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The importance of Culture in the success of Joint ventures Project 1.

Introduction: The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate how business games help harmonizing joint venture project team culture. It deals with the relations among the degree and intensity of conflict, trust, and the performance of a joint venture project and its development, if dependency asymmetry exists between partners. While the impact of culture and value perceptions in joint business has received much attention, the current work tries to investigate whether general dimensions of culture is influenced by serious or business game simulations in building a strong project team and has a positive impact on the team¶s performance. Project teams comprising of members from different cultures are a representation of a standard team composition nowadays. Today, multinational organizations seek new staff on the global labour front rather than appointing staff solely on the local job market sector. These multinational corporations constitute members from different cultural background altogether. Arguably, joint multinational teams have the ability to develop a higher degree of team performance driven by synergy effects forked from complementary skills and cultural diversity. Despite the heightening popularity of joint ventures, a vast variety of research have reported problems that seem to be inevitably linked to these alliances, collaborating with a partner belonging to a different national culture. In fact, approximately 37% to 70% of national and international joint ventures are reported to have encountered performance problems, due to partners and team members deprived of effective trainings. To address this problem, experts such as Horak (2010) and Kemp et al (2001) recommend using state-of-theart simulation techniques such as Econotos and Bafa-Bafa to help build team harmony and ultimately a stronger background for joint ventures associations. As far as problem solving is

concerned, this may theoretically lead to more creativity because of the broader horizon of perspectives involved.

Although several causal elements have been suggested, but most studies refer to issues in regards to cultural differences. Many cases show substantial dissatisfaction with their performance, and cultural differences can be accounted for these performance related issues. Clearly, cultural differences largely influence the way partners in joint ventures make decisions and resolve problems. Therefore, cultural differences tend to generate ambiguities in the relationship, resulting in conflict and even dissolution of the venture (Conchúir 2010). This project also attempts to examine the importance of culture for the effective project team building for the success of joint ventures, which has been viewed as a hybrid of two different national and business cultures ,and emphasizes on the fact that business games or simulations is the ultimate way forward for string culture. Additionally, the paper reviews what the prior literatures have proposed concerning issues of conflict and cooperation throughout the life-cycle of joint ventures. The rules of the business game are deduced from the overview of the empirical joint venture literature. Following this, the timing and the sequence of the play depict the difficulties rising from information asymmetries. Additionally, the paper offers a robust framework to prepare the literature regarding the games played in a JV such as common agency, bargaining, and iterative games (Simon & Murray-Webster). 2. Research Methodology 2.1 Introductory Remarks:

This chapter illustrates the research tool user for data collection, analysis and interpretation; as well as the rational for selecting the same. 2.2 Methodology: In approaching the examination of this subject matter, the study shall be conducted by means of secondary sources. Patzer (1995) suggests that research on market relies on secondary data to complement primary data. However, secondary data are being employed increasingly as the exclusive information for assisting users of marketing research in their decision-making. Secondary research also represents a means to gather information regarding procedures and techniques, along with strategies, rationales and the reasons behind courses of action and/ or circumstances. Secondary sources are plentiful and as such present the ways to explore a broad range of subject matter as a means to glean the accuracy regarding the paper objective. The primary attraction of secondary sources is its easy accessibility, and the ability to examine large-scale trends. The shortcomings are that there is a possible lack of perspective consistency, and that biases and inaccuracies cannot be readily checked. Both quantitative research and qualitative research will be conducted in this project. Silverman (2006) advocates that quantitative research is difficult and unyielding; symbolizing a fixed approach which, in general, tends to be abstract as well as hypothesis testing. He advises that in the instance of qualitative research, the methodology is relatively flexible, speculative and grounded. Saunders (2006) states that using the both techniques aids in achieving more balanced approach.

Further. Principally. Another prime . qualitative study supposes that facts are assembled in the pattern of meanings and interpretations. in both managerial as well as artistic spheres. However. In terms of managerial research (as is the case with Project team building). quantitative data is acquired through published statistics and journal papers. On the other hand. has been extracted via the use of questionnaire. but these are inclined to be situational and transitory. for the current work. which. Qualitative Research Analysis in Project Management: Serious Games for building joint team culture.1 Application of Quantitative . we observe that historical data in often useful. Quantitative methodology is usually acquired by analyzing facts and figures. The prevailing quantitative evidence supplies with the quantitative set that interprets characteristics by considering numerical facts and numbers on behaviors observed.3 Research Strategy: Research can some in a variety of guises and forms. questionnaires are primarily in the realm of qualitative approach in order to establish opinions. historical information is applied when managerial research is the main purpose.2. using Ded uctive and Inductive Techniques The quantitative study supposes that the context in which it relates to provides truthful analysis and that this is stable over time and backgrounds.2. Factually. 2. usually from projects like academic and government studies. the trials conducting in this method provide statistical analysis which can be graphically observed and interpreted through charts in a variety of pretexts.

justification for managerial research is analysis of project management is the need to systematically investigate and expand upon established facts. Therefore. Additionally. qualitative methods to establish appropriate facts about how harmony can be maintained in joint venture project teams. despite the cultural background of its partners. Inductive Research Deductive Research Uses scientific principles Inductive Research Gains an understanding of events Moves from theory to data Provides an understanding of the research context Uses quantitative data Uses controls to aid in the validity of data Is highly structured Uses qualitative data Is more a flexible structure . history etc. this proposal will make extensive use of quantitative. by using Inductive and Deductive reasoning as the vessel upon which this is achieved (Kemp & Ghauri 2001). deductive and inductive research is also valuable measures to employ as summarized by the following: Table 1: Deductive Research vs. figures. as the techniques used in artistic research would fail to provide the evidence sought into the nature of Project Management and the context wherein it is applied. Additionally. Artistic approach would be inappropriate here. artistic research is considered to be based on a ³practice´ rather than facts.

18 respondents could identify cultural differences as the most critical factor that might affect the project team performance.4 Methods and Analysis: A survey pertaining to the Masters degree Research Project was conducted in the form of survey by the trainers from the project participants. it is clear that cultural differences make the maximum impact with an approximation of 66%. The identified issues that tend to adversely affect the team performance have been presented in Figure 1. Regardless of the small size of the sample. as against contractual management with 19% and least effect caused by legal matter with 15%.2. . From 27 completed questionnaires. it indicated that if this factor was to be dismissed. the project managers as well as the stakeholders would end up suffering from project failure or some forms of undue conflicts. The survey composed of 30 sets of questionnaires. Figure 1: Identified issues affecting team performance (Kemp & Ghauri 2001) For the schematic. on the overall performance of the project team.

all kinds of conflicts arise but naturally. and 4. conflicts become detrimental to the team performance. Decision-making process 2. Degree of trusting one another 3. One of the most important causes of cross-cultural drawbacks is the miscommunication on cultural lines in joint venture projects. Communication techniques The impacts are directly proportional to communication and human resource management. When multi-cultural team partners are involved in a project.When a global team engages in a project environment. The above concepts have been illustrated in Figure 2 and Table 2. Problem-solving approach. In essence. The results of this questionnaire showed that joint venture project team performance was affected due to differences in: 1. The sources of conflicts are a result of various forms of approaches due to cultural beliefs and ways in which tasks are done. Participants were questioned about the primary sources of conflicts that were likely to have a profound impact on the team performance in a project environment. and typically multinational projects. communication on performance of multicultural team is a significant prerequisite of efficient management. Human resource management is the strategic and consistent approach to the management of the most valued assets of the multi-cultural team. along with the cultural impacts realized by the respondents and the risk level of likelihood on project performance .

Communication techniques 12 0 7 6 0 Table 2: impact of culture and risk degree of impact and likelihood . Degree of trusting one another 11 0 3 8 0 Respondents 14 Extreme 0 High 8 Medium 6 Low 0 3.Figure 2: The degree of Risk of cultural impact (Kemp & Ghauri 2001) Impacts of cultural differences 1. Decision-making process 2. Problem-solving approach. and 14 0 8 6 0 4.

At the other end.5 Background of Framework and Use of Simulation: Past three decades have witnessed multinational enterprises as one of the emerging strategic tools to enter newer market In order to develop new products and manufacturing processes To curb the risks involved in cross-border transactions To bridge the gap between different and diverse cultures y y y The scope of national and international joint ventures ranges from renowned parents such as Toyota and General Motors to Hewlett-Packard and Ericsson. to joint ventures with partners heading from less developed nations and several different combinations. while in a joint partnership. On the basis of the parent¶s contributions. misunderstandings. the JV literature dealt with the past decades on the cooperative factors. etc resulting from such intercultural conflicts(Conchúir 2010). trainers at all levels and belonging to all branches claim they have adequate means for preparing young candidates.2. . characteristics and expertise. commonly known to be NUMMI-joint venture and EHP Telecommunications. the JV attempts to provide the partner firms with the result of the value-creating process. employees and citizens for tackling possible difficulties. Therefore. it is essential to stress more on the dichotomy of cooperation as well as conflict in the triangle of players (Adnan 2008) (De Freitas & Jarvis 2006). Although. respectively. the failure of the joint enterprises was purely a minor issue addressed by assumptions about motives and success factors. uncertainties. At one end of the scale professionals need to acquire intercultural training courses for coping with these complexes and dynamic intercultural situations.

as well as partner nationalities. and discrimination. such as the famous games Bafá. the literature on joint ventures rather appears to be a patchwork of difference viewpoints and angles. or ³high´ on the other side. it becomes increasingly necessary to address conflict and cooperation and develop appropriate solutions. eclectic frameworks were developed by some authors for further analysis. motives. Although several authors have tried developing theories for joint ventures project management and tools in order to manage this crucial form of national and international business. ³affect´ and ³behaviour´ on one side. training modules are based on ³cognition´. Econotos. as involvement of the learner. modules also include group discussions in regards to topics such as prejudice. racism. where the trainees are trained to realize that familiar patterns of communication.Today. Empirical studies looked into matters pertaining to performance measures. Modules do include lectures from ³old hands´ who have been living in the given culture and who have been dealing with likewise problems as the ones faced by the trainees. etc. The nature of a joint venture creates not only benefits for both parties engaged but also disputes of interest that may result into deception. as targets of training. success. A good practical example of such a situation is when the son of a senior-level official in the Electricity Department who is an employee of an Indo-German international joint venture was caught stealing. stability factors. there are a variety of intercultural training modules in business studies that can be systemized with respect to Brislin¶s well known matrix (1989:"445). the electricity supply was terminated. do not apply for alien cultural settings (Simon & Murray-Webster). According to this matrix. Other forms of training courses also employ plays and simulations. ´moderate´. and evoke ³low´. Further. sexism. Emphasis was also given on the cooperative side of life cycle of joint ventures and the dynamics of inter-organizational . behaviour. Thus. Furthermore. fraud and low-effort level (Ott 2003).

the triangle of players consisting of local. is can be noted that the degree of ambiguity and appropriateness.relationships. Therefore. the existing study presents the development of an analytical basis for a multi-person decision making throughout the stages of team building. foreign and international joint venture project teams itself. even though it is typically found in the literature entailing that there is not ultimate consensus as the range. knowledge. the domains and levels of development are often of those seen in the literature. this becomes an important source of failure that is likely to occur throughout various stages. It is used for developing the consequences of behaviour that is derived from cooperation and selfinterest across a robust analytical basis (Wu et al 2006). this paper offers a framework for organizing the joint venture-literature into the element of joint projects. Taxonomy is a tool based on three domains. namely. initiates information asymmetries and communication problems. particularly on the driving forces of the development. and the degree of perceived differences were related to various stages of a joint venture life-cycle. Therefore. Even though the aforesaid framework for joint ventures provides insights into the various driving forces of a joint project life cycle. understanding and lastly. The importance of creation of an analytical basis was also framed. autonomy. On the basis of a survey. For the development of intercultural competence. The reintegration can be addressed by application of game-theory reasoning. by linking to multi-person decision making in a game theoretical viewpoint. Game theory is chosen as a concept mathematical tool chosen to study the other players¶ behaviour. definition of . attitudes and skills. which are awareness rising. Essentially. the differences in interpretation and interaction by two primary parties. mainly for the dynamics within joint venture project management. It presents three levels of development.

In our study. respectively. The ³mindful identity negotiation´ scheme is an integrative theory which draws inspirations from four main scholarly disciplines: . skills and knowledge of participants (Wu et al 2006). an in-depth case study or simulation can be developed which aims to facilitate higher degree learning objectives and assess varying attitudes. a class quiz which judges understanding of global as well as local knowledge and cultural variations may be constrained to analysing knowledge outcomes. The taxonomy was developed with the sole intention of behaving as an explanatory device for assisting easy engagement for business professionals and senior management of a joint organization or project with developing intercultural competence. taxonomy has been employed mainly to develop learning activities as well as assessment criteria. because learning activities are a prerequisite formal step prior to assessment.and Econotos-like simulations will be used for overcoming shortcomings such as mistaken behaviour in foreign nations leading to extensive negative consequences. and tensions in the workplace among employees from diverse cultural backgrounds that hinder efficient working (Hogan 2007). In other words. Bafá. low satisfaction due to training courses in larger enterprises. learning activities are linked to different stages of development and domains. which was then extended by Webber (2001) and de Freitas (2006). As a contrast. For instance. Assessment tasks are aligned parallel to learning objectives. A framework is developed to integrate the ³mindful identity negotiation´ approach and the ³expansive learning´ approach. These approaches were first proposed by TingToomey and Engeström. competency or awareness (Adnan 2008) (Hogan 2007). misinterpretations and interruptions taking place within mergers and acquisitionsnegotiations.the µareas¶ or factors of cultural sensitivity.

y y y y Theory of social identity Symbolic interaction Relational dialects. . cognitive apprenticeship. Furthermore. However. By employing the model of ³mindful identity negotiation´. 2. These different types of learning are able to foster a) individual knowledge b) collective knowledge c) individual / collective knowledge. demonstrated and examined. just by learning about these findings does not automatically give rise to an ³intercultural competence´. etc. elements. anchored instruction. Knowledge acquisition: This is initiated through various learning approaches such as self-organized learning. relationships as well as communication processes of local and international encounter events can be isolated. Efficient teaching-learning procedures have been organized as interplay between: 1. and Identity negotiations ³Expansive learning´-approach by Engeström. Acculturation processes: which is initiated via ³community of practice´ (CoP) approaches 3. successful working of joint ventures needs to have an explicit and conscious integration of the issues raised into teaching and learning processes (Ott 2003). in order to develop common understanding between peers and meaning. is referred back to social-cultural and historical learning theories. Negotiation processes: initiated via collective and social-cultural learning approaches.

etc. a lingua-franca. neglected. . instruments. etc. they themselves are not that efficient in reaching their targets. facilitators. rather they attribute these conflicts to wrong behaviour or personal failure. in sections that follow (Simon & Murray-Webster) (Dafoulas & Macaulay 2001). often find themselves in such intercultural clashes within an object-oriented activity systems that is mediated by rules. symbols.In essence. or ³bad´. There are some people who do not link such problems to cultural issues. beliefs. labour of joint practice division. vulnerable. non-verbal interaction. Such cases demand other preparatory measures to be taken in order to help open up and sensitize minds of those individuals. Such people are said to be ethnocentric and do not get acquainted with the learning processes. This is directly termed as ³expansive learning´ (Hogan 2007). and practices in doing business. At another end. Other individuals evaluate their own behaviour as being superior and ignore otherness or tag the unfamiliar behaviour as ³unfair´. the analysis moves from concept of knowledge transmission to that pertaining to an active learner. value systems. and wish to be understood by their partners or counterparts. together with other related artifacts fail to function anymore. partners in joint venture notice that their familiar patterns of behaviour. Their counterparts fail to understand them correctly. helpless. individuals keen to solve these problems of misinterpretations. as described above. This being a normative goal. Following are the processes of inter-cultural learning with respect to this framework: During intercultural encounters. advanced by social interactions as well as common negotiations. but moreover they feel uncertain. is discussed and legitimized.

trust. 2. It involves various classes of knowledge. . negotiation and socialization processes. such as acquisition of facts.e. in the sense of life-long learning. individual as well as collective knowledge. Also. This is because the strategies of business games are laid on the basis of the fact that if a joint project gives good performance and is very successful. cultural and relationships aspects of joint project teams. good performance creates an environment wherein trust can develop. However. cultural knowledge. self-reflection. reached through different learning tasks and initiated by different approaches. etc (Wu et al 2006) (Hogan 2007). thereby prohibiting the investigation of the dynamic effects of conflict. the partners will become more dependent on the joint venture as well as their partners in the JV. as aforementioned. and role of business games or simulations in aiding team members to run a joint project harmoniously. skills. i.Limitation: Although this study covers dependence issues. Secondly. The study does not involve formulation of hypotheses. etc. research is urged to replicate the study in a diversified setting (Kemp & Ghauri 2001). is known to be a long term project. the findings must be evaluated in the light of the limitations given below. The research uses cross sectional data. a longitudinal research is needed to give proof of this causal relationship. self-knowledge.6 Application of the framework in a simulated business game: Intercultural competence interpreted as ³mindful identity negotiation´. performance and inter-dependency. good performance has been married to trust.

In addition. the idea of the simulation Econotos can be used for playing a role with a business case study.The very first step involves conducting a developmental study as a learning course for partners from various nationals. the course was sub-divided into three categories. The major aim was to generate a learning and simulation environment for triggering a ³mindful identity negotiation´ process for intercultural learning. Cultural role cards were handed to every group along with the task to ³acculturate´ to their new fictitious culture. Shortlisted episodes that demonstrate the effects of this first experimentation together with the tools and instruments use to analyze the processes: The simulation operates as a mediating tool or mirror presenting and experiencing typical intercultural misunderstandings. the tasks and problem given to the candidates in the case study corresponded to their commercial business proposal which they were asked to jointly carry forward as a business project and work together as an organization (Weber 2001). . Therefore. but were asked to engage into a healthy dialogue and to tactfully negotiate a commonly shared understanding as well as solution concerned to the problem. the groups¶ fictitious cultures were mixed to simulate the ³intercultural clashes´. Next. now called the ³intercultural´ group activity (Simon & Murray-Webster). prejudiced decisions. as mono-cultural group activity. Within these clashes. the candidates needed to solve the second part of the given business case study. they were informed to not to instantly adapt one particular opinion or agree on a bad compromise. In this simulation. In fact. Further. they obtained the first part of the business case study in order to solve as members of the new fictitious culture. each consisting of 5 to 10 candidates. background and cultures. and other communication problems in intercultural clashes.

acting satisfactorily. Such verbalization depicts that they acquired sensitivity to as well as awareness of the need to broaden the situation and. the conversation pointed out at the necessity to open up and acquire knowledge regarding the views of their foreign partners including their backgrounds (Simon & Murray-Webster) (Wu et al 2006). Furthermore. and this proved to be a point of concern when they started to figure out the main problem and misunderstanding. Following statements provide examples and discussions on the reflection phase y Tool 1: Flipcharts: . efficiently and adequately. What important aspects associated with your culture supporting this issue? ´ Here. a candidate with a very dominant ³culture´ identifies that they were not giving much attention to the other foreign culture. the tutor facilitates the participants to learn and sensibly comprehend from their experiences. during the subsequent reflection phases. therefore. We are totally unaware of your cultural background (pointing towards foreigners). I strongly feel that we are talking at cross-purposes. one member passed a remark saying: ³We have been discussing the entire time and focussing only on our objectives and contentrelated arguments.When the negotiations were stuck in a group and the participants got very upset and dissatisfied about the conduct and the interaction development. In other words.

the participants required to fix them on a flipchart. Reflect on behaviour they observed occurring throughout the negotiation process b. and clear arguments Strategies fostering (+) and hindering (-) the negotiation process y y y Powerful and wining over arguments (+). Read the positive and negative emotions that arose and corresponding reasons c.Participants were asked to: a. Table 1 illustrates participant notes as response to these questions: Observed and Experienced foreign behaviour y y y y y y Candidates of the foreign culture did not take the arguments on board They could manifest an attitude of direct rejection They could stick very close together They tended to interrupt the discussion partners They responded very energetically They were narrow-minded and dull Emotions Read y y y y y Rage. due to permanent interruptions while speaking Uncertainty while facing other foreign participants Pride while realizing own goals Uncertainty due to shortage of good arguments Certainty due to powerful. (-) Openness and open to compromise of any kind (+) Persistence (-) . convincing. Reflect on strategies that fostered and obstructed the negotiation process In order to visualize their findings.

they also realized and got conscious of their behaviour as well as strategies that influence the intercultural negotiation process in a negative or positive way while approaching a common meaning and an adequate result as a result of which they tend to feel understood and greatly respected.y y y y y y Unrevealed strategies (-) Interruptions while other members are talking (-) Restricted to only own opinion (-) Understanding (+) Listening to others (+) Interviewing others (+) y Interpretations / Analysis: Evidences produced from these flipcharts indicate that: Participants were capable to sharpening their views over aspects and factors of the interaction when helped y y Participants experienced ³intercultural interactions´ that not only evoke positive. they felt hurt due to the behaviour and reactions of their counterparts even though the latter had an adequate and proper way of behaving from their foreign perspective and did not have any negative purposes. they also realized at the same time that members of other culture were hurt by their behaviour even though they tried to be gentle and nice towards them. i.e. The primary and most crucial . but also negative emotions. y Next. they figured out that their ways of behaviour did not work in their favour anymore or worked in an unpredictable pattern (Xiong & Deng 2008).

Situation: y The participants. a questionnaire based on 17 most crucial aspects was employed in regards to the ³mindful identity negotiation´.issue was to listen to what others say and to allow every member to actively participate with their opinions and suggestions (Weber 2001). or ³mindful identity negotiation´ processes: . when answering this questionnaire are already reflecting on the important matters that influence the ³intercultural´ communication. In short. the questionnaire posed questions on member such as: Did you feel vulnerable or firm throughout the process? How would you analyze and pass a judgement about the behaviour of members with foreign culture: satisfactory or inadequate? y y y Were you able to interview your counterparts for obtaining information regarding their cultural background? y Were you a good listener when the discussions were being carried out? These responses were obtained when they were still playing the role of a member in a fictitious culture. y Tool 2 Questionnaire: As stated in section 2.4. This questionnaire proved to be a robust tool in determining what kind of experiences participants had while using the simulation.

Moreover. since it was clearly mentioned in the questionnaire´ Following this. including their views and background. after gathering the responses of respondents to all questions. these schematic interaction patterns acted as a foundation for discussion and reflection. Figure 3: Estimation of the simulated ³intercultural´ communication with respect to central dimensions of the ³mindful identity negotiation´ scheme (Horak 2010). y Tool 3 Fortune Lines: . the following patterns of the simulated intercultural communication procedure was produced.³When actually thinking about our group discussion session: I hardly tried to gain knowledge of or enquired about the foreign culture which other members belonged to.

they were asked to extensively judge as many as ten events occurring during the interaction process with respect to the scale ³I liked it very much´ and ³I did not like much´ The resultant fortune lines are shown by the schematic as follows: Figure 4: Fortune Lines (Horak 2010) 3. and lastly. Findings Based on the cultural framework explained above. task complexity.In addition to the tools described above. The participants were told to map out the entire intercultural communication process in a graphical form. an analysis of how business games determine the impact of cultural aspects on relationships among team members of a joint project. Therefore. another tool was used. for drawing ³fortune lines´. cultural behaviour patterns of the team. . team experience was conducted.

Rather. Further. for question 8. members of the culture C particularly were not given enough support in these identity needs. the participants were able to learn about their own as well as other members¶ basic human needs: such as. ³The participants of culture C strongly felt that they were not properly understood by their counterparts. Moreover. self-respect and self-esteem. obtained from the tools used in this project. The pattern highlights the reflections of participants when asked questions regarding the issues that influence intercultural interaction or mindful identity negotiation procedure (Weber 2001). that neither their participation nor their contributions were judged to a great extent by the partners of the other cultures.The following section provides the results and their interpretations. the members of culture A experienced the same feeling that their contributions were not highly appreciated and acknowledged by their counterparts. they were omitted. o Interpretation of pattern 1: As shown by Pattern 1. In contrast. This . of inclusion. as per question 7. and that they were not addressed with equality and did not get the same opportunity to equally take part within the discussion. the participants belonging to culture B had the belief that their contributions were greatly identified and accurately judged´. not given respect and their activities were not fully valued. o Pattern 1 in Figure 3 Pattern 1 in Figure 3 depicts the outcome of the aforementioned questionnaire on 17 crucial factors of the ³mindful identity negotiations´. throughout the intercultural interaction.

The simulation can also be reconstructed to explicitly include ³minority-majority´-groups so as to enable the group members to experience the dimension of ³power´. the perceived dominance as well as exclusion of the majority culture B was actively discussed with the participants (Adnan 2008) (Weber 2001). In this context. They also felt confident about the outcome of the negotiation process. This pattern further showed that the minorities werenot able to reach their desired goals. in contrast to the other cultures in discussion even though they were aware of the fact that they did not arrive at a common understanding over their cultures. o Pattern 3 in figure 3: Yet another extremely crucial phenomenon is presented by the behaviour of culture A. These findings were then discussed with the participants (Xiong & Deng 2008).´ o Interpretation of pattern 2: Regarding this intercultural group an additional factor needs to be taken into account which is the structural dominance associated with culture B. Furthermore. The findings prove the following evidences: . the results depicted in figure 2 illustrate that the simulation generated this imbalance.Pattern is a phenomenon which gave an insight into what frequently occurs during intercultural encounters. o Pattern 2 in figure 3: ³The majority of participants in culture B notified that they were given equal chances to demonstrate their opinions sufficiently at any time while in discussion.

It is possible to construct the interaction/ communication situation more holistically. Further. all this done mindfully.The participants judge themselves to be very open during the entire interaction process as stated by the members belonging to the foreign culture. the participants were able to realise that only by perceiving oneself as an ³open´ person does not fully ad actually suffice. efficient and satisfactory manner it also becomes very important to ³observe´. evaluation as well as passing judgement about unfamiliar behaviour in a satisfactory manner. ³The participants as members of a given fictitious culture like to present their points of view about the other cultures. and to represent the thoughts and standpoints as part of the negotiation. even though they at times judged the others¶ behaviour insufficiently and were hence very surprised´. this basis becomes necessary for carrying out interpretation. Additionally. problems as well as . solely depending on an extended and strong background or context information. o Interpretation of pattern 3: In the following discussion. o Patterns generating within the fortune lines: The graph indicated in Figure 4 presents generation of fortune lines when the aforesaid framework was applied to help respondents solve the questionnaire. they did not mindfully study nor interview their foreign counterparts as a concern to gather their cultural background and relating information on their behaviour. however. and is essential while studying and implementing an intercultural competent behaviour (Weber 2001) (Payne). etc. to ³listen´. In order to interact in an adequate. to ³interview´. and to summarize the results at the end of the discussion. to bring forth their own arguments and opinions as part of the discussion. to ³enquire´.

All these findings generated by the simulation and accurately visualized by the various tools were successfully interpreted throughout the reflection phases in the following ways: At one end of the scale. After discussing these patterns with all the participants. different techniques of handling conflicts. through certain research findings as well as pertaining to day-to-day life interactions (Ott 2003). effectively and satisfactorily or rather as an inter-culturally competent individual. and ³identity needs´. y At another end. they were able to recognise and draw a conclusion that flexibility and empathy are two most important capacities for coping with intercultural issues properly.disagreements are born very explicitly whenever they want to show interest in or to tackle issues of the foreign culture participants/ people. Lastly. advanced level activities offering opportunities for business partners to reflect on their . security and trust. ³communication skills´. management of facework. y y ³Cultural knowledge´ stands for various communication styles. and different time orientations. ³Communication skills´ stand for mindful observation and study. following the theoretical dimensions of ³mindful identity negotiation´ scheme.´ o Interpretation of these patterns: The above stated phenomena typically appear during intercultural negotiation processes. Simply put. listening. to deal with ³cultural knowledge´. ³identity needs´ entails connection. The research project makes intensive use of robust approaches based on activities for facilitating participant autonomy in regards to intercultural competence.

at the same time. Additionally. that are assessable y Advanced level role-plays for practising and applying intercultural knowledge. Econotos game simulation. Every person has within him or herself. Most often than not. practices as well as identities is likely to result into some sort of reflection and self-reflection. crosscultural negotiation. to pursue self-evaluation. several types of layers of identities that become relevant in a certain given intercultural situation. However. Indeed. Nonetheless. and to employ knowledge as well as intercultural skills include activities like: Intercultural games such as online collaborations and online discussions Advanced level case studies Advanced level simulations. their existing practice can be studied and compared. such as Bafa-Bafa game. an inter-culturally competent . skills and understanding (Dafoulas & Macaulay 2001) The confrontation between the different interpretations. and cross-cultural discussion and debates y y y y y y Systemic use of self analysis tools such as taxonomy Intercultural learning journals Advanced level group-activities within a business context and cultural script writing. Although the participants of the activity have a common agreement on the surface level they often determine huge contradictions at a deeper level. trust. every individual has similar canonical human needs for self-affirmation. These human needs include security. stability and connection.behaviour. it has been recognized that there are alternative ways of managing a situation and the personal option in only one possibility in several others. a discussion wherein both partners/ parties evoke their own individual identities and goals and take to challenging or supporting the other¶s identities is not carried out in harmony (Weber 2001).

the complexity of joint ventures combining technological know-how. perceptions. In general. of one partner with market knowledge holds a limitation of providing the right incentives to disclose the information essential for the success of the joint venture. What was the impact of differences in organizational culture on project success? 2. Till what extent did business games incorporated into them nature of working in cooperation to sustain harmony in a given project? For the only purpose of this research paper. and most importantly. understood (Thomas et al 2002) (De Freitas & Jarvis 2006). culture is said to the bundle of attitudes. What was the impact of difference in national culture on project success? 3. prejudices as well as other guides to activities and actions that are identifiable as features of a given group and that conditions the direction of change for that group (Kemp & Ghauri 2001).partner will communicate in a way that makes all participants feel respected. and mostly to harmonize its execution. team members of joint projects are able to answer questions such: 1. if not anything else. supported. What were the impact of personal needs as well as preferences of individual participants or team members over project success? 4. memories. the findings supported the asymmetric information viewpoint in regards to resource combination via joint project team building. However. The findings also illustrated the evidences that through an effective simulation. Significant findings show the confirmation of presence of systematic differences in the capability to withstand and employ high levels of change and uncertainty within the . Till what extent did business games help them in acquiring information about different cultures? 5.

environment. the second step of the simulation program involves reconceptualising the concept of culture by deriving the notion from´community of practice´. Furthermore. Discussion and Conclusion: The primary intentions of the first step in a broader training program were: Development of a general awareness regarding the complexity as well as misunderstandings of and during the intercultural clashes y y y y Identification of the influence of culture on ³day-to-day´ behaviour and reactions To experience positive and negative emotions associated with the intercultural clashes To experiment with communication skills in order to achieve a satisfactory and efficient interaction behaviour y y y Learning to construct strategies in order to avoid or reduce misunderstanding To handle negotiation processes and to create new extensive solutions To develop fun and interest during interactions with people coming from other business cultures (Thomas et al 2002). make decisions and carry forward the project because of the variation in energy levels as well as openness in emotional behaviour shown. 4. It also showed that trust needs to be grown in relationships prior to any members of the team preparing to trust others. This is done by conducting a shared discussion with the participants and motivating them in their daily . new data was obtained which illustrated that substantial difference in the perception existed among primary team members or participants with the desire to make progress. Also.

Through the business game. elder vs. . for extending the simulation process at the workplace. veg. by conducting a so called ³practice activity´ (Xiong & Deng 2008). The results were drawn by comparing project team members¶ individual and team scores with the proposed rankings. such as smokers vs. With the help of the business game simulated for this project. they notably started developing an understanding of this aspect of joint business. Then. in order to help isolate the ³misunderstandings´ they bear with member from other cultures. This intensive use of survival experts.operations and life practice. and to negotiate this cultural encounter. lent a high level of credibility as well as interest to the activities (Kemp & Ghauri 2001). vs. team members worked individually and then as a group in order to assess the value of series of elements with respect to their importance to µsurvival¶. younger generation. another added attraction of the business games was a more formal discussion centred on an area of business expertise. and so on. Apart from the process of group decision-making. non-smokers. This concept was adopted while developing business simulations. together with simulations. This involved enabling team members to help work in collaboration so as to avoid project delays and failures. each simulation depicts a µsurvival¶ challenge. the score were generated by making a comparison between individual and team responses to those provided by the actual trainers or experts when in that given situation. non-vegetarian. Purely business oriented content was provides and increasingly focused on challenging individual respondents and teams to resolve given onthe-job problems.

they are considered as an ideal way of enticing partners in the learning process and to reinforce and exercise business course knowledge. developing brand names and trademarks. Further. A business game situation provides to the learners a virtual feel of what it means to operate an organization. Furthermore. Based on either long standing business observation or newer initial contacts. and lastly. attain accessibility to new markets. the players represent different bargaining behaviour during the negotiation stage. and lastly. Through simulations. acquisition of technological knowledge (Xiong & Deng 2008) (Thomas et al 2002). yet it does so in extremely safe environment. rather than passively reading books and reports or listening to seminars (De Freitas & Jarvis 2006). diversification. The order of the play comprises of actions players take such as offering share ratios. acceptance and rejection of offers. are growth in local and global markets. offering contracts. unlike actions. The outcomes can be obtained in terms of the contract. players . national or international. ownership and control patterns. selecting effort levels and other game theoretical steps (Ott 2003) (Adnan 2008). acquiring production or management techniques. Business simulation is used for this project because it enables learners and managers to engage in a virtual environment for assessing the one another¶s cultural and business background while engaging in joint ventures. game players get an opportunity to see how the theory they acquired is effectively applied. by employing game simulation for our current project. It can be noted that substantial parental strategies in a joint venture. the outcomes could also be reliant on the contributions of every player.Game theory attributes strategies. The management of an organization is both a science and an art that needs active engagement of its management team. A simple case depicts strategies having conflicting and cooperative factors during the negotiation period of a joint venture. as unperceivable and only mental. Since simulations are responsible for stimulating competitiveness.

to study and carefully observe the behaviours shown by the student on different occasions. A low level or high level of effort in the different management tasks can be added to the joint enterprise on the basis of the self-interest of the partner firms or on the assumed gained of the joint venture. the controlled environment produced by the business simulation has enables the instructor as well as the participants. the partners may offer incentives approaches with the management of the joint ventures may either accept or reject such schemes. In essence. This will show a simple bargaining behaviour. The instructor is able to control the pace of the entire exercise and the outcomes of the student actions are accessible instantly after every decision round (Adnan 2008) (Dafoulas & Macaulay 2001). the players are able to learn in the joint association. actively participate to study their own as well as their counterparts¶ level of understanding business. Another set of action may take place during the last stages of the cycle.were able to try out varied ideas. The action profiles are different from one game to another and from one stage to another. it would be observed that one partner tends to offer a split of the equity pie on the basis of the contribution or of the host government practices and the other partner may either accept or reject that offer. and the effects of those behaviours on the management teams¶ intermediary results. . Furthering the negotiation stage of the current project. and learn from their mistakes without the soaring expenses and investments associated with strategic mistakes involved in real-world business(Xiong & Deng 2008) (Thomas et al 2002). Lastly. Further. and for this reason they are capable of re-negotiating contract terms or make a decision to resign from the joint venture. where players can willingly cooperate or cheat. to punish or to reward. during the management stage of the life cycle. express viewpoints. The next player may now decide either to cooperate or back off and misuse the offer.

The order of the play of a joint venture game involves a mix of various stages ranging from the construction till the termination of the enterprise. the asymmetry of partners is an important issue within the establishment phase of the joint venture and effects the overall management process. Nonetheless. Throughout the actual process of value adding of the joint venture issue pertaining to coalitions as well as the players¶ reporting behaviour generate tension among the partners and their subsidiaries. and lastly. respectively. Through the current simulation as part of the analysis course. and lastly. and reward scenarios. Repeated cheating or learning leads to penalties and punishment. a healthy environment is built. the exploitation of incentives in adverse selection scenarios. which in turn results into the use of incentives. It also has an impact on the success and the failure of a joint venture project. the players¶ learning and reputation. since students were likely to prefer competitive exercise instead of courses consisting purely of reading assignments and lectures. a repeated game. . Furthermore. Such games are related to extensive the negotiation on the ownership shares. and is employed for maintaining the harmony in joint enterprises (De Freitas & Jarvis 2006). thereby allowing for better evaluation of results from participants (Ott 2003) (Xiong & Deng 2008). a contracting game.The results obtained were surprising. The periods are integrated within a bargaining game. the abstraction of the project problem provides a robust framework to allow for proceeding in different configurations (Payne) (Thomas et al 2002).

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2006. no. 7. vol. Research Methods for Business Students. pp. United States. Questionnaire Template: Apart from the survey questions mentioned in sections 2 and 3. What according to your experience influences whether your contribution in a joint project was successful? 2. which are evident before formation of joint venture. What factors are crucial for the workings of a joint venture project that has an impact of the success of the venture? 3. µInvestigating Cultural Differences in Virtual Software Teams¶. Prentice Hall. M. New York.Saunders. 1-14. the additional sample questions asked throughout the project are as follows: Content Analysis: In order to derive the participants¶ experience. Dafoulas. G & Macaulay. can predict a successful joint venture? . three particular open-ended questions were asked as part of the simulation survey: 1. What element of potential partners. Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries. L 2001. 4.

What kind of industry or activity have you involved in. Then. into joint ventures? 3. Did the individual member receive the revenue they expected from the joint venture? Initial stages of the simulation saw questions like: 1. each response was coded as per the instant of mention of these concepts. What is the nature of your participation in the incorporated/ unincorporated partnership? . Two of them dealt with short-term gains and one question enquired whether the partner or team member experienced gain in market position. stated as important to any participant. three Linkert scale questions were also posed concerning the outcomes of the joint ventures. How many joint projects are you currently engaged in? 2. Apart from these questions. The first three questions were 1. into common factors.All three questions were critiqued to code issues. Did the joint project collaboration as a whole gain the revenues expected from the customer? 2.