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line. Further, as lines OQ'P' and OA'B' cut parallellinesA'D' and B'C', we have from similar triangles OA'Q' and OB'P',

OP' OB' = -OQ' OA

or

(5.12) (5.13)

OP' OQ'

=

OB = k OA

As point 0 is a position-fixed pivoVit follows from equations (5.8) and (5.13) that instantaneous radii of curvatures at corresponding points P and Q, on the two respective curves, always bear a constant ratio k. Hence, point Q describes a curve similar to the one described by point P, to a scale 11k. Similarly, if point Q is made to trace a given curve, point P will trace a similar curve to a scale k. It may be noted that the scaling factor k is given by

k

=

OB OA

=

BP AQ

(5.14)

Prior to the development of milling machines, in the late seventeenth century, it was extremely difficult to machine straight, flat surfaces. Production of good prismatic (sliding) pairs, free of' backlash was therefore considered to be a difficult proposition. It was during this period that the problem of obtaining approximate straight line motion, using only turning pairs, attracted great attention of kinematicians. In a majority of cases, a reference was made to the flat segments of coupler curves, generated by mechanisms with turning pairs only. Such mechanisms are known as "approximate straight line motion mechanisms" and they are capable of tracing straight line during a finite range of traverse only. An obvious way to have constrained motion of a point in a mechanism along a straight line is to use a sliding pair. Sliding pairs, however, have a limitation in that they are bulky and are always susceptible to comparatively rapid wear. In certain situations, therefore, it is necessary to obtain straight line motion using turning pairs only. In rest of the cases, the modem practice~. is to produce straight line motions using sliders. Besides self-recording instruments in indicator mechanism, requiring a point to move along a straight line, a few other cases requiring a point to move along approximate straight path . illustrated in Fig. 5.3. The figures are self-explanatory. Constraining a point in a plane to follow a straight line was one of the stipulations which led L. Burmster to lay the foundations of modem mechanism synthesis. The design of straight line trajectory crank mechanisms has always attracted great attention of kinematicians and Kemp dedicated a whole book to this topic by the year 1877. More recent work in this direction has led to the establishment of coupler curves and tables from which the best four-bar linkages for straight line guidance can be extracted.

,~

.r-:

Coupler curve

,

/

I

~ "

FIg.5.3 (a) The level luffing crane. The path tracer point P traces approximately a horizontal straight line, (b) A four-bar mechanism used for advancing film of a movie camera. The coupler point P generates a straight line for a small portion.

Mechanisms for exact and approximate straight line motion may either use all turning pairs, or turning pairs with one sliding pair. The straight line motion mechanisms can be classified in two important groups of paths: (a) Mechanisms theoretically (b) Mechanisms approximate in which coincidence of the coupler curve arcs with a straight line is exact (called Exact straight line motion mechanisms), and in which coincidence of the coupler curve arcs with a straight line is only (called Approximate straight line motion mechanisms).

Compared to exact straight line motion mechanisms, approximate straight line motion mechanismshave fewer links and this turns out to be an advantage of major importance. A large numberof 4-bar mechanisms exist in this category through which remarkable accuracy can be achieved.As against this, most 'exact straight-line trajectories' are obtainable using mechanisms six or more links. It must be noted that increase in the number of links and joints increases the error due to production tolerances and clearances. This necessitates calculation of tolerances in cases where extreme accuracy is desired. Chebyshev proposed and carried through design of mechanisms, for straight line guidance, such that the segment of coupler curve, used for generatingapproximate straight line, lies between two selected tolerance limits on linearity.

5..5

~l

EXACT STRAIGHT LINE MOTION MECHANISMS

Statement:As illustrated in Fig. 5.4, let 0, Band e represent three distinct points of a mechanism whichare always constrained to lie along a common straight line as the line oe turns about 0 81\ centre. As the line turns, let the point B move along the circumference of a circle with OA as diameter and, at the same time, let the position of point e be such that the product (0 B) (OC) is constant. Then the coupler point e will move along a straight line ex perpendicular to the diameter OA.

oe

OR2 + RF2 CR2 = CF2 + RF2 = OF2 (5. This is explained further through Peaucellier and Hart mechanisms. as the diameter of circle OA remains constant. 0 To prove this. The frame link OP also constitutes the radius of circle.FC = OB + CF)(OF . for all positions of point B and line OC.16) . The tracing point C will describe a straight line CX perpendicular to the line of centres OP extended. C and B in such a way that for all the configurations of mechanism. OB OX OC OX = (OB) (OC) (OA) OA Clearly. an eight-link mechanism was proposed by PeilUcellier. tracing/coupler point C moves along straight line in a direction perpendicular to OA produced. The fixed link PO equals the radius of crank PB.15) (5. (OR2 Noting that and - CR2) = OF2 - CF2 = (OF OF + CF = OC OF. which will bisect the other diagonal Be. Several mechanisms have been proposed to connect points 0.FC) . condition (OB)(OC)/(OA) = constant.5. if and only if.1. from similar triangles. along the circumference of which point B is constrained to move through crank PB. is satisfied. Then triangles OAB and OCX are similar because LOBA = LOXC = 90° and angle LAOB is common to the two triangles. Thus. Points B and C represent pins at opposite comers of a rhombus BQCR whose pins Q and R are connected through equal links OQ and OR to fixed pivot O. In other words. In order to satisfy conditions stipulated in Section 5. OX is also constant. From the right angled triangles ORF and CRF. join the diagonal RQ of the rhombus.Proof: Let X be the foot of perpendicular dropped from Con OA produced.

Being the end point of crank PB.S.[(EG)2 . for any configuration. and by symmetry (EG. the R. this mechanism consists of six links only. through which it transmits motion to link DG. From triangle EFG. so that. EF2 = FG2 + EG2 _ 2(FG)(EG) (EG.19). (OC)( OB) = constant for all configurations. 5. EF. Draw FM perpendicular to EG. Clearly. Lines joining D. FG and DG constitutes a crossed parallelogram.H.point B is constrained to move along circle of radius PB.DF) 2(FG) cosLEGF = Substituting in equation (5. is also constant.2(FG)(EG)cosLEGF Now.DF)/2. if points B and C on link EF are selected on a straight line from 0. Note that crank PB is connected at B to link DG through a turning pair. lines joining DF and EG are parallel. link OP is the frame 1 while link PB ( = OP) is the driving crank. links DE FG and DG EF. the line will remain parallel to DF and EG in all other configurations. Links DE. DEGF being a trapezium MG = (EF . G and F thus forms a trapezium. (0 B) (OC) = constant. It remains to be shown next that for this mechanism too. = = Link DE is pivoted at 0 to the frame link.(EG)(DF)] . Hence. E.(OR2 - CR2) = (OC)(OB) Since OR and CR are both constant link lengths. As against eight links in Peaucellier's mechanism. Under this situation.. EF2 = FG2 + EG2 .6.DF) 2(FG) or EF2 = FG2 + EG2 . As seenin Fig. while C is a tracing point on link EF. parallel to DF.

20) is constant. it suffers on account of large space requirement.7) and the connecting rod length SB extended to include coupl point C such that BC = BS = OB. 5. Hence.4. Even for a short path of the Hart's mechanism requires larger space and this constitutes a great practical disadvantag This exact straight line motion mechanism differs from earlier two cases in that it incorpora a slider also.H.21) that (OB)(OC) constant. . whose R. OD and OE are constant it follows from Eq.S.or or EF2 = FG2 + (EG)(DF) (EG)(DF) (EF2 . triangles DEG and ODB are similar. as all the conditions of Section 5. (5.FG2) = EF and FG being link lengths. Though Hart's mechanism appears to be preferable to Peaucellier mechanism due to smaU( number of links. through 0 perpendicular to OS. For this purpose it is enough to show that under configurations. of equation (5. perpendicular to diameter OA. is constant. C moves along a straight .H.20).20) equals (OB)(OC). The mechanism consists of a slider-crank mechanism with crank OB equal in length to of connecting rod BS (Fig. It remains to be shown now that left hand side of equation (5. The end S of the connecting rod is constrained to move along straight path OS using a slid element and guides.S. . (OB)(DE) (OD) (OB)(OC) (OC)(DE) (OE) DE2 (OD)(OE) As link lengths DE. Triangles DEF and OEC are similar since all the three sides are parallel. Thus. As will be appreciated by readers during the course of discussions. line joining C with 0 makes right angle with OS. point C traces a straight r . Hence. EG DE EG = OB OD (OB)(DE) (OD) = Substituting for EG and DF from above in equation (5. the R. -=DE DF OC OE ~ DF = (OC)(DE) (OE) Also.1 are fulfilled. this mechanis does not generate but merely copies straight line motion. as all the three sides are parallel. It can be shown that with this arrangement.

a circle drawn with B as centre and CS as diameter will necessarily pass through point 0 in all the configurations of the mechanism. The length of link AB is such that when links QB and OA are parallel. In the absence of any means to machine straight flat surfaces. Watt to guide piston rod along straightpath in many of his early steam engines. The coupler (tracing) point is so chosen on link AB that it traces a figure of eight as shown in dotted line. LOBC + LOBS = 180°. 5. LCOS = 90° always. AB is perpendicular to them.8 it is a crossed four-bar mechanism OABQ with cranks OA and QB of unequal lengths and pivoted to frame at 0 and Q respectively. LOBC = 28 LOBS = LOCB + LCOB = and 2<1>. As shown in Fig. LOBC = LBOS + LBSO.As BC = BO = BS. Further. Hence point C always moves along a straight pathperpendicular to OS through O. 0 being a point on the semicircle. Needless to say that friction and wear of slider pair is much larger than the turning pairand as such the resulting straight line motion of point C is of little practical significance. In this position the instantaneous centre of link AB is at infinity and accordingly if link QBbe given a small rotation <1>. We select a position for which the links QB and OA are parallel and on opposite sides of the linkAB. This can also be proved by considering isosceles triangles aBS and OBC. Thisapproximate straight line motion mechanism was used by J. it follows that 28 + 2<1> = 180° or (8 + <1» = 90° This shows that angle LCOS = 90° in all configurations. the link OA will rotate through such that e arcBB' = arcAA' . The main problem with Scott-Russel mechanism is that exactness with which point C followsa straight line obviously depends upon exactness with which slider S is guided along the straightpath. he had to rely on approximate straight line motion mechanism. in which.

Such a rotation will shift the instantaneous centre to position I as shown. which is located on extension of coupler link BA. QB OA := <1> 9 Again Therefore Substituting for 9/<1> A'C' = (IC')9 A'C' and --= B'C' - B'C' = (/C')<1> 9 <1> from equation (5. the tracing point C divides the link AB in two parts whose lengths vary inversely as the lengths of adjacent links. The Grasshopper mechanism is also known as modified Scott Russel mechanism. Unlike Scott Russel mechanism. 5. the path of coupler point C in Grasshopper mechanism does not pass through the fixed pivot O. Tracing point C.r. all the points in link AB move up in vertical direction. For small angles 9 and <1>. I being the instantaneous centre (13).7 is replaced by a lever QB which oscillates about centre Q with radius QB. necessary condition is that the instantaneous centre I (= 13) of link 3 w. 5. . to 1 be such that IC is parallel to OB as shown in Fig. Best position for tracing point C is obtained by drawing a horizontal line IC' to meet corresponding position A'B' of link at C. then describes a straight path perpendicular to line OB. For the position QBAO.9 There is one more deviation which this mechanism has compared to the Scott and Russel mechanism. For this. In Grasshopper mechanism 0 and Q are the fixed pivots and points B and A are constrained to move along arcs of circle with radii QB and OA respectively. point C' will move in vertical direction along a straight line.22) (A'C'/B'C/) = QB/OA Thus. This name follows because the slider of Scott Russel mechanism in Fig.

.._..-': Q This is again an approximate straight line motion mechanism consisting of a 4-bar rocker-rocker mechanism in which the crossed links OA and QB are of equal lengths (see Fig..._... Thus.' I I I 1 I I I !-. _._... 4 I : ~ ._._._. The proportions of the links can be established as follows._. ' : .10)._. Let.._. B" ..: •••. _._. A"''''-.. 5..10. J 14 C._._.._.. ._.._.-. 5._. The tracing point C is located at the middle of the coupler link AB. AC = ( ~~) ._. AB and 12 I 14 o Q = I OA = QB = x OQ=y Now from right angled triangle OA"Q of Fig._._.' ._. B' I : I : I I ._._.._._.. _.. Let us consider coupler AB to be of unit length and find out proportionate lengths of other links._._._._._._.._. (5.23) 13 C _. I i I I I I I I I I I I ~ ._._.._. configurations OA'B'e' and OA''B'' C")..The point C will describe an approximate straight line if. -.• - . _ '._. ._._._ 34iB ._._.._. ._._.._._.-.•. ._._.._.. _._._.-' _. the coupler point C" is directly above A" when AB lies along link QB and coupler point C' is directly above B' whenlink AB lies along link OA.:·~_·_.. (OA")2 or or ~ = (QA")2 + (OQ)2 = (x . The link-lengths are so proportioned that in the extreme positions of mechanism (namely....1)2 + l 2x=1+l .". ._._._.._._..

to frame link. VJENGINE INDICATORS e mechanisms used in engine indicators demonstrate one of the most interesting 'ons of straight line motion.5. I.12. points 0. :.3 point P will reproduce motion of point Q to an enlarged scale given factor.r. 5.5 : 2. which is just below C.e. ghtlinethe point C must also lie on a vertical line from I.11 the I. . with links ectedthrough turning pairs only. Q and P lie on a straight line. A small piston is acted upon by steam or gas pressure in the . 5..It follows therefore that the proportion of link lengths should be AB : OQ : OA : AP = 1 : 2 : 2. OP OQ = OB OA = BP BC =k . the location of I. The c: locationof tracing point on the perpendicular bisector can be decided by considering instantaneous centre I tmationof coupler w. ount of displacement of piston is directly proportional to the steam/gas pressure. This is shown in Fig. n in Section 5.584: 1. s the tracing point C on an extension of coupler in the tion of perpendicular bisector of coupler AB. .0 For the configuration OABQ.-<Simplex Indicator < ~e simplest of all engine indicator mechanisms and consists of a pantograph with fixed k.11.r. if the tracing point C is to describe a horizontal . its .11. The links . OA and QB are of equal lengths while the coupler . 13. Variations in steam/gas pressure cause displacement of piston against a spring force. As seen in Fig. to 1 is located at I. 13 of link 3 w.sm good dimensions can be OQ : AB : OA : PC = 3: 0. is shown in Fig.rched to the body of indicator and the point Q attached to the piston. CQ and AQ constitute a parallelogram with link BC extended upto the tracing point P. It can be verified that for this . < 's is again a 4-bar rocker-rocker mechanism.ment of piston is communicated to the pencil which traces variation of pressure in . on a graph paper (or sheet of paper) wrapped around indicator drum which rotates l!1OOut axis so as to help plotting graph along x-direction. justifies the 'on of point C in horizontal direction. in pantograph. The . .c. 5.n Fig.112.

the wheel base = -'.cot6) = -W H (5. along with their respective axles.(5. when the vehicle takes a turn the front wheels. the inner and outer stub-axles should rotate through angles 6 and ~ respectively such that (cot<jl. Under this condition the motion of the entire vehicle can be conceived to be a . with reference to the chasis. so that the iforwardxle is directed towards the instantaneous centre I which lies on the line of the rear axle. the wheels should . intersect the common axis ofrear wheels at the same point which is the instantaneous centre I.44). The pivot 'pointsare fixed to the chasis. In the steering mechanism of a motor vehicle the front wheels are mounted 'on shortaxles (called stul)-axles). Thus. CF AE From the geometry of FIg. As seen above. = =- = Substituting equation (5. free to swivel. a In general. then .FI) = EF H H EF = W.45) . The rear wheels remain straight and do not turn. "turn about the respective pivot points. avoiding lateral slip (skidding). in (cot<jl_ cote) = (EI . of Letr be the wheel radius while RjOli and RoOlo be the radial distances and angular speeds of 'rotationof inner and outer wheels respectively. tane and tan<jl FI EI EI FI cot<jl. so as to cause the automobile to follow of some curved path. Condition correct steering requires that the relative motion between the wheels and the road of surface should be that of pure rolling while taking a turn. when produced. the distance between pivots Hence. while turning. If Ol' be the angular speed of body rotation of thevehicleabout I.(l) of rotation. the forward wheels are mounted on a turntable. As against this. The rear wheels are placed over the back axle. 5. this is Possible only when the axes of two front stub-axles. pivoted on separate axis called side-pivot steering. This :ispossiblewhen the wheels move along concentric arcs of circle about an instantaneous centre .for correct steering. Ol =--= Ro rOlo rOlj Rj The condition of correct steering therefore dictates that.'motion body rotation about a vertical axis through I.'Steering gear of an automobile is a mechanism which is used in automobile for turning axes of rotation two front wheels. be in planes which are tangential to the respective concentric paths. .44) AE CF AE CF H.cote = . at the two ends . 'the steeringis done by means of front wheels only.ofthe differential tube.16. in certain types of vehicles such as trailers or steam tractionengines.

The die-blocks M and N. 3. The sliding is effected by sliding link MN either to the left or to the right. . The link MN is constrained to move in a direction parallel to link AC by two guides and G2 as shown.5.17) are: t 1. 5. each of the slotted arms AK and C is inclined at an angle a to the longitudinal axis of the car. pin-connected at the ends of sliding link MN. while the other arms constitute stub-axles for front wheels. which consists of slotted arms AK and C respectively. 5.8. 4. Let the new position of sliding link MN be M'N'. are equal. relative to the chasis. The bell-crank levers BAK and DCL.W = Distance between pivots H = Wheel base '--' ~ Whe~/rack ~ Wheel tread width Flg. 5. provides a sliding pair between die-blocks and the slotted arms. When the steering gear is in the mid-position and the car is moving straight. The angles of the bell-crank levers namely. LBAK and LDCL. Let cl> and e be the angles through which the arms AK and CL are turned as a result of displacement x of link MN to the right.2 Davis Steering Gear Special features of this steering mechanism (Fig. 5. The bell-crank levers BAK and DCL are pivoted to the front axle at A and C called king: pins. the bell-crank levers BAK and DCL are mov to the position shown by dotted lines. 2. If the link MN is now moved to the right through a distance x. Let h be the distance of MN from wheel axis AC and 2b be the difference between lengths MN and AC: When the vehicle moves straight LKAR LLCR' a and = = tana = (*) . an corresponding position of bell-crank levers be K'AB' and [:CD' as shown in Fig.16 '--' Automobile steering gear.17. intersect at P. The stub axle lines BA and CD in new position B'A CD' when produced.

-'-. + ep) = tan(a. angles of inclination of arms KA and LC with 'tudinal direction change to (a. tan a _(_bl_h )_+_ta_n_ep_ 1.p . With link MN shifted to next position M'N'.47) and (5.(blh) tanep (blh) .::-.:::.. we have tan (a.-._+_tan_ep_ 1. ( ( b+X) h = = (blh)+tanep 1..tan a 1+(blh) tan a b . !. Thus. '-. ..:..•. .e -'-.R. _ a) =' (plh) .-..tan a 1+ (blh) tan a stituting for L. _ a) = (_b_:_X) (_b _~_X) tan (a. _ a) ( = _tan_a.-'-.. + ep) and LL'CR' = (a. D iJ.::-. + ep)and (a. '- .'-. LK'AR = (a. -'-.-. tanep tan (a. tan(a..x) h .S. + ep)= tan (a.48). r -'-'--.·c -'-. - a) From the geometry of figure.. in above equations..-.(blh) tanep bstituting for tana. -. from equations (5. '-'-'-'- -'. -'-.. + ep)= _tan_a.a) respectively.-'-'-._-_tan_a_ 1+ tan a.tan a.

Wear at the sliding surfaces produce slackness and. Davis steering gear wi be equally effective at all the angles of steering in either direction. Davis steering gear.54). the point of intersection P of front stub axles in new position will lie on the extension of rear axle line. cot<\> cote = 2(tana) However for correct steering condition.45). has an inherent weakness. it is rarely used in practice. as a result. for Davis steering gear. at best. The presence of sliding pair involves more of friction. With this condition. reason. cot<\> cot e Hence.51) through cross-multiplication. be described as a theoretically correct steering gear. For this.52) through cross-multiplication.b(b h + x) tan<\> = or b + h tan<\> or [h +b : bx )tan<\> x = tan<\> (h2 = +:~ + bx) Also.x) + b(b-x) h 2 tane =b- htane [h+b ~ bx ] tane = x tane = (h2 + b2 2 hx bx) From equations (5. (b 2 + x) . even though Davis steering gear gives correct steering at all angles of turn. tana = W/2H. however. correct steering with Davis steering gear is obtained when W 2(tana) = H = W H tana = (2:) I In this case. simplifying (5.Simplifying (5. original accuracy is soon lost. (b . therefore cot<\> cote (h + = -----. namely. It can.b 2 + bx) (h 2 + b2 hx bx) hx Therefore. from (5.53) and (5. .

---.In other words.56) should conform with (cot~ .. are parallel in normal position when the vehicle moves straight.Let us now consider Ackerman steering gear in which sliding pairs are eliminated and are replaced by turning pairs.•. Clearly. 5. are of equallengths. Under this condition.-. which are the arms of bell-crank levers. rotation of arm AK. "... :. :. This steering mechanism consists of a four-bar mechanism involving turning pairs only. reducing angle a at the other end. for correct steering. whereP is the point of intersection of stub-axles B'A and CD' produced. In order to steer the car to.. From the geometry of Fig. w.cotS) = H W .cotS) = (. For a given value ofratio (AK/AC) and angle a. This results in c.. the four-bar mechanism AKCL constitutes a trapezium withparallel and unequal sides AC and KL. The twoopposite linksAC and KL. say right.cotS AQ-CQ = --------PQ (cot~ . of unequal lengths.c. the link CL is turned clockwise so as to increase angle a. he point of intersection P of front stub axle lines should lie on rear axle line produced t if necessary. _'. cot~ . The other two links AK and CL. .~) -. These arms are inclined at an angle of a to the longitudinal axis when the vehicle is moving straight.18.. equation (5. a unique value of angle S may be obtained for a given value <p either graphicallyor analytically. The gear is more commonly used and gives an approximation good enough for practical purposes.

sina = sina .5: 1 and a = 18°. The advantage of the Ackerman steering gear lies in the use of revo\u (pin) joint rather than the sliding pairs.18) of ends K and L of cross-bar KL must always be same. relative to the maximum angle of steering are governed by the design requiremen Smaller values of angle c are most frequently used while large angles occur infrequently. projection of arc LL' on AC = projection of arc KK' on AC. will be shown later. Further. movement in a direction parallel to AC (see Fig. In all such cases. (ii) When turning to the left at e z 24°.sin(a . (iii) When turning to the right at e z 24°.4 times the wheel-base. e + cosasine) . It followS that some amount of skidding is bound to occur at steering angles other than e = 0 and 24°' Hence. Neglecting ObliqUity of Cross-Link Let e and <\> denote angles of steering corresponding to correct steering position. if the distance AC is 0. therefore. Resulting simplicity facilitates in upkeeping. wheels tend to follow path. It .. 5.. \ The position of cross-arm (i.For private cars with AC: AK = 8. where the centrifugal action also contributes to skidding. Note that expression tan a = WI2H of equation (5.. simplifying further.(sinacos<\>.55) is valid only for Davi's Gear.e. have we (sinacos = AK[sina . is established below.. usual therefore to select correct steering angle as equal to one-half to two-thirds of the maximu angle of steering. Treating arcs LL' and KK' to be equal to chords. the arm of bell-crank lever) corresponding to correct an c of steering. especially for turning radii that could be followed at hi speeds. i. for small angles e and <\>.<\»] AK = CL.e. resulting deviation from condition of correct steering is small in the case Ackerman steering mechanism.sine) CL [sin (a + e)sina] sin<\>-sine (cose + cos<\> 2) - . for satisfactory operation of Ackerman steering gear. Despite the limitation stated above. 5. Ackerman steering mechanism would give correct steering for e z 24°. Ackerman steering gear provides correct steering in the following thret positions onlyJ (i) When moving straight. Angle a. along circular arcs that. angle a and the proportions of the mechanism should be so chosen as to reduce inherent tendency to skid to a minimum. At all other values of angle e. needed for providing specified values angle c of correct steering.e. Thus wi~ above proportions. when e 0°. Now. Thus for displacements shown in Fig.cosasin<\» sina(cose + cos<\> 2) = cosa(sin<\>. = e e e Required Value of a.. do not have a common centre. Ackerman steering gear is still the most commonlY' steering gear of the two. between 20° and 25° approximately.18. the instantaneous centre I does not lie on the axis of rear wheels but lies on a line parallel to the rear axle towards the front side. i.

. 4.09° 19. for WIH= 0. and 30°. (DAV Indore. Nov. cot</). the distance between the pivots of front axle is 1 metre andthe wheel base is 2. e = 10°.1 Table for optimum value of a for each value steering angle Q.-Dec.244° aO Set of values for a and <I> satisfy condition of to correct steering: cot <I> cot a = WIH = 0.2 0.1.44° 20. With (WIH) ratio thus known. for correct steering cot</). Table 5.128° -EXAMPLE 5.cote = -W H With the set of values e and </)for correct steering established.2 5 = = 11° .5 m = 250 em As shown in the discussions on Davis steering gear.79° 20.35° 13. w= H 1m = 100 em = wheel base = 2. value ofcorrect angle of steering </) or outer wheel.18.228° 18.cote = -W H W which leads to the condition for Davis gear as tana =2H = a 100 (250)2 11.Unlike Davis' steering gear.4 + cota a <I> tan = tana = 1.3296 21.54' .3488 0. 5. 2. are listed in Table 5. 1986) Refer to Figs. corresponding value of ~ requiredangle a can then be calculated from equation (5. 15°. can then be calculated from. 25°. thus.55).4 _{ 1 ) 0.16 and 5.17.3927 0. one needs to know about the dimensions. 10° 15° 20° 25° 30° 9. 5.309° = ~ = 0.57). 20°. These calculated values of </) nd a IX for a set of values. like wheelbase H and distance between pivots W of a 4-wheeler. corresponding to each arbitrarily assumed values f of angle e -for inner wheel.5 metre. the expression for a is not quite simple (compare with equation5.3658 0.626° 21. Thus to obtain desired value of a.1 In a Davis steering gear.455° 25.4 satisfying condition of correct steering Angle a required for providing correct steering at a given set of values a and <I> sin <I> sina cosa + cos<l>.3797 0. 3.605° 17. Find the inclination of the track arm to the longitudinal axis of Uhecar when it is moving along a straight path.

19).small ngle <X with each other which may vary during operation. This becomes a very desirable feature on count of possible misalignment arising out of elastic frame and also due to spring in . Vertical plane Fig.Sometimes two such joints are used in the same drive system. as in automobiles. 5. The axes of the shafts usually make .mspension. The joint permit some unt of angular misalignment in connected shafts. Essentially a Hooke's joint consists of two semi-circular yokes (forks) 2 and 4 formed at theends of driving and driven shafts (see Fig.19 Hooke's (cardan) joint.5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Graph: Variation of II> s 9 V 40 -? 45 9° Hooke's joint is used to connect two intersecting shafts. The Hooke's joint finds its use a inautomobiles for power transmission from the gear box to the back axle. chine. Hook joint lalso finds application in the transmission of the drive to the spindles of multi-spindle drilling .5. whereone joint is used at the power transmission and the second joint at the rear axle. Bearings are provided in the yokes to receive .

19 and 5. Figure 5.9. revolute pairs move. 5.i..20). path of point C will be seen as an ellipse with major axis along arm OC of cross. it is easy show that the angular velocity ratio of the two shafts is not constant all throughout the revoluti It will be shown that the angular velocity ratio varies as a function of the angle a between shafts and the angle of rotation e of the driver. the axes of the four revolute pairs are not parallel. Let the arm DB of the cross rotate through an angle e. I I I I I .\. apparent (shorter) length of arm DC will be seen. Here.... arm DC of the cross revolves in a plane at an angle of a to the plane in which arm OB of cross revolves about driving shaft. three of the links subtend angles of and the fourth link 1 subtends an angle of more than 90° (see Fig.21 b).21(a) there path of point B. In the case of Hooke's joint. however. true length of arm DC will be seen only in the position shown in Fig. Then.21(b) shows the traces of planes of rotation of the two arms of the cross. 5.20. In Fig. This is obvious as only in position DC the is parallel to the plane of projection (normal to direction of viewing). and point C will along the elliptical path to occupy new position DC.the arms of right angled cross 3. Actual angle of rotation (true angle) of DC. The links are not straight but have a curvature same as that of great circ of the imaginary sphere.·""O "'. In all other positions of rotation. 5. However. Essentially a Hooke's joint belongs to the category of space-mechanism and represents· spherical four-bar linkage. the arm DC will also appear to have rotated angle (this is because DB and DC are the arms of the same rigid cross). 5 as also in position obtained by rotating it through 180°. Since e .-'· . but have common point of intersection at the centre of an imagin!U'Ysphere on whose surface all the £ . ~.. This arrangement ensures pin connection between the cro arms and yokes. as seen by a viewer looking in the direction of arrowhead. 5. ·_·_·-r-·. represented by trace PP in (Fig.1 Transmission Characteristics With reference to Figs. Although both shafts must complete one revolution in the same time-interval. to an observer looking along the axis of driving shaft shown) point B on the input crank will appear to move along arc of a circle with DB as r This is obviously because the plane in which arm DB is rotating is normal to the direction viewing. in the plane of projec . is indicated by a c' As against this. has to be obtained in its own plane of rotation represented by trace QQ. 5.

Also drop perpendicular CIL from point Cion vertical diameter CC'.. 5.- . actual path of point C is identical to the path of point B. Clearly NM is at right angles to the trace PP. Let M and N' be the foots of perpendicular on trace PP from points C1and Cz.21(a) and (b).I I I .' .. : : N ' . shaft ~ p -'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-.. Angle LCOCz = $ therefore.~f':-']a'-'-'T:-'-'-'-'-'Axis of driven sa.. '0' M::N' . which is shown as circle in Fig. gives actual angle of rotation of ~ OC in its own plane of rotation. ... . A line C1Cz drawn parallel to the line OB to meet the circle at Cz then identifies OCz as the actual position of line OC. In order to establish relation between input angle of rotation a and the output angle $. O'M = cos<X = OM = LC1 = OL (tana) ...21(a)...' ". Point N is obtained on trace QQ by drawing an arc with 0' as centre and O'N' as radius.. 5.Axis of driving I " ".. let us project points C1 and Cz on the traces PP and QQ as also on vertical diameter CC'. = O'N'. From right angled triangle O'MN of Fig..... h ft· . -O'M O'N O'N = cosa.. i-. arms OB and OC are of the same length../ ~. O'M O'N' Again.21(b). 5. and hence.. II " •••• 1:' I 1 p . from Fig.

58) with respect to time t.61) that for a constant input speed 0). Remembering that d<1>== 0)' is the angular speed of rotation of driven shaft dt and de dt == 0) is the angular speed of rotation of driving shaft. (OL) tane ----= (OL) tan <1> cosa Equation (5. output speed with angle of rotation e of driving crank.And (fN' = ON = LC2 = OL(tan<1» Substituting for O'M and O'N' in equation (A).sin2a cos2e Substituting for sec2<1> in equation (5.seca dt de Angle of inclination a between the two shaft axes is assumed constant for the purpose of differentiation above.58) relates angle of rotation <1> of the driven shaft to the angle of rotation driving shaft through the angle a between the two shaft axes.58). sec2<1> sec2<1> 2m sec 'I' 2m sec 'I' 2m sec 'I' 2 [sec e seca) sec2<1> == I + tan2<1> = 0) = = I + (taneseca)2 cos2e cos2a + sin2e cos2ecos2a (1. = [sec eseca) ---1 0) 0)' = 0)(-1-_-S-i:-~-:-ac-o-s-2e-) 00' It follows from equation (5. 0) . it follows from equation (5.59) we have 0) .61) that the denominator shou( . Polar Angular Velocity Diagram ch For a maximum value of 0)'. Differentiating equation (5.60).sin2a) cos2e + sin2e cos2e cos2a = --------= 2 2 [1-sin acos e) cos2a cos2e 2 2 2 cos acos e 1. from equation (5. (5. (sec2<1» d<1> - e of dt = (sec2e) . But or. using Eq.

when the ratio ro' in equation (5.63) Further ro' = ro.61) is equal to 1. cos28 be maximum. which requires that for given a. ro ro' = 1 = cosa ro 1.058° = 3 x 0.94) 8 = 42. 222.ro oos30° 1t and 31t (ro')min = ro cos30 (ro')min 2 2 (ro')max = 3.42.46 radls which occurs at 8 = 0 and 1t .94) and a = . Taking tanza C::::a) cos30) = cosa or.42.a) = (ro)cosa (5.598 radls which occurs at a = = --.62) = 0 and 1t. cos28 should be minimum. (ro')min = ro(co. for minimum value of ro'. tana = ± .94 and 137.sin2a cos28 cos2a = 1. and ro = 3 radls a ro = ro' requires a = tan-\±.minimum. for which .94. ro' Thus and occurs at = ro C ~::~a ) (ro')max= (~) cosa 8 (5. at Further = 42.866 = 2.sin2 cos2a cosa = 1 .cosa) (1 + cosa) cos28 = 1 _ (1 + cosa) = sinza = 1 .cosa sin2a = (1. 2 2 Again. This ~ccurs when a = ~ or 31t..C+:osa) And. and 1t. -42. when i.J or.e.94 and (180 . therefore.94. (180 + 42.94.cosa) (1. Hence maximum value of ro' occurs when 8 = 0.J cos a a = 30°. This requires that.

22. Fig. doo' -. is given by -doo' dt = ---de doo' de dt = 00-- doo' de doo' = oo[-cosa de (1. 5.64) w.61). to e and equating the same to zero. is obtained by differentiating equa . for constant a.~ The value of 8 at which the acceleration is maximum.(oo2cosa) sin2a sin2e dt (1 .Si:~:~Os2e ) The angular acceleration.(oo2cosa) sin2a sin2e (1.(oocosa) sin2a sin2e =--------(1. is the polar diagram representing variable output velocity 00'. 5. 00' = oo( 1. (5.. The resulting equation will not be simple. dt Thus Angular acceleration of driven shaft.sin2acos2e)2 .22 Polar velocity diagram for a = 30°.r.= .The elliptical curve. The circle in full line represents input velocity 00 which is constant at all e.sin a cos 9) 2 2 2 (5. .sin2a cos2e)2 {O + 2cose sin2a Sinel] .' A simplified e~pression for e at which acceleration is maximum is. shown in broken line in Fig. Angular Accelerations in Hooke's joint From equation (5.sin2a cos2e)2 doo' .

101ro2 d(= O. the angular acceleration expresspeed. the expression (5.114ci -{). included between shaft axes.In case this is not so. it follows that Percentage of speed variation = oo:ru.114ci 0 .101ro2 0..101ro2 O.114ro2 -{). the angular accelerations at different values of 8 are: 6= 0° 0 270° 0 d(= 9= dro' dro' 90° 0 -{). From equations (5. doo' . It may be of interest to have a look into the effect of angle ex.114ro2 0 -{). ) 2-sin2ex. very high alternating 30 40 torques. (5.1099)sin28 =------dt (1.65) is sufficiently accurate within a few minutes of angular measure. on the percentage variation of angular speed of driven shaft. For a 20°.oo~ 00 x 100 ~ Effects of Large Angular Acceleration _.0.117 cos2 8)2 J in output = Thus. sion (5.002 (0. and therefore very high alternating a in degrees ·stressesmay be set up in the parts of the joint. = 20° modifies as under.~ :3 x Hooke's joint involves a rigid connection beI :3 40 tween the connected shafts and as such from ~ 20 the point of view of torque transmission. as high as 30°.63).64) for ex.62) and (5. moment of inertia of connected parts should be small.2 cos28 "" ( 2sin ex. Effect of angle aon % variation For instance.101ro2 300° 330° 360° 30° 60° 120° 150° 180° 210° 240° O.x .65) Even for values of ex.

d<1> secz<1> cosa secz". from (5. Then at the first universal of joint.It is concluded that the angular acceleration varies cyclically between positive and negative maximum value through zero. Thus frequency of fluctuation is twice during one revolution. de 1+ (tan <1>cos a)z 1 + (tan <1>cos a)z = 1 . therefore.68) w.69) by (5. = tan<1>osa c secze secz<1> cosa d<1» ( de = = and differentiating (5.jf = . this angle should' be kept as small as possible.r. Again at a = 30°. d". two parallel or intersecting shafts may be connected by a double universal joint and have uniform output motions. provided that the intermediate shaft makes equal angles with the connected shafts and that the forks on the intermediate shaft are in the same plane. Thus at high speeds.. de = = secze sec ". Multiplying (5. the problem becomes much more severe. at the other end of intermediate shaft. intermediate shaft for the angle of rotation <1> the intermediate shaft. Further. angular acceleration is directly proportional to the square of angular speed 00. as the input angle and <1> output angles as = tan<1> (tan". tan<1> (tane seca) and at the second universal joint.70) on respective sides. considering".67) and for tan". to <1>. the expression 5.0. z = ( 1 + tanze) 1 + tan ". It is possible to connect two shafts by two Hooke's couplings through an intermediate shaft such that the uneven velocity ratio of the first coupling will be cancelled out by the other one.2165) sin2e ---.68). Z Substituting for tane from (5.117 cosz e)z A comparison with the corresponding expression for a = 20° reveals that larger the shaft angle a. d". Thus. seca) = tan".64 reduces to doo' OOZ (0. higher is the acceleration and.(1. d". Let e be the angle of rotation of driving shaft and let the intermediate shaft rotate througll angle <1>. Again. let '" be the angle of rotation of ~.

intermediate shaft makes equal angles with the connected shafts (the input and output).m.the intermediate shaft is the only shaft in a double Hooke's joint which is subjected maximumaccelerations and retardations and as such. the intermediate shaft should be as light possible.m. The driving shaft rotate at uniformspeed of 500 r.p. Clearly. Necessary conditions to fulfilledby a double Hooke's joint of this type are as under. and the speed of driven shaft must lie between 475 and 525 r. N L~a) and (Ncosa) = 500 r.p. Twoshafts that are neither parallel nor intersecting may be connected by a double Hooke's t and will have uniform angular speed ratio.m .. it follows that maximum variation of speed is given by N (_1_ cosa cosa) = (525 .m. in order to cut down high alternating rtiatorques to and high values of alternating stresses. the maximum and minimum d of driven shaft are given by.. of Indore. provided that 1. May 2. ~i n.3 Two shafts are to be connected by a Hooke's joint.475) = 50 .Thus the angular speed of input shaft is equal to the angular speed of output shaft and that secondHooke's joint exactly neutralises the effect of the first one. and 2: forks on the intermediate shaft are so arranged that they simultaneously lie in the plane of shaft axes at the respective ends.p.p. tenninethe maximum permissible angle between the shafts (Univ. lution: When the driving shaft rotates uniformly at N r.March 1990). PLE 5. April 1976. . DAVV. lince.

prismatic pairs and screw pairs) has a degree offreedom of one.1. the slider completes one stroke quickly compared to the other stroke.1. the extreme right-hand position PR and extreme left-hand position PL of slider P occur when the crank and . shown in Fig.Ch81lt1r:a MECHANISMS WITH PAIRS As discussed in section 2. If r be the radius of crank OC and I the length of connecting rod CP. 5. 5. A quick return motion mechanism is useful in all such applications. Since lower pairs involve surface contact rather than line or point contact.4. it follows that lower pairs can be more heavily loaded for the same unit pressure. turning pairs. mechanisms are required to perform repetitive operations such as pushing parts along an assembly line and folding cardboard boxes in an automated packaging machine. This results in smaller work done per unit time.2 OFFSET SLIDER-CRANK MECHANISM AS A QUICK RETURN MECHANISM In many situations. In Fig. Thus even if crank rotates uniformly. development in kinematics has centred more and more around lower pairs. A quick return motion mechanism is essentially a slider-crank mechanism in which the slider has different average velocities in forward and return stroke. can be used conveniently to achieve the above objective.. a linear motion lower pair (e. They are considerably more wear-resistant. as each point on one element of the pair can movel only along a single line/curve relative to the other element.g. For this reason. An offset slider· crank mechanism. Besides above there are applications like a shaper machine and punching/rivetting press in which· working stroke is completed under load and must be executed slowly compared to the return stroke. 5. It may be pertinent to make a passing reference to another common term Linkage which denotes a mechanism consisting only of lower pairs. the term'~ lower pair will be used to describe linear motion lower pairs. the crank centre 0 is offset by an amount e with respect to the line of stroke of slider. Unless otherwise mentioned.

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