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compiled by Hery Supriyanto firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com http://www.linkedin.com/in/herysupriyanto these document compilation from many resource feel free to share for knowledges purpose
SDCCH drop reasons
1)High intreference of freq.,like co-channel 2)SDCCH time slot faulty 3)Poor TRX DL quality 4)Hardware fault like antenna or duplexer malfunction 5)May be feeder cable and connectors are faulty. 6)Site taking calls from a very far distance.
Dropped Call(TCH Drop-SDCCH Drop)
1. Radio Link Time-Out Every time a SACCH message can not be decoded the radio link time-out counter is decreased by 1. If the message can be decoded the counter is incremented by 2. However, the value can not exceed the initial value. The initial value is set by the parameter RLINKT for radio link time-out in the mobile station and by RLINKUP for timeout in the BSC. If the mobile moves out of coverage and no measurement reports are received in the BSC, there will be a radio link time-out and the message Channel Release (cause: abnormal release, unspecified) is sent to the mobilestation and the SACCH is deactivated in the BTS. A Clear Request message is sent to the MSC. To be sure that the mobile has stopped transmitting, the BSC now waits RLINKT SACCH periods before the timeslot is released and a new call can be established on the channel. 2. Layer 2 Time-Out If the BTS never get an acknowledge on a Layer 2 message after the time T200XN200, the BTS will send Error Indication (cause: T200 expired) to the BSC, which will send Channel Release (cause: abnormal release, timer expired) to the mobilestation and a Clear Request to the MSC. The SACCH is deactivated and the BSC waits RLINKT SACCH periods before the timeslot is released and a new call can use the channel. This is only valid if the call is in steady state, i.e. not during handover or assignment.
3. Release Indication When the BTS received a layer 2 DISC frame from the mobile it replies with a Layer 2 UA frame to the mobile station and a Release Indication to the BSC. The system does only react on Release Indication if it is received during a normal disconnection situation. If such a message is received unexpectedly this will usually cause radio link time-out or timer T200 expiration as the mobilestation stops the transmitting of measurement reports. It is also possible that the release will be normal depending on when the Release Indication is received. 4. MSC Time-Out Normal Release: If the MSC never received a response on a message (e.g. Identity Request) and there is no radio link time-out or layer 2 time-out, the MSC will send a Clear Command to the BSC. The time-out is depending on the message. When receiving Clear Command, the BSC will send a Channel Release (cause: normal release) and then deactivates the SACCH. Reject (only SDCCH): If the MSC never receives a response on the first message after Establish Indication, the MSC will send a reject message. If the connection was a Location Update it will be a Location Update Reject (cause: network failure) and if the connection was a mobile originating call (CM Service Request) a CM Service Reject (cause: network failure) will be sent. The MSC will then send a Clear Command to the BSC and the call is cleared by Channel Release (cause: normal release). 5. Assignment to TCH Before sending an Assignment Command from the BSC at TCH assignment, the following two criterion have to be fulfilled: a. There must be a TCH channel available, i.e. no congestion b. The locating algorithm must have received at least one valid measurement report.
If either of the criterion is not fulfilled, Assignment Command will not be sent and a Channel Release (cause: abnormal release, unspecified) will be sent to the mobilestation and a Clear Request to the MSC.
TCH Drop reason (1) The classification of TCH Drop Reasons are arranged in the order of priority: 1.Excessive Timing Advance 2.Low Signal Strength 3.Bad Quality 4.Sudden Loss of Connection 5.Other Reasons Excessive Timing Advance The TCH Drop counters due to Excessive Timing Advance will pegged when the during the time of disconnection, the last Timing Advance value recorded was higher than the TALIM Parameter. This drop reason is commonly apparent to isolated or island sites with a wide coverage area. Action: Check if the cell parameter TALIM is < "63" Solution: Set TALIM to a value close to 63. Tilt antenna/reduce antenna height/output power, etc. for co-channel cells. TCH Drop Reasons (2) Low Signal Strength on Down or Uplink or Both Links The drops counters due to Low Signal Strength will be pegged when the Signal Strength during the last Measurement Report before the call dropped is below the LOWSSDL and/or LOWSSUL Thresholds. LOWSSDL and LOWSSUL are BSC Exchange Property parameters which is used only for statistics purposes and does not affect the behavior of calls. If both UL and DL Signal Strength are below the thresholds, only Drop due to Low SS BL will pegged. Normally a call is dropped at the border of large rural cell with insufficient coverage. Bad tunnel coverage cause many dropped calls as well as so called coverage holes. Bad indoor coverage will result in dropped calls. Building shadowing could be another reason. Action: Check coverage plots. Check output power. Check power balance and link budget. Check if Omni site. Check antenna configuration & type. Check antenna installation. Perform drive tests & site survey.
Check TRX/TS with high CONERRCNT. Solution: Add a repeater to increase coverage in for example a tunnel. Change to a better antenna (with higher gain) for the base station. Add a new base station if there are large coverage holes. Block/Deblock TRX
TCH Drop Reasons (3) Poor Quality on Down or Uplink or Both Links The drops counters due to Bad Quality will be pegged when the Signal Strength during the last Measurement Report before the call dropped is above the BADQDL and/or BADQUL Thresholds. BADQDL and BADQUL (expressed in DTQU) are BSC Exchange Property parameters which is used only for statistics purposes and does not affect thebehavior of calls. If both UL and DL Quality are above the thresholds, only Drop due to BAD Quality BL will pegged. Problem on Bad Quality is usually associated with Co-channel Interference on BCCH or TCH. Faulty MAIO assignment can cause frequency collisions on cosited cells especially on 1x1 Reuse. External interference is also one possible cause of problem on quality. Action: Check C/I and C/A plots. Check Frequency Plan (Co-BCCH or Co-BSIC Problem). Check MAIO, HOP, HSN parameters. Check FHOP if correctly configured (BB or SY). Check for External Interference. Perform drive tests. Solution: Change BCCH frequency. Change BSIC. Change MAIO, HOP, HSN. Change FHOP. Record RIR or on-site Frequency Scanning to identify source of interference. Use available radio features. TCH Drop Reasons (4) Sudden Loss of Connection Drops due to Sudden Loss are drops that have not been registered as low signal strength, excessive timing advance, bad quality or hardware (other) reasons, and the locating procedure indicates missing measurement results from the MS. There are some common scenarios that could lead to Sudden Loss of connections such as very sudden and severe drops in signal strength, such as when subscribers enter into buildings, elevators, parking garages, etc., very
and sometimes Handover Lost. Synchronization or A-bis link fault (transmission faults). Change CONFACT or increase Transmission Capacity Investigate HO Lost Problem TCH Drop Reasons (5) TCH Drops due to Other Reasons TCH drops due to Other Reasons are computed by subtracting the sum of drops due to Excessive TA. Handover Lost. Change RBLT with high DIP Slips. Drops due to Other Reasons are generally associated withhardware problems. Reset TRX with high CONERRCNT. Check Transmission Link (A-bis). Increase output power. Alarms and Fault Codes. Check for DIP Slips. . MS runs out of battery during conversation. Action: Check BTS Error Logs. Ensure that Synchronization and A-bis Link are stable. Action: Check coverage plots. Correlate Handover Lost to Drops due to Sudden Loss Solution: Fix Hardware Faults and Alarms. Investigate HO Lost Problem Problem reason of drop in SDCCH Low Signal Strength on Down or Uplink The reason for poor coverage could be too few sites. Action: Check BTS Error Logs. Perform drive tests. shadowing. BTS HW faults. Correlate Handover Lost to Drops due to Other Reasons Solution: Fix Hardware Faults and Alarms. transmission link problems on A-bis. and MS Faults. Bad Quality and Sudden Loss from the Total TCH Drop Counts. Ater or Ainterfaces. Check CONERRCNT per TRX and TS. Reset TRX with high CONERRCNT. Check for DIP Slips. Check BTS error log Solution: Add new sites. Ensure that Synchronization and A-bis Link are stable.sudden and severe occurrence of interference. Check CONERRCNT per TRX and TS. Check Transmission Link (A-bis). wrong output power. Check LAPD Congestion. Change RBLT with high DIP Slips.Check output power. Low SS. Check Alarms and Fault Codes. Repair faulty equipment. no indoor coverage or network equipment failure.
choosing illadvised locations to attempt calls. Check if DTX uplink is used. Dynamic Half-Rate Allocation and FR-HR Mode Adaptation etc TCH ASSIGNMENT SUCCESS RATE Probable Reason: 1) No dominant serving cell: The serving cell cannot cope with the TCH traffic.Poor Quality on Down or Uplink Action: Check C/I and C/A plots. Too High Timing Advance Action: Check if the cell parameter TALIM is < style="font-weight: bold. Another reason is that the MS is damaged and not working properly. Congestion on TCH The SDCCH is dropped when congestion on TCH. Solution: Change frequency. Mobile Error Some old mobiles may cause dropped calls if certain radio network features are used. 2) Severe congestion on TCH: Failing TCH allocation for assignment or handover due to congestion 3) Low signal strength for call access: The signal strength might be higher on the BCCH than on the TCH. the call will be registered as dropped call due to low signal strength or others.">Solution: Set TALIM to a value close to 63. etc. HCS. Subscriber Behavior Poorly educated subscribers could use their handsets incorrectly by not raising antennas. Action: Check MS fleet. Battery Flaw When a subscriber runs out of battery during a conversation. Check frequency plan. 4) Interference: Disturbance on SDCCH or target TCH 5) Faulty transceiver: Faulty equipment . Action: Check customer complaints and their MS. for cochannel cells. Action: Check if MS power regulation is used. Cell Load Sharing. Use available radio features. Action: Check TCH congestion Solution: Increase capacity on TCH or using features like Assignment to another cell. Tilt antenna/reduce antenna height/output power. Solution: Inform operator. etc. Perform drive tests.
check the TCH Time Congestion. If hardware fault found. check the interference whether co-channel or adjacent channel. If there is congestion on TCH. If there is no congestion on TCH.The following procedure should be performed for TCH Assignment analysis: For TCH assignment success rate. Action: Check if short term traffic growth. If the output power is ok. Perform drivetests to check the coverage and received RxLEV. Check parameters related to Adaptive configuration of logical channels ---Long Mean Holding Time If the mean holding time is long. it is recommend doing the dimensioning and adding TRU based on carried TCH traffic demand. Action: Check SDCCH Mean Holding Time ---Too Frequent Periodic Registration Action: Check Random Access Distribution. it will cause SDCCH congestion. improve the frequency plan. Check the disturbance whether it is on SDCCH or target TCH. Probable Reasons of SDCCH Congestion ---Low Availability Action: Check SDCCH Availability. Check SDCCH dimensioning. the basic SDCCH configuration in a cell will be under-dimensioned. If there is no problem on the dominant cell. ---Bad use of Adaptive configuration of Logical Channels By using the Adaptive configuration of logical channels feature. Check if combined SDCCH is used. Check the timer T3212 in the BSC and the parameters ---BTDM and GTDM in the MSC Solution: Decrease the periodic registration. it is recommended to add BTS. the first thing. Mostly. Make trend comparisons. Action: Check if ACSTATE is on. Check if the channels are manual. If the output power is low. the problems of low TCH assignment are TCH availability and interference. If this feature is not used correctly. control or automatic blocked. ---Increasing Traffic Demand The high traffic could be related to an occasional event or due to a long term growth. . increase the output power. check the faulty BTS by extracting BTS error log. If no dominant cell or similar signal strengths of a few cells found during drivetests. check the output power of the BTS. swap or repair HW. this generates a higher traffic load. If disturbance found.
check if it is used by the operator.---Location Area Border Cell If the cell is situated on a misplaced Location Area border. The recommendation is to use Attach/Detach. Check Location Update Performance. . ---Extensive SMS Usage Extensive SMS usage increases the SDCCH traffic and could cause congestion if badly dimensioned SDCCH channels. this means that unnecessary many normal LUs are performed. . ---Permitted Network Color Code problem Action:Check NCC Permitted ---HW faults. Action: Check site position and location area border. ---Cell Software File Congestion Action: Check SAE setting. However. An introduction of IMSI attach/detach will increase the traffic on SDCCH.If active. Check parameter CRH etc. ---Cell Broadcast Used Action: Check if Cell Broadcast is active. ---IMSI Attach/Detach in Use. ---Missed measurement frequencies in BA-list Action:Check measurement frequencies list. the benefits are that the paging success rate will increase. Action: Check SMS activity. High Ratio of Random Accesses Action: Check Random Access performance Probable Reasons of Bad Handover Performance ---Neighboring Cell Relation Action:Add neighbor cell relation.
---Delayed Handover Decision A delayed handover decision can be due to congestion in the target cell. ---Bad Radio Coverage Action: Check coverage plots. ---Blocking on Target Cell Action:Remove Blocking on Tager Cell ---Congestion A high congestion might lead to dragged calls (handover performed at a not intended location) and a lot of unsuccessful handovers. ---Wrong Locating Parameter Setting Action: Check locating parameters. the quality may be rather bad and the signal strength low. Check if many handovers are performed due to downlink or uplink bad quality. On the border. Perform link performance measurements. Outgoing handover due to bad uplink quality may indicate interference from cochannel another MS. Many measurement frequencies mean few samples per frequency and problem for mobiles to decode the BSIC. ---Bad Antenna Installation Action: Perform site survey and check antenna installation. ---Timer Expire After MS is Lost The MS never answers the base station.Action: Check BTS error log. Action: Check coverage. Bad downlink quality may indicate interference from another co-channel basestation. Action: Check TCH congestion. ---Receiver Antenna Problem or RBS HW problems (in candidate cell) . Co-Channel or Adjacent The potential handover candidate is disturbed by interference. ---High Interference. Action: Check number of definitions. Action: Check handover parameters. Perform site visit. ---Link Connection or HW Failure Action: Check BTS error log. Action: Check interference. ---Many Neighbors Defined Many defined measurement frequencies defined (>16) will decrease the accuracy of the mobile measurements to locate the best six servers. Check interference. Check antenna cabling.
It may be cause by shadowing by high building. Since not all BSS vendors provide such performance counters it might be identified by simple metric that shall be expressed as total successfulhandover over number of call or connection. common problem such ping pong handover would be degrade user experience like bad voice quality ( SQI speech quality index. New mobile operators were expecting to grow their network in exponential order to gain market share against mature competitors. wrong definitions in either MSC or BSC may be reason for the problem.g. less than 10 seconds.Action: Check antenna installation. ---Incorrect Down Tilt Action: Perform site survey and check antenna installation. it requires addition of new sites to expand capacity and or coverage services. Check RBS HW and Error log of the target cell ---Poor Inter-MSC/BSC Handover Performance For outer or external cell. Coverage holes might lead to Ping-Ponghandover especially for slow moving mobiles. The actual ping pong handover is easily identified through drive test with sense of optimization engineer without require any calculation. Ping Pong Handover As the cellular network growing.g. Solution: Correct antenna tilting. Action: Check inter-MSC/BSC handover performance. MOS mean opinion score ) or even dropped call. Without any intensive network performance maintenance. e. The following action items shall be used for optimization solutions: . Several possible equal signals from two or more base stations might lead to Ping-Ponghandover as well which is so called not optimized cell dominance. more than 200% indicates ping pong handover. Ping Pong handover is shown from the successful handover back to old cell within pre-defined time of total handover. e.
any changes in clutter or traffic habits such as the addition of new roads etc. Check path balance on transceiver link. loss in uplink and downlink chain. However. . the removal or addition of a new site. For Long term action if no dominant cell shall be adding new site. no dominant cell is found. •To verify the performance of the network after changes have been made e. if the average of signal strength of the neighbors are the same. • Drive Testing The Purpose of Drive Testing Drive testing is principally applied in both the planning and optimisation stage of network development. •To verify the network system parameters.g. Defective RF modules might be the reason of imbalanced link. then correct the related parameters. there are other purposes for which drive testing can be used: •To provide path loss data for initial site survey work •To verify the propagation prediction during the initial planning of the network. offset.g. Compare to default parameters design. Perform drive test on that particular area to check the signal strength. any power Adjustments or changes to the antenna. while short term action shall be uptilt the most dominant cell as the serving cell for that area and reduce coverage for others. When a new TRX is added. as defined in the EG8: GSM/DCS System-Specific Parameters.• • • • • Check the parameter setting such as hysteresis. If poor parameters setting found. etc. Check the output power BSPWR and BSPWRT which normally put on maximum value or compare to design. e. Check the site location such as possible coverage holes or no dominant cells. •To provide the initial test parameters used in Benchmarking (as defined in the “Analysis” section of the Network Performance and Monitoring Guideline). priority layer in dual-band case.
Drive testing during the day will mimic the conditions as seen by subscribers. When to Drive Test Drive testing can take place during the day or at night and is dependant upon the Operator’s requirements and subscriber habits. Where to Drive Test Some areas of a network will have greater performance problems than others. night-time testing does not mimic the conditions experienced by subscribers. Drive testing during the night will allow a greater area to be surveyed due to the reduction in vehicular congestion. These areas should be examined and planned in greater detail. All documentation will be passed to Analysts and Engineers. There may be other areas of the network that require temporary coverage during a certain time of the year e.•To measure any interference problems such as coverage from neighboring Countries. For planning purposes.g. without interrupting normal operation. as well as Monitoring the network after sudden environmental conditions. drive testing is performed during the day. but should be weighted towards areas where there are significant RF problems. •To locate any poor coverage areas. This is specified by the Operator and can either take the form of creating a new item of documentation or filling in an existing document. •To monitor the network against a slow degradation over time. However. particularly when setting up a new site. It will also allow for certain test signals to be transmitted and tested. such as gales or electrical storms. drive testing is typically performed at night and for maintenance purposes. •To monitor the performance of a competitor’s network. It is important that a drive test is documented. who will need accurate records of any test work carried out. . •To locate any RF issues relating to traffic problems such as dropped or blocked calls. Drive testing should not be uniform throughout the whole network. an exhibition centre or a sports stadium. but may clog up the network if call analysis is being performed.
Layer 1 Messages Other Layer 1 criteria that is useful for field measurements include: C1 criteria • ARFCN of Serving Cell . BCCH in idle mode)) • Time Slot (TS) • Layer 3 Messages All Layer 3 messages should be collected where possible. Miscellaneous Routes: This includes in-building and non-access routes to vehicles such as shopping malls. such as a University Campus. Layer 3 Messages are used by Analysts to determine more accurately the cause of a problem within the network. The test should be re-driven with any forced handovers removed. where accessible. taking account of one-way streets at this stage. by-streets and compounds. airports. it is recommended that the transceiver is forced to camp onto the cell (forbidding any handovers) in order to ascertain the full coverage of the cell. golf courses. unless a new site is put into service for a specific objective. a map of scale no less than 1:20. Secondary routes are used in areas where problems have been located during a primary route test and further investigation is needed. A drive test should be planned in both directions.000 should be used.----Route Plans The area to be drive tested is ascertained before leaving the office. and a map of scale 1:10. and at the same speed. hotels. For new sites that are being tested. where possible. Secondary Route: This includes all streets. It is recommended that the route is marked in a contiguous circuit. This minimises any errors and checks the point of handovers and cell dimensioning. There are three levels of drive testing depending on the purpose of the test: Primary Route: This includes all major roads. highways and throughfares and should be given priority to all other roads when conducting a coverage test.(TCH in dedicated mode. Some field test equipment can perform basic analysis of particular Layer 3 messages . For primary routes. A route is prepared by photocopying a map and highlighting the route to be driven.000 is recommended for secondary routes. conference centres etc.
Dropped Calls: These are calls that are successfully placed on to the network but are terminated without authorisation. Using Layer 3 Messages.during data collection. Again. The threshold for determining the level of poor audio is programmed during the set-up of the test. Noisy Calls: These are calls which have been successfully completed for the duration of the call but which experienced a number of noise bursts that a subscriber may find intolerable. using Layer 3 messages. some of which can be subdivided further. Good Calls: These are calls that are successfully placed on the network and maintained for the required duration. Call Classification In principle there are five call classifications. This enables certain conditions such as call classification or handovers to be flagged to the survey technician. this particular classification is very difficult to determine with great accuracy. the equipment fails to trigger the collection device to save the data to file. these calls can be sub-divided into: End User Hang-up • System Hang-up • Other • Blocked Calls: These are calls that cannot be placed on to the network. It should be noted that it is not enough to monitor just the RxLEV and the RxQUAL. Roamed calls may also be good calls or dropped calls. these can be sub-divided as follows: System Busy • End User Engaged • No Service • Other • Roamed Calls: These are calls that are successfully placed on another network. Troubleshooting No Data Collected Occasionally. Check • all cables Ensure the Processing Unit is powered • Re-start the laptop computer • Re-start the equipment • . In GSM.
It is important that back-up equipment is used. install a back-up positional device to safeguard against lost GPS • Coverage Holes If there are patches of poor coverage in unexpected areas. • No Positional Information Collected If data is collected using GPS only. The setting should be a minimum of 30 seconds. It is important to re-drive this particular area. Handover Problems Handover problems are generally caused by inaccurate settings of the handover boundary. Layer 3 Messages • Neighbour Cell List (BA Table) • RxLEV (Server • & Neighbour) RxQUAL (Server • & Neighbour) Finally. such as a Dead-Reckoning device. The following data should be checked to ensure that it has been collected properly. ensure that the automatic setting for the call length is not shorter than that for the timer monitoring for unauthorised call drop-outs. the data will be inaccurate and cannot be analysed. it may be possible that satellite reception was lost during a drive through a tunnel etc. Check the following. This can cause ping-ponging. Check the • GPS antenna cable to the receiver Drive to an open area and ensure that the GPS system is working correctly • If required. If the vehicle moves without GPS cover. since a GPS receiver will re-transmit the last known position until it receives an update. where the server will keep changing. it may indicate the fringes of a coverage hole.Re-drive the test. The transceiver antenna is fitted correctly • Collection of Layer 3 Messages • Collection of Neighbour Cell List (BA Table) • . and congestion at the switch. Complete a route plan using secondary roads as far as possible • Make notes of any buildings / obstructions that may cause shadowing • Take note of pedestrian / vehicular habits in the area • Dropped Calls Dropped calls can be caused by either RF environments or incorrect system parameters.
Timers and counters for Radio Resource Management Timers on the Mobile Station Side T3122: This timer is used during random access. otherwise its value is set to 320 ms. T3126:This timer is started either after sending the maximum allowed number of CHANNEL REQUEST messages during an immediate assignment procedure. try to place calls through an alternative BTS. S and T. inform the office immediately and re-suspend the drive test.Its purpose is to detect the lack of answer from the network to the special signal. . Or on receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message. after the receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGN REJECT message. slowly drive around the cell in a radius of around 500m . T3124: This timer is used in the seizure procedure during a hand-over. when the two cells are not synchronized. whichever occurs first. the immediate assignment procedure is aborted. The maximum value of this timer is 5 seconds. Check that the number called is fully functional • Check that there is adequate coverage from the expected serving BTS • Check the equipment transceiver is functioning correctly by using an ordinary • mobile to call the office If all appears functional. Its value is set to 675 ms if the channel type of the channel allocated in the HANDOVER COMMAND is an SDCCH (+ SACCH).Collection of Scanning Information • Collection of Cell Identities • Collection of T. The minimum value of this timer is equal to the time taken by T+2S slots of the mobile station's RACH.Its value is given by the network in the IMMEDIATE ASSIGN REJECT message. or an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT EXTENDED message. it is recommended that the drive test is temporarily halted in order to try and locate the cause. If this • succeeds. Blocked Calls / System Busy If calls are repeatedly classified as blocked. It is stopped at receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message. ensure that the collection of data from the new serving cell immediately after the handover has occurred (particularly RxLEV and RxQUAL) is not timed to occur prior to the-synchronisation of the transceiver itself.Adv for the Serving Cell • Also.1km. If a particular serving cell can be isolated as a potential cause of handover problems. checking when handovers occur. At its expiry.
1. T3130:This timer is started after sending the first UPLINK ACCESS message during a VGCS uplink access procedure. Its purpose is to let some time for disconnection of the main signalling link. T3164:This timer is used during packet access using CCCH. (It should be chosen to obtain a good probability of normal termination (i. Its value is given by the network in the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message.The value of this timer is set to 5 seconds. T3110:This timer is used to delay the channel deactivation after the receipt of a (full) CHANNEL RELEASE. It is started at the receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message or of an PDCH ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message when in dedicated mode.60. It is stopped at receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message.2. The minimum value of this timer is equal to the time taken by T+2S slots of the mobile station's RACH. the packet access procedure is aborted.60.3. Its value is set to 5 seconds. after the receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message. At expiry. The value of the timer is 5 seconds. see GSM 04. T3142:The timer is used during packet access on CCCH. Timers on the network side T3101:This timer is started when a channel is allocated with an IMMEDIATE . the uplink access procedure is aborted. T3190:The timer is used during packet downlink assignment on CCCH. the mobilestation returns to the packet idle mode.T3128:This timer is started when the mobile station starts the uplink investigation procedure and the uplink is busy.It is stopped at receipt of a VGCS ACCESS GRANT message. The value of the timer is 5 seconds.It is stopped at the receipt of a RLC/MAC block on the assigned temporary block flow. see GSM 04. Or on receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message during a packet access procedure.) T3134:This timer is used in the seizure procedure during an RR network commanded cell change order procedure. no time out of T3109) of the channel release procedure. the mobile station returns to the packet idle mode. At its expiry. T3146:This timer is started either after sending the maximum allowed number of CHANNEL REQUEST messages during a packet access procedure. S and T are defined in section 3. At expire.e.It is stopped at receipt of the first UPLINK FREE message.At its expiry. Its purpose is to detect the lack of answer from the network or the lack of availability of the target cell. or an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT EXTENDED message. the uplink investigation procedure is aborted. It is stopped at the transmission of a RLC/MAC block on the assigned temporary block flow. At its expiry. Its value is set to such that the DISC frame is sent twice in case of no answer from thenetwork. The value of this timer is set to 1 second. whichever occurs first. The maximum value of this timer is 5 seconds. It is started at the receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message.
T3113:This timer is started when the network has sent a PAGING REQUEST message and is stopped when the network has received the PAGING RESPONSE message. plus the value of T3124. Its value isnetwork dependent. T3115:This timer is used for the repetition of the VGCS UPLINK GRANT message during the uplink access procedure. It is also used in the channel release procedure. Its purpose is to keep the old channels sufficiently long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels. Its purpose is to keep the old channel sufficiently . Its value is equal to the value of T3110. T3117:This timer is started by the sending of a PDCH ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message and is normally stopped when the MS has correctly accessed the target TBF. Its value is network dependent. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum transmission time of the HANDOVER COMMAND. when it is not engaged in a RF procedure. T3111:This timer is used to delay the channel deactivation after disconnection of the main signalling link. NOTE: This timer may be set to such a low value that the message is in fact continuously transmitted. and to release the channels if the MS is lost. Its value is network dependent. T3107:This timer is started by the sending of an ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message and is normally stopped when the MS has correctly seized the new channels. plus the maximum duration of an attempt to establish a data link in multiframe mode. NOTE: The value could allow for repetitions of the Channel Request message and the requirements associated with T3101. It is stopped when the MS has correctly seized the channels. NOTE: This timer may be set to such a low value that the message is in fact continuously transmitted. Its value is network dependent. Its purpose is to let some time for possible repetition of the disconnection.ASSIGNMENT message. T3109:This timer is started when a lower layer failure is detected by the network. NOTE: Its value should be large enough to ensure that the MS detects a radio link failure. Its purpose is to release the channels in case of loss of communication.) T3105:This timer is used for the repetition of the PHYSICAL INFORMATION message during the hand-over procedure. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum transmission time of the ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message plus twice the maximum duration of an attempt to establish a data link multiframe mode. Its value is network dependent. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum time for a L2 establishment attempt. Its value is network dependent. and to release the channels if the MS is lost. Its purpose is to keep the old channel sufficiently long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels. T3103:This timer is started by the sending of a HANDOVER message and is normally stopped when the MS has correctly seized the new channel. Its value isnetwork dependent.
Its purpose is to keep the old channels sufficiently long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels. Its value is network dependent. The HLR looks up the MSISDN and determines the IMSI and the SS7 address for the MSC/VLR that is servicing the MS. It is stopped when the mobile station has correctly seized the temporary block flow. and to release the channels if the MS is lost. . plus T3134. and queries the HLR for information about how to route the call to the serving MSC/VLR. “call forwarding to C-number” is activated. the MS is registered in. T3141:This timer is started when a temporary block flow is allocated with an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message during a packet access procedure. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum transmission time of the PDCH ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message plus T3132 plus the maximum duration of an attempt to establish a data link in multiframe mode. the MSISDN is analyzed in the PSTN.long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels. if so.NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum transmission time of the RR_CELL CHANGE ORDER. The GMSC analyzes the MSISDN to find out which HLR. and to release the channels if the MS is lost. plus the maximum duration of an attempt to establish a data link in multiframe mode. The PSTN sends an Initial Address message (IAM) to the GMSC. A connection is established to the MS’s home GMSC. which identifies that this is a call to a mobile network subscriber. GSM Mobile Terminated Call The PSTN subscriber dials the MS’s telephone number (MSISDN). Its value isnetwork dependent. The HLR also checks if theservice. the call is rerouted by the GMSC to that number. Its value isnetwork dependent. T3119:This timer is started by the sending of a RR-CELL CHANGE ORDER message and is normally stopped when the MS has correctly accessed the new cell.
[AGCH Access Grant Channel] 3. the MSRN can be released and may be made available for reassignment. The GMSC sends an Initial Addressing message (IAM) to the servicing MSC/VLR and uses the MSRN to route the call to the MSC/VLR.The MSC/VLR returns an MSRN via HLR to the GMSC. Once the servicing MSC/VLR receives the call. the page will be sent out across the entireLocation Area(LA). The BTS and MS are told to tune to the TCH. using AGCH.Mobile Station Routing Number]. The BTS’s transmit the message over the air interface using PCH. [RACH . The MS sends a call setup request through SDCCH. all signaling takes place. This includes: marking the MS status as active in . [SDCCH the VLR . Since the MSC/VLR does not know exactly which BSC and BTS the MS is monitoring. Equipment identification). The MSC/VLR then orders all of its BSCs and BTSs to page the MS. to the MSC/VLR. Over SDCCH all signaling preceding a call takes place. To page the MS. Over SDCCH. MS after dialing a number & pressing SEND key. GSM Mobile Originating Call Flow Mobile User calling a Land Line Subscriber. This includes: Marking the MS as “active” in the VLR. [MSRN . The mobile phone rings.slow dedicated control channel]. the connection is established. Authentication procedure (Start ciphering. it sends a request on RACH for a SDCCH. When the MS detects the paging message to the BTS’s in the desired LA. sends Channel Request(Chan_Req) message on RACH to ask for a signalingchannel (Radio Resources).Random Access channel] 2. The MSC/VLR instructs the BSC/TRC to allocate an idle TCH. When the MS detects the paging message. 1. If the subscriber answers. The HLR then contacts the servicing MSC/VLR and asks it to assign a MSRN to the call. TCH allocation assigns a specific Frequency & a Timeslot on that frequency. The BSC provides a SDCCH. SDCCH is used for the call set-up procedures. The BSC allocates a Traffic Channel(TCH) using AGCH. the network uses an IMSI or TMSI valid only in the current MSC/VLR service area.
Numbering plans are used to identify different networks. GSM IDENTITY NUMBERS(IMSI. The call is also switched from signaling to voice. The BTS and MS are told to tune to the TCH. In order to switch a call to a mobile subscriber. the right entities need to be involved. 6. The MSC/VLR instructs the BSC to allocate an Idle TCH (this message contains the dialed digits and other information needed for call establishment).MSRN. VLR. See also Figure 56. 11.CGI.IMEI) GSM identities The GSM network is complex and consists of the Switching System (SS) and the Base Station System (BSS). 8. 12. etc. interfaces both the Base Station System and also other networks like PSTN/ISDN. Mobile Station ISDN Number (MSISDN) The MSISDN is a number which uniquely identifies a mobile telephone subscription in the public switched telephone network numbering plan. MSC informs the BSS about the allocated voice circuit. It is therefore important to address them correctly. The PSTN indicates to the MSC that it has received all the digits and the called subscriber is being rung. The MSC allocates a voice circuit on one the digital trunks between the MSC and the BSS. The switching system. 9. The MSC routes the call and sends the call towards the called subscriber.164 is used. which consists of HLR. MSC. 7. data networks or other PLMNs.4. Then comes Authentication Procedure which includes Ciphering (The channel is ciphered so as to protect the call). The BSS notifies the Mobile about the changeover to voice mode.TMSI. The MSC informs the mobile that the called subscriber is beingalerted via a ring. For a telephone number in the PSTN/ISDN network. . Equipment Identification. numbering plans E. The numbers used to identify the identities in a GSM/PLMNnetwork is described in this chapter. 10. AUC and EIR. 5. The called subscriber answers the call.
According to the CCITT recommendations. prefixes not included. The IMSI consists of three different parts: IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN MCC = Mobile Country Code (3 digits) . In some countries.164. Each subscription is connected to one Home Location Register (HLR). It will be stored in the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). The international MSISDN number may be of variable length. as an application of CCITT recommendation E. The following is an example of dialling a GSM subscriber. the mobile telephone number or catalogue number to be dialled is composed in the following way: MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN CC = Country Code NDC = National Destination Code SN = Subscriber Number A National Destination Code is allocated to each GSM PLMN. a specific identity is allocated to each subscriber. The length of the MSISDN depends on the structure and numbering plan of each operator. more than one NDC may be required for each GSM PLMN. as well as in the Home Location Register (HLR) and in the serving Visitor Location Register (VLR). This identity is called the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) and is used for all signalling in the PLMN. International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) The IMSI is the information which uniquely identifies a subscriber in a GSM/PLMN. The maximum length shall be 15 digits. For a correct identification over the radio path and through the GSM PLMN network.
MSC/VLR for the purpose of interrogation is sent over the No. see Figure 56. All data exchanged between the GMSC . Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) HLR knows in what MSC/VLR Service Area the subscriber is located. the HLR requests the current MSC/VLR to allocate and return a Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) for the called subscriber. HLR sends it to the GMSC. All network–related subscriber information is connected to the IMSI. according to the GSM recommendations. which can now route the call to the MSC/VLR exchange where the called subscriber is currently registered. It raises the subscriber’s confidentiality and is known within the serving . The Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN). Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) The TMSI is a temporary number used instead of the IMSI to identify an MS. In order to provide a temporary number to be used for routing. SN is the address to the serving MSC.MNC = Mobile Network Code (2 digits) MSIN = Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (max 10 digits) According to the GSM recommendations. See also Figure 56. The interrogation call routing function (request for an MSRN) is part of the Mobile Application Part (MAP). At reception of the MSRN. consists of three parts: MSRN = CC + NDC + SN CC = Country Code NDC = National Destination Code SN = Subscriber Number Note: In this case. the IMSI will have a length of maximum 15 digits.HLR . 7 signalling network.
MSC/VLR-area and changed at certain events or time intervals. identifies a cell within a location area. Cell Global Identity (CGI) CGI is used for cell identification within the GSM network. The maximum length of LAC is 16 bits. LAC = Location Area Code. It follows the same numbering plan as MCC in IMSI. determined by a central GSM body FAC = Final Assembly Code (2 digits). CGI = MCC + MNC + LAC + CI CI = Cell Identity. This is done by adding a Cell Identity (CI) to the location area identity. International Mobile station Equipment Identity (IMEI) The IMEI is used for equipment identification. (See IMEI. MNC = Mobile Network Code (2 digits). an individual serial number of six digits uniquely identifying all equipment within each TAC and FAC sp = spare for future use (1 digit) According to the GSM specification. An IMEI uniquely identifies a mobile station as a piece or assembly of equipment. identifies the country. IMEI has the length of 15 digits. Location Area Identity (LAI) LAI is used for location updating of mobile subscribers. chapter 5. identifies the GSM/PLMN in that country and follows the same numbering plan as the MNC in IMSI. identifies a location area within a GSM PLMN network.) IMEI = TAC + FAC + SNR + sp TAC = Type Approval Code (6 digits). identifies the manufacturer SNR = Serial Number (6 digits). . The structure of the TMSI may be chosen by each administration but should have a maximum length of four octets (8 digits). enabling 65 536 different location areas to be defined in one GSM PLMN. LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC MCC = Mobile Country Code (3 digits). maximum 16 bits Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) BSIC allows a mobile station to distinguish between different neighboring base stations.
as specified by the network operator by ”tying” the location numbers to cells. 2. or MSC/VLR service areas. Refer to Ericsson system. However. Excessive TA Low Signal Strength Bad Quality Sudden Drop As named. Drops due to ‘Other’ reasons are generally associated with hardware problems and disturbances. BCC = Base Station Colour Code (3 bits). 3. low signal strength or bad quality) are indicated and the locating procedure indicates missing measurement results from the MS. The Location Number is used to implement features like Regional /Local subscription and Geographical differentiated charging. identifies the GSM PLMN. Note that it does not uniquely identify the operator. stright forward meaning for the dropped call is described for the first three items. The term Sudden Loss is used because if the network cannot establish a connection with the lost MS after a pre-defined period. number of drops due to ‘Other’ reasons is obtained by subtracting the drops with known reasons from the total number of drops. 4. A connection is marked as Sudden loss if none of the three types of urgency states (that is excessive TA. .BSIC = NCC + BCC NCC = Network Colour Code (3 bits). timing advance. Sudden Loss are drops that have not been registered as bad quality. a Clear Message with cause code Call Control be treated as normal Disconnection is sent to the MSC – named Clear Request Message. identifies the Base Station to help distinguish between BTS using the same BCCH frequencies Location Number (LN) Location Number is a number related to a certain geographical area. signal strength. location areas. NCC is primarily used to distinguish between operators on each side of border. Sudden Drop is quite not easy to understand. the following Urgency condition is checked at that time and the relevant counter is incremented as a consequence: 1. when a call is abnormally disconnected. Dropped Call due to Sudden Drop On circuit switch service. the sudden loss counter is incremented if the last reported measurement from the MS does not fulfill any of the reasons mentioned.
MS running out of battery during conversation. Only MSs in idle mode can receive SMSCB messages. such as when subscribers enter into buildings. However. . An MS cannot initiate such a message and does not acknowledge receipt of one. A mobile can send a message either to another MS or into the fixed network (as an Email for example). • • • • Handover Lost. procedures exist to concatenate up to 15 SMSCB messages using a special reassembly mechanism. · TS23 – SMS Cell Broadcast (SMSCB). BTS HW faults. These messages differ from standard SMS messages in that they are only 92 characters long. · TS 22 – Mobile originated point-to-point messaging. In order to implement SMS. Messages can be initiated in the fixed or mobile network and delivered to either the fixed or mobile network. SMS (SHORT MESSAGES SERVICES)* term *mostly of SMS is a service that allows subscribers to send short messages (up to 160 characters) to other mobile subscribers. SMSCB messages are generally broadcast only in a specific network region. Very sudden and severe occurrence of interference or bad quality. SMS uses spare capacity on the Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH). A more recent variation of SMS is SMSCB.Main contributors in sudden and other TCH drop: • • Very sudden and severe drop in signal strength. parking garages. elevators. A mobile can terminate an SMS message either from another MS or from the fixed network. a network operator must establish a SMS Service Centre which receives and processes SMS messages in a store-and-forward mode. etc. MS Faults. SMS is classified as a GSM Teleservice and three SMS teleservices (TS21-23) have been defined: · TS 21 – Mobile terminated point-to-point messaging. Rather than having to set up a call on a traffic channel. Synchronization or Abis link fault (transmission faults).
and delivering the short message to the visited MSC of the recipient mobile station. The SMS interworking MSC (SMS–IWMSC) is an MSC capable of receiving a short message from the mobile network and submitting it to the appropriate SMSC. a mobile station. Visitor Location Register The visitor location register (VLR) is a database that contains temporary information about subscribers. The BSS consists of base-station controllers (BSCs) and the base-transceiver stations (BTSs). Short Message Service Centre Short message service centre (SMSC) is responsible for the relaying and store-and-forwarding of a short message between an SME and mobile station. the HLR provides the routing information for the indicated subscriber. The HLR also informs the SMSC. and its primary responsibility is to transmit voice and data traffic between the mobile stations. The SMS– GMSC/SMS–IWMSC are typically integrated with the SMSC. . SMS Gateway Mobile Switching Centre The SMS–gateway mobile switching centre (SMS–GMSC) is an MSC capable of receiving a short message from an SMSC. Upon interrogation by the SMSC. or another service centre. The SME may be located in the fixed network. The Base Station System All radio-related functions are performed in the base-station system (BSS). which has previously initiated unsuccessful short message delivery attempts to a specific mobile station. Home Location Register The HLR is a database used for permanent storage and management of subscriptions and service profiles. that the mobile station is now recognized by the mobile network to be accessible. interrogating a home location register (HLR) for routing information.Short Messaging Entities Short messaging entity (SME) is an entity which may receive or send short messages. This information is needed by the MSC to service visiting subscribers. Mobile Switching Centre The MSC performs the switching functions of the system and controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems.
This interface is specified in the 08. call handling. mobility management. SMS makes use of the mobile application part (MAP). Whenever the MSC needs data related to a given mobile station currently . GSM Interfaces · · · Interface between the MSC and Base Station System (A-interface) The interface between the MSC and its BSS is specified in the 08-series of GSM Technical Specifications.The Mobile Station The mobile station (MS) is the wireless terminal capable of receiving and originating short messages as well as voice calls. The BSS-MSC interface is used to carry information concerning: BSS management. and uses the services of the SS7 transaction capabilities application part (TCAP). The interface also allows control of the radio equipment and radio frequency allocation in the BTS. The wireless network signalling infrastructure is based on signalling system 7 (SS7).VLR) The VLR is the location and management data base for the mobile subscribers roaming in the area controlled by the associated MSC(s). which defines the methods and mechanisms of communication in wireless networks. this interface is used between the BSC and BTS to support the services offered to the GSM users and subscribers. A-BIS INTERFACE (BSC .5x-series of GSM Technical Specifications.BTS) When the BSS consists of a Base Station Controller (BSC) and one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTS). An SMS service layer makes use of the MAP signalling capabilities and enables the transfer of short messages between the peer entities. B INTERFACE (MSC .
it interrogates the VLR. F INTERFACE (MSC and EIR) This interface is used between MSC and EIR to exchange data. This procedure occurs whenever an MS roams to another location area. The VLR informs the HLR of the location of a mobile station managed by the latter and provides it (either at location updating or at call set-up) with the roaming number of that station. when a subscriber activates a specific supplementary service or modifies some data attached to a service. Exchanges of data may occur when the mobile subscriber requires a particular service. H INTERFACE (HLR . For that purpose the MSCs have to exchange data to initiate and then to realize the operation.AuC) When an HLR receives a request for authentication and ciphering data for a Mobile Subscriber and it does not hold the requested data. After the handover operation has been completed. G INTERFACE (VLR – VLR) When a mobile subscriber moves from a VLR area to another Location Registration procedure will happen. the MSC informs its VLR which stores the relevant information. the MSCs will exchange information to transfer A-interface signalling as necessary. a handover procedure has to be performed in order to continue the communication. this interface is used to transfer the message between the MSC serving the Mobile Station and the MSC which acts as the interface to the SC. in order that the EIR can verify the status of the IMEI retrieved from the Mobile Station. when he wants to change some data attached to his subscription or when some parameters of the subscription are modified by administrative means. When a mobile station initiates a location updating procedure with an MSC. The HLR sends to the VLR all the data needed to support the service to the mobile subscriber. the HLR requests . in either direction. C INTERFACE (HLR and the MSC) The Gateway MSC must interrogate the HLR of the required subscriber to obtain routing information for a call or a short message directed to that subscriber. D INTERFACE (HLR . The HLR then instructs the previous VLR to cancel the location registration of this subscriber. Also. E INTERFACE (MSC – MSC) When a mobile station moves from one MSC area to another during a call. The main service provided to the mobile subscriber is the capability to set up or to receive calls within the whole service area. the location registers have to exchange data. the MSC informs (via the VLR) the HLR which stores these modifications and updates the VLR if required.VLR) This interface is used to exchange the data related to the location of the mobile station and to the management of the subscriber.located in its area. When a short message is to be transferred between a Mobile Station and Short Message Service Centre (SC). To support this. This procedure may include the retrieval of the IMSI and authentication parameters from the old VLR.
Um INTERFACE (MS. given by dB=10 log (P1/P2) Power is proportional to voltage squared. The Qos Stats show a clear & strong corelation between the KPI and the parameter T200.BTS) The interface between the MS and the BSS is specified in the 04. dBm = The Gain of the Antenna Output signal compared to one milli volt.the data from the AuC. 145 ms / 220 ms are shorter than the 51er multiframe (235 ms) so in case of an missing acknowledgement this is always a T200 expiry. notice where the "output" is in each sentence.and 05series of GSM Technical Specifications. What is Optimum Value of T200? we like to know the optimum value for T200 on LAPDm.) for this timer . Nokia 220 ms. That's amazing ! . dBm is an actual numerical value. TENTANG SATUAN dB The decibel (dB) represents a logrithmic ratio between two quantities and is unitless. The protocol used to transfer the data over this interface is not standardized. The SDCCH drop will occur if T200 expired N200+1 times. 235 ms) before the next Layer 2 frame could be sent. dBm refers to voltage measure at the antenna terminals.e. Satellite Abis 400 ms etc. Originally the dB was for power ratios. hence the ratio of voltages or currents across a constant impedence is given by dB=20 log(V1/V2) or 20 log(I1/I2) dBi = The output Gain of the Antenna compared to an isotropic antenna. dBi refers to free space radiated power. All vendors have different default values (Siemens 145 ms. If the T200 is increased (for example to 500 ms) we have two 51er multiframe to get the acknowledgement and the SDCCH drops are reduced. dBi is relative. If the ratio is refered to a specific quantity this is indicated by a suffix (dBm is referenced against 1 mW and dBV is 1 Volt).but which value is the best to reduce SDCCH drops and to keep the retransmissions at an acceptable level ? Example: SDCCH/8 During a 51er multiframe the SDCCH/8 occupies four consecutive TDMA frames (four bursts are sent). Than the MS / BTS has to wait for the next 51er multiframe (i.
18 and the SACCH/0 on 47. Answer2:Can you verify the ciphering algo used in both External Cells? You can also confirm this via DT. but it sounds logical. i. the side using higher ciphering algo will be able to transfer the call to cell with lower ciphering algo) Low Signal Strength Analysis Low Signal strength is one of the reason of drop call. 3 and the SACCH/0 on burst 32. 34. (In case of ciphering issue. Take the subchannel "0" from the SDCCH ts.Regarding the Ack from the BTS. 17... living in a world of theory.. I'm not sure at all about this though. 48. The value of the SDCCH Drop due to Radio failures (in ALU) is usually around 1% in a fairly good network.. I fear that the LapDm link for SDCCH is different than the LapDm link for the SACCH of the SDCCH. 35 in UL : th MS sends SDCCH/0 on burst 15. I'll let you look it up though :) Handover failure due to protocol error Answer 1:plz check ur msc version. in DL : the BTS sends SDCCH/0 on burst 0. drop calls due to excessive TA.) T200 = 220ms for sDCCH SAPI0 = 450ms for SDCCH SAPI3 = 900ms for SACCH associated to SDCCH Looking at those timers. poor handover performance and poor call setup performance. . I'm not sure (and I'm tired to look in the 3GPP specs :) ). 50 And I ***believe*** that the Lapdm acknowledgments can be sent on either the SACCH or the SDCCH. 49. 1. I am not able to test your changes because I am not working on a live network (i am a gsm trainer. since both of them are sent over the same LapDm link. 16. 33. The SDCCH Drop due to Radio Failures is a counter that encompasses both the Radio Link Timeout and the "T200*N200+1 times" failures. It can be indicated by many calls disconnected at low signal strength by subscriber.e. 2. handover from one side to other should be happening.
requirement of design and BSC exchange property (setting for . Output Power Low output power might cause smaller border cell. It is because drop due to SS is more priority than Quality. No dominant Cell might be isolated or cell standalone. Poor BSC Exchange Property setting The following procedure should be performed for low signal strength analysis: 1:Identify the baseline LOWSSUL/LOWSSDL). Antenna tilt & Too much downtilt sometimes orientation might not cover a larger area and the subscriber might lose the SS.Probable Reason High LOWSSDL & LOWSSUL will give more drop reason due to SS and this might not show the actual drop.
change the parameter to a reasonable value since the drop reason will be more priority to SS compared to Quality. 6. reducing telephone traffic per channel. the verification value to allow access to the minimum level ACCMIN. change the angle under directional antenna. hanging high. the load switch. Change the direction or tilt if it is too much downtilt or pointing to a wrong direction. add micro site instead. If it is Omni. 7:Sometime. drawn from telephone traffic small cell carrier frequency to high residential telephone traffic. using OVERLAY / UNDERLAY-level cell structure or addition of micro-cellular base stations. adding new site is recommend. position etc. 8:Check cell whether it has hotspots from drivetests. according to the site re-election testing. set the cell into sectorized cell.Note that this value adjustment is too large may cause blind spots. Mostly. run Cell Traffic Recording (CTR) to that particular cell. If it is not.2:Check the value for LOWSSDL & LOWSSUL. This is to ensure the possible location is open to interference (open water environment) or isolated. check the antenna tilt and orientation. 5. 5:Check if the signal strength is uplink or downlink limited. 2. adjusting the switching offset and delay parameters. and the corresponding cell parameters such as base station transmit power to change the size of coverage to achieve the purpose of regulating telephone traffic. 8. 7. 3. 4:Check if the site is sectorized or Omni. the temporary increase in telephone traffic. What is E1 and T1 . Check output power and if it is low. directed retry is enabled. 6:Check the coverage cover expected area from the planet. 10:Check if the cell has indoor coverage problem. 3:Check the site position. change the switch and the switch to bring the border to achieve Call divert. If yes. increase the output power. too small may result in decreased voice quality. changing the carrier frequency is the number of residential telephone traffic is one common method of regulation. If found. changes in coverage by cell telephone traffic indirect adjustment. It is designed to be downlink limited. Good map is needed for this. antenna direction. 9:In order to check power distribution. low output power might cause low SS. Call a balanced solution Call a balanced solution 1. If it is higher than ACCMIN. adjusting cell reselection parameters CRO. 4. can temporarily increase or decrease the carrier frequency transmission power to change the signal coverage.
Both are having Same Sampling Frequency i. 2.(125µs x 8)/193 = approx 5. Differing Characteristics :- 1. In E1 .32 Number of Timeslots / PCM Frame while in T1 . In both (E1 & T1) Telephone Channel Bit Rate = 8000/s x 8 Bit = 64 kbit/s.13 Number of Segments in Characteristics while in T1 . 5. 3. 3.9µs is the length of an 8-bit Timeslot while in T1 . In E1 Encoding/Decoding is followed by A-Law while in T1 Encoding/Decoding is followed by µ-Law. . In both (E1 & T1) Length of PCM Frame = 1/8000s = 125µs. In both (E1 & T1) Number of Bits in each code word = 8.The PDH (plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy) has 2 primary communication systems as its foundation.2µs is the length of an 8-bit Timeslot. In E1 .15Number of Segments in Characteristics. These are. 4. In both (E1 & T1) Number of samples/telephone signal = 8000/sec.e. 8kHz. Common Characteristics :- 1. 6.8000/s x 256 bits = 2048kbit/s is the Bit Rate of Time-Division Multiplexed Signal while in T1 . 2. In E1 . In E1 .8000/s x 193 bits = 1544kbit/s is the Bit Rate of Time-Division Multiplexed Signal. T1 system based on 1544kbit/s that is recommended by ANSI & E1 system based on 2048kbit/s that is recommended by ITU-T. In E1 .8 x 32 = 256 number of bits / PCM Frame while in T1 .(125µs x 8)/256 = approx 3.24 Number of 4. (* Signifies an additional bit).8 x 24 + 1* = 193 number of bits / PCM Frame. 5. Timeslots / PCM Frame.
1 T3101 I. the system releases corresponding SDCCH resources. Definition T3101 is the BSC timer controlling time of immediate assignment process. bisa jadi INTERNAL Intereferences. II.2 T3103 I. For example. the BSC requires BTS to provide SDCCH to set up signaling channel.10 Systematic Important Timers 4. AMR Half Rate. III. the maximum interval is 1. the longer the inefficient time for using signaling resources is. When . Bad Quality di Level yang bagus bisa jadi ada masalah hardware. Configuration and Influence In an immediate assignment process. especially in activating queue function. For better use of signaling resources.8s. the BSC determines the time for keeping TCH both in handover-originated cell and target cell. The minimum interval for sending channel activation message and receiving setup indicator is 600ms. When the BSC sends a channel activation message. kualitasnya LEIH BAIK dari pada FULL RATE biasa. The greater the T3101 is. the network side will assign SDCCH (the network cannot distinguish the repeated sending access request from the first send). For non-overload BSS. 2.TENTANG QUALITY . 4. Definition In inter. T3101 stops timing.and intra-BSS handover. 4. When T3101 expires. Proper configuration of T3101 reduces congestion due to dual assignment SDCCH effectively. you must configure T3101 to a smaller value. Bila tidak ada IDLE Intereference Alarm. the MS fails in responding to the network side. Therefore. if the extended transmission delay is improperly configured (usually the sum of T and S is over small).. 4. beware ! that operators are .10. INTERFERENCE dan AMR (HR/FR – decompression mode) 1. 3. idle band interferences untuk cek external interferences . The recommended value is 3s.not just good KPI but low traffic.10. Format T3101 ranges from 0 to 255s. so the MS resends the random access request message. 1. looking for TRAFFIC mostly .. di katakan jelek atau ada interferences terutama bila ada alarm di Band 4. When the BSC receives the setup instruction sent by BTS. T3101 starts timing.
When T3103 receives the handover command.3 T3105 I. The minimum time for sending physical information continuously and most quickly is 20ms. Format T3103 ranges from 0 to 255s. one channel for source BSC. To avoid this. When sending physical information. According to the tests. Precautions T3105 is related to the timer NY1. the handover process occurs within 5s. This means that T3103 reserves two channels when it is timing. III. it is reset and starts timing. If T3105 is small. The counter of target BSC is renewed though MS might return to the original channel. If the timer expires before receiving any correct frames from MS. Configuration and Influence The physical information is sent on FACCH. the network resends physical information and restarts the T3105.the time receives handover completion (intra-BSC) or clearing (inter-BSC) message. III. the T3105 must meet the following foulard: Ny * T3105 > T3124 + delta . the target BTS sends the CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION message to the target BSC. If a handover trial fails and the T3105 of the target cell expires for Ny times before the original cell receives the HANDOVER FAILURE message.10. Format T3105 ranges from 0 to 255. Definition See the protocol 0408 and 0858. II. 4. II. the recommended value is 5s. If it is over long. probably the first physical information is still being sent. The recommended value is 5s. When it receives clearing command. If the next physical information is just sent 18ms after the first one. IV. Configuration and Influence The following paragraph is an example of inter-BSS handover. Therefore. two channels are occupied for a long time and resources might be wasted. if the NSS timer is properly configured. T3103 stops. configure NY1 to a greater value. and one channel for target BSC. The maximum repeated times is Ny1. the network starts T3105. The time for sending four TDMA in a time on FACCH is about 18ms. it is reset. with unit of 10ms.
the MS can reuse the original channel when handover or assignment fails. It starts after the BSC sends DEACT_SACCH message to BTS. However. the system judges that the MS disconnects to the network. 4. Definition The BSC restricts the releasing resource of SACCH by T3109. delta is the time between expiration of T3124 and receiving HANDOVER FAILURE message by original BSC. III. Therefore the call drop due to intracell handover decreases or the system service quality of re-assignment is improved (if the system supports re-assignment function). you must save the resource as possible. the assignment command fails.10. The recommended values are as follows: 10s when channel resources are enough. If the radio link is bad and some information must be resent. Definition T3107 is a BSC timer. the channel assignment is complete within 2s.480s.4 T3107 I. Configuration and Influence T3109 measures the time for channel releasing indicator after sending MS clearing instructions. When the network capacity is limited. Configuration and Influence T3107 starts after the BSC sends the ASS_CMD message to BTS. II. It caters for TCH assignment of intracell handover and channel assignment of calling. If the BSC does not receive ASS_CMP message after 2s. so the occupied resource is released to other MSs. Format T3107 ranges form 0s to 255s. 5s when channel resources are limited. The recommended T3109 is as follows: T3109 = a + RdioLinktimeOut x 0. If T3107 expires. It stops after the BSC receives the ASS_CMP or ASS_FAIL message sent by BTS. In this way. restricting the time for executing TCH assignment instruction. configure T3107 to 10s. To avoid premature disconnection. II. Format T3109 ranges from 3s to 34s. According to the measured statistics result of network.Wherein. It stops after the BSC receives the . 4.10.5 T3109 I. the channel resource might be wasted for several seconds. the process might be prolonged to 5s. III. a = 1s or 2s.
If T3109 is over small. over five multiples of the time for resending MS the instruction for releasing radio channel resources. it . II. A greater T3111 might be of no help. The MS detects that its location area changes. The minimum value of T3111 is 2s. with unit of 6 minutes (1/10 hour). T3111 starts. 4. The network forces MS to update location periodically. Definition In a GSM network. Definition T3111 is a connection release delay timer. After the base station sends a release request massage. T3111 delays the release of channels.REL_INC message sent by BTS. III. Precautions The sum of T3111 and T3109 must be greater than RadioLinkTimeOut. configure T3111 as short as possible. Format T3212 ranges from 0 to 255. used in deactivation of delayed channel after disconnection of major signaling link. If T3212 = 1. When T3109 expires.6 T3111 I. the causes to location updating are as follows: The MS attach. The recommended value is 2s. the corresponding radio resources are re-allocated before RadioLinkTimeOut is due (radio link is not released). It allows the base station to retransmit the instruction for releasing radio channels to MS within delayed time. If the system capacity is small. and the period for location updating is determined by the parameter T3212. 4. but affects congestion of SDCCH and TCH easily.10. it means that T3212 is 6 minutes. Format T3111 ranges from 0s to 5s.10. T3111 aims to spare some time for repeated disconnections. For time protection. When BSC receives the REL_IND message sent by BTS. T3111 stops until expiration and the BSC sends the RF_CHAN_REL message to BTS. If T3212 = 255. the BSC sends the CLEAR REQUEST message to MSC. Configuration and Influence After the disconnection of major signaling link. IV. the radio resources remain for T3111 time. The network controls how frequent the MS updates location.7 Parameter T3212 I. II.
including MSC. IV. Configure T3212 as follows: Configure T3212 to a greater value (such as 16 hours. Configure T3212 to a smaller value (such as 3 hours or 6 hours) in areas with low traffic and signaling flow. The MS must transmit signals with greater power. Abis interface. the network will be fiercely impacted. Therefore. Precautions T3212 cannot be over small. Anyhow frequent periodical location updating brings two negative aspects: The signaling flow of the network increases sharply and the utilization of radio resource declines. it means that MS is not required for periodical location updating in the cell. and BTS) is directly affected. the short the period is. the periodical location updating enables network to connect to MSs closely. If the T3212 of different cells in the same location area is the same. so the average standby time is shortened sharply. BSC. In addition. Configuring T3212 of different cells in the same location area to the same value is recommended. Configure T3212 to 0 in areas with traffic overrunning the system capacity. you can consider increasing T3212. the MS continues to time according the T3212 of the original cell. When the period is over long. Therefore. or even 25 hours) in areas with heavy traffic and signaling flow. Its value depends on the flow and processing capability of each NE. the processing capability of network elements (NE. Otherwise. 20 hours. the signaling flow at each interface increases sharply and the MS (especially handset) consumes increasing power. the T3212 must be consistent with related parameters of switching side (smaller than the implicit detach timer at switching side). If T3212 = 0. Configuration and Influence As an important means. If the T3212 of the original and target cell . III. in the cell reselection. you must permanently measure the processing capability and flow of each UE in the running network. If the T3212 is smaller than 30 minutes (excluding 0). The recommended T3212 is 240. and Um interface The capability of HLR and VLR If any of the previously listed NEs is overloaded. such as: The processing capability of MSC and BSC A interface. the overall service performance of the network is. configure T3212 according to resource utilization in various aspects of network. T3212 is configured by equipment room operators. To configure T3212 properly.means that T3212 is 25 hours and 30 minutes.
After the MS receives the immediate assignment reject message (no channels for signaling. you can manage network access by increasing T3122.8 T3122 I. the system multiplies T3122 by a factor (determined by processorLoadSupconf) to increase T3122 through overload control.10. However. . According to the actual tests of MS in the network. Configure it to 320ms in other situations. Format T3122 ranges from 0s to 255s.10. A interface failure. it can send new trial calling request after T3122. 4. Format Configure it to 675ms when the channel type of assigned channel for HANDOVER COMMAND message is SDCCH (+ SACCH). It is the time for MS to receive the physical information send by network side. namely. you can increase the interval between two continuous trial callings to relieve network load. III. the MS uses the T3212 of the original cell modulo that of the serving cell. after the MS performs modulo algorithm based on behaviors of some users. T3122 aims to relieve radio signaling and voice channel resources. The recommended value is 10s. CPU). Namely.9 T3124 I. overload of central processing unit. Definition T3122 defines the period that the MS must wait for before the second trial calling if the first trial calling fails. so the network identifies it as implicit detach. T3122 also help avoid systematic overload. 4. II. When the CPU is overloaded. if the T3212 in the same location area is different. It aims to avoid congestion of SDCCH due to repeated trial calling by MS and to relieve system load. but a user has powered off prompt appears when it is called. In peak load time. the MS might power on normally. Definition T3124 is used in occupation process in asynchronous handover.in the same location area is different. Configuration and Influence The value of T3122 is included in the immediate assignment reject message. II. the MS fails in originating location updating. Now the MS powers on normally.
the MS proceeds as follows: 1) Deactivate the new channel 2) Restart the original channel 3) Reconnect to TCH 4) Trigger to setup primary signaling link Then the MS sends the HANDOVER FAILURE message on the primary signaling link and return normal operation before trial handover.10. T11 cannot be over great and it must be configured according to customer habits. If T11 expires. 4. activates the PCH in sending and receiving mode. you must enable MS to receive a correct PHYSICAL INFORMATION message sent by network side in any block. If T3124 expires (only in asynchronization) or the low layer link fails in the new channel before sending the HANDOVER COMPLETE message. When the BSC sends the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message (TCH is successfully assigned) or the ASSIGNMENT FAILURE message (TCH is not assigned) to MSC.10 T11 I. Anyhow. If the assigned channel is a SDCCH (+ SACCH). T3124 starts. 4.10. It indicates the maximum queuing delay for assignment request. The ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message must be put to a queue and the BSC sends the QUEUING INDICATION message to MSC. II. When the MS receives a PHYSICAL INFORMATION message. and connects to the channel if necessary.III. Configuration and Influence When the BSC is sending the ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message. no TCHs are available. Meanwhile. T11 stops timing. Configuration and Influence When the MS sends the HANDOVER ACCESS message on the primary DCCH. so enabling it is recommended in a network. Format T11 is determined by equipment room operators. T11 starts timing. III. the MS stops T3124. Assignment queuing helps reduce service rejection times due to congestion. The parameters for returning the original channel are those before response to the HANDOVER COMMAND message (such as in encryption mode).11 T200 . the corresponding ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message is removed from queue and the BSC sends a CLEAR REQUEST message with the cause of no radio resource available to MSC to clear calling. Definition T11 is an assignment request queue timer. stops sending access burst.
The type of the channels corresponding to T200 is the value of the T200. it sends ERROR INDICATION (T200 expiration) to layer 3. T200 stops. /* = 50 * 5 ms */ 150. II. If the sender receives no response from the receiver after multiple resendings.I. Definition T200 is important (both the MS and base station have T200) at Um interface in data link layer LAPDm. Namely. so T 200 must be configured with different values. Format Different channels corresponds different values of T200. T200 starts. and SACCH. When T200 expires. When the sender needs to confirm whether the receiver has received the message. If it is unknown that the message is lost. when SAPI = 0 and SAPI = 3. Therefore. T200 is used by the sender. /* = 60 * 10 ms */ 60. The data link layer changes the physical link in which error occurs easily to data link with no errors. When T200 expires. such as SDCCH. and the transmission rate of different channel is different. depending on delay of synchronous processing mechanism and process in layer 1 and layer 2. . both two ends wait for messages. the sender judges that the receiver fails in receiving the message. /* = 60 * 5 ms */ III. the T200 of corresponding data link is dependently implemented. receiving a message by the receiver must be confirmed by the sender. Configuration and Influence T200 avoids deadlock in sending data in data link layer. At the two ends of the data link communication system. /* = 150 * 10 ms */ 60. When the sender receives the response from the receiver. so it resends the message. so the system confronts a deadlock. FACCH. Table 7-1 Value range and default of each type of T200 T200 T200_SDCCH_SAPI0 T200_FACCH_Full_Rate T200_FACCH_Half_Rate T200_SACCH_TCH SAPI0 T200_SACCH_TCH SAPI3 T200_SACCH_SDCCH T200_SDCCH_SAPI3 Minimum Maximum Default 50 40 40 120 120 50 50 100 100 100 200 200 100 100 60. /* = 50 * 5 ms */ 50. /* = 60 * 5 ms */ 50. LAPDm has different channels. /* = 150 * 10 ms */ 150. a confirm-to-resend mechanism is used. the resending mechanism starts. According to the protocol.
For layer 2 link establishment and release.10. Format To configure N200. Table 7-2 Situations of SAPI unequal to 0 or 3 Minimum Valid response Maximum resending delay resending delay delay Tresp Trmin Trmax Note 3 0 SDCCH MS: 11 51 51 BSS: 32 0 FACCH/Full rate 9 26 39 0 FACCH/Half rate 10 34 44 3 SDCCH MS: 11 51 51 Note 1 BSS: 32 3 SACCH(with TCH) 25/129 Note 2 312 416 Note 2 The TDMA frame is the measurement unit of values in this table. configure N200 as below: 5 (SACCH) 23 (SDCCH) 34 (FACCH of full rate) 29 (FACCH of half rate) 3) When SAPI is unequal to 0 or 3. When multiframe operation is set up. 4. the related frames must be resent in the message block.615ms) Note 1: It caters for the process without SAPI 0 transmission. If T200 expires and no other frames are sent by preference. Definition N200 is the resending times after expiration of T200. it ensures a common time value for layer 2 link failure in all channels. N200 depends on the state and the channel used. II. Necessary retransmission of frames must start at the earliest possible moment. follow rules below: 1) When SAPI = 0 or 3. If the response is delayed due to UE failure. configure N200 to 5. configure N200 to 5. it does not have a upper limit due to the priority of SAPI 0 transmission. The rules for configuring T200 include: The potentially-existing lost frames in radio link must be detected as possible. equal to 120/26ms (approximately 4. the T200 cannot expire before receiving and processing the next frame from the opposite end. SAPI Channel . as shown in Table 1-6. Otherwise. T 200 starts immediately after next PH-READY-TO-SEND. 2) In timer recovery state. Precautions T200 must be properly configured to ensure a predictable behavior at Um interface.IV.12 N200 I.
it sends the ERROR INDICATION message (T200 expires) to layer 3. History Once upon a time there was analog cellular communication that didn’t support encryption. that’s why we have only 10-25MHz dedicated to wireless communication. which is not rational and commercially not profitable to develop network for such small number of mobile subscribers. which was incompatible with everyone else’s in equipment and operation. compression. in addition each country (company) developed its own system. and ISDN compatibility.Note 2: You can configure it to a greater value only when PCH is unavailable due to SAPI frame transmission if SAPI = 3. Genius idea lead to division of the whole geographical area to relatively small cells. Such narrow bandwidth allows 100-400 channels of reasonable quality. When T200 or N200 is configured to an over small value. Note 3: It caters only for sending monitoring frames that are available and without F equal to 1. The BSC takes statistics of ERROR INDICATION message by corresponding traffic measurement counter. call drop occurs probably due to ERROR INDICATION. So. III. Introduction To GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) Why “cellular”? Radio spectrum is very limited. Configuration and Influence If the BSC fails in receiving lay 2 response message after multiple resending. and all base stations are interconnected using microwave or cable communication. in early 80s Europeans realized that pan-European public mobile system should be developed. The new system had to meet certain criteria: • • • • • Good subjective speech quality Low terminal and service cost International roaming ISDN compatibility Digital . and each cell may reuse the same frequencies by reducing power of transmission. Each cell has its own antenna (base station).
which contains the entire customer related information (identification. and between mobile and fixed network users. etc. Mobile Station Consists of: • Mobile Equipment (ME) such as hand portable and vehicle mounted unit • Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).GSM Network Architecture Figure 1.) Base Station Subsystem Consists of: • Base Transceiver Station (BTS) defines a cell and is responsible for radio link protocols with the Mobile Station . secret key for authentication. Layout of generic GSM network GSM Network consists of three main parts: • • • Mobile Station (MS) carried by the subscriber Base Station Subsystem (BSS) controls radio link with mobile station Network & Switching Subsystem (NSS) mobility management and switching of calls between mobile users.
and location determination. Mobile unit can be in two modes . FDMA divides frequency bandwidth of the (maximum) 25 MHz into 124 carrier frequencies. and handovers. Authentication Center (AuC) is a protected database that stores the security information for each subscriber (a copy of the secret key stored in each SIM). • Home Location Register (HLR) contains all the subscriber information for the purposes of call control. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) . Interface between mobile and other (including fixed) network. Its functions: • • • • • • • • Manages the location of mobiles Switches calls Manages Security features Controls handover between BSCs Resource management Interworks with and manages network databases Collects call billing data and sends to billing system Collects traffic statistics for performance monitoring • Network Databases – Home Location Register and Visitor Location Register together with MSC provides the call routing and roaming capabilities of GSM. which forms logical channels.the frequency spectrum is divided among the logical channels. Using a TDMA scheme each carrier frequency is divided in time. Visitors Location Register (VLR) is only a temporary storage while the particular subscriber is located in the geographical area controlled by the MSC/VLR. chosen by GSM. The method to divide up the bandwidth among as many users as possible. • • • Radio Link – Physical Layer As we have mentioned above radio spectrum is very limited resource shared by all users. Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) . Network and Switching Subsystems Consists of: • Mobile Switching Center (MSC) is the central component of the NSS.the users take turns (in a round robin). Contains only the necessary information provision of subscribed services. Each Base Station (BS) is assigned one or more carrier frequencies. Operates all switching functions for the mobiles within its jurisdiction. The BSC is the connection between the Mobile Station and Mobile Switching Center. although it may be implemented as a distributed database. There is logically one HLR per GSM network. each one periodically getting the entire bandwidth for a little burst of time.and Frequency-Division Multiple Access (TDMA/FDMA). with each user having exclusives possession of some frequency band. Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is a list of all valid mobile equipment on the network.• Base Station Controller (BSC) controls multiple BTSs and manages radio channel setup. is a combination of Time.
.• • Idle . One physical channel is one burst period per TDMA frame. Mobiles in dedicated mode monitor the surrounding Base Stations for handover and other information. Traffic channels are defined as 26-frame multiframe. and 1 is currently unused. The method used by GSM is Regular Pulse Excited – Linear Predictive Coder (RPE-LPC) with a Long Term Predictor loop. and frequency allocations. and physical layer definition (time slots. Speech is divided into 20 millisecond samples. required changing to dedicated mode. 24 are for traffic. Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH) and Synchronization Channel (SCH) – used for synchronization. The main idea behind this smart-looking name is simple. TDMA frames. Out of 26 frames. (Following the request of RACH) Speech coding The speech is analog. The Control channels include: • • • • • Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) serves for BS identification. burst time…) Random Access Channel (RACH) used by mobile to request access to the network. Eight bust periods are grouped in one TDMA frame (120/26 msec). 1 is used for Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH). • Control channels used by idle mode mobiles to exchange signaling information. so in order to be transmitted over digital communication it should be digitized. Organization of bursts. Paging Channel (PCH) used for locating the mobile user Access Grant Channel (AGCH) used to obtain a dedicated channel. and multiframes for speech and data The fundamental unit of time in TDMA scheme is called a burst period and it lasts 15/26 msec.listening Dedicated – sending/receiving data There are two kinds of channels: • Traffic channels (TCH) carry speech and data traffic. current sample may be predicted from previous samples. broadcasts. 26-frame multiframe lasts 120 msec (26 * 120/26). Figure 2. which forms a basic unit of logical channels.
comfort noise is generated trying to match the characteristics of background noise. Power Control To minimize co-channel interference and to conserve power. Thus we have 456 bits per 20 milliseconds sample (that requires 22. The most sensitive class has CRC and together with moderate sensitivity class is encoded using ½ rate convolutional encoder of length 4 – each input bit is encoded as two bits. so turning the transmitter off can save power. Network Aspects Figure 3. Mobile decides that power level is acceptable using bit errors ratio. that uses almost no power. that are classified by they sensitivity to errors. Discontinuous transmission The idea is based on the fact that a person speaks less than 40% of time in normal conversation. Predicted and real information are compared and the difference is saved. While transmitter is off. based on 4 previous bits. To avoid this. very accurate Voice Activity Detector should be used. Discontinuous reception While being in idle mode mobile station has to listen only to Paging Channel. Testing let to distinguish three classes of bits out of 260. Each 20-millisecond sample is encoded using 260 bits (that requires 13 kbps). . the receiving end will hear a total silence. Layer 2 is the data link layer. Signaling protocol structure in GSM • • Layer 1 is the physical layer. that’s due to digital transmission. In order to distinguish voice and background noise. both the mobile and BTS operate at the lowest power level that will maintain an acceptable signal quality.that’s due to slow change of voice patterns.8 kbps).
There are four types of handovers • • • • Switching channels in the same cell. • • • Radio Resource Management Mobility Management Connection Management Radio Resource Management (RR-Layer) The RR-Layer is concerned with the management of RR-session. then transmission power is increased. which is the time that a mobile is in dedicated mode. In addition RR-Layer manages power control. and forms a list of the six best candidates for possible handover. If signal degrades beyond some point. So the only interesting thing that is left for us is Layer 3 .GSM signaling protocol. If power increase does not lead to improve then handover is performed. and handovers. This information is transmitted to current Base Station at least once per second. One of the problems while making handover decision is whether the poor signal quality is due to physical interference or mobile having moved to another cell. Uses handover to improve transmission quality in the same or lower power level. • . Handover may be initiated by MSC (traffic balancing) or by mobile unit. discontinues transmission and reception. Handover (handoff) is switching of an on-going call to a different channel or cell. The last two types of handover.• Layer 3 is the GSM signaling protocol. so we won’t expand it any more. There are two basic algorithms for making handover decision: • Minimum acceptable performance. but is quite complicated. Layer 3 is itself divided into three sub-layers. called internal because they involve only BSC. BSC and MSC use this information for handover algorithm. but belonging to the same Mobil service Switching Center (MSC) Switching cells under control of different MSCs. Switching cells under control of the same Base Station Controller (BSC) Switching cells under the control of different BSCs. This method avoids neighbor cell interference. The mobile unit always scans Broadcast Control Channel of up to 16 neighboring cells. Data layer is modified version of some protocol used in ISDN and in Signaling System Number 7. and MSC is notified only on completion of the handover. called external because they involve MSC. Power budget. The first two types of handover. as well as the configuration of radio channels. We have already seen structure used by physical layer. Disadvantages: increasing transmission power may cause interference with neighbor cell.
This ciphering key together with TDMA frame number is used compute a sequence that is XORed with the sent data. Registering to Mobile Switching Center (MSC). The only question is "what division of cells to location areas is optimal?". they are mostly based statistical data. The same initial random number in conjunction with secret key is used to generate the ciphering key using A8 algorithm. Paging is done only in the current location area. group of neighbor cells is grouped in one location area and subscriber updates its position when moving from one location area to another. There are various algorithm for solving this problem. during authentication AuC generates a random number that is sent to mobile. that means a lot of paging messages on every terminating call. But this will cause the subscriber to update the system on every move. Authentication and security Since the radio medium may be accessed by anyone. when a subscriber registers to MSC it sends registration message that contains subscriber’s information. Each subscriber is given a secret key that is recorded in subscriber’s SIM and Authentication Center (AuC). and this means a lot of obsolete update messages.Mobility Management (MM-Layer) Manages problem that arise from mobility of the subscriber. (CM-Layer) Figure 5. . The response number should be equal to the one calculated by AuC. As seen form Figure 4. Figure 4. authentication is used to prove that the users are who they claim to be. Strategy used by GSM is as following. The ideal situation is when system always knows where the subscriber is located (what cell) in each moment. but this will cause the system to look for the user over the whole geographical area. Connection Management. Paging process. Another extreme situation is when system never knows subscriber’s position. wasting bandwidth. Using the secret key and this random number mobile produces a response using ciphering algorithm A3. MSC updates its VLR and sends a message to subscriber’s HLR.
Check the signal strength To make sure that you are in a place with a strong enough signal for BlackBerry communication. GMSC is basically a switch. and then click Status. continue troubleshooting. this is a negative number. Verify that you are in a coverage area where email transmission is supported For AT&T The network status indicator for AT&T should be "EDGE" or "3G". the figure you see is bigger [105Bm or 110Bm]). verify that the value is above -100Bm. If the signal is weaker than -100Bm (i. The routing information that is returned to GMS is the Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN). then Options. Note the "-". the path is Settings.An incoming mobile termination call is directed to Gateway MSC (GMSC).e. If your signal is stronger than -100Bm (with a smaller number. and not assigned to subscribers. For some models.. click the Options icon. and then Status.. follow the steps below in the order given to determine the problem. i. -90Bm). subscriber’s HLR have to query subscriber’s current VLR. MSRN are related to the geographical numbering plan. which is able to interrogate the subscribers HLR to obtain routing information.e. To obtain subscriber’s MSRN. In the "Signal" field. . the signal strength in your area is too weak for normal functions. Tantang BLACKBERRY If your BlackBerry cannot send or receive email If your BlackBerry cannot send or receive email.
this indicates that the devices are in range of an area with limited coverage. but data like web browsing and BES mail delivery will most likely not. If the "G" or "EDGE" is not uppercase.The Bold on the left shows a 3G signal indicator in the upper right corner of its screen. Here is a closeup of the screen for a Bold on a 3G network: Note the uppercase letters on both. the Curve 8900 on the right shows an "EDGE". Phone calls and texting will work. .
or any other carrier. including a breakdown on what an AT&T customer can and cannot do depending on the indicated signal. Verizon. Following is a table of network status indicators for those models: For Verizon The network status indicator for Verizon should be "1X" or "1XEV". The "X" or "XEV" should be upper case. see AT&T's Check the Wireless Network Availability for the RIM BlackBerry Bold 9000 using Handheld Software Version 4. The 3G network is faster.For more. Indianapolis and Bloomington users should see that level of service.6. Older models that do not support EDGE or 3G will most likely have a "GPRS" indicator. "GPRS" should be capitalized. and the same size on the screen as the "1": Following is a table of network status indicators for Verizon: Regardless of whether you use AT&T. you must move to a location where email is . if your network status indicates email is not supported in your area.
If you are unable to register the handheld or connect to the network.supported. Check to see if redirection is enabled From the Desktop Manager Software Open Desktop Manager and double-click Redirector Settings. Verify that the "Status" is active. contact your service provider. . and then click Network or Network Settings. fix them. and then click Date/Time. test to see whether you can now send and receive email. Check the date and time On most models. Disconnect from the BlackBerry network Remove the device battery for about five minutes to ensure a complete disconnect from the BlackBerry network. and then test to see if you can send or receive email. and then click the trackwheel. continue troubleshooting. Click the Options icon. and you are able to register your BlackBerry. forcing the network to register the device as a new device on the network. but are now having trouble (see the charts above to determine coverage areas). or if you have problems after fixing them. continue troubleshooting. If the date and time are incorrect. verify that the correct country is displayed. or do not have the correct options displayed in the "Roaming" or "Status" fields. Make sure Redirect incoming messages to your handheld is checked. click the Options icon. 4. If you cannot. 3. Restart To restart your BlackBerry. verify that the value is set to On. This causes a hard reset. continue troubleshooting. If your network status indicates email support. continue troubleshooting. This is a common fix for coverage areas in which you normally have a connection and can send and receive email. In the "Roaming" field. but you still cannot send or receive email. If the date and time are correct. 2. A menu will appear. 5. In the "Radio" field. Check network settings To check the network settings on most models: 1. see How do I restart my BlackBerry? Once the BlackBerry has restarted. Click Register Now and verify that the registration request is sent. If these settings are all correct.
and Sent Items. Make cell relations mutual if only one-way relations are defined. see With a BlackBerry.stadium etc 2)Rural Site with Low or No Traffic Action:Check site position Solution:If the site is a rural site. You should see a list of folders that includes Deleted Items. However. On the Folder Redirection page.(Name of User). Few Solution for Low TCH Traffic Probable Reasons 1)Site Intended for Special Events Action:Check if the site in located in a expo. how do I wirelessly reconcile the folders from my mailbox? If redirection is enabled and you are still unable to send or receive email. the position should be reconsidered as well as the antenna direction. For mail messages to be received. 5)Wrong Antenna Position . Open the messages screen and select Options. no activity is needed. Junk E-mail. and choose Expand. Sent Items is checked by default and will not affect mail delivery. 4)Hardware Fault Action: Check TCH availability Check BTS error log Check if sleeping TS. 4. 2. contact the Support Center or your BlackBerry provider.From the BlackBerry handheld 1. the Inbox folder must have a checkmark next to it. how do I wirelessly reconcile the folders from my mailbox? If your device is still not able to send or receive email. On the Email Settings screen. continue troubleshooting. Choose Email Settings. Check mail filters and mail redirection For general information on mail filters and mail redirection. see With the BlackBerry Desktop Manager. For more information. Inbox. choose Folder Redirection. 3. 3)No or too few Handover Neighbours Action:Check neighbour cell definitions Solution:Define new neighbouring cell relations. select Mailbox. how do I configure filters to control mail redirection? For more information on wireless mail redirection. see With a BlackBerry.
. . whether the site to site distance or co-sited.Action:Conduct physical verification. .Check the handover activity from the number of handover performed.Check the successful handover per cell .Check whether the cell is isolated or not. the subscriber will perceive the quality of the network as bad. color code) Wrong use of HCS Cause unnecessary handover parameters Congestion High congestion might lead to dragged calls (handover performed at a not intended location) a lot of unsuccessful handover. (Good map is needed here). 6)Corrupt Cell Data Definitions Action:Check the cell parameter setting Handover is an important function. The following procedure should be performed for handover analysis: . If the number is above certain value for example Y and then take into consideration.Check the site location.Check the handover flow whether is balance between incoming and outgoing. . Permitted NCC (network Missing NCC of the neighbors will not allow any handover. Probable Reason of Bad Handover Performance Bad locating parameter Bad setting might cause the locating will not rank the best cell settings as a candidate Uplink interference Incoming handover failed as the target cell could not decode the handover burst message from the mobile Missing measurement Prevent any handover to affected neighbor cells frequency in BA-list Extra measurement Can provide inaccuracy of measurement for handover decisions frequency Co-Channel and Co-BSIC Measurement result from neighbors can not be distinguished and MS may perform a handover to the wrong cell. which shows the integrity of the GSM network. Unnecessary neighbor None or few handover might indicate a unsuitable neighbor relation relation. if already known problem of no dominant serving cell and take other cell.Check for the handover success rate below certain criteria for example X%. . HW faults Can cause bad neighbor relation. If it doesn’t meet the criteria and change the X% to a higher value and check for the next cell. If the handover performance is poor.
.Check the missing measurement frequency (MBCCHNO) in Double BA-list in active list (if yes.If one of them is yes. add the NCC of the neighbor list into the NCCPERM list. BA-list. if NCC of the neighbor is missing. . If problem found. if so . remove unnecessary relations.If the cell is internal.Check the difference performance of incoming and outgoing handover. add the measurement frequency in the BA-list. . .Check if the cell is at the inter BSC border. .Check if many Ping-Pong handover. . . . This is to ensure the priority for more problem direction.Focus on the bad direction.Check unnecessary neighbor cell relations and if found. offsets etc.Check the setting of the cells whether they are set in different layer of HCS.Check NCCPERM. No or Few Handover Attempts The following procedure should be performed for no or few handover attempts: . hysteresis. BSIC. if congested. . start inter-BSC analysis.Check if congested target cell. urgency handover and reversion. .Check the neighbor relation with low traffics (less than 10% of average number of handover per relation) and unbalance relations.Perform measures to improve HO performance. . . . check the uplink & downlink interference problem.. check the inter BSC HO performance (SIEMENS System).Check if cell has HW problem. solves the congestion problem. There might be problem on co-channel or adjacent channel. If external. swap or repair hardware. . check the high ratio of lost handover. .Check the frequency plan. .Check from the unbalance relation whether the target cell is congested. (Layer 1 is the highest priority) .Check the handover related parameters such as relation. This is the assumption comes from the above analysis.Check the cell whether it is external or internal.Check the worst relation and pick one cell. . If the target cell is congested and then solve the congestion by adding TRU.Check if assignment handover are used. .
correct parameter setting or deblock it. . . .Check the poor setting of parameter and if so.Check BTS definition (RX commands especially RXMOP).Check if BTS is defined but might not be in service. correct the parameter setting .. If yes.Check locating parameters and list out.
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