power devices. Mexico. A. which have low conduction loss and fast switching speed.-S. pp. the complementarily switched MOSFET allows reverse current conducting to reduce the conduction loss caused by the fixed diode voltage drop..-R. VII. US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. the doublestate nonisolated dc-dc converter has the peak efficiency between 94% and 96% depending on the fuel cell EG&G Technical Services. and Kheraluwala. Liu. 824-832. Seventh Edition. No. i. 2007.D. “Buck-Boost PWM Converters Having Two Independently Controlled Switches. C. Canada. 1691-1697. synchronous rectification. REFERENCES In this paper. 616-621. “Multiphase Isolated DC-DC Converter for Low-Voltage HighPower Fuel Cell Applications. a three-phase dc-dc converter building block has been proposed for both non-isolated and isolated dc-dc converters for low-voltage high-power fuel cell applications. pp. Ziogas.8% at 2 kW. and the isolated dc-dc converter efficiency peaks at 96. 2001. J. M. pp. Moon. Key features of the proposed versatile three-phase dc-dc converter building block are: 1. CONCLUSION voltage.” IEEE Transactions on IAS. 736-741.8%.” IEEE Transactions on IAS..-S.. Complementary switching for synchronous rectification in non-isolated dc-dc converters and for soft switching in isolated dc-dc converters The proposed three-phase converter building block has been applied in two fuel cell power conversion cases.. Oliveira Jr.. Fuel Cell Handbook. Chen. The results indicate that the V3 converter maintains efficiency between 95 and 97% from 1 kW to 5 kW and peaks at 96. the efficiency of the converters based on the proposed three-phase converter building block is superior for high-power applications. 654-660. A. 1992. and Lai. W. and the second case is an isolated dcdc converter that requires 400-V dc output as the frontstage for the subsequent-stage dc-ac inverter that can produce 110/220-V ac for residential applications. pp. P. S.. Acapulco. September 2005.e... Again. D. Johnson. C..” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. De Doncker. pp. J. Anaheim.S. suitable for low-voltage high-power applications 2. in the test setup.. The single-stage nonisolated dc-dc converter exceeds 98% efficiency. DEAM26-99FT40575. 2007 .” Proceedings of IEEE APEC.... 2005. Both converters have been tested extensively with superior efficiencies that are most desired in energy applications.1152 Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers. 30. It can be concluded that the proposed versatile three-phase converter building block is very well suited in lowvoltage high-power fuel cell applications. R. pp... pp. H.. and Manias. The first case is a non-isolated dc-dc converter that requires 48-V dc output for telecom applications. November 2004. “A Novel Three-phase High-Powersoft-Switched DC/DC Converter for Low-Voltage Fuel Cell Applications. Manuscript Received: Mov. and Barbi I.. “A Three-Phase Soft-switched High Power Density DC/DC Converter for High Power Applications.