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23.11.

2010 Week 7

Revolution in Iran
-Iran is not an Arab country. -The native language is Farsi. -They are the descendants of the Persians -Were conquered by the Arab in the 7th century -It is the home of the minority Sheet. -In Iran there is a Shi a majority. -The Shea tradition has become the official religion of the Persian dynasties. -These differences create a separate identity between the Arab countries. During the first decade of the Cold War, Iran was led by a Shah, Muhammad Reza Pahlavi. He made efforts to modernize the country in a Western way. This is why the leaders rejected the modernizing by the Shah. -The leading critic was Ayatollah Komeiny opposes modernization and rejects the monarchy. -1978 - Mass protests against the reforms. These are the larges protests at that time in history, almost 2 million people. -January 1979, the Shah goes into exile. -The Ayatollah installs a Islamic republic. He had very good political skills; he takes advantages of 3 contexts. -He uses 3 crises that appear in the Iranian political: 1. American Hostages 1979. The American Embassy is occupied by Islamic student led by the son of Komeiny. The crisis was until 1981. It was a huge blow to the Americans. The crisis ended because of the war between Iraq and Iran. Komeiny couldn t handle 2 enemies in the same time. 2. Sadam wanted to become the main regional power. He began this war due to the fact that in Iran 55% of the population are the Shi a muslims and 45% of Sunni. -Sadam also wanted access to the gulf. -Sadam couldn t rely on the loyalty of the Shi a soldier in the army. -The majority of other Muslim countries supported Iraq.

They didn t think the Cold War was going to end. it manages to recruit people while still in university. -The oil prices rose in the 70s. -These social changes made evolution likely. -In the 70s huge oil reserves were discovered in the USSR. and during the 70s they saw it was not sustainable anymore. Like alcoholism. -The economic system was based on the 5 years plan.3. all young an capable people are attracted by the KGB. -Gorbachev managed to start a process of reform which transformed itself into a revolution. The KGB has a more and higher influence on the party. -1988 They ve only foreseen that the main treat to the USA was the Soviet Union. -This new inteligencia is more and more politically active. -During the 80s there is a rise of a new inteligencia. -In the end of the Cold War. Most of the power was in the hand of the supreme religious leader. so the USSR could cover its economic deficits. . He never wanted to dismantle the party or the Soviet Union. -Party nomenclature old oligarchs of the party. -There is an elite which is emanated in the KGB. -Gorbachev takes power in 1985 and began his campaign against of alcoholism. but these were the result of reforms started by him. -The economic nomenclature controls the trade. -He continued some of the reforms started by Andropov. He was the commander and chief of the army. -In the 70s the USSR was not capable of maintaining the arms race. A religious leader had the power to interpret the Islamic law. -During the 80s the KGB creates a network of research institutes. Fall of USSR -International politics is very different during and after the Cold War. no one in the Western academies. -The war between Iraq and Iran lasted until 1988. but not necessarily in the party. they are hated by the young. no theories of international relations could predict that the Cold War was going to end. -The Soviet economy was id not keep up with technological advances of Western Europe. -20% of the USSR s GDP was spent on defense. The drafting of the constitution of Iran which transformed the country into an Islamic republic.

The peasants lived by producing vine. -When the USSR dismantled in 1991.-This campaign ultimately affected the dismantlement of USSR. The economic nomenclature was pressing of decentralization. -Gorbachev had very good relationships with Thatcher and Reagan. but by the end of the 80s. the Cold War was already over. -He s main reform was the economic perestroika. by a very young a charismatic figure Shevardnadze. Nobody was asking them to produce anything. -In 1988 there were some civic movement created all through the republics named the popular fronts. Now they didn t have the pressure of the state to produce. they are less violently repressed than before. he replaced the foreign minister Gromyko (1957-1985). Glasnost was at first intended as a political weapon. They would still belong by the state. -Also he wanted to promote glasnost. -In Gorbachev s opinion the 2 sides were interdependent. If you had a chest club it was inside the party. After Gorbachev came into power. but were not controlled by the party. -Now it was possible that delicate issues were discussed by the media. -During communism any kind of organization had to exist within the party. -1985 Arms limitation. -And promoted the new political thinking. If you read the papers during the beginning of 80s everything was nice in the USSR. with tanks of Glasnost. Gorbachev tried to get rid of the old leaders of the party. . -Gorbachev also tried to promote technology. There was no organized group outside of the party. -Glasnost allowed for the creation of informal groups. The costs were huge for the USSR. problems started to be public. The strongest manifestations were in the Baltic Republics. -During 1987-1988 there are more and more street movement throughout the USSR. -1987 Signed by Gorbachev and Reagan. a chapter in which the USSR was behind the USA. -The fact was that the USSR couldn t support the arms race anymore. but they didn t have any incent of how much to produce. and some kind of civic organization. He hoped that a greater openness to the public would open doors for new party members. Glasnost allowed groups to exist outside of the party. -Nagorno Karabach was a part of Azerbaijan. This campaign against alcoholism deprived them of their income. -1988 Fist political party Democratic Union. that in time became political. Perestroika meant the end of the 5 year plan.

-1989 Congress of the Party . One page about the video and thetexts.First time in history there were several candidates to choose from. A certain character emerged. Terrorism -USA Patriot Act Uniting and Strengthening America. -February 1990 New constitution installs a presidential regime. . Boris Yelstine. -October 2006 Military commission act. -Everything that was rotten inside the Communist Party was brought to surface. he thought this was a way to reform the old system. -The party had a leading role in the society. -These popular fronts were the main instruments for the independence of the republics. -1988 Meeting of the communist party all the party secretary were not going to be appointed by Moscow. Providing appropriate tools required to intercept and obstructs terrorism. In 2008 it was declared unconstitutional. These fronts became parties for independence.-Gorbachev encouraged the creation of these civic movements. but elected at the basis of the party (by the local party members). in 1989 there are protests in order to pressure to break this role. -February 1990 Gorbachev makes a new federal treaty.