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INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR STEFAN BOLTZMAN APPARATUS

Manufactured by : Legion Brothers # 472/5 Srigandhadakavalu vishwaneedam post Kottigepalya Bangalore – 560 091 Ph : 080-23587927, 09448428695, 09448451476, 09845114738 website : www.legionbrothers.com email : info@legionbrothers.com

The disc is mounted on a bakelite sleeve which is fitted in a hole drilled at the center of the base plate. -A test disc made of copper is fixed to the plate.com AIM To determine the value of Stefan — Boltzman constant for radiation heat transfer. Pour the hot water to the container. per unit time. PROCEDURE Heat the water in the tank by an immersion heater provided. to a temperature of about 80°C. Another iron Constantine thermocouples is fixed to the disc to record its temperature. Remove the test disc before pouring the hot water to the container containing hemisphere surface. DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS The apparatus consists of a flanged copper hemisphere fixed on a flat nonconducting plate.legionbrothers. Three iron Constantine thermocouples are attached at three strategic places on the surface of the hemisphere to obtain the temperatures. The outer surface pf the hemisphere is enclosed in a vertical water jacket used to heat the hemisphere to a suitable constant temperature.Legion Brothers www. . qEb σ = = σ T4 Stefan Boltzman Constant Eb is also called the emissive power of a black surface and is defined as the energy emitted by the surface per unit area. Thus the test disc is completely enclosed by the hemisphere. THEORY STEFAN BOLTZMAN LAW This law states that the flux of heat energy emitted by radiation from an ideal surface called black body is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature.

This is indicated by three thermocouples provided for this purpose.5 mm 5 gm 200 mm 0. SPECIFICATIONS Diameter of the disc Thickness of the disc Mass of the disc Emmissivity of the hemisphere Emmissivity of the copper disc Specific heat of test disc copper OBSERVATION TABLE = = = = = = 20 mm 1.072 380.legionbrothers. Repeat the experiment at other temperatures of the hemisphere.3/Kg K.com Allow sufficient time for thermal equilibrium to attain between the copper hemisphere and the plate. Now insert the test disc and position it exactly in the groove.072 0.Legion Brothers www. Inner diameter of the hemispherical surface = Thermocouple No Temperature in 0C Temperature in 0K . Start the stop watch immediately and note down the temperatures at different short intervals of time. A thermocouple is attached to the disc to record the temperature.

9 312.2 39.9 39.legionbrothers.2 312.com 1 2 3 40.7 Temperature time responses .Legion Brothers www.7 313.

04 Average temp.9 5 10 15 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 SPECIMEN CALCULATIONS Plot the graph of temperature of disc vs time Slope of the line = dT/df = 298.5 298.5 25.6 25. of the hemisphere = T1 + T2 + T3 / 3 .1 298.com Time Temperature in 0C 24.9 Temperature in 0K 297.1 24.1 .297.8 298.7 297.9 298.6 298.7 24.1 297.9 25.8 25.1 25.7 25-15 = 0.3 24.3 297.3 25.legionbrothers.3 298.Legion Brothers www.

933°K 3 T = Temperature of the disc D before inserting into the plate in °K 24.02) 2 4 3.ED = σ AD (T a v g 4 — T D 4 ) AD = area of the disc = = = π (d) 2 4 π (0.14) -09 9.275 4 . Mcp (dT/dt) 0.Net heat input to disc / unit time = E1.legionbrothers.14159 x 10 -04 Rate of change of heat capacity of the disc = Net energy radiated on the disc.291 .04 σ = = = σ AD (T a v g 4 — T D 4 ) σ x 3. 9 + 3 1 2 .com T avg = 313.Legion Brothers www. 7 312.14159 x 10 -04 (313.*.5/1000x380x0. falling as is the disc is E1 = σ A D T a v g 4 .1 0K Energy emitted by the disc ED = σ A D T D 4 The radiation energy emitted by enclosure.870 x 10 w/m2k4 .2 + 3 1 2 .1 + 273 = 297.