TOPIC : Loss Minimization In Transmission And Distribution Systems

Submitted by :
Manila Kamboj Roll no - 107387 Section - E1


Energy crises have been a major issue of concern across the globe. The global demand for energy is increasing in an alarming pace. A viable and immediate solution in this juncture is saving of energy as cited by the slogan ³Energy saved is energy generated´. This sharp increase in world energy demand requires significant investment in network strengthening and loss minimization. When power is generated, transmitted and distributed from one location to another, due to inherent characteristics of the system, certain losses would occur. These losses cannot be totally eliminated but it is possible to reduce these losses with considerable investments. Ideally, losses in an electric system should be around 3 to 6%. In developed countries, it is not greater than 10%. However, in developing countries, the percentage of active power losses are around 20%; therefore, utilities in the electric sector are currently interested in reducing it, in order to be more competitive, since the electricity prices in deregulated markets are heavily dependent on the system losses. At present the T&D losses in INDIA is about 22% as compared to 13% in CHINA, 9% in KOREA and 7% in U.S.A. The government of INDIA is insisting that the various power utilities in the country should take effective steps to bring down the T&D losses to the level of 12%. A reduction in T&D losses by 1% would lead to the savings of 4638.9 lakh units of energy every year. In addition to these T&D losses, the electrical system losses prevailing in INDIA are also much higher compared to International standards¶. Our purpose is to identify and incorporate best practices to increase transmission line efficiency. Improving the technology and efficiency of the transmission system is a key component in developing a smarter national grid. New Smart Grid technologies, i.e. improved transmission efficiency would help support the creation of an intelligent grid capable of providing reliable, secure and green energy. Power losses are divided into two categories, real power loss and reactive power loss. The resistance of lines causes the real power loss, while reactive power loss are produced due to the reactive elements. Normally, the real power loss draws more attention for the utilities, as it reduces the efficiency of transmitting energy to customers.

secondary circuits. . Syst s t t comprise t ose parts of an electric power system between t e subtransmission system and t e consumers' service switches. and appropriate protective and control devices. Sometime the s. distribution transformers. including the services to the consumer. primary distribution feeders.THE T T B T Y YTE Overview of the power system from generation to consumer's switch. subtransmission system is also included in the definition. It includes distribution substations.

This phenomenon.5 percent in the distribution system. Transmitting electricity at high voltage reduces the fraction of energy lost to resistance. 2) Skin Effect : Another type of copper loss is due to SKIN EFFECT. Even if the conductor size (cross-sectional area) is reduced 10-fold to match the lower current the losses are still reduced 10-fold.200 kV. The distribution substation. provided the same sized conductors are used in both cases. which usually operates at voltages from 4. generator locations and outputs.16 to 34.5 and 138 kV. reduces the subtransmission voltage to a lower primary system voltage for local distribution. The expanding and collapsing fields about each electron encircle other electrons. Typical losses are about 3. losses during heavy loading periods or on heavily loaded lines are often much higher than under average or light loading conditions. Losses vary greatly in terms of network configuration. This is because a quadratic relationship between losses and line flows can be assumed for most devices of power delivery systems.In recent years. ELECTRICIT LOSSES IN T&D S STEMS : Transporting power from the generation source to the load always involves some losses. For example. When dc flows through a conductor. . These losses add to the total electrical load and so require additional generation. making a total of four wires. T&D losses in the United States have been marked by an increasing trend. The annual monetary impact of T&D losses is estimated at over $21 billion (based on the average national retail price of electricity and the total T&D losses in 2005). a higher voltage reduces the current and thus the resistive losses in the conductor.5 kV. which is made up of power transformers together with the necessary voltage-regulating apparatus. In particular. and farms. hence wasted resources. FACTORS LEADING TO T&D LOSSES 1) Resistive losses in the conductor : These losses are reduced by stepping up the voltage using transformers. The three-phase primary feeder.The subtransmission circuits of a typical distribution system (see illustration) deliver electric power from bulk power sources to the distribution substations. the losses in transmission and distribution systems account for 6 to 7. For a given amount of power. The subtransmission voltage is usually between 34. small stores. Long distance transmission is typically done with overhead lines at voltages of 115 to 1. and switchgear. mainly due to increased power transactions and inefficient T&D system operations. and customer locations and demands. Single-phase branches (made up of two wires) supplied from the three-phase mains provide power to residences. raising the voltage by a factor of 10 reduces the current by a corresponding factor of 10 and therefore the losses by a factor of 100. distributes electric power from the low-voltage bus of the substation to its load center.5 percent in the transmission system and about 4. where it branches into three-phase subfeeders and three-phase and occasionally single-phase laterals. Loads are connected in parallel to common power-supply circuits. The situation is somewhat different when ac is applied. Most of the three-phase distribution system lines consist of three-phase conductors and a common or neutral conductor. bus-bars. Overall. the movement of electrons through the conductor's cross section is uniform.5 percent of the total electric energy produced 3].

since power loss increases as resistance increases. As frequency is increased.sound. power losses increase with an increase in frequency because of skin effect. metering inaccuracies and control system malfunctions. more than 2 MV between conductor and ground. Typical nonlinear loads include rectifiers.called SELF INDUCTION. the opposition to the flow of current in the center of the wire increases. and any other loads based on solid-state conversion. the resistance will increase as the frequency is increased. When the frequency applied is 100 megahertz or higher. variable speed drives. 3) Corona discharge : losses due to corona. Harmonics create many concerns for utilities and customers alike. Also. Typical phenomena include neutral circuit overloading in three phase circuits. . A waveform that contains any components other than the fundamental frequency is non-sinusoidal and considered to be distorted. retards the movement of the encircled electrons. You should be able to see that the effective cross-sectional area decreases as the frequency increases. motor and transformer overheating. Current in the center of the wire becomes smaller and most of the electron flow is on the wire surface. the electron movement in the center is so small that the center of the wire could be removed without any noticeable effect on the from of light. The flux density at the center is so great that electron movement at this point is reduced.etc. Transformers and reactors may also become nonlinear elements in a power system during overvoltage conditions. corona discharge losses are so large that they can offset the lower resistance loss in the line conductors. 4) Harmonics : Harmonics are associated with steady-state waveform distortion of currents and voltages. Since resistance is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area. At extremely high voltages. Nonlinear loads draw currents that are non-sinusoidal and thus create voltage drops in distribution conductors that are non-sinusoidal.

the reactive power increases and the power factor decreases. Utilities add capacitor banks and other components (such as phase-shifting transformers. The ratio of real power (transmitted to the load) to apparent power is the power factor. When there is no potential difference between two conductors. physical transposition of the phase conductors. losses are higher than for systems with high power factors. The currents that flow in these components of the circuit impedance constitute reactive power. FACTS) throughout the system to control reactive power flow for reduction of losses and stabilization of system voltage. As reactive current increases.5) Reactive power : In an alternating current circuit. Power from the source is used in heating the dielectric. For systems with low power factors. the inductance and capacitance of the phase conductors can be significant. 6) Dielectric Losses: DIELECTRIC LOSSES result from the heating effect on the dielectric material between the conductors. static VAR compensators. The heat produced is dissipated into the surrounding medium. Reactive current causes extra losses in the transmission circuit. and flexible AC transmission systems. which transmits no energy to the load. the atoms in the dielectric .

Benefits: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Lower investment cost Lower losses Lower right-of-way requirement for DC lines than for AC lines HVDC does not contribute to the short circuit current HVDC can carry more power per conductor because. The excessive negative charge on one conductor repels electrons on the dielectric toward the positive conductor and thus distorts the orbits of the electrons. But above a certain distance. . That is. Technologies to improve efficiency in transmission and distribution systems 1. 7) Radiation and Induction Losses : RADIATION and INDUCTION LOSSES are similar in that both are caused by the fields surrounding the conductors. The tubing then serves primarily as a mechanical support. As a result. for a given power rating. Therefore many long overhead lines (> 700 km) particularly from remote generating stations are built as DC lines.Radiation losses occur because some magnetic lines of force about a conductor do not return to the conductor when the cycle alternates. the HVDC alternative will always give the lowest cost. These lines of force are projected into space as radiation and this results in power losses. but is not available to the load. power is dissipated in the object and is lost. the so-called "break-even distance". A change in the path of electrons requires more energy. power is supplied by the source. Factors / Phenomena : Copper losses Copper losses can be minimized and conductivity increased in an rf line by plating the line with silver. most of the current will flow through the silver layer. the orbits of the electrons change. the terminal stations are more expensive in the HVDC case due to the fact that they must perform the conversion from AC to DC and vice versa. introducing a power loss. Induction losses occur when the electromagnetic field about a conductor cuts through any nearby metallic object and a current is induced in that object.material between them are normal and the orbits of the electrons are circular. Factors / Phenomena: Long lines Technology / System: HVDC Example of application: Expressway for power A HVDC transmission line costs less than an AC line for the same transmission capacity. the constant voltage in a DC line is lower than the peak voltage in an AC line. Since silver is a better conductor than copper. When there is a potential difference between two conductors. 2. However.

eliminate problems created by power system harmonics. availability and maintenance. High voltage DC circuit breakers are difficult to build because some mechanism must be included in the circuit breaker to force current to zero. These filters consist of capacitor banks with suitable tuning reactors and damping resistors. and in some cases. For small and medium size loads. easily identifiable sources of harmonics. Benefits: . probably more serious problems. control. At smaller transmission distances the losses in the static inverters may be bigger than in an AC transmission line. based on power electronic converters with high switching frequency. mainly due to the extra conversion equipment. 3. The required static inverters are expensive and have limited overload capacity. The cost of the inverters may not be offset by reductions in line construction cost and lower line loss. They can also cause other. HVDC is less reliable and has lower availability than AC systems. For large. and electric arc furnaces cause harmonics giving rise to extra losses in power equipment such as transformers. converters. active filters. otherwise arcing and contact wear would be too great to allow reliable switching. Non-linear loads such as rectifiers.Limitations : The disadvantages of HVDC are in conversion. Factors / Phenomena: Harmonics Technology / System: Harmonic Filters Example of application: Reducing harmonics in heavy industry Harmonic Filters may be used to mitigate. when interfering with control systems and electronic devices. switching. motors and capacitors. home electronic appliances. conventional filters designed to meet the demands of the actual application are the most cost efficient means of eliminating harmonics. Installing filters near the harmonic sources can effectively reduce harmonics. may be a more attractive solution.

including supply of leading and lagging reactive power and compensation of current harmonics and unbalance generated by non-linear and time-varying loads. cost-effective solutions cannot use filters only. Factors / Phenomena: Reactive Power Factor Technology / System: Shunt Capacitor Example of application: Regulation of the power factor to increase the transmission capability and reduce transmission losses Shunt capacitors are primarily used to improve the power factor in transmission and distribution networks. and efficient capacity utilization. they may use hybrid systems made up of a combination of passive filters. 4. resulting in improved voltage regulation. In high power applications. Figure shows a plot of terminal voltage versus line loading for a system that has a shunt capacitor installed at the load bus. however. reduced network losses. thyrister-controlled VAR compensators and active power filters.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Eliminates harmonics Improved Power Factor Reduced Transmission Losses Increased Transmission Capability Improved Voltage Control Improved Power Quality Other applications: ‡ Shunt Capacitors Active power filters are flexible tools to provide widespread harmonic and reactive compensation. rather. Improved transmission voltage regulation can be obtained during heave power transfer conditions when the system consumes .

With continuously variable reactive power supply. Benefits: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Improved power factor Reduced transmission losses Increased transmission capability Improved voltage control Improved power quality Other appli ati ns: ‡ Harmonic Filters 5. the voltage at the SVC bus may be maintained smoothly over a wide range of active power transfers or system loading conditions.a large amount of reactive power that must be replaced by compensation. thus achieving reduced deli ery system l sses and network voltage drop. This entails the reduction of network losses and provision of adequate power quality to the electric energy end-users. . Further improved system steady state performance can be obtained from SVC applications. In distribution and industrial systems. it is common to use shunt capacitors to compensate for the highly inductive loads. A Static Var Compensa is capable of tor both generating and absorbing variable reactive power continuously as opposed to discrete values of fi ed and switched shunt capacitors or reactors. At the line surge impedance loading level. the shunt capacitor would decrease the line losses by more than 35%. Technology / System: Static Var Compensator (SVC) E ample of application: Grid Voltage Support Static Var Compensators are used in transmission and distribution networks mainly providing dynamic voltage support in response to system disturbances and balancing the reactive power demand of large and fluctuating industrial loads.

these new type of lines provide significant benefits in comparison with conventional lines due to optimal utilization of Right-of-way. inter-phase dimensions. transmission lines are operated well below their thermal loading capacity due to voltage constraints. 8. stability constraints. Voltage Balancing) 6. such as polyethylene. Therefore. or system operating constraints. better voltage regulation and reduced transmission losses etc. maintenance is less and availability of line shall be high. reduced environmental impact and optimization of transmission cost. distort easily. improved stability limit. The atoms of materials. The phase-angle regulator (PAR) is the device most often used to remove thermal constraints associated with ³parallel path flow´ or ³loop flow´ problems. 7. polyethylene is often used as a dielectric because less power is consumed when its electron orbits are distorted. Factors / Phenomena : Dielectric Losses The atomic structure of rubber is more difficult to distort than the structure of some other dielectric materials. Additionally. they offer advantages like enhanced Power transfer capacity. In many cases.Benefits: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Increased Power Transfer Capability Additional flexibility in Grid Operation Improved Grid Voltage Stability Improved Grid Voltage Control Improved Power Factor Other applications: ‡ ‡ Power Oscillation Damping Power Quality (Flicker Mitigation. Such lines reduce corona loss significantly which in turn helps in reducing audible noise and radio interference. Therefore. Several technologies are available and are being applied to improve the utilization of the transmission capacity. . As no additional equipment are connected in series with the line. Factors / Phenomena: Corona Loss Technology / System: High Surge Impedance Loading Line HSIL lines having expanded bundle geometry optimizes the electric field at the surface of all sub-conductors which reduces the inductance.

This device can absorb and deliver reactive power to the system based on the variations of the system voltage fluctuations. More sophisticated use of power electronics is employed in what is called static synchronous compensators (STATCOM). 11 Distribution transformers account for a considerable part of total transmission and . distribution transformers represent a great energy saving potential. The simplest of these devices are the thyristor controlled capacitor and reactor banks (SVC) that have been widely used to provide quick reactive power compensation at critical locations in the transmission grid. Another commonly used device is thyristor-controlled series capacitors (TCSC) that can provide reactive compensation as well as damping of power system oscillations. The UPFC can regulate both real and reactive power in a line. With their widespread application and long life span. 10.9. Other then these. often referred to as FACTS devices (Flexible AC Transmission System)8) can be used to enable better utilization of lines and cables and other associated equipment such as transformers 10. The most sophisticated of these devices is the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). Based on a study of the Pacific Northwest transmission and distribution systems. it was found that distribution transformers accounted for over 30 percent of losses while substation transformers contributed only 2 percent 4]. A family of devices based on power electronics technology. It is estimated that FACTS devices can boost the transmission capacity of lines now limited by voltage or stability considerations by as much as 20 to 40 percent. From the energy savings point of view. Series capacitor compensation is another commonly used technology for increasing transfer capability of long-distance HVAC transmission lines. even a minor increase of one-tenth of one percent in transformer efficiency leads to significant energy savings as most transformers are energized around the clock. Factors / Phenomena : Transformer Losses Distribution transformer losses in particular make up a considerable fraction of the total loss incurred in transmission and distribution systems 11 12 . FACTS equipment increases the capacity and stability of AC lines. allowing for rapid voltage support and power flow control.

The caveat involved in these steps is that they typically result in increased load losses. Hence they are referred to as load losses. Coil losses. When a transformer is energized 24 hours a day. occur in the transformer windings and vary with loading conditions 13 . transformer losses can be reduced by at least 15 percent in a cost-effective manner. 13 Transformer principle (source: Precision Graphics) Transformer no-load losses can be reduced by using magnetic core steel materials or optimizing their geometries. . Load losses can be reduced in a number of ways including the application of higher conductivity materials such as larger cross-section conductors or adopting copper conductors instead of aluminum conductors. 12 Transformer load losses can be reduced through appropriate choices in the materials and geometry of windings Two types of losses are commonly evaluated for loss reduction: core losses and coil losses. New materials help reduce these losses Using currently available technologies.distribution losses. Decreasing the conductor crosssection also reduces the no-load losses by decreasing the path length of the magnetic flux. Core losses are often referred to as no-load losses because they occur in the core of an energized transformer regardless of its loading conditions. every day. have minimum winding losses. Utilizing lower loss winding methods reduces the length of the winding conductors. Increasing the core cross-section or decreasing volts per turn reduces the core losses by decreasing the core flux density. Smaller magnetic core cross-sections and fewer turns also reduce the winding losses. this loss amounts to substantial energy consumption over the transformer¶s life (typically 20±30 years). in particular. Superconducting transformers. on the other hand.

14 An NA pole-top three phase transformer . transmission lines are operated well below their thermal loading capacity due to voltage constraints.These explanations show that steps to reduce no-load losses often result in increased load losses and vice-versa. or system operating constraints. they are ironically less enthusiastic about TCO evaluations. stability constraints. In 1995. and economical factors tempered by some form of lifecycle economic analysis. This program is raising public awareness of energy efficiency as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The study performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) found that energy efficiency gains are technically feasible and may lead to substantial energy savings of 3. Although industrial and commercial consumers directly pay for their energy losses. The TCO is most often evaluated by electric utilities during the procurement process. due in part to their procurement practices and the relatively short transformer life cycles. the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the Energy Star Transformer program in partnership with electric utilities to promote and support the use of high-efficiency. The US Energy Act of 1992 required the DOE to provide a cost-benefit analysis of increasing energy efficiency for distribution transformers. Such an evaluation takes into account the initial cost of the transformer as well as the life cycle cost including losses. a trade-off has to be considered with respect to the core/winding material. Most often. technological. and how the buyer evaluates the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of the transformer. In many cases. the transformer loss reduction is an optimization process involving physical. Hence.7 quads10) of energy over the period from 2000-2030 5]. The energy efficiency of transformers is improving in many markets due in part to government policies and initiatives and market forces. design.6 to 13. cost-effective distribution transformers.

Mexico. M5. Minnesota. The way forward The foregoing sections introduce technologies that can be applied individually or in combination to increase the efficiency of the power system. NEMA TP-3 provides labeling guides for energy efficient transformers. the potential for energy saving through transmission and distribution loss reduction is higher than 1 percent of total delivered energy. In the US alone. Vermont. and states of California. This standard is in draft status and more detailed than NEMA TP-1. but the implementation is unclear at present.S. this requirement places additional demand on highly efficient core material as dry-type transformers are typically produced with non-grain-oriented core steel. Although no mandatory efficiency standards have been implemented to date.Energy efficient distribution transformers have recently been put in the spotlight worldwide 14 . Massachusetts. the final cost of the transformer and availability of supply commodities for energy efficient transformers will be evident challenges in the implementation phase. The new efficiency requirements are expected to impact around 50 to 60 percent of the distribution transformers produced today. which has a market value of around $3 billion dollars. The IEEE standard PC57. there are various industry standards for energy efficiency evaluation of distribution transformers. Furthermore. the savings in congestion costs amounting to billions of dollars annually can be achieved with enhanced T&D systems. a North American. and Oregon have already adopted energy efficiency programs.S. Following the DOE mandate. These transformers normally use the least costly and most readily available steel grades known in the industry as M4. and M6. The world wide potential for energy saving is enormous. nonprofit organization that promotes energy-efficient products and services. 3 may be voluntarily adopted by transformer vendors for determining energy efficiency and measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The U. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standards eg. The proposed energy efficiency improvement requires the use of more efficient M2 and M3 steel grades for the grain-oriented silicon core steel. . Such programs are further supported and promoted by the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE).TP-1. The following roadmap has been developed by the Business Round-table Energy Task Force T&D working group that included leading U. New York. Department of Energy¶s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy recently issued a Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NOPR) that sets minimum energyefficiency standards for liquid-immersed and medium voltage dry-type distribution transformers. Wisconsin. In addition. In addition. Canada.33 provides guidance for distribution transformer loss evaluation.12. NEMA documents will be adopted in some form in line with a worldwide energy efficient effort that is taking place in North American as well in IEC markets. 2. electric transmission and distribution is also the main enabler for optimizing the generation portfolio and reducing fossil fuel consumption through access to clean and renewable energy sources. The DOE will eventually mandate energy efficient transformers. As a result. utilities and T&D vendors.

17mm 2 ARMCO .4 1.6 Induction (Tesla) 1. size and length  Eddy Loss .8 ARMCO . y y y Adequate investment is needed to expand the network capacity and controllability to enable optimal deployment and use of power generation resources.material (CU vs.36mm 1. processing  Eddy Loss .steel chemistry. Factors / Phenomena: Transformer losses  Total Loss = No-Load Loss + Load Loss  No Load Losses .3 1.5 1. proximity to steel parts No Load Losses ± Material Impact 2.2 1. coating.8 0.2 1.steel thickness  Load Losses .Conductor loss  I2R Loss .2 1 0.4 2.The operation of unconstrained transmission grids provides cost effective generators access to the load and so increases the efficiency of the electric power market.2 ARMCO .6 1.Core Loss  Hysteresis Loss . The establishment of new industry standards for energy efficient power apparatus is needed to reduce consumption.1 1.geometry. AL).7 1.8 .4 0.4 1. Optimal network design and operation with advanced technologies and practices are essential to save energy.23mm 1.6 0.

y Reconducting ± replace a conductor with a larger conductor or add additional conductors in parallel. .No Load Losses ± Design Impact Induction=(constant x rated voltage) / (Turns x f x core area) Where  Rated voltage and number of turns refer to either the high voltage or low voltage coil  Induction is a function of the electrical steel limited by its saturation value  f is the frequency Load Losses ± Conductor I2 R  I = Rated Current  R = Resistance of the conductor Resistivity .property of the material  Copper = 0.017  Aluminium = 0.028 Load Losses . Reducing T&D energy losses through optimized system design and operation practices The following are some of the most widely recognized loss reduction techniques in T&D system design and operation resulting in higher efficiency.Conductor Eddy Loss  Less of an impact than I2R  Eddy loss in the conductor  Thin conductors have less eddy loss  Eddy loss in adjacent ferrous metal  LV Lead close to tank wall sets up eddy currents in the tank 11.

How to Reduce Losses Ways to Reduce No-Load Loss Use better grade of core steel . Furthermore.5 percent of the transmitted power compared to 5 to 8 percent for traditional power cables. Direct delivery of power to mega load centers through HVDC. the total losses (load losses. High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables now under development can carry three to five times the power of conventional cables with copper conductors. core losses and refrigeration power) can be 65 to 70 percent of that of a conventional transformer. The load losses of HTS cables will be significantly lower than those of overhead lines or conventional cables. Other notable technologies and design practices that can increase the efficiency of the grid include: y y y y y y y more underground distribution lines ± these could save up to 80 percent of distribution losses DC distribution networks microgrids to eliminate long distance transmission intelligent automated grid design real-time online control systems load management through smart metering energy storage devices The estimated potential for improving energy efficiency directly through transmission and distribution loss reduction is higher than 1 percent of total delivered energy. even when the power required for refrigeration is included. Voltage optimization through reactive power compensation ± install reactive power resources at chosen locations to minimize reactive power transfer on the T&D grids. A major vendor of superconductors claims that HTS cable losses are only 0. For the case of a 100 MVA transformer. Equalizing phase loading ± improve the balance of phase currents of distribution systems. These cables can be used instead of overhead transmission lines or cables in places where environmental and space constraints prohibit the use of overhead lines.y y y y y Voltage upgrades ± upgrade a portion of the transmission or distribution network to a higher voltage level. Superconducting materials at or near liquid nitrogen temperatures have the ability to conduct electricity with zero resistance. the use of superconductors to replace copper in transformer windings can reduce the load losses significantly.

Mostly residential consumers are not that much bothered about power factor correction. Nowadays. Studies showed that the best locations for the installation of reactive power compensating devices are near to the load centre. both within industrial facilities. it is affected by both consumers and utilities. electricity distributors must achieve certain minimum power factor or have to face penalties. office complexes and in the power distribution grid in close proximity to commercial clients. In this method. A residential consumer often uses low power factor luminaries and other devices to exploit this opportunity. Consequently. ended by consumers.Use thinner core steel laminations Use more turns in the coil Use a core with larger leg area Ways to Reduce Load Loss Use copper rather than aluminum Use a conductor with a larger area Use fewer turns in the coil A PRACTICAL APPROACH FOR PFC AT THE USER END : The distribution network is the terminal stage of power system. loss minimization was obtained by the installation of shunt capacitors based on the reconfiguration of the network. Under these set up. Alternatively the concept of loss minimization has to be originated from the root itself. A methodology for the optimal operation of distribution network has been recently developed.a new solution is to explore the benefits of deploying . The main problem that are found in the distribution network is that. that is from the end user. residential PFC also becoming more and more popular. For this reason. Often the loss minimizations in the distribution networks are localized in the feeder side and numbers of techniques have been proposed. In order to improve the efficiency of the electrical system. in some regions of the world. since the metering in mainly in Kilowatt hour. Deregulation and restructuring of the energy market and steady increasing costs of power production in many countries have put enormous pressure on the margins of the utilities. authorities began to implement incentives for power factor correction. and create further capacity. Power factor correction (PFC) has found widespread use in commercial applications. controlling the reactive power and regulating the node voltages results in the reduction of power loss which has got a great concern by utilities. A single VA saved in the consumer side multiples to several folds when it is taken through the substation level to generation level.

It has also been proved that. for the same amount of useful power transferred. PF = kW/kVA (1) A unity (1. It can also proved mathematically that. The higher currents increase the energy lost in the distribution system. the Power-Save unit increases that power factor in most cases to 0. the concept of power factor and its importance have been presented.) RESIDENTIAL POWER FACTOR & CORRECTION : The residential power factor is the ratio of percentage of electricity that¶s delivered to the house and used effectively. Power factor correction phasor diagram. However. The methodology of work carried out was explained in section 3. in private residences. However.PFC in the low voltage distribution networks as close to the consumer load premises as possible. electrical utilities will usually charge a higher cost to industrial or commercial customers where there is a low power factor. compared to what is wasted. power factor improvement also results in reduction in system losses. Finally. a. conclusions and major contributions of the paper was summarized in section 5. Reduction of percentage active power Losses by installing the capacitor is given by 100-100 * (Improved Power Factor) 2 (Original Power Factor) 2 In an electric power system. This means that 77% of the electricity that is coming through the meter is being used effectively. Section 4 presented some interesting numerical results along with some discussions with regard to the capacitor selection and installation.97 or 0. most homes today have a power factor 77% or less. a load with low power factor draws more current than a load with a high power factor. In section 2. and require larger wires and other equipments. the apparent power and power factor can be corrected to any desired set value as per the phasor diagram given in Fig. Fig. 1. b. The paper has been organized as follows.0) power factor means that all the electricity that¶s being delivered to the home is being used effectively for its purpose. or in residential colonies have been suggested. the remaining 23% is being wasted by the premise inductive load. A novel technique of capacitor placement in any of the socket plug of residential dormitory can be proposed. With low power factor.98. the utility has to deliver more electricity to do the same work. The ratio of actual power to apparent power is usually expressed in percentage and is termed as power factor. there exists a considerable saving in the monthly electricity bill. Because of the costs of larger equipment and wasted energy.) METHODOLOG : The project deals with the analysis of the power saving and cost minimization by connecting the residential power factor improving switching . By using a shunt capacitor. thus increasing the effective use of electricity.1.

where a number of ACs and other central load have been connected.1) Load survey and load duration curve : Load survey was conducted for consumption pattern and the load duration curve were plotted.capacitor in the any of the socket plugs or are centrally connected in the energy-meter terminals depending on the load consumption pattern. the timing of maximum demand and power factor were determined. The basic capacitor sizing calculation equation is given in equation(3) below : C=A D Fig : Swtiching Capacitor Two different schemes of capacitor connection were used . (b) capacitor sizing and installation. Various type of capacitor connection.8 and switched off when it reached about 0. where there was an identified localized low power factor high power rated load. 13. as given in Fig. b. The capacitor was switched on when the power factor is below 0. near the energymeter. The project implementation consisted of the following stages: (a) load survey and load duration curve formulation.97. (a) Capacitor connected in socket plug (b) Capacitor connected in meter box Fig. From the load duration curve.2) Capacitor selection and installation : Various types of residential power factor improvement capacitors are available in the market. the compensation was provided centrally. Suitable capacitor and switching criteria was hence decided. For small residential dormitories. In most cases the capacitors were centrally connected for compensation in the meter box and were switched on and off manually for testing based on the load on and off switching. If the . b. In big dormitories. the compensation have been provided in the nearby socket plug. 13.

the higher cost of DC conversion equipment compared to an AC system may be warranted where other benefits of direct current links are useful. corresponding suitable series parallel combination were used to achieve the same and in all cases same type of capacitors were employed. where purchase of an easement for cables would be very costly. HVDC systems are less expensive and suffer lower electrical losses. 2. The development of superconductors with transition temperatures higher than the boiling point of liquid nitrogen has made the concept of superconducting power lines commercially feasible. the cost of cooling would be eliminated by coupling the transmission line with a liquid hydrogen pipeline. In one hypothetical future system called a SuperGrid. Some companies such as Consolidated Edison and American Superconductor have already begun commercial production of such systems. LIMITATIONS : Every research has certain limitations. FUTURE PROSPECTS : 1 ) Superconducting cables : High-temperature superconductors promise to revolutionize power distribution by providing lossless transmission of electrical power. It has been estimated that the waste would be halved using this method. since the necessary refrigeration equipment would consume about half the power saved by the elimination of the majority of resistive losses. For shorter distances. The use of superconducting conductors to replace copper in transformer windings can reduce the load losses significantly.correct capacitor was not available. Practical manipulation of DC voltages became possible with the development of high power electronic . at least for high-load applications.) HVDC is better : For long-distance distribution. Superconducting cables are particularly suited to high load density areas such as the business district of large cities.

high power MOSFETs and gate turnoff thyristors (GTOs). and light rail.devices such as mercury arc valves and. by using the unsupervisory selforganize mapping network (SOM) to classify the section current combination. It is principally used for rural electrification. commercial and industrial customers. the network can not through training process. 6.)Voltage Sourced Converters (VSC) : The development of insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) and gate turn-off thyristors (GTO) has made smaller HVDC systems economical. the supervisory neural network of back-propagation (BP) is used to derive the optimal feeder reconfiguration to reduce feeder loss. Wireless power transmission has been studied for transmission of power from solar power satellites to the earth. with no commercial success. Third. ABB manufacturer calls this concept "HVDC Light" and Siemens manufacturer calls a similar concept "HVDC PLUS" (Power Link Universal System).) Single wire earth return : Single-wire earth return (SWER) or single wire ground return is a single-wire transmission line for supplying single-phase electrical power for an electrical grid to remote areas at low cost. we get the feeder hourly loading by considering the weather information and feeder historical load data or by SCADA system. The difference lies in the concept of the Voltage-Sourced Converter (VSC) technology whereas "HVDC Light" uses pulse width modulation and "HVDC PLUS" is based on multilevel switching. A high power array of microwave transmitters would beam power to a rectenna. They have extended the use of HVDC down to blocks as small as a few tens of megawatts and lines as short as a few score kilometres of overhead line. 5. 4. These may be installed in existing AC grids for their role in stabilizing power flow without the additional short-circuit current that would be produced by an additional AC transmission line.) Wireless power transmission : Both Nikola Tesla and Hidetsugu Yagi attempted to devise systems for large scale wireless power transmission. Major engineering and economic challenges face any solar power satellite project. and the network must be through by training process till the network converged.) To Approach Minimum Losses of the Distribution Systems by Artificial Neural Networks : Loss reduction of distribution system can perform the switching operation to make feeder reconfiguration. Second. Finally. we determine current flow of each feeder section according to the load composition of residential. but also finds use for larger isolated loads such as water pumps. more recently. semiconductor devices such as thyristors. Single wire earth return is also used for HVDC over submarine power cables. First. insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). With the proposed . 3.

The achievement of a minimum power factor can be encouraged by authorities. There is not only a demand for price decrease. supportive regulatory environments and societal support. In order to compete in the electricity market. Now very cute. but also for more power quality and efficiency. Energy providers are coming more and more and the competition between them are growing day by day.neural network. Moreover all possible factors leading to losses have been considered and the methods that have been used are not expensive. Technologies to significantly improve the world¶s T&D system efficiencies are available today. Power Factor Compensation also helps to considerably improve the voltage profile in the network.. to reduce the feeder loss of power distribution system by quickly and efficiently to get the switching status CONCLUSION The above system has been designed keeping in mind that losses of the entire transmission and distribution system should be minimized and also the cost of implementing the system should not be high. capable and efficient residential power capacitors are available in the markets. . it can be applied to the real time system. it is necessary to utilize the novel technologies and innovative products today to fulfil the energy requirements of tomorrow. Deployment of these technologies is not only an issue of balancing long-term benefits with costs but also an issue of conventional utility practices. The AIT model can be used as a model by other type of institutions and organizations. By implementing this system we can assure you that losses will be minimized to a great extent.

com 4. www. 2. J. Power systems analysis and design ± B.Gupta 5.REFERENCES : Websites : 1.wikipedia.R. www dspace thapar edu Books : 1. www waset org/journals co 3.esd2010. www.scribd.Gupta .ueuo.