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CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.

1 DEFINITION Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia). Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator. Waste management has to do with supervising of waste from their source of generation through storage, collection, transportation and disposal. The type of waste considered here is domestic garbage, trash consisting of degradable food wastes, leaves, dead animal etc. and non-degradable such as nylon, plastics, bottles etc. generated in households and commercial area. The World Health Organisation (WHO) defined waste as useless, unwanted or discarded materials that arise from man’s activities and not flowing. It is important to observe a mixture of potentially infectious and non-infectious waste overflowing in the environment to prevent the wide spread of communicable diseases.

This occurs typically in the market where a lot of dispose materials are found for example Mile 12 market. Educational Waste: At all levels of education system. a huge amount of waste is seen at the end of each commercial activities. different types of waste are produced. Lagos State Polytechnic generates a large chunk of waste daily from the offices. 2006:8) . This because waste generation is a function of population growth thereby constituting greater burden. Agricultural Waste: A poultry farm produces a lot of waste.2. (Owunna. This is mostly applicable to the manufacturing industries and manufacturing industries. reliable and accurate information or data on the rate of solid waste generated at Household Ward and Local Government Level. Institutional Waste: Institutions here includes offices. schools etc. continuous. banks. Idioro Mushin market etc. Different types of waste are produced from paper.2 SOLID WASTE GENERATION There is need for the development of consistent. the rate at which waste are generated also increase. hospitals uses etc. As urbanization and modern living rises. Commercial Waste: Commercial sources contribute its own quota to refuse generation. Industrial Waste: Industries in Nigeria produce a large amount of waste. for instance my neighbour has a poultry cage with about 25 fowls the waste it generate the way it smells is constituting a nuisance to other tenant that reside in that house. food sellers. and the students. cartons glasses. hospitals.

3. Older. and the area available. kill surface vegetation and is a green house gas. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate such as clay or plastic lining material.3. Another common by-product of landfill is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide). nearby land uses. liquid and gaseous waste.3 WASTE MANAGEMENT METHODS According to Wikipedia (2008) Waste management disposal methods vary widely between areas for many reasons.2 Incineration Incineration is a disposal method that involves combustion of waste material incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as “thermal treatment”.2. and this remains a common practice in most countries. steam and ash. Many landfills also have landfill gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas. This gas can create odour problems. including type of waste material. It is used to dispose of solid. and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats). Landfills were often established in disused quarries. 2. and on a large scale by industry.1 Landfill Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying waste to dispose of it. which is produced as organic waste breaks down. It is recognised as a practical method of disposing of certain . Incinerators convert waste materials into heat. Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals. gas. poorly designed or poorly managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind blown litter and attraction of vermin. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity. 2. mining voids or borrow pits. Deposited waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stability.

land contamination health hazards and environment degradation. due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants. Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about micro-pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks. mosquitoes etc. or dumped on land with little regard for public health and landscape aesthetics. compacting them daily with a layer of earth. Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal. instead of sanitary landfill method. Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scares. In Nigeria the method of waste disposal used is the open dumping of refuse on land.hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). diarrhoea etc. Particular concern has focussed on some very persistent organics such as Dioxins which may be created within the incinerator and which may have serious environmental consequences in the area immediately around the incinerator. An open dumpsite is a place where waste are disposed of. Waste in open dumpsite is a source of air and water pollution. malaria fever.  Street littering resulting from peoples bad habit of throwing wastes carelessly from moving vehicle and while walking on street or by hawkers . Effect  Reduces property value for land near dumps sites  Air pollution occurs when solid waste at open dump sites or residential premises spontaneously catch fire  Creation of conducive environment for breeding of disease carrying vectors like flies. steam and/or electricity. to spread disease such as yellow fever. as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. Sanitary landfill is an engineering method in which waste are disposed on land by spreading them in layers. Waste-to-Energy (WtE) or Energy-to-Waste (EfW) are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat.

Any previous waste collection services are likely to have ceased or are operating on a very restricted schedule. She sited cases some health institutions face. Waste management equipment could have been destroyed or stolen. they include:  Very limited or no waste collection and disposal service  No treatment facilities for infectious healthcare waste  No colour-coded waste management consumable items such as plastic bags or sharps boxes and very few skips  No waste segregation – placentas. 2. below listed are ways in which waste management can be managed. needles and food waste were all mixed together  Dogs. Such disruption exaggerates the problems that we face. It is common to observe a mixture of potentially infectious and non-infectious waste from containers lying around hospital ground with animals. goats and horses were seen feeding on healthcare wastes on hospital grounds  Lack of awareness of the risks of potentially infectious wastes on the part of all stakeholders  No regular electricity or water supply  Difficult procurement procedures  Lack of money for transport of any type of wastes The situation was unacceptable and posed significant risks to patients due to the risk of infectious acquired within the hospital and to public health.4 IMPLEMENTATION Tom Parker (2006) suggests that. and the speed of replacement is normally slow. . given the various issues facing individual communities.Sarah Gayton (2004) talks about the challenge and the need for improvement in waste management in low – to middle income countries. pests and insects feed from it.

No 05-1345. We need to engage the younger waste professional by getting them involved in the development and implementation of innovative solutions to address complicated technical challenges. We need to develop a state-of-the-art landfill. and more efficient collection systems and vehicles. expanding co-operative and summer intern education programmes and encouraging younger staff to get involved in professional waste organisations. Oneida-Herkimer Waste Management Authority. We need to attract younger professionals to our industry by forming partnerships with colleges and universities. Flow control Flow control in an issues based on the premise that waste is an article of commerce and that government should not place any barriers on the free movement waste across region. advanced air pollution control systems for incineration and WTE facilities. Planning Many communities should update their waste management programmes. We need to further expand our public relations programmes to inform the general public of the important roles we serve in protecting the environment. collection systems and processing facilities. In recent years. Attracting Younger Staff of the Profession We need to do a better job of attracting. new sorting technologies. To exemplify the importance of this issue the case of United Haulers Association vs. new issues and management techniques have surfaced that directly impact integrated waste management system components including rising energy prices. Waste-toEnergy (WTF) facilities. sustainability. state or national boundaries. we need to improve our image and do a better job of ‘selling’ all the innovative programmes we operate that protect the natural environment. . training and retaining younger staff to our industry.Professionalism and Public Relations As an industry.