You are on page 1of 32





Page No 1. 2. 3. Introduction & Salient features Exchange Functional Architecture 3 5

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

System Architecture 8 -Subscriber Access Units (CSNL, CSND, CSED) 10 -Trunks and Junction Connection Units (SMT) 11 -Switching Network 12 -Auxiliary Equipments (SMA) 15 -Control Units ( SMC ) 18 -Communication Multiplexes (MIS & MAS Token rings) 23 - Operation & Maintenance Unit ( SMM) 25 - Time Base Generator (STS) 26 Exchange Configuration 30 Power Distribution Subscriber Facilities Token rings Local Call Processing 32 33 36 43

9. Maintenance Routine for OCB 283 10. 283



I began working on this project from -----to ----- at SHAKTINAGAR Exchange, Delhi. The excellent infrastructural facilities of DELHIGATE Exchange and gracious words of encouragement from RAJESH JETLY hastened the process of completing the project. Mr RAJESH JETLY put in considerable effort and reviewed the manuscript in a time bound manner, he has rendered very valuable assistance in many other ways. All the office staff and few of my colleagues at there have in some way contributed to this project. I really thank them a lot. It is my experience that both science and religion have their roles to play in one’s life. While science has helped me to think and reason rationally, religion has carried me beyond the realm of thought and reasoning


INTRODUCTION OCB 283 is digital switching system which supports a variety of communication needs like basic telephony, ISDN, interface to mobile communication, data communication etc. This system has been developed by CIT ALKATEL of France and therefore has many similarities to its predecessor E-10B (also known as OCB 181 in France). The first OCB 283 exchange of R11 version were commissioned in Brest (France) and Beijing (China) in 1991.The first OCB-283 exchange came to India in1993. Subsequently, the system has been upgraded and version R20 was fully validated in 1994.The exchange, which are being supplied to India, belong to R21 version. O-------- ORGAN C-------- COMMAND OR CONTROL B-------- BHERSION 2--------- IIND GENERATION 83------ -MICRO PROCESSOR UNIT SALIENT FEATURES OF THE SYSTEM 1. It is a digital switching system with single ‘T’ stage Switch .A maximum of 2048. 2. It supports both analog and digital subscribers. 3. The system supports all the existing signaling systems, likes decadic, MF (R2), CAS and also CCITT#7 signaling system. 4. It provides telephony, ISDN, Data communication, cellular radio and other value added services. 5. The system has ‘automatic recovery’ feature. When a serious fault occurs in a control unit, it gives a message to SMM (O& M Unit).The SMM puts this unit out of service ,loads the software of this unit in a back up unit and brings it into service. Diagnostic programmes are run on the faulty unit and diagnostic is printed on the terminal. 6. OCB -283 has double remoting facility. Subscribers access unit CSND can be placed at a remote place and connected to the main exchange through

The charge accounts of subscribers are automatically saved in the disc once in a day . to be kept for maintenance are drastically reduced. No separate room is required for OMC. switch over takes place automatically. 14. though the optimum temperature is 22 C.The system has modular structure .In case of faults. 13.000 subscribers on 60.The detail billing data are regularly saved in the disc itself. Various units of OCB 283 system are connected over token rings (IEEE 802. as discs are connected to both SMMs. 10.The space requirement is very small.00. The traffic handling capacity of the system is huge . This excludes the cards required for CSN .5 standard). line concentrators can also be placed at a remote location and connected to the CSNL or CSND through PCMs . 00. enabling ‘automatic recovery’ in case of fault.Air conditioning requirements are also not stringent .000 erlangs of traffic.The exchange can be managed either locally or from an NMC through 64 KB/S link.2 Giga bytes . Depending on the traffic.PCM links . 16. a maximum of 2.The SMMs (O & M Units) are duplicated with one active and other hot standby . 19.Further. 11. 18.It has a very huge memory capacity of 1. there is no necessity of changing cables from one system to another.The system can work a temperature 5 to 45 C.It can handle 8. 7.This avoids loss of revenue in case of total power supply/battery failure.000 circuits can be connected.The hard disc is very small in size.This special feature can meet entire range of necessities viz urban. The OCB 283 systems are made up of only 35 types of cards.Because of this the number of spare cards. only one backup station is provided. 9. 4 . from where they can be transferred to magnetic tape for processing.There is no fixed or rigid rack and suite configuration in the system . 8. semi urban and rural. 12. 15.The expansion can be very easily carried out by adding necessary hardware and software. compact and maintenance free. Depending on the requirement of processing capacity.This enables fast exchange of information and avoids complicated links and wiring between various units.All the control units are implemented on the same type of hardware.The environment requirements of the system are flexible.000 BHCA and 10. Moreover.For all these control units. 17.It provides great flexibility and adjustment in the available space. False floor and ceiling are not essential . software of either one or several control units can be located on the same station . This is a station.

CSND. NAME 5 . The functional architecture of the OCB – 283 System comprises in general of following distinct components: --Connection Units: These provide facility to connect the subscriber’s loop or circuits from an external PCM and transfer these Speech samples on to selected Time Slots called Voice Channels on LR link (internal PCM) Towards switching matrix &vice versa.OCB – 283 SWICHING SYSTEMS OCB 283 exchange is also called ALKATEL 1000 E10. Sender &Receiver &Common SMA (ETA) Channel Signaling Protocol Handler SMA (PUPE) Switching Network These provides facility for CONNECTING the LR (internal PCM’s) coming from connection units and performs Switching Operation for Calling Subs TS onto called Subscriber TS & vice versa for a two-way connection per call of telephony. these units are FUNCTIONAL NAME Subscriber Connection Units CSNL. CSED Circuit Connection Unit SMT (URM) FREQUENCY GENERATOR.

iv. iii. CSND. CSED) Trunks and Junction connection Units (SMT) Switching Matrix (SMX) Auxiliary Equipments (SMA) Control Units (SMC) Communication multiplexes (MIS & MAS Token rings) Time base generator (STS) Operation and Maintenance Unit (SMM) 6 . ii. vi. vii.SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE An OCB 283 exchanges comprises following hardware units: i. viii. v. Subscriber Access Units (CSNL.

The control units interchange messages with one another and with SMM on ‘MIS’ token rings. are connected to switching network through PCM links.LR Remote Concentrator CSNL LR CSNL LR CSND PCM Junctions SWITCHING MATRIX (SINGLE T ) SMA SMT MAS SMC CONTROL UNITS (SMC) SMC MIS OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE UNIT (SMM A & B ) NMC • The Subscriber Connection Units CSN. • The interchange of messages between SMT. • The SMM is the O &m function unit & is duplicated as SMMA &SMMB. SMX. SUBSCRIBER ACCESS UNITS (CSN) 7 . These work in Pilot/Standby mode. SMT’s and SMA’s. SMA and control units SMC’s takes place on ‘MAS’ token rings .

• Subscriber connection units (CSN) are so designed that they can be equipped with either analog or digital subscriber or both . I. Its architecture can be broadly divided into 2 parts. subscriber card shelf known as concentrator can also be placed at the rack or at a remote location. These features provide great flexibility to meet any type of requirement of dense or sparse connection densities. Digital control unit (UCN) The Digital Control Unit (UCN) is the interface between concentrators and the exchange. Digital control unit (UCN) II.The CSN is so designed that it can be connected to any switch supporting CCS#7. Further. The basic rack is placed in switch room for CSNL and at a remote location for CSND.e CNL or CNE. • CSN can be either placed in the exchange switch room or at a remote location. ARCHITECTURE OF CSN: The CSN can have one BASIC RACK & upto three EXTENTION RACKS. but can be equipped in any slot of the shelf. CSN is known as CSNL or CSND and the subscriber shelf is known as local or remote concentrator i. • CSED of E -10 B system can also be connected to an SMT. Concentrators (CNL or CNE) 1.The • Cards for analog and digital subscribers are different. • The CSNL is connected to SMT rack through a minimum of 2 PCM and maximum of 16 PCMs. It is in BASIC RACK. It can be broken down into: 8 . DIALOGUE WITH CSN: The message interchange between CSN and control units takes place on a common signaling channel using local version of CCS#7 signaling . • Depending on the location.

where as if all are remote or if at least 2 are remote. by equipping suitable kind of card. These operate in the pilot standby mode. b) Auxiliary Equipment Processing Group (GTA): This component performs the following functions: ---In case of stand alone operation (i. Generates tones and recorded announcements for local communication ii. The following type of subscribers can be connected to a concentrator. In case of any fault in the active UCX. Analog subscriber (TABAS card) i. which works in PILOT/RESERVE arrangements. 30B+D digital access (TADP card) When all the concentrators are local. the switch over takes place without interruption to existing traffic. a maximum of 19 concentrators can be equipped in one CSN having 4 racks. When a remote concentrator is used than to connect its PCMs to digital control unit an interface shelf ICNE is required. Discriminated Analog subscriber (TABAE card) ii.a) Control and connection units(UCX): These are two such units. 2. which is called CONTROL LOGIC. 2B+D digital subscriber (TABN 3G card) iii. Concentrators The shelf which accommodates subscriber line cards is known as concentrator.e when CSND is isolated from main exchange) i. The concentrator can either be located with the digital control unit in which case they are known as local concentrators CNL or at a remote location in which case they are known as remote concentrators CNE. which are the controlling logic of the CSN. a maximum of 20 concentrators can be equipped in one CSN. SAB FUNCTION The connection units have their internal duplicated hardware. These active UCX controls the working of CSN and also updates standby UCX. Decodes DTMF dialing Tests the subscriber’s lines connected to local concentrators. The maximum capacity of a concentrator is 256 subscribers. Also they are non-duplicated hardware such as subscriber cards & PCM termination cards. The duplicated LRs originate from a function in connection units called 9 .

The following figure shows how GLRs are terminated at the two branches of SMX in OCB 283. In receiving direction it gets data from both the branches. The connection units LR links are formed into group of 8 LRs at the factory into cables with both ends terminated with plugs for the convenience of installation. which it checks for parity etc. Its role is to generate two sets of LRs in Trans direction with calculation of parity etc. In case of errors the samples from only the good branches are taken after automatic testing of the quality of transmission of both the branches by the common control & the faulty bran is withdrawn from the service. Such groups of LRs are called GLR. and compares to detect any error in the two branches.SAB – Selection & Amplification of Branches. 10 .

AUXILIARY EQUIPMENTS CONTROL STATION (SMA) Connection unit ‘X’ SMX A SAB A SAB B MLCOM Connection Unit ‘Y’ SMX B SAB A SAB B MLCOM The SMA contains the following two functional units: 1. PUPE ETA 11 . ETA 2.

The conference circuits are used to set up connection between a maximum of 4 subscribers. ii. Processing Tone etc. On receipt of CCS 7 signaling messages.The ETA contains following sub components:  Frequency receiver/generators  Conference call circuits  Tone generators The frequency receivers/generators recognize the digits dialed through DTMF instrument and also the MF (R2) signals received on junctions. PUPE also sends ‘link status signal units’ (LISU) when commanded. The various functions performed by PUPE are as below. PUPE The PUPE performs level 2 and part of level 3 functions for CCITT No. It also inserts zeros. It sends ‘flag’ and ‘check bit’ in the HLDC frame while transmitting CCS 7 messages.e they can talk to each other. PUPE sends ‘fill in signal units’ (FISU) automatically. Ring Back Tone.7 signaling. when there are more than 5 consecutive Ones in the message. It re-transmits a signal unit on receipt of negative acknowledgement. it eliminates zeros which were inserted after five consecutive Ones. Receive side i. Transmit side i. 12 . iii. The rest of the level 3 functions are performed by PC. They also generate the various frequencies required for MF (R2) signaling and testing etc. Busy Tone. iv. These tones are Dial Tone. when there are no messages to be sent. Tone generators generate various tones required to be connected during call processing. These 4 subscribers can hold conference on the telephone i.

an ETA can have maximum of 96 RGFs. it is loaded on PUS. The following table illustrates the capacity & modularity of SMA. iii. When only PUPE is implemented on SMA. only the software is different.ii. MLPUPE (logic machine i. When both are implemented on the same SMA. The PCB used is common for RGF. it is loaded on PUP and when only ETA is implemented. It detects the flag and also computes the checksum and compares them with check bits. it sends positive acknowledgement other it sends negative acknowledgement. CCF and tone generators. It eliminates ‘fill in signal units’ as they do not carry any information. An SMA is connected to SMX by 8 LR links.e PUPE software) is loaded on the principal processor (PUP) and MLETA is loaded on secondary processor (PUS). If these two matches. SMA Units equipped with ETA alone PUPE alone Capacity 96 RGF 64 CCS – 7 Channels MAX & MIN No. 2 to 32 2 to 15 13 . When no CCI or tone generators are required. Only the first two ETAs have tone generators CCFs and RGFs are provided as per requirements. SMC SMC SMC SMA SMA Implementation of ETA and PUPE on SMA Either ETA or PUPE or both can be implemented on the same SMA.

All the processors are Motorola 68020 processors and operate at 15. MQ. known as station. A station is built around a multiprocessor station bus ‘BSM’. apart from through BSM. Also. Specific couplers can be equipped for specific purposes. The principal or main processor is connected to common memory through 2 32 bit private buses. TR or any other unit when particular software is loaded in the station. Multi processor station bus BSM is a 16-bit bus. Main Processor Unit (PUP) Common Memory Secondary Processor Unit 1 (PUS) Secondary Processor Unit 4 (PUS) Main Coupler (CMP) Secondary Coupler 1 (CMS) Secondary Coupler 4 (CMS) Specific Coupler 14 . One or more processors and one or more intelligent couplers can be connected to this bus. Similarly. TX etc and SMA are implemented on the common type of hardware architecture.6 MHz clock. TR. depending on the above requirements. there can be one main coupler (CMP) and up to 4 secondary couplers (CMS). A station can function as MR.ETA and PUPE both CONTROL UNITS 64 RGFs/32 CCS 7 Channels 2 to 15 Architecture of Station (SMC) Since all the control units like MR. There can be one principal processor (PUP) and 4 secondary processors (PUS) in a station.8 Mbs. They interchange data through the common memory. Depending on traffic and processing requirements. a functional unit can be implemented as principal or secondary processor and on main or secondary coupler. software of either one or several functional units can be loaded in the same station. which operates at 44.

To permit co – habitation of many software machines on the same station. basic software known as HYPERVISOR is provided on the station. The station is generally known as SMC. Another software. known as SUPERVISOR provides communication and loading facilities. CONTROL STATION OF OCB 283 15 .

The following list illustrates their minimum and maximum numbers. Serial No. 1.GLR (A & B) GLR (A & B) CSNL SMT PCM SMX SMA 1 SMA 2 SMA 3 MAS 2 A&B MAS1 A & B Smc1 Smc2 Smc3 Smc4 Smc5 MIS A & B SMMA SMMB Implementation of control functions on SMC station: There are 6 common control functions in an OCB 283. Name of Unit MR Minimum 2 Maximum 7 16 .

3. The TR also stores routing and analysis data. Accordingly depending upon exchange configurations & traffic requirements there can be minimum TWO SMCs required & maximum number of SMC can be 32 but no more than 15 are needed. In addition to this. SMM also runs diagnostic program on the faulty station and prints diagnostics on a terminal. These logical machines ‘ML’ are implemented on the hardware of SMC (station) by loading suitable software on it. 6. any SMC becomes faulty. Translator (MLTR): The TR stores exchange database in its memory. TR TX MQ PC GX 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 They are known as LOCAL MACHINES in software form. it sends message to SMM. SMM then loads the software of all the functional units on the back up station and brings it into service. In addition to call processing functions. Function of various common control software MLs. Multi register (MLMR): The MR establishes and releases the calls. It takes real time decisions for processing of a call. An SMC can support any one or many MLs or functions in defined combinations.This back up station is not loaded with any software. On request. It converts (or translates) the received digits into equipment number of the called subscriber.2. there is automatic recovery. Thus. MR also carries out testing of circuits and observation functions. 5. 4. it tells MR the characteristics and entitlements of subscribers and circuits. there is a provision of one ‘back up SMC station’ . The required number of SMCs is decided by the planners & manufacturers based upon traffic data. 17 . Whenever. The MR also consults TR to find out subscribers entitlements and stores digits dialed by subscribers. The SMM blocks this unit and informs all control units regarding non-availability of this unit.

In addition. MAS) The OCB 283 exchange the communication multiplex highways are utilized for interchange of messages between various equipments of exchange. These communication multiplexes work on the principle of computer’s circular LANs using TOKEN RING protocols. The MQ also supervises semi permanent connections in the network. 1. SMT. MAL – ALARM MUTIPLEX • The MIS token ring is provided for interchange of messages between two SMCs and between an SMC and SMM. MIS -. COMMUNICATION MULTIPLEXES (MIS. A maximum of 4 MAS token rings can be provided in a large size exchange. where as no MAS token ring 18 . which pass from one communication domain to another. the TX carries out charging for each communication set up. It also keeps charge account of all subscribers. It also acts as ‘gate’ for messages.Marker (MLMQ): The marker carries out messages between common control functions MLs & connection units for subscribers or circuits. There are three types of communication multiplex highway according to their use. it also carries out subscriber and circuit observation function. Charging Unit (MLTX): As the name suggests. • The maximum and minimum number of MIS is only one (duplicated as A & B).INTER STATION MULTIPLEX 2. MAL. MAS – STATION ACCESS MULTIPLEX 3. • The MAS are provided for interchange of messages between CSNL. SMA and SMX on one-hand and control units on the other hand. The TX also prepares and sends detail billing messages to SMM.

is provided in compact configuration. EMPTY TOKEN: 8 bit end flag 8 bit access control AC P P P T 8 bit Start flag M R R R TOKEN WITH A MESSAGE: SD AC AC DA SA INFO FCS ED FS FL 19 . access control byte and end flag of one byte each as shown. While SMCs are connected on the entire MAS token ring. Operating principle of TOKEN RING B C A E G F An empty token circulates on the ring when there is no message to be sent. the other units are connected only on one of the MAS rings.5 Standard and operate at & Mbps. • The token rings conform to IEEE 802. • MAS token ring can be duplicated as A & B. A token contains the starting flag. • MAL token ring is provided to handle exchange alarms from all the hardware stations of exchange except CSNL.

Pilot SMM is able to access either of discs. SMM station occupies 3 shelves of CA rack. If T bit is zero the token is free. SMM rack also has DIGITAL VOICE ANNOUNCEMENT SYSTEM MPNA in 4 shelf. SMM receives all alarms from whole exchange on alarm rings MAL. the station receives this message and sends acknowledgement. the station books the token to the next message. it can send the message only after it has been released by transmitting station. There are up to 4 alarm reception rings for handling exchange alarms. so the station inserts its message in the token and sets T=1. However if the token is busy. Adjacent to SMM rack there is one MAGNETIC TAPE DRIVE UNIT DBM. it compares its own address with the destination address written in the token. On receipt of acknowledgement. OPERATION & MAINTENANCE STATION (SMM) • • • • • • • • • • • • • SMM station in OCB -283 performs the O & M functions. the station books the token by writing its priority in reservation field. the transmitting station clears the token and sets the T bit to zero. 20 . If the address matches. VDU for operation & maintenance. There is one STREAMER for cartridge drive in SMM rack. There are terminations for peripherals TTY. SMM dialogues with all SMCs over MIS token ring. If the station is booked a token. One of the two SMM is pilot & other works as hot standby. Whenever a station receives the token.Whenever a station wants to send a message. which is indicated by T=1. For both SMM there are two mirror image hard discs of 1200 MB capacity. it checks the status of T bit. The SMM station has full duplicated hardware SMM A & SMM B.

Time base generator (STS) Time base is required to synchronize PCM links connected to connection units like CSNL.STS SMM A disk 2 SMM D disk 2 FUNCTIONS OF MAINTENANCE STATION (SMM) SMM is provided to supervise the functioning of various exchange equipments and to take suitable action in case of malfunctioning of any equipment. all generating ‘S MHz’ and ‘SBT’ time base. So. SMT. which can be loaded in any time. 21 . even if one of the oscillators is out of order. The switching network selects the time base as per majority logic. All the files and data are stored in SMM hard discs. As stated earlier. SMA etc. the system is not affected. STS has three oscillations. it does the defence of control units in case of fault. SMM also carries out the re-initialization of the exchange. when required.

RCHOR 0 Majority Logic MCX SMA CSNL SMA Majority Logic MCX RCHOR 1 RCHOR 2 S MHz & Frame Synch (SBT) Architecture of SMM The SMM (Maintenance Multi processor Station) is built around two identical microprocessors 68030. Charge account data and detailed bill data are transferred from disk to magnetic tape for further processing in the billing centre. data is read from and written into both the disks simultaneously. memory and coupler are connected on the X bus. The secondary memory devices like disc. Various terminals for man machine communication and alarm coupler are connected to X bus through communication coupler. The two SMMs are connected through HDLC for exchange of switch over and other messages. Each disk has a capacity of 1. The SMMs are connected to MIS token ring through couplers for interchange of messages with control units. 22 . In the normal operation. All the components viz processor. Two magnetic tape drives are provided. magnetic devices. This multi processor station works in pilot and hot standby mode. but whenever one of them goes faulty. streamer etc are connected to the X bus through couplers.2 Giga bytes and both of them are connected to active SMM. The contents of one disk can be updated from other by command. Each of the processor has 4 Mbytes private memory and 16 Mbytes primary memory. Stream has memory capacity of 525 M bytes. It is used to load system data into disk and taking backup of the disk. the other disks is available for read and write operation.

the SMM can be connected to Network Management Centre (NMC) for remote management.Digital recorded announcement card is also equipped in the SMM shelf. Of racks per suite But for practical convenience May be limited unto  Inter Suite Gap      Clearance from Sidewalls  Height of Ceiling Minimum  Approximate floor area for 6k Exchange  Sequence of layout of racks in suites 2200 Hx 950 Wx 690 D Not Fixed Not Fixed 16 Min 800 to 1000 mm Max is variable 1500 mm 3000 mm 44 sq No special sequence or restriction SUBSCRIBER FACILITIES PROVIDED BY OCB 283 FACILITIES TO ANALOGUE SUBSCRIBERS 1) A line can be made out going or incoming. within a predetermined time. dial tone is provided he can dial any number. 3) Delayed hot line facility – When subscriber lifts the handset. The announcements are connected to up to 2 PCMs of first SMT from where they are connected to subscribers or circuits as per requirement. without dialing any number. Of rows (suits) in a Switch Room No. However. One SMM (Pilot and Standby) is provided to each OCB 283 exchanges. If he does not dial a number. DIMENSIONS FOR OCB -283 EXCHANGE Rack size in (mm) No. he is connected to predetermined number. 2) Immediate hot line facility – The subscriber is connected to another predetermined subscriber on lifting the handset. 23 .

8) Automatic call back on busy – If this facility is activated and if the called subscriber is found busy. time. metered units etc. the calling subscriber simply replaces the receiver. Standard 802. The system keeps watch on the subscriber and when it becomes free. he has to only dial short code. can include two subscribers by pressing ‘flash button’ and dialing their numbers. The system can send 12 or 16 KHz meter pulses on the subscriber line for the home meter. Later to dial this number. 5) Call forwarding. 11) Battery reversal – The system extends battery reversal when called subscriber answers. 9) Priority line – Calls from this line are processed and put through even when the number of free channels is within a threshold or when the system is operating in a catastrophic mode. 7) Call waiting indication.4) Abbreviated dialing – The subscriber can record a short code and its corresponding full number in the memory.5 specifies the format and protocols associated with the “MAC” and “PHYSICAL” sub layers applied to the Token Ring. This is useful in case of CCBs. 13) Absent subscriber service – When activated. Standard 802. 24 . 6) Conference between 4 subscribers – The subscribers A & B while in conversation. the incoming calls are diverted to absent subscriber service for suitable instruction or information. the number of calling subscriber is printed on the terminal or 16 KHz meter pulses. a ring is given to both the subscribers. On lifting they can talk to each other.2 specifies the line level. 10) Malicious call identification – When this category is given to a subscriber. 12) Detailed billing – the system provides detailed bills giving details of date. • TOKEN RING INTRODUCTION TO TOKEN RING: Reminder concerning IEEE 802 standard This is a standard for the “PHYSICAL” and “DATA LINK” layers.

5. MAC + PHYSICAL are governed by standard 802.2. MAC (MEDIUM ACESS CONTROL) LLC is governed by standard 802. 25 . LLC (LOGICAL LINK CONTROL) 2.IEEE standard/ISO layer match NETWORKS DATA LINKS LLC MAC PHYSICAL The DATA LINK layer is divided into 2 sub layers: 1.

‘A’ recognizes its message in return and removes it from the ring. This adaptor is 26 . which repeats it to A.MESSAGE INTERCHANGE PHILLOSOPHY: D D D A C A Frame C A Free Token C B FREE TOKEN B Data B A. acquires the token which being busy. B. The free token (3 bytes) circulates on the ring. which supports the A adaptor. The MAS 1to 4 which link the SMC to the SMA. The free token becomes a frame receiver ‘C’ copies the message and continues transfer of the message. and transmit a message frame. SMT and SMX Each of these multiplexes is made up of two rings: an A ring and a B ring. which links the 4 stations. The stations have the message to transmit. The communication coupler is made up of two boards: - The ACAJA board. It thus. Physical location of token rings within OCB 283 OCB 283 stations communicate with each other via 5 “token ring” multiplexes: The MIS which links the control station to each other: SMC and SMM. C. ‘A’ wishes to transmit a message to ‘C’. transmits the free token.

Couplers are divided into two categories: .Main couplers: The particular feature of this IS that they are inserted On the multiplexes to which they are connected.Connected to the A ring. 27 . immediately they are Powered up. SMT and SMX. This applies to all the MIS couplers of the SMC. - Secondary couplers: These are inserted on the ring only at the time of Commissioning of the station in which they are located. . and the MAS Couplers of the SMA. which supports the B adaptor. This applies to Of the MIS couplers of the SMM station. This adaptor is Connected to the B ring. and the MAS couplers of the SMC.The ACAJB board.

28 .LOCAL CALL PROCESSING IN OCB 283 Calling Subscriber Line cards FF CSN ETA LR1 TS1 LR Called Subscriber SMX UCN CN COM PUPE MAS TX TR MR MQ GX PC MIS The various steps involved in call processing are as under. Detection of off hook condition and sending new call message. 1.

it finds out CN number from where the call is coming. it extends a software loop between transmitter and receiver of the TS mentioned in the message. Reception of ‘new call message’ by PUPE and MR The ‘new call message’ ‘NOVAP’ is sent by CSN’s UCN via SVC7 coupler PCB to PUPE on TS 16 of LR0 and LR1. 2. These two TS are connected through the SMX as SIGNALING DATA LINKS to corresponding TSs of the LR links of different SMAs housing PUPE through semi permanent links. the change in state is detected by the corresponding UT or line card of the concentrator.When a subscriber goes off hook. TS – LR number between CSN and SMX. between CN and UCN and on LR links. The UCN. i. Terminal Number or Equipment number (0 to15) This message is known as ‘DEC’ message or’ off hook ‘message between concentrator and digital control unit and it is sent on TS 16 of all the 4 (maximum) LRIs in HDLC format to UCN of CSN. Out of these two LRIs are connected to HDLC signaling handler SVCUT PCB in UCN via two TSs on LRIO & I links in digital control unit UCN of CSN. As UCN has TS  CN correspondence. 7 29 . The UCN looks for and allots a free TSx on LRI links. The microprocessor equipped in UT sets a timer of 64 ms and after the expiry of this period confirms that it is origination of new call. TS – LRI number between UT and UCN The UCN now sends ‘BCL’ message to the concentrator for check of continuity and a ‘NOVAP’ message to PUPE for further call processing. which contains the following information. UT address ( 1 to 16 ) ii. The message is sent in CCITT No. All these data are also saved in CSN memory for future reference. The microprocessor prepares a message. then completes the test by sending tone samples in this TS and measuring them on the return TS. Continuity check between UCN and CN The ‘BCL’ message is received by the microprocessor of the CN. 3. between UCN and SMX for the subscriber of the calling UTC. The data saved in memory are: CN – Concentrator number UT number and Terminal equipment number TT. This message is thus received in UCN.

The new call message ‘NOVAP’ contains following information. e. c.e UR number 1 to 63). it allots a free register to handle this call. This message contains all the data of ‘NOVAP’ message and information about CSN’s UR Number which was determined by PUPE. which is selected by UCN and indicated in the message. The PUPE has a TS  CSN correspondence table. Finding out caller discrimination or CLASS OF SERVICE. 4. Reception of digits. hence from the TS on which the message is received.If these digits are dialed by the DTMF instrument. b. b. When MR receives this message. TS – LR Number allocated by UCN. CSN reference (memory area reference ) Equipment number – CN Number. to ‘MAS’ token ring protocol message and sends it to MR. The PUPE converts this ‘NOVAP’ message received in CCITT No. SCS – signaling link selected for exchange information. The MR contains unto 1000 such registers and thus it can handle 1000 such calls cyclically processing them. After allotting a free register and recording data in it. a. o From the DTMF subscriber: -. TT Terminal Number. Finding out SMX side address of the LR coming from the CSN with the help of MQ. d. d. they are received in the form of frequencies in subscriber UT/TT. the MR processes these data as follows. a. The frequencies are converted into digital samples and sent via voice TS-LR allocated to it to RGF which is already connected. Acknowledge to CSN 5. c. which is received in ‘OUNAP’ message from PUPE. The RGF 30 . MR processing and connection of dial tone to calling subscriber.signaling local version format on one of the TS 16. The MR writes all the data in this register. it finds out the CSN # (i. The message is now called ‘OUNAP’. 7 signaling. the calling subscriber dials the digits. Connection of RGF. On getting Dial tone. Connection of dial tone. UT Number.

The TR consults FIANA files as per the TYNU value as listed below. NATIONAL. TYNU =2 -> FIANA2 – National calls. as below and sends ‘RPREAN’ message to MR indicating type of call and number of digits required for analysis e. the MR sends ‘DPREAN’ message to TR for PREANALYSIS. On receipt of this message.Signaling link selected . the TR sends ‘RIANA’ message to MR. TYNU =4 ->FIANA4 –International calls. This message ‘CHI’ contains UT number. 31 . This message contains following data: -. TYNU =3 -> FIANA3 – Facilities and Special services. the Dial Tone was disconnected at UT end. The digits are in this way received by MR. usually two. it orders controller of UT to disconnect Dial Tone. Analysis to determine called party’s physical Address and Charging. ii. On receipt of the first digit. all the digits in case of local call. o (C +B) from decadic subscriber: --However. The TR consults pre analysis files depending on the source of the call. which records them in the register allocated to handle this Call. TYNU =1 -> FIANA1 –Local and regional calls. On receipt of first few digits. now it is Disconnected at SMX.CSN reference . the PUPE sends ‘OABCO’ message When MR receives first digit dialed by the subscriber. terminal number and digits dialed. As soon as.MR reference . The MR records the digits in the register which are allocated for handling the call. The MR Sends ‘DIANA’ message to TR on receipt of required number of digits for analysis.g. this message is received by UCN. 7. i. The result of pre analysis is given as TYPE of call TYNU parameter.recognizes these samples and encodes in binary. Earlier. it receives. At the end of analysis. if the digits are received in the form of make/break pulses. it sends ‘CHIUN’ message to PUPE. the microprocessor of the UT is able to recognize them. The microprocessor sends a message to UCN for each digit. The purpose of pre analysis is to determine the TYPE OF CALL viz LOCAL. iii. This message contains following information. These are sent to ‘MR’ over ‘MAS’ token ring by ETA. it orders MLCOM to disconnect Dial Tone through ‘ODXGT’ message.Binary code (4 bits) of the digits. INTERNATIONAL OR SPECIAL SERVICES. Pre analysis of digits to determine type of call. iv. 6.

the MR immediately orders MQ to disconnect the connection between the TS of calling and called subscribers. On detection of ‘on hook’ condition. a message to MR via PUPE. The concerned CSNs are now supervising the status of the calling and called subscribers. when called subscriber answers. Supervision of subscriber’s status by CSN. 8. it orders MQ for disconnection. On receipt of this information. The UCN sends ‘EVABO’ message to PUPE. This is an order to CSN. Connection of calling subscriber and called subscriber and charging. 9. When the called subscriber answers.CN number –UT number – TT terminal Number. CSN (UR number) . Test of called subscriber’s line & ringing current to called subscriber. 32 . MR sends a message ‘OCOAB’ to PUPE. b. If the calling subscriber has gone ‘on hook’. 10. The microprocessor orders for disconnection of ringing current to the called subscriber and sends a ‘DEC’ message to UCN. if the called subscriber has gone ‘on hook’ and calling subscriber is still holding. CALLED SUBSCIBER’S ADDRESS in the form of Equipment number. they send. CHARGING INFORMATION to be used by TX. Connection of Ring Back Tone to the calling subscriber. which converts it into ‘DIREC’ message and sends to concerned CSN. not to send any further digits.a. the MR sets a timer of 1 minute at the end of which. This message contain the following data— • MR reference • CSN reference • Called subscriber answer event • Signaling link selected 11. it is detected by the concerned UT (line card to which called subscriber is connected). However. which in turn sends ‘OABCO’ message to MR.