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J Technol Transfer (2008) 33:285–299 DOI 10.


Technology parks in a developing country: the case of India
Geetha Vaidyanathan

Published online: 26 June 2007 Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Abstract Following the economic liberalization of 1991, the government of India established the software technology parks of India (STPI) scheme and opened numerous software parks around the country. These parks have played a critical role in the growth of India’s software sector. In recent years, private software parks have also been established in different parts of India. The government of India is now promoting biotechnology (biotech) parks to encourage growth of this emerging sector. The biotech parks are still in their infancy with a few operating parks. There are several upcoming biotech parks in different Indian states with support from the respective state governments. The government of India continues to play an important role in establishing technology parks. BiotechInformation Technology (Bio-IT) park is the next type of park that the government is planning to promote. This article discusses the institutional history of these technology parks in India. Keywords Software park Á Research park Á Biotechnology park

JEL Classifications O32 Á O33 Á O38 Á R11

1 Introduction Science parks (also known as research parks) first originated in western nations, such as the US and the UK,1 and were often affiliated with academic or research institutions.2 These parks provide an environment for mutually beneficial collaboration of research and
G. Vaidyanathan (&) Department of Economics, The Bryan School of Business and Economics, University of North Carolina – Greensboro, P.O. Box 26165, Greensboro, NC 27402-6170, USA e-mail:

The Stanford Research Park authorized in 1951 was the first research park in the US while Cambridge Science Park established in 1970 was the first science park in the UK. All science parks in the UK are affiliated with a university.



Western science parks that have had notable success have influenced developing countries to adopt the ‘‘park model’’ as a vehicle for technology-based economic growth and development. there have not been case studies of parks in developing countries. growth of knowledge-based companies and in turn economic growth within their regions (Link and Scott 2003). from an institutional perspective.82 trillion in purchasing power terms in 2005. East Asian countries such as Taiwan.3 These differences are important for comparative purposes and for a broader understanding of high-technology growth in India. only four are members of the International Association of Science Parks (IASP 2007). the purpose of this paper is to overview. most of the technology parks in India are specific to one sector such as information technology (IT) or biotechnology (biotech). A predominantly agri3 Of the many parks in India. and with academia in the case when they are university based. and Malaysia that also started parks. similar to the technology parks in Taiwan and Singapore. have imitated the park model. A number of technology parks. Phillimore (1999) on Australian Science Parks. 3. Massachusetts). Link (1995. entrepreneurship. 2. South Korea. 4. Such parks have been considered one model for promoting innovation. Grayson (1993). and Hong Kong. Surprisingly. India is also one of the fastest growing economies in the world with the growth rate of GDP averaging above 8% in the last three years (World Bank 2007). Luger and Goldstein (1991). technology parks in India are export oriented whereas the science parks in the west are focused on R&D. Regarding such differences. 2 The Indian economy With a population of 1. Case studies on the institutional history for some of the major research parks include Castells and Hall (1994) on Silicon Valley (California) and Route 128 (around Boston. have been successful. Thus. The upcoming Marine Biotech Park in Vishakapatnam which will specialize in developing biotech products using marine organisms is one example. a majority of the technology parks in India are not associated with any university. (2002) and Sofouli and Vonortas (2007) on Greek science parks. a taxonomy of technology parks in India is posited in Sect. Taiwan. especially in attracting foreign investment and promoting growth of knowledge-based industries in these countries. Interestingly.4 As well. Gibb (1985). 2002) and Link and Scott (2003) on Research Triangle Park (North Carolina). Hong Kong. have started in India in less than two decades. and Bakouros et al. the history and success of technology parks in India. generally referred to as technology parks. As in East Asian countries such as Malaysia. 4 123 . and then concludes with summary remarks in Sect. Finally. Vaidyanathan development (R&D) among tenants in the park.1 billion and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of $3. while Asian countries in general. The article discusses the Indian economy in Sect. Singapore. there are striking differences between their technology parks and the science parks in the west. especially in the IT sector and more recently in the biotech sector. and India in particular. technology parks have been a catalyst for India’s exports and economic growth in the last two decades. b) ` and Vedovello (1997) on UK Science Parks. The success of these ventures is an empirical issue. Guy (1996a. Chorda (1996) on French Science Parks.286 G. India is the fourth largest economy in the world. and some of the technology parks are highly specialized within a sector. and the evidence to date is too thin to generalize that all parks are successful.

S.8% of companies) and Software Information Technology (20. foreign direct investment and trade liberalization. The government of India set up technology parks to provide these facilities as well as other infrastructure to attract foreign companies and to encourage small and medium domestic entrepreneurs to enter the software industry. by providing support to individual states within the country to establish biotech parks. The economically liberalized India. Dr. the software industry in the US was experiencing a boom and faced a shortage of skilled labor. Raj Krisha.5 The growth rate of GDP increased to an average rate of 5. several software technology parks have emerged either 5 Hindu rate of growth is an expression coined by an Indian Economist. Public sector enterprises dominated in most sectors in the country and the economy grew slowly at the Hindu growth rate of 3. aggressively advocated economic liberalization embracing the twin pillars of market liberalization and deregulation with major changes in industrial. While the initial growth of software technology parks was under the umbrella of the central government. 123 . with its abundant supply of English speaking highly skilled cheap labor. the current prime minister of India. one of India’s largest trading partners. the government of India has been actively promoting the biotech sector.2% of companies) are the two most dominant technologies in research parks. the economy experienced a balance of payments crisis in 1991 due to two significant events: the Gulf war of 1991 which resulted in sharp increases in the price of crude oil and depleted India’s foreign exchange reserves. trade. The central and state governments have played a major role in the development of both these types of parks. tariff rates were decreased from a weighted average import duty rate of 72. to refer to the low annual GDP growth rate of India.7% in the 1980s due to some initial economic liberalization steps undertaken under Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi’s regime. In an attempt to resurge the economy from this crisis. After the success of the software industry in the last decade. software companies to invest.Technology parks in a developing country 287 cultural economy. Manmohan Singh. which is considered the next major growth sector in India. and the fall of Soviet Union. 3 Taxonomy of technology parks in India The 2006 Park Profile Survey conducted by the Association of University Research Parks (AURP 2007) reported that Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals (23. Also during the 1990s.5% from 1950 to 1980.5% till 1980. the most important of which was ‘bandwidth’ or ‘high speed connectivity. However.’ for the software industry. which was stagnant around 3. and airlines. Many industries that were formerly owned by the government were privatized when the government reduced the list of industries reserved solely for the public sector from 18 industries to three. from independence in 1947 until the 1980s India was mostly a centrally planned socialist economy and one of the most closed economies in the world. the economy lacked good telecommunications infrastructure. made it an attractive place for U. Finally. a Cambridge and Oxford trained economist who was the finance minister in 1991.5% in 1991–92 to 29% to 2002–03 (Ahluwalia 2002). telecommunications. insurance. with extensive price and quantity controls on imports and exports and severe restrictions on foreign investment. There were three main areas in which economic reforms were undertaken to promote investment in the country: privatization. Two related types of technology parks have evolved in India in the last two decades: software technology parks and biotech parks. However. Up to 100% foreign ownership was permitted in a large number of industries except banking. and exchange-rate policy.

288 The STPI headquarters is in New Delhi. and Hubli) are sub-centers. 6 http://www. 3. STPI plays an entrepreneur role working directly with software companies. Hyderabad. the capital of India. and Gandhinagar. Manipal. The following discussion covers only the major software technology parks. and the remaining 37 are sub-centers. there are a total of five STPI centers of which Bangalore is the directorate and the remaining four (Mysore. The objectives of STPI are6 • To promote development of software and software services. There are currently 47 centers listed on the STPI website among which ten are directorates or main centers. When the state of Karnataka announced a proInformation Technology (pro-IT) policy in the early 1990s.html 123 . Pune. and Mumbai. the major industry concentration is in Bangalore. • To provide statutory services to the exporters by implementing STP/EHTP Scheme. Trivandrum. were first established in 1990 in Bangalore. 3. The establishment of STPI. STPIs expanded to Noida. a society that was set up by the Department of Communication and Information Technology in 1991 by the Government of India. For instance. or STPs. Vaidyanathan as joint ventures between the private sector and state governments or as fully private technology parks. • To provide data communication services including various value added services both to IT industries and corporate houses. Chennai. many parks were started as joint ventures between the private and public sector as well as fully private parks. STPI is an export-oriented scheme integrating the concept of 100% Export Oriented Units (EOU) and Export Processing Zones (EPZs) of the Government of India within the concept of technology parks. several parks are mushrooming in different states with active support from individual state governments as well as the central government.1. There are numerous technology parks in India that range in size from a single building to parks that are mini-cities with multiple buildings spreading over many acres.stpmum. The smaller centers promote smaller cities as IT hubs and provide localized employment spreading economic growth outside major cities. Noida. Pune. and Bhubaneswar as separate autonomous societies.1 Software technology parks The growth of software technology parks in the early years was under the government of India. Figure 1 shows the location of the ten STPI directorates and 37 sub-centers.soft. Mangalore.1 Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) Software technology parks. other state governments followed and STPIs have now spread even to smaller cities. merged these three societies. However. the biotech parks are still in their infancy. Hyderabad. which established a scheme that is discussed below to promote the software industry. in the state of Karnataka. Even though the STPI centers are dispersed all over India. This distribution reflects the natural technology clustering effect as has been experienced in other regions such as Silicon Valley. In recent years. The main function of the STPI is to provide an environment for developing and exporting computer software as well as professional services. With a boom predicted in the biotech sector in the coming decade.

• Approval under single window clearance mechanism.Technology parks in a developing country 289 Srinagar Jammu Shimla Mohali Dehradun Gangtok STPI-HQ New Delhi Jodhpur Jaipur Noida Kanpur Guwahati Lucknow Allahabad Durgapur Ranchi Gandhinagar Nashik Navi Mumbai Pune Kolhapur Hyderabad Hubli Bangalore Indore Aurangabad Nagpur Bhilai Bhubaneswar Rourkela Kolkata Kharagpur Siliguri Imphal Warangal Vishakapatnam Vijayawada Tirupati Chennai Mangalore Manipal Headquarters Directorates Sub-centers MAP NOT DRAWN TO SCALE Mysore Coimbatore Pondicherry Trichy Madurai Tirunelveli Trivandrum Fig. • Permits up to 100% foreign equity. • 100% tax holiday for export profits till 2009–10. The STPI website also lists the following as main highlights of the STPI scheme: • Permits only new undertakings. • Permits imports of second hand capital goods. • Export proceeds to be realized within six months from the date of exports. etc. • To promote Bio-informatics/Bio-technology industries by providing infrastructural statutory support. STPI provides services that range from statutory assistance to incubation services for startups. • 100% of export proceeds to Exchange Earnings Foreign Currency (EEFC) bank account. • To promote small and medium entrepreneurs by creating a conducive environment in the field of Information Technology. 1 Directorates and sub-centers of the STPI • To provide Project Management and consultancy services both at national and international level. 123 . • No duty on goods imported / procured domestically by the STP units. data processing. data management. • Allows only development and exports of computer software. • Permits sales in the domestic market up to 50% of the exports.

600 11.790 8.7 STPI has promoted foreign direct investment and software exports since its inception. whose capital is Hyderabad. Given that 95% of all software exports from India during the 2005–06 were from STPI units (STPI). as well as the growth rate of exports between these 2 years. STPI has played a significant role in the growth of India’s software exports.000 400 270 225 200 187 140 125 30 8. An examination of the data on the growth of units under STPI and their software exports leads to some interesting observations. back-up power supply.358 5. inadequate infrastructure such as intermittent power supply. STPIs have been able very successful in providing these facilities.000 15.476 3.542 10. Government of India Incubation facilities.500 13. Nepal. Ivory Coast. it had the highest growth rate of exports between these 2 years.953 3. telephone.453 2. The STPI model has been considered so successful that other developing countries such as Mauritius. and Internet and video conferencing facilities.825 2. 2 shows an impressive performance of this sector. The plot of time series data of software exports from STPI units in Fig. are using it to set up technology 7 In a developing country like India. is a major technology center. and fax facilities. popularly known as ‘plug-and-play’ facilities. and bureaucracy in getting even basic essential services such as phone connection can be a big hindrance for attracting investment. Andhra Pradesh. Vaidyanathan Percentage growth Karnataka Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Haryana Uttar Pradesh Delhi West Bengal Orissa Kerala Chhatisgarh Rajasthan Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Punjab Pondicherry Others 34 34 29 51 40 43 43 25 16 10 31 36 32 35 46 33 25 Source: Annual report for 2005–2006. The incubation facilities provide ready to use modules. Software exports in STPI units increased by at least 25% between these two years in all states except Orissa and Kerala. 123 . and most importantly high-speed communication lines. are made available in many centers so that firms can begin immediate operations.520 2. Myanmar.500 465 260 294 271 247 189 182 40 11 G.290 Table 1 Estimated state-wide exports by STPI Registered Units Name of the State Exports in crores of rupees in Financial Year 2004–2005 27. and Cyprus. and there is an upward trend in these as well.270 5. Figure 3 shows the time series data of software units and exporting units within the STPI umbrella. conference rooms. training facilities. unpaved roads.500 8. Table 1 provides data on state-wide software exports of units under STPI for the financial years 2004–05 and 2005–06.8 Exports in crores of rupees in Financial Year 2005–2006 37.960 12. Ministry of Finance.

000 3. Nepal.09 244.28 291 100000 Exports in Crores of R upees 80000 74.Technology parks in a developing country 120000 100.587 5.895 3.644 4.71 1.2 Technopark.000 5. 3.2000.607 0 1992.000 4.000 1. Technopark is spread over nearly 300 acres.176 29.780.1995. STPI played a major role in the Ebene CyberCity Project in Mauritius and is providing consulting services for similar parks in Ivory Coast. For instance. 2 Growth of exports through STPI.1 million square 123 .2001.901 4.279 4. In addition to plug-and-play 8 www.400. Cyprus.1993.429 2.910 3.82 729.1999.1996.000 2. the capital of Kerala.43 6.technopark.605 4.523 20.98 3. and Myanmar (STPI).000 6.019 60000 37.1997.1994. With a capacity of 2.051 51.1998. Source: STPI parks.2004.379 3.544 3.000 0 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Operating Units Exporting Units Financial Year Fig.2002.21 116.809.200 11.129 6.806 Number of Unit 5. Source: STPI 7. 3 Growth of software units under STPI.458 40000 20000 51. Technopark is an autonomous society promoted by the government of Kerala in the city of Trivandrum.200593 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 Financial Year Fig.2003. Trivandrum8 Launched in 1996.

Agere Systems. TCS. Some of the ITES services are medical transcription. Lucent Technologies. Chennai11 Opened in 2000 in Chennai. Sify. Some of the major companies that are located in Tidel Park include Verizon Data Services India (Private) Ltd.tidelpark. • T-BIC—Technopark Business Innovation www. Hays BPO. videoconferencing.1. IVL. • Technopark hosts over 110 Information Technology and Information Technology Enabled services or ITES. 3. 3. Network Systems & Technologies. ZapApp. Bangalore (ITPB)10 Opened in 2000. which is 18 km from the center of Bangalore. www. optical fiber connectivity and a dedicated power plant. Infineon Technologies. and facilities. a business incubator facility. and the Karnataka Industrial Areas Development Board. amenities. US Software.4 TIDEL Park. Applied Materials. the Singapore Consortium. It offers standard IT park facilities such as plug-and-play as well as infrastructure such as security and fire protection systems. insurance. IBM. It offers standard technology park facilities such as high-speed data/voice communication.292 G. Satyam Computer Services. Wipro Technologies. credit card processing and many more. etc. highly qualified manpower. ITPB currently hosts over 120 companies in the fields of IT and ITES. Vaidyanathan facilities such as failsafe physical infrastructure. TIDEL Park is promoted by Tamilnadu Industrial Development Corporation (TIDCO) and Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu Limited (ELCOT). • The ‘Technopark eCampus’ initiative provides an e-learning environment for continuous upgrading of skills. and recreation. a one-stop shop that guides software development companies on how to build software engineering into the software development process. the Technopark community and the Technopark team. ITPB is a joint venture involving Tata Industries.9 Ernst and Young Middle East. It is the first work-liveplay park integrating office. Sanyo. GE. IBS. Computer Associates. residential and recreational facilities in a single location. both state owned organizations of Government of Tamil Nadu. software development telecommunications. and Accenture Services 9 ITES is a form of outsourced service. Accelrys. • The ‘eTechnopark‘ initiative. which has emerged due to involvement of IT in various fields such as banking and finance.3 International Tech Park Bangalore. ITPB spreads over 65 acres and has a capacity of 2 million square feet. First Advantage. back-office accounting. Technopark also provides the following unique business value adds: • Technopark Software Engineering Competency Center (TSECC). and CAE. Tata Elxsi. India’s Silicon Valley. a web based platform that provides a unifying interface between the outside world.000 10 11 123 . This is also called Business Process Outsourcing or BPO. Suntec. Cable and Wireless. insurance claim. IPsoft Inc. retail. Some of the major companies at ITPB include ACS. 100% back-up power.intltechpark. seamless telecommunication networks.. ITPB is located in Whitefield. telecommunications. electronic and other hitech industries and employs over 19. the capital of Tamil Nadu. and Toonz are some of the companies in the park.

5 123 . • Third Phase: Software industry continued to expand into new areas with every small Hi-Tech start-up company in Silicon Valley establishing development centers in major software hubs like Bangalore and Pune. Spread over 151 acres. Hewlett Packard. a plug-and-play incubation facility at low rentals for startup enterprises or foreign companies that would like to test the business environment. • Second Phase: In this phase. 12 13 14 www. Mumbai. Kochi12 Infopark is located in Kochi in the State of Kerala and promoted by the Government of Kerala. there are many upcoming private software parks in many states. HITEC City provides 5 million square feet of office space and infrastructure for plug-and-play facilities for IT and ITES companies.. are located in Infopark among more than two-dozen companies in the park. the Mumbai STPI lists 17 private parks.1. and system software establishing base in India. The park is developed in a phased manner and offers two types of facilities.000 employees. which were exporting software from India. numerous private software parks exist in major cities like Bangalore. It began operations in November. Chennai.1. 3. Hyderabad13 Started in 1997. The Software Technology Park of India website divides the growth of the software industry in India into the following four phases: • First Phase: In the first phase which was during the first 2 years after the economic liberalization in 1991. etc. 3. Wipro and Tata Consultancy Services (TCS).28 million square feet with more than 12. and Digital. Infopark provides a Smart Business Center (SBC).14 With individual state governments aggressively promoting software parks by providing incentives such as tax holidays. and Hyderabad. and the Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation (APIIC) Limited. and the software industry was still in its infancy.375 million square feet and is fully occupied. two major IT firms in India. There are two buildings with a total built up area of 0. communication software. a joint venture between Larsen and Toubro Limited. The park has a built up area of 1. there were only a few companies such as Texas Instruments. interview rooms. and HSBC are some of the major tenants in HITEC City.6 Hyderabad Information Technology Engineering Consultancy City (HITEC City). which owns 89% of the venture. built up space that is ready to occupy or independent campuses built to customer specification. Additionally. the concept of ‘‘Offshore Development Work’’ became popular with 380 multinational companies in IC design.ltinfocity. 2003 on a 100-acre campus. which started in 1993 and lasted till around 2001. For instance. The park also provides facilities such as common meeting www.Technology parks in a developing country 293 Private Ltd. Microsoft. www.infoparkkochi.stpmum. There is a planned residential township to be built adjacent to HITEC City. which owns the remaining 11%. HITEC City is marketed and maintained by L and T Infocity Ltd.

nic. The state of Karnataka.ibef. and other states. These parks also offer incubation facilities. Genome Valley 15 16 17 www. Andhra Pradesh was the first state to have an operational biotech park. like Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT).aspx http://dbtindia. was the first one to announce a biotechnology policy in 2001.genomevalley. Table 2 provides the list of current and upcoming biotech parks in the 15 states that have announced biotech policies and Fig. followed by Andhra Pradesh. an agri–science Biotechnology parks (Biotech parks) The success of software technology parks in the 1990s has served as the impetus for the central and state governments to support the opening of several biotech parks in India in the new millennium. Maharashtra. incentive packages. Nearly 25 biotech parks in 15 states have been inaugurated since 2001.294 www. ICRISAT. V. considered the leader in IT sector. 3.8 billion (NASSCOM 2007).org 123 .4% of India’s GDP in 2006 up from 4. and venture funding initiatives to attract entrepreneurs. However. The Genome Valley is also home for some of the most prominent scientific research institutions in India. The government of Andhra Pradesh has dedicated an area of approximately 600 square kilometers for ‘Genome Valley. universities and R&D institutes in one place. Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB).’ the first biotech cluster of India. The projected growth of the Indian IT-ITES sector (including the domestic and exports segments) is 28% for the 2007 fiscal year with revenues expected to exceed USD 47. ICICI Knowledge Park and Shapoorji Pallonji Biotech Park. Only recently did individual states start paying attention to this new rapidly growing sector and DBT has been supporting this technology driven sector by extending financial and logistic support for the establishment of biotech parks and incubators in various states. Andhra Pradesh. The Department of Biotechnology (DBT)16 established by the Government of India in 1986 has been supporting the growth of biotech sector in India by establishing science research and academic institutes. International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy. and so on. University of Hyderabad. L. and a biotechnology incubation center. Being a biotech cluster.17 Genome Valley is situated in Hyderabad and is home to two major biotech parks. which has 4 biotech parks. India’s biotech industry has experienced rapid growth in the last five years with over 280 companies generating revenues that exceed $1 billion currently and is expected to touch US $5 billion in revenues by 2010. tax holidays. and New Materials (ARCI).15 The biotech industry is now seen as the next major player in India’s economic growth. 4 shows the location of these parks. is considered the leader of biotech industry. The biotech policies announced by individual states are centered on establishing and supporting biotech parks to bring together companies. National Institute for Nutrition (NIN). Among these 15 states. Technology parks have played an important role to foster the growth of the software industry in India with the software industry contributing 5. Vaidyanathan • Fourth Phase: The software industry is currently in this phase with many Indian companies owning intellectual property within India and earning royalty from the global players. Center for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD).8% in the previous period. Prasad Eye Institute.

Solanb Bangalore Helix. Chandigarhb Biotech Park. Chennaia Uttar Pradesh 2004 Uttaranchal West Bengal a b 295 Acres Technology area Andhra Pradesh 300 Biopharma 218 Marine 200 Agriculture 200 Pharma/Biotech 100 Biotech 50 Agri/Healthcare 134 Horti/Agri/Herbal 104 Biotech 50 Agri/Pharma/ Industrial biotech 25 Agri/Pharma 167 Agri/Biopharma 103 Biopharma 100 Agri/Biotech 74 Agri/Healthcare 22 Marine 100 Agri/Biopharma/ Industrial biotech 30 Biotech 30 Biotech 30 Biotech 5 Biotech 20 Agri/Biotech 8 Agri/Healthcare 1. and manufacturing activities with some of India’s leading biotech institutions and companies located here. Boranda. Kalamassery. 123 . Haldib Kolkata Biotech Parkb 2004 2004 Existing parks Proposed parks Sources: Biospectrum (2005) and Department of Biotechnology provides an environment for biotech research. Konark. training. Sitapur. Aurangabadb Orissa Biotech Park.Technology parks in a developing country Table 2 Existing and proposed biotechnology parks in individual states in India State Park Year of announcement of biotech policy 2001 Shapoorji Pallonji Park. Hyderabada Marine Biotech Park. Hyderabadb ICICI Knowledge Park. Manesarb Biotech Park. Bhiwadib Tamil Nadu 2001 TIDEL BioPark Taramani. Kochib Kinfra Bio Park. Betma near Indoreb International Biotech Park. Punea Biotech Park. collaboration. Chandrabhagab Punjab Rajasthan 2003 2004 Biotech Park. Lucknowa Pantnagar Biotech Park. Hyderabada Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Karnataka Kerala 2005 2002 2001 2001 2003 Biotech Park. Vadodarab Biotech Park. Derabassi. The following discussion focuses on biotech parks that are currently in operation. Hinjawadi. Chennaib Golden Jubilee Biotech Park for Women Society.000 Agri/Healthcare 100 Pharma Biotech Park. Jaipurb Biotech Park. Bangaloreb Kinfra Biotech Park. Patrapada. Jalna. Jodhpurb Biotech Park. Savli. There are over 100 biotech companies currently located in Genome Valley. Bhubaneswarb Biotech Park. Vishakapatnamb Agri Biotech Park. Trivandrumb Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa 2003 2001 2005 Herbal Pharma Park.

Hyderabad.296 G. a partnership between ICICI Bank Limited and the Government of Andhra Pradesh. HPLC. IKP. secretarial services. Currently. GC. It has a mix of ready-to-use modular wet laboratory blocks with analytical facilities like a 300 MHz NMR. 4 Location of biotechnology parks in India 3. and Polarimeter. Vaidyanathan Chandigarh Solan Manesar Jodhpur Bhiwadi Jaipur Lucknow Kolkata Indore Vadodara Aurangabad Pune Konark Haldi Bhubaneswar Hyderabad Vishakapatnam Bangalore Chennai Kochi Operational Parks Upcoming Parks Trivandrum MAP NOT DRAWN TO SCALE Fig. legal/patent counseling.2. There are 18 companies doing R&D in various areas of the pharmaceutical value chain.200 square feet.iciciknowledgepark. etc. LCMS. assistance in getting venture funding. ICICI Knowledge Park has set up a Life Science Incubator (LSI) with an incubation space of around 3. In order to encourage startup companies and spin-offs in pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. environmental clearances. science. and technology advisory services. ICICI Knowledge Park currently leases ready to use labs for renewable short periods (3 years). The park also provides administrative and statutory support services such as speedy customs clearance. the park has had a total of 26 companies of which 8 have graduated. FTIR.1 ICICI Knowledge Park (IKP)18 Situated in Genome Valley. is spread over a 200 acre pollution free zone and began operations in 123 . liaison with government departments. 18 www.

land for building factories or setting up agro-biotechnology activities. the Golden Jubilee Biotech Park for Women society has been developed on 20 acres of land in Siruseri www.htm 123 . The park provides a research center. the park has created a database of over 500 technologies/projects covering about 150 research institutions. business center. inside SIPCOT-IT Park. a 110-acre biotech www. Pune (IBPP).Technology parks in a developing country 297 3. a joint venture Company with the Government of Andhra Pradesh is also situated in Genome Valley in Hyderabad. Lucknow22 Biotech incubation center. USA. The focus of research in this park is in agriculture and health care and the facilities provided in this park include a biofertilizer facility for research in organic fertilizers. training center and support services such as project identification and technology sourcing.. Lucknow in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh (UP) is a joint collaboration of UP government and the central government. vermicomposting and glass houses. Additionally. state of the art informatics center. the park has a central facility that houses plants for distilled water and provides basic equipments for the analysis and testing of products. just 25 km from Chennai. New Berlin to provide networking opportunities for its clients.3 International Biotech Park. Pune20 A public–private partnership model between TCG Urban Infrastructure Holdings Limited (A Chatterjee Group Company) and Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC). which started operations in 2004. 3. West Germany. and the Biotechnologie Park Luckenwalde. The Bioinformatics 19 20 21 22 www. business support facilities and a state of art technology incubation center with a pilot plant and analytical equipment carefully selected to cater a wide range of technologies are some of the facilities offered at the park. bio-supermarket. and a business facilitation center.biotechpark.4 Golden Jubilee Biotech Park for Women Society21 The first biotech park to promote entrepreneurship among women.2.2. 3. The park offers standard facilities for the biotechnology industry such as pre-built industrial units for short to medium term lease.2 Shapoorji Pallonji Park19 Shapoorji Pallonji Biotech Park Pvt.2.2. Ltd. 3. World class infrastructure for setting up of manufacturing or research facilities. extraction unit. TechnologiePark Heidelberg. tissue culture for research on plants. consultancy/ advisory services. International Biotech Park. As an added attraction. and market linkages.spbiotechpark. The park has also forged alliances with leading research institutions around the world that include Research Triangle Park. and industry. was incorporated in 2003. The park’s close proximity to research and academic institutions in the Pune area will enable collaboration between academic and research www. distillation unit.5 Biotech Park.ibpl.

formed in (1994). One of the most important features of both these types of parks is the catalyst role played by the Government of India which has provided a model for encouraging collaboration between the private. Gibb. While technology parks have played a crucial role in the growth of the software sector in India. 123 . & Hall. ` Chorda. at Industrial Toxicology Research Center (ITRC). J. and foreign sector. D.dbt. in conjunction with the Department of Biotechnology (DBT). Biospectrum (2005). The park model has also been attracting domestic entrepreneurs both in the software industry and biotech industry. Technopoles of the world. public. (1985). serves as a networking site and provides training to scientists and students. also in south India.asp Castells. M. Amsterdam: Elsevier. the Department of Information Technology (DIT). N. (2002). Department of Biotechnology. Lucknow. References Ahluwalia. P. http://www. It is important to note that replicating India’s park model in other developing countries will require careful analysis of the availability of these other factors in each country. 123–128. following the economic liberalization policies by the Indian government. a ready availability of skilled labor and global demand for software products have also been important in the success of these parks in India. Technovation. L. a high tech fantasy? An analysis of the science parks of Greece. M. but they are growing quite rapidly due to pro-biotechnology state policies announced by many states in the new millennium. Ministry of Communications & Information Technology. Journal of Economic Perspectives. This business model has been successful in attracting foreign investment as evidenced by the burgeoning number of multinational companies in India in the last decade. C. 143–152. The state of Andhra Pradesh. More than a dozen biotech parks are under planning or development stages in India and the Department of Biotechnology has committed to support 10 biotech parks by 2010. M. The software parks in India have expanded widely in all regions of India with the state of Karnataka in south India being considered the leader of software industry. (2002). Mardas. M.. 16(3). Biotech city. The biotech parks are still in their infancy. 67–88. www. Vaidyanathan Center. & Varsakelis.pdf. Ministry of Science and Technology. Association of University Research Parks (AURP) (2007).biospectrumindia.298 G. I. 16(3). Science Parks. 4 Conclusions This article has overviewed the institutional history of two main types of technology parks that have evolved in India since 1991.. Economic reforms in India since 1991: Has gradualism worked?. 22(2). S. C. Individual state governments have also joined hands with the biotech sector to participate in the expected boom in this new industry in India. Science parks and innovation centres: Their economic and social impact. Technovation.aurp. Towards the maturity state: An insight into the performance of French Technopoles.. (1996). Bakouros. London: Oxford University Press. As a continuation of its pro-technology Y. other factors such as favorable economic policies that include tax holidays. is currently considering forming Bio-IT parks to promote activities in the Bio-IT industry in which IT applications are used in Life Sciences (STPI). is the leading state in the development of the biotechnology sector.

in/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIA EXT/INDIAEXTN/0. Research Triangle Park. A. (1996a). J. & Scott. 20(2). (2007). doi: 10. Technovation. 19(11). Technology in the garden. Link. 217–218. T. The growth of Research Triangle Park. C. J. 17(9). Research Triangle Park. Technovation. NC: University of North Carolina Press for the Research Triangle Park Foundation. 16(5). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. I.nasscom. www. 32(5). H. L. M.1007/s10961-005-6031-1. Link. S&T Parks and Business Incubators in middle – sized countries: The case of Greece.. N.00. Technovation. N. (1993). 16(6).org. 491–502. (2002). & Vonortas. I. (1997). S. (1991).html.pdf. A.. Link.jsp?enl=2. E. The (2007). Science parks: An experiment in high technology transfer. 269– Indian IT Industry Factsheet. International Association of Science Parks (IASP) (2007). Sofouli. New Ventures on an Ancient Campus. (2003).iasp. (1996b). Guy. Beyond the linear view of innovation in science park evaluation: An analysis of Western Australian Technology Park. Technovation.contentMDK:20195738*menuPK:295591*pagePK:141137*piPK:141127*the SitePK:295584. 123 . (1995). 167–175. Software Technology Parks of India (STPI).stpi. Luger. (1999). NC: University of North Carolina Press for the Research Triangle Park Foundation. Phillimore. A generosity of spirit: The early history of the Research Triangle Park. http://www. A. http://www. National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM) (2007). Science parks and university–industry interaction: Geographical proximity between the agents as a driving parks in a developing country 299 Grayson. http://www. I. 673– A look at Aston Science Park. From seed to harvest: The history of the growth of the Research Triangle Park. A. Vedovello. Guy. World Bank. N. Journal of Technology Transfer. N. & Goldstein. Small Business Economics. London: The British Library Board.