RICU - British Muslim Media Consumption Report | Mass Media | Counter Terrorism

RICU – Research, Information and Communications Unit

British Muslim Media Consumption Report
March 2010
(Research completed June 2008)

Beginning of report

British Muslim Media Consumption Report
March 2010
(Research completed June 2008)

CONTEST, the UK’s counter-terrorism strategy, aims to reduce the risk to the UK and its interests from international terrorism, so that people can go about their daily lives freely and with confidence. It details the terrorist threat we face and how it has evolved, and sets out the principles that govern our response to this threat, our achievements to date, the challenges, and what we intend to do next. CONTEST comprises four principal workstreams, each with a clear objective:
●● ●● ●● ●●

Pursue – To stop terrorist attacks. Prevent – To stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. Protect – To strengthen our protection against terrorist attacks. Prepare – Where an attack cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact.

A copy of the CONTEST strategy is available on the Home Office website: http://security.homeoffice.gov.uk/news-publications/publication-search/general/HO_Contest_strategy/HO_ Contest_strategy22835.pdf?view=Binary The Research, Information and Communications Unit (RICU) was established in June 2007 and is staffed and directed by CLG, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and the Home Office. The unit forms part of the Office for Security and Counter Terrorism in the Home Office and supports the delivery of CONTEST. The purpose of RICU is to ensure that the UK Government communicates effectively to reduce the risk of terrorism, by:
●● ●● ●●

advising CONTEST partners on their counter-terrorism-related communications using communications to expose the weaknesses of violent extremist ideologies and brands, and using communications to support credible alternatives to violent extremism.

Fundamental to achieving RICU’s objectives is the commissioning of communications research which provides Government with an evidence base upon which it can effectively communicate all aspects of its CT strategy to a variety of audiences. The overarching objectives of RICU’s research programme are to: understand the audiences that Government is talking to; understand the impact of the message content, and the language used by Government when discussing CT-related issues; identify which channels are most effective in helping Government to reach audiences and to ensure that messages resonant effectively; and evaluate the impact of Government’s CT communications.

Disclaimer
The research was carried out by TNS. The views expressed are those of the authors and are not necessarily shared by the Home Office, Foreign and Commonwealth Office or Department for Communities and Local Government (nor do they represent Government policy). © Crown Copyright 2010 Extracts from this document may be reproduced for non-commercial purposes on condition that the source is acknowledged. This information is also available on the Home Office website: http://security.homeoffice.gov.uk First Published: March 2010 Research completed: June 2008 ISSN 2042-8251 ISBN 978-1-84987-160-0

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British Muslim Media Consumption Report

Contents
1. Executive summary ....................................................................................................................................... 1 Setting the scene .................................................................................................................................................................................. 1 Media consumption – television..................................................................................................................................................... 2 Media consumption – other media ............................................................................................................................................... 3 2. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 5 Background ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 5 Research objectives ............................................................................................................................................................................. 5 Research method ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5 3. Setting the scene ........................................................................................................................................... 8 Demographic profile ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8 How long resided in UK...................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Other Muslims – country of birth ................................................................................................................................................. 11 Languages spoken ............................................................................................................................................................................. 11 Languages consume media in ...................................................................................................................................................... 14 Religious and cultural behaviour .................................................................................................................................................. 16 4. General concerns ......................................................................................................................................... 19 5. General interests.......................................................................................................................................... 22 General Interests.................................................................................................................................................................................22 Interest in key types of information ...........................................................................................................................................23 6. General media consumption ...................................................................................................................... 25 Media reach summary ......................................................................................................................................................................25 Types of television received ..........................................................................................................................................................25 Types of TV programmes usually watched ...............................................................................................................................26 TV channels watched nowadays...................................................................................................................................................29 TV programmes usually watched .................................................................................................................................................32 TV programmes would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims ................................................................................33 Radio stations listened to/frequency of listening...................................................................................................................33 Newspapers read/frequency of reading ....................................................................................................................................35 Magazines read/frequency of reading ......................................................................................................................................37 Internet access, forums/blogs and website usage ................................................................................................................38 7. Information sources used to find out about interest areas ..................................................................... 43 Reminder: Interest in key types of information .......................................................................................................................43 Media used for different types of information ........................................................................................................................43 8. Information sources used to find out about interest areas ..................................................................... 47 APPENDIX 1: Special interest groups and other channels by media ............................................................ 49 Examples of findings .........................................................................................................................................................................49 Other channels by media ...............................................................................................................................................................52 i

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Tables
Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 10: Table 11: Table 12: Table 13: Table 14: Table 15: Table 16: Table 17: Table 18: Table 19: Sample profile and weighting .............................................................................................................................. 6 Language interview conducted in 1 in 10 interviews conducted in non-English language.............................................................................. 6 Demographic profile (1) of British Muslim sample compared to general population ..................... 8 Profile of sample by social grade and employment status Demographic profile (2) ......................................................................................................................................... 9 Generation of immigrant and length of time in the UK/whether born in UK..................................... 9 Demographic profile by ethnicity..................................................................................................................... 10 Other Muslims – country of birth ...................................................................................................................... 11 English regularly spoken/main language....................................................................................................... 12 Languages regularly spoken at home by ethnic group ............................................................................ 13 Languages used for watching TV/listening to radio .................................................................................. 15 Languages used for reading print media and websites ........................................................................... 16 Profile of those who watch TV channels daily ..............................................................................................29 TV channels watched by ethnic group (1) ......................................................................................................30 TV channels watched by ethnic group (2)...................................................................................................... 31 Radio stations listened to by ethnic group ....................................................................................................35 Newspaper readership by ethnic group .........................................................................................................37 Media used for different types of information ............................................................................................44 Subgroups’ use of media to find out about key types of information Higher Amongst ......................................................................................................................................................44 TV channels used to find out about key types of information (1) .........................................................46

Figures
Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12: Figure 13: ii Figure 14: Figure 15: Subgroups for analysis ............................................................................................................................................ 7 Languages regularly spoken/main language ............................................................................................... 12 Languages used for media consumption ...................................................................................................... 14 Religious/cultural behaviour ............................................................................................................................... 17 Differences in level of observance by ethnic group Religious/cultural behaviour ............................................................................................................................... 18 Respondents’ major concerns ............................................................................................................................ 19 British Muslims’ major concerns compared to those of the general population ............................20 Major concerns by ethnic group ....................................................................................................................... 21 Respondents’ general interests .........................................................................................................................22 Interest in key types of information .................................................................................................................23 Overview of media reach among British Muslims ......................................................................................25 Types of television received ...............................................................................................................................26 TV programmes usually watched by five per cent of more of sample ................................................27 TV programmes watched by demographic subgroups............................................................................27 TV programmes watched – key differences by ethnic group .................................................................28

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British Muslim Media Consumption Report

Figure 16: Figure 17: Figure 18: Figure 19: Figure 20: Figure 21: Figure 22: Figure 23: Figure 24: Figure 25: Figure 26: Figure 27: Figure 28: Figure 29: Figure A1.1: Figure A1.2: Figure A1.3: Figure A1.4: Figure A1.5:

TV channels watched and frequency ..............................................................................................................28 TV programmes usually watched .....................................................................................................................32 TV programmes would watch if specific issue of interest ........................................................................33 Radio stations listened to and frequency ......................................................................................................34 Newspapers read and frequency ......................................................................................................................36 Magazines read ........................................................................................................................................................38 Internet access .........................................................................................................................................................39 Participation in discussion forums and blogs ...............................................................................................40 Types of websites visited ...................................................................................................................................... 41 Websites visited and frequency .........................................................................................................................42 Interest in key types of information .................................................................................................................43 Key differences in channel use by ethnic group ..........................................................................................45 Trusted sources of information ..........................................................................................................................47 Non-trusted sources of information ................................................................................................................48 Q25 – TV channels watched nowadays ..........................................................................................................52 Q28 – Radio stations listened to nowadays ...................................................................................................53 Q30 – Newspapers read nowadays ..................................................................................................................53 Q32 – Magazines read nowadays .....................................................................................................................54 Q35 – Websites visited more than once..........................................................................................................54

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1.

Executive summary
religious behaviours, with nearly two-thirds (65%) giving the most observant response on at least three out of the five behaviours. Four out of five (80%) claimed to only ever eat Halal food; three-quarters observed all the Ramadan/Lent fasts (75%) and three out of five prayed at home every day (60%). Looking at the subgroups, women (68%), those aged over 35 (68%) and first-generation immigrants (67%) were more likely to pray every day. Males (53%) and those aged 45+ (49%) were more likely to go to the mosque/church more than once a week. Women (46%) and those aged 45+ (45%) were more likely always to wear traditional clothes. Turkish/Kurdish respondents were least likely of all the ethnic groups to observe all of the religious behaviours.

Setting the scene
Country of birth
Nearly two-thirds of respondents (65%) were born outside the UK. Even where they were born in this country, the vast majority had parents born elsewhere. Among those born outside the UK there was an even spread in terms of when they had arrived, ranging from less than five years ago to 30 years or more ago.

Language
English was regularly spoken at home by nearly three-quarters of those interviewed (72%) and was the main language for about half of them (and for 38% of the sample as a whole). Three out of five were multilingual. English was more likely to be spoken among younger (16- to 34-year-olds – 83%) and more highly educated respondents (81%); and those who had lived here longest (30+ years – 81%). The Turkish/Kurdish ethnic group was least likely to speak English regularly (59%) or as their main language (28%). Iraqis (20%), Somalis/Other East Africans (19%) and North Africans (22%) were also less likely to have English as their main language. There was a high level of media consumption in English (86% TV/radio; 81% written media). Urdu was the next most commonly used language (35% TV/ radio; 24% written media). Unsurprisingly, the groups that were more likely to consume media in English matched those more likely to speak English.

Concerns and topics of interest
When shown a list of possible concerns and asked which they felt they were facing today, crime was mentioned by the highest proportion of respondents (31%) followed by drugs (26%) – and indeed these were the main concerns for the general population (35% and 25% respectively). Discrimination was of greater interest to British Muslims (mentioned by 13% versus only 5% of the population as a whole), but immigration, pensions and provision of health services/the NHS were relatively lesser concerns for this audience than for the population. However, looking at the subgroups, immigration was of greater concern to Iraqis (20%) and to those who had been in the UK the shortest time (five years or less – 18%). Drugs were of greater concern to Pakistanis (36%) and standards in education to Bangladeshis (16%). Religion and culture was the main topic of interest to British Muslims (58%). World and British news

Religious and cultural behaviour
Those interviewed generally observed many of the 1

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were mentioned by 39 per cent and 30 per cent respectively, sport by 39 per cent and entertainment by 35 per cent. The Turkish/Kurdish group was least interested in religion/culture (40%).

Interest in key types of information
When asked to rate their level of interest in the four key areas, nine out of ten respondents (92%) said they were interested in their religion and culture. Slightly fewer were interested in domestic or international news (82% in each case) and three-quarters (76%) were interested in entertainment. All other ethnic groups were more likely to be interested in religion and culture compared to the Turkish/Kurdish group (43%) and Iraqis (48%). Those who were more highly educated, for example with a degree, were more likely to be interested in news (domestic – 89% and international – 90%). Younger respondents were more likely to be interested in entertainment (85%), while those aged 25–44 years were more likely to be interested in domestic news (87%).

Films, music and comedies were more likely to be watched by younger respondents and those very interested in entertainment. Religious programmes were more likely to be watched by those aged 45–54 (41%) and those very interested in religion and culture (39%).

TV channels watched/frequency
The five main terrestrial channels were generally the most likely to be watched, with BBC One watched by the highest proportion (53%). Around three out of five respondents (59%) watched any specialist ethnic minority channels – the Islam Channel was most likely to be watched (27%). News channels also had notable levels of mentions (BBC News 24 – 24%; Sky News – 22%). Looking at frequency, news channels (BBC News 24 and Sky News), GEO TV and Zee TV were most likely to be watched daily.

TV programmes watched
From a prompted list of TV programmes, EastEnders was the soap opera most likely to be watched (33%) and was in fact the most mentioned programme. Crimewatch was viewed by a similar number of respondents (31%). There were gender differences between these programmes, with EastEnders higher among females (44%) and Crimewatch higher among males (36%). EastEnders was more likely to be watched by Pakistanis (40%) and Bangladeshis (37%), while Crimewatch was more likely to be watched by Pakistanis (33%) and other Muslims (38%).

Media consumption – television
Types of television
About four out of five respondents (83%) received some form of multi-channel TV, with Sky satellite TV the most common type (53%). Bangladeshis and Pakistanis were more likely to receive Sky (71% and 64% respectively). Turkish/Kurdish respondents, North Africans and Iraqis were more likely to have other forms of satellite TV (45%, 33% and 30% respectively).

Types of TV programmes watched
The vast majority of those interviewed watched any TV (93%). Films were most popular (50%), followed by news/weather (38%) and football (36%). Around three out of ten (29%) watched religious programmes. 2

TV programmes would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims
Panorama was the programme most likely to be watched (if not currently watched) if it featured such an issue, being mentioned by 17 per cent of respondents. Newsnight was mentioned by somewhat fewer respondents (12%).

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British Muslim Media Consumption Report

Media consumption – other media
Radio
About half of respondents (46%) listened to any radio stations. BBC Asian Network (11%), BBC Radio 1 (9%) and Sunrise Radio (9%) were most likely to be listened to. Although they had fewer listeners, Kiss 100 FM and BBC Five Live (7% and 5% respectively) were most likely to be listened to daily. Pakistanis were more likely to listen to BBC Asian Network (17%) and Sunrise Radio (15%). Those educated to degree level or above were more likely to listen to Radio 1 (18%).

accessed the Internet every day. The majority (88%) had access at home. Those aged 16–24 and with English as their main language were more likely to have Internet access (83% and 72% respectively) and to access it daily (76% and 66% respectively). Looking at the ethnic groups, North Africans were most likely to have Internet access (77%). Somalis/East Africans were more likely to access the Internet in a public place (29%). Only a minority of those with Internet access (8%) used discussion forums or blogs. Education (27%), music (23%), news (23%), recruitment (22%) and sports (22%) websites were more likely to be visited. Education-site use was higher among those aged 16–24 (37%), with a degree or above (38%) and if the respondent had been in the UK five years or less (44%). It is possible that some of these respondents had come to the UK specifically to study. Use of recruitment websites was higher among those aged 25–34 (28%), with a degree or above (40%) and those who had been in the UK five years or less (40%). Google was the website most likely to be visited (68%), followed by YouTube (43%) and Yahoo (35%). Some 16 per cent had visited any ethnic minority site. Somalis/East Africans and North Africans were more likely to visit ethnic minority sites, particularly Islam Online and Al Jazeera (Arabic and English).

Print
Just over two-thirds of respondents (67%) read any newspapers. Metro had the highest readership at 24 per cent (due to the concentration of Muslims in city areas). The Sun was the tabloid with the highest readership (17%) and among broadsheets The Guardian (6%) was mentioned by more than any other. The Daily Jang was the specialist ethnic minority paper with the highest level of mentions (5%). Younger respondents (16–34 – 30%) and those with a degree (40%) were more likely to read Metro. Somalis/ East Africans (39%), North Africans (37%) and Iraqis (36%) were more likely to read Metro, while those in the Turkish/Kurdish group were more likely to read The Sun (30%). About a quarter of respondents read any magazines (27%) – lower than for other media but in line with the general population. OK, Hello and Asian Woman were the most popular titles, although each was mentioned by only four per cent of those interviewed.

Channel usage for different information types
Television was the key channel for all types of information. There was higher usage of television for international news (74%) than for domestic news (63%), entertainment (62%) or religion/culture (59%). Newspapers were used primarily for domestic news information (43%), but also for international news (29%).

Internet
Roughly three out of five respondents (61%) had Internet access – roughly in line with the general population (66%). Over half of these people (58%)

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Those seeking information about religion or culture were more likely to use a range of less mainstream or specialist/ethnic minority media channels (33%). Radio was used by around one in ten respondents and consistently for all types of information. Younger respondents were more likely to use the Internet for all types of information; those in the middle age groups were more likely to listen to radio. Males were more likely than females to use the Internet for all types of information. Those who had been in the UK for five years or less were more likely to use the Internet for all types of information.

get information from their parents (54%) and just under half would get information from community leaders or Islamic books/DVDs (47%). Television was the most trusted source of information for international news (47%) and also entertainment (39%). The most trusted sources of information for domestic news were newspapers (35%) and television (33%). The least trusted source of information on religion and culture was the Government or any agency associated with it i.e. police, local government (26%). In addition, around one in five of those interested in religious/cultural information, domestic or international news do not trust newspapers or the Internet for these types of information.

Trust in media channels
Word-of-mouth channels were the most trusted for information on religion and culture – over half would

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2.

Introduction
Research method
Fieldwork was conducted face to face in respondents’ homes using CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing) between 28 February and 1 April 2008. The research was composed of a base sample representative of the British Muslim population so that the survey results are fully representative of the diversity of the Muslim population in Britain. To enable analysis of the results by ethnic group (Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Iraqi, Somali or Other East African, North African and Turkish/Kurdish), boost samples were conducted to achieve a minimum of 100 interviews in each of these groups. The exceptions were Pakistanis and Bangladeshis for whom the representative sample yielded sufficient interviews. The 2001 Census data were used as the basis for sampling (although it is somewhat out of date there is no better or more recent source of comprehensive national data on ethnicity, religion and country of birth). Respondents for the base sample were selected using a random location sampling method within wards with five per cent or more Muslim residents. Between them these wards contain 72.5 per cent of the Muslim population. This level of coverage was selected to ensure the sample had good coverage of the range of the Muslim population, including those who live in more mixed communities. Quotas were set on gender and age, to be representative of the Muslim population. Quotas were also set for the different subgroups, reflecting the local population in the sampled wards. Sample points for the boost interviews were selected from the wards with the largest populations of each ethnic group.

Background
In order to inform their media activity and be able to strategically plan counter-terrorism communications, the Home Office and RICU need to understand the media consumption of British Muslim adults, covering a number of key audience groups. It is not possible to use mainstream media planning tools for this purpose as respondents are not asked to state their religion or the number of Muslim respondents included is insufficient. As such TNS has undertaken a quantitative survey of the UK British Muslim population on behalf of the Home Office and RICU to provide an informed map of influential media channels by relevant sociodemographic, cultural, attitudinal and regional breakdowns.

Research objectives
The over-arching objective of this study was to provide a detailed understanding of the media consumption patterns of the British Muslim community. More specifically it aimed to provide an understanding of: what media sources and channels are used to find out about: ■● religious and cultural issues; ■● domestic and international news; ■● entertainment; ●● overall levels of interest in finding out about each of these areas and patterns of information seeking for each; ●● the extent to which people engage and interact with their media channels; ●● how interest levels and media consumption patterns differ by specific subgroups within the Muslim community; and
●● ●●

views about the trustworthiness and credibility of different sources of information for different issues.

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Table 1:
Sex: Male Female Age: 16 - 24 25 - 49 50+ Region: North London South / Midlands Ethnic origin: Pakistani Bangladeshi Turkish / Kurdish

Sample profile and weighting
Unweighted % 52 48 20 57 23 21 58 21 27 11 11 16 12 13 13 Weighted % 52 48 28 55 17 27 44 29 43 17 4 3 3 5 27 The sample profiles both unweighted and weighted are shown in Table 1. Respondents were given the option of completing an interview in English, Urdu, Bengali or Somali. The numbers of respondents completing the interview in each language are illustrated in Table 2.

Somali or other East African Iraqi North African Other Muslim

Respondents were allocated to an ethnic group based on their own self-classification. The boost samples were weighted back to their correct proportions using the 2001 Census data to ensure a representative sample of British Muslims for analysis. A total of 1,124 interviews were achieved with British Muslim adults aged 16+ years in the UK.

Table 2:
% Base English only NonEnglish (Net) Urdu 6 Bengali Somali

1 in 10 interviews conducted in non-English language Somali/ Total Pakistani Bangladeshi Iraqi Other East African (1124) 90 10 7 2 1 (306) 85 15 14 1 (124) 89 11 10 (133) 100 (175) 78 22 22

Language interview conducted in

North African (145) 99 1 1 -

Turkish/ Kurdish (126) 100 -

Other Muslim (144) 96 4 4 -

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Figure 1:

Subgroups for analysis
Region Age

Gender

16-24, 25-34, 3544, 45-54, 55+

Scotland, North East, North West/North Wales, Total North (=North East or North West/North Wales), West Midlands, East Midlands, Total East (=East Midlands or North East), South West/South Wales, London/South East

Ethnic Groups
Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Iraqi, Somali/ Other East African, North African, Turkish/Kurdish, Other Muslims

Educational Attainment
Degree or above (=degree or higher degree), GCSE + Degree - (=Diploma, A/AS level or trade apprenticeship), GCSE + (= Diploma, A/AS level or trade apprenticeship, degree or higher degree), GCSE, None (=none of these)

Generation of immigrant Number of years in the UK
5 years or less, 6-10 years, 11-20 years, 21-30 years, 30+ years 1st generation (=born outside UK), 2nd generation (=born in UK, mother or father born outside UK), NB Base size of 3rd generation (=born in UK and mother and father born in UK) too low for analysis

Languages
Total speak English, Speak English only, Multilingual (=speak English and other language), Don’t speak English, English main language, English 2nd language (=speak English but not main language)

Significant differences (at 95% level) have been indicated (where relevant) between subgroups. Where figures are significantly different this has been denoted by a circle (significantly higher) and a square (significantly lower). The subgroups covered within the analysis and their definitions for reference are shown in Figure 1.

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3.

Setting the scene
Relatively few British Muslims were aged 50 or over – only 17 per cent compared to 42 per cent of the population. There is a strong concentration of British Muslims in London (44%, compared to only 13% of the general population). Far more live in London than in any other region or area. Outside London, British Muslims were in broad terms evenly distributed across the North (27%) and the South/Midlands (29%). Table 4 examines the profile of the sample in terms of social grade and employment status. The British Muslim population has a strong bias towards social grades DE, with almost half of those interviewed (47%) in these social grade groupings, compared to 30 per cent of the general population. The proportion of British Muslims in social grades C1 and C2 is very similar to that in the population as a whole. Very few are classified as ABs – only eight per cent compared to 22 per cent of the population. Their employment profile is also rather different from that of the population as a whole, with fewer in full-

In this chapter, the demographics of the sample are discussed, together with how long respondents have lived in the UK and their use of English and other languages.

Demographic profile
Table 3 shows the gender, age and regional profile of the British Muslim sample, compared to that of the general population, (taken from the BARB Establishment Survey from the two years ending December 2006). The gender profile of British Muslims was very similar to that of the general population. There were, however, significant differences in terms of age, with British Muslims in general younger than the population as a whole. In the general population, some 14 per cent were aged 16–24, but among British Muslims there were double the number in this age group (28%). The difference in the number of 25- to 49-year-olds was somewhat less marked, although again there were more British Muslims in this group (55%) than there were members of the general population (44%).

Table 3:
Sex: Male Female Age: 16 - 24 25 - 49 50+ Region: North London South/Midlands 8 8

Demographic profile (1) of British Muslim sample compared to general population
British Muslims % 52 48 28 55 17 27 44 29 General Population* % 49 51 14 44 42 34 13 53

*BARB Establishment Survey 2 years ending Dec 06

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Table 4:
Social Grade AB C1 C2 DE

Profile of sample by social grade and employment status Demographic profile (2)
British Muslims % 8 27 18 47 29 12 17 42 General Population* % 22 28 21 30 46 10 7 37

Employment Status Full time Part time Student Not in paid work
*BARB Establishment Survey 2 years ending Dec 06

time work (29%, as compared to 46% of the general population) and more students (17%, versus only 7%).

generation immigrants i.e. they had been born here, but their parent(s) had been born outside the UK. Thus the vast majority had parents born outside the UK. Only a tiny minority (4%) were third-generation immigrants. Those interviewed represented a wide spread of time spent residing in the UK. Just under a fifth of those not born in the UK (17%) had been here for five years or less and the same proportion (19%) had been here for six to ten years. The same was true for each of the other five-year time bands, right up to a fifth (21%)

How long resided in UK
Respondents were asked in what year they had first come to the UK, their country of birth and that of their parents to determine what generation of immigrant they were. This is shown in Table 5. A substantial proportion of the British Muslims interviewed were relatively recent immigrants – almost two-thirds (65%) had been born outside the UK and were the first generation of their family to live here. Just over a quarter (27%) were second-

Table 5:

Generation of immigrant and length of time in the UK/whether born in UK
% 65 27 4 % of those not born in UK (866) 17 19 22 16 21

Generation of immigrant 1st generation (Born outside UK) 2nd generation (Born in UK/father & mother born outside UK) 3rd generation (Born in UK/father or mother born in UK) Length of time in the UK 5 years or less 6-10 years 11-20 years 21-30 years More than 30 years
Source: Base:

Q6 In what country were you born? Q60 In what country was your father born? Q61 And in what country was your mother born? Q7 And in what year did you FIRST come to the UK to live or to work? All respondents (1124) – Length of time in UK % of those not born in UK (866)

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Table 6:
%

Demographic profile by ethnicity
Total Pakistani Bangladeshi (1124) (306) (124) Iraqi (133) Somali/ Other East African (175) North African (145) Turkish/ Kurdish (126) Other Muslim (144)

Generation of immigrant 1st generation (Born outside UK) 2nd generation (Born in UK/father & mother born outside UK) 3rd generation (Born in UK/father or mother born in UK) 5 years or less 6-10 years 11-20 years 21-30 years More than 30 years
Source: Base:

65

63

68

93

94

90

87

51

27

33

26

5

5

7

11

29

4

1

1

-

-

2

2

11

Length of time in the UK 17 19 22 16 21 15 17 21 12 29 9 16 19 34 15 20 34 34 4 1 16 32 40 5 4 29 19 28 9 8 16 22 38 13 10 22 19 15 13 22

Q6 In what country were you born? Q60 In what country was your father born? Q61 And in what country was your mother born? Q7 And in what year did you FIRST come to the UK to live or to work? All respondents (1124) – Length of time in UK % of those not born in UK (866)

having been resident in the UK for more than 30 years. The age and gender profile of the various ethnic groups that make up British Muslims i.e. Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, etc. was broadly similar. There was, predictably, some variation in what generation of immigrant the various ethnic groups represented and hence the amount of time they had spent in the UK and this is shown in Table 6. While the majority of those in the Pakistani and Bangladeshi ethnic groups were first-generation immigrants (63% and 68% respectively), a sizeable proportion of each of these groups were more established, second-generation incomers (33% and 26% respectively).

In contrast, among all of the other ethnic groups (except the diverse ‘Other Muslim’ grouping) the vast majority – around nine out of ten or more – were firstgeneration arrivals in the UK. This difference between the more established Pakistani and Bangladeshi residents and the other ethnic groups was predictably reflected in how long the various groups had lived in the UK. A substantial proportion of the Pakistanis and Bangladeshis interviewed had lived in the UK for more than 20 years, whereas very few of the Iraqi, Somali/Other East African, North African or Turkish/Kurdish groups had done so. However, despite the majority being first-generation immigrants to the UK, they were not necessarily recent arrivals. While a substantial proportion of each of these ethnic groups had lived in the UK for five years or less, the majority had been here for six to 20 years.

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Table 7:
UK India Afghanistan Yemen Sudan Iran Kuwait Lebanon Somewhere else

Other Muslims – country of birth
% 49 20 6 5 3 2 1 1 11

Source: Q6 In what country were you born?
Base: All Other Muslims (144)

Other Muslims – country of birth
Those in the ‘Other Muslim’ group (i.e. they did not belong to any of the specific ethnic groups shown in Table 6) were asked in what country they had been born and this is shown in Table 7. Almost half of this group (49%) had been born in the UK, but the largest single group to be born outside this country (a fifth/20%) came from India.

those living in the North East (89%) and East Midlands (82%). Urdu was the second most commonly spoken language, used regularly by just over a third of respondents (36%), followed by Punjabi (23%). Bengali and Arabic were each spoken regularly by around one in seven British Muslims (14% and 13% respectively) and all other languages were used regularly by less than one in ten respondents (Gujarati – 8%; Hindi – 5%). For 15 per cent of respondents Urdu was their main language, followed by ten per cent whose main language was Punjabi or Bengali. Fewer than one in ten used any other language as their main one. Table 9 examines the languages spoken by each ethnic group.

Languages spoken
All respondents were asked, via a prompted list, which languages they regularly spoke at home and which they considered to be their main language. Figure 2 shows the response to these questions. Not surprisingly, English was the language spoken regularly at home by the largest single group (72%). However, only approaching half of this group (equating to two-fifths of those interviewed – 38%) considered English their main language. Just over one in ten (12%) spoke only English and the majority (60%) were multilingual. Looking at those who regularly spoke English, doing so was more common among younger respondents (16–34 – 83%); those who were educated to GCSE level or above (81%); second-generation immigrants/ those born in the UK and those who had lived here for more than 30 years (88% and 81% respectively) and

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Figure 2:

Languages regularly spoken/main language
% 72

12% speak English only 60% multilingual
English English Regularly Spoken 72 per cent

38 Main Language 38 per cent Higher: 16-34 (83%), educated (81%), 2nd generation (88%), lived here more than 30 years (81%), NE (89%), E-mids (82%) 36 Urdu Urdu Regularly Spoken 36 per cent Main Language 15 per cent Higher: 15 Punjabi Regularly Spoken 23 per cent Main Language 10 per cent 16-34 (83%), educated (81%), Bengali Regularly Spoken 14 per cent Main Language 10 per cent 2nd generation (88%), 23 lived here more than 30 years (81%), Punjabi Arabic Regularly Spoken 13 per cent Main Language 8 per cent NE (89%), E-mids (82%) 10 Gujarati Regularly Spoken 8 per cent Main Language 5 per cent Hindi Regularly Spoken 5 per cent Main Language 1 per cent 14 Bengali 10 Arabic 13 8 8 5 5 1 12% speak English only 60% multilingual

Regularly Spoken Main Language

Gujarati

Hindi

Note: Source: Base:

Only shown >5% Q8 Which of the following languages do you regularly speak at home? Q9 Which do you consider is your main language? All respondents (1124)

Table 8:
% Base English regularly spoken English main language
Note: Source: Base:

English regularly spoken/main language
Total (1124) 72 39 Pakistani Bangladeshi (306) 75 41 (124) 64 35 Iraqi (133) 75 20 Somali/ Other East African (175) 68 19 North African (145) 73 22 Turkish/ Kurdish (126) 59 28 Other Muslim (144) 76 46

Only shown >5% Q8 Which of the following languages do you regularly speak at home? All respondents (1124)

12

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British Muslim Media Consumption Report

There was relatively little variation by ethnic group in the number regularly speaking English. In most ethnic groups between two-thirds and three-quarters of respondents did so (for example, Pakistanis – 75%; Bangladeshis – 64%). Fewer survey participants of Turkish/Kurdish ethnic origin (59%) did so compared to the other groups. The ethnic groups differed rather more in terms of use of English as their main language. Fewer Iraqis (20%); Somalis/Other East Africans (19%); North Africans (22%) and Turkish/Kurdish respondents (28%) used English as their main language compared to Pakistanis (41%) or Bangladeshis (35%). Clearly, to some extent this relates to how long the various groups have lived in the UK and what generation of immigrant they are. Use of English as their main language was highest among the ‘Other Muslim’ group (46%).

Table 9 shows in detail the languages regularly spoken at home by the various ethnic groups. The majority of Pakistanis regularly spoke Urdu (69%) or Punjabi (47%). Most Bangladeshis interviewed regularly spoke Bengali (83%), with a minority using Sylheti (10%); Hindi (7%); Farsi or Urdu (each 5%). The Iraqi respondents mainly spoke Arabic regularly (82%), though a substantial minority spoke Kurdish (25%). Arabic was also the language used regularly by the majority of North African respondents (76%). Around one in ten of this ethnic group regularly spoke Somali (10%) or French (12%). Among the Somali/Other East African group, Somali dominated (81%), though a substantial group

Table 9:
% Base English Urdu Punjabi Bengali Arabic Gujarati Hindi Pushto Turkish Somali Kurdish Farsi Sylheti French Swahili
Note: Source: Base:

Languages regularly spoken at home by ethnic group
Total (1124) 72 35 22 14 13 8 5 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 Pakistani (306) 75 69 47 4 1 2 5 1 1 Bangladeshi (124) 64 5 83 7 5 10 Iraqi (133) 75 2 1 2 82 2 1 25 3 1 Somali/ Other East African (175) 68 2 2 24 2 1 81 1 2 12 North African (145) 73 2 1 76 1 10 3 1 12 1 Turkish/ Kurdish (126) 59 7 72 16 2 1 Other Muslim (144) 76 19 9 16 28 11 6 4 2 -

Only shown >5% Q8 Which of the following languages do you regularly speak at home? All respondents (1124)

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British Muslim Media Consumption Report

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regularly spoke Arabic (24%) and more than one in ten (12%) spoke Swahili. Regular use of Turkish (72%) was far more prevalent among the Turkish/Kurdish group than Kurdish (16%). Clearly, in all of these ethnic groups, and particularly among Pakistanis, more than one language was spoken regularly by some individuals.

In broad terms and unsurprisingly, this reflected the languages British Muslims regularly spoke at home. However, somewhat more of them consumed some form of media in English than spoke it regularly at home, no doubt due to its sheer prevalence. More than four out of five British Muslims watched/listened (86%) or read (81%) some form of media in English, compared to 72 per cent who spoke it regularly. Consumption of TV and radio in English was higher among males (89%); those aged 16–34 (90%); those who were educated to GCSE or above (94%) and second-generation immigrants/those who had lived here for more than 30 years (95% and 91% respectively).

Languages consume media in
Again using a prompted list, respondents were asked in which languages they watched TV, listened to the radio, or read newspapers, magazines or websites. Figure 3 illustrates the languages used.

Figure 3:

Languages used for media consumption
%

Languages regularly spoken at home

86 English Watch TV/Listen to radio 86 per cent Read newspapers/magazines/websites 81 per cent Higher: 72% English Males (89%), 16-34s (90%), Educated (94%), 2nd Gen (95%), lived here more than 30 years (91%) 81 Urdu Watch TV/Listen to radio 35 per cent Read newspapers/magazines/websites 24 per cent Hindi Watch TV/Listen to radio 18 per cent Read newspapers/magazines/websites 8 per cent 35 Higher: 35% TV/Listen to radio 13 per cent Urdu Arabic Watch Read newspapers/magazines/websites 8 per cent Males (89%), 24 Punjabi Watch TV/Listen to radio 12 per cent Read newspapers/magazines/websites 6 per cent 16-34s (90%), Educated (94%), Bengali Watch TV/Listen to radio 9 per cent Read newspapers/magazines/websites 6 per cent

Languages regularly spoken at home 8 English 72 per cent Urdu 35 per cent 13 13% Hindi 5 per cent Arabic 8 Arabic 13 per cent Punjabi 22 per cent 12 Bengali 14 per cent Punjabi 22%
6 9 6

5%

Hindi

18

2nd Gen (95%), lived here more than 30 years (91%)

Watch TV/Listen to radio Read newspapers/ magazines/websites

14%

Bengali

Note: Source:

14

Base:

Only shown >5% Q10 Which of the following languages do you watch TV or listen to the radio in and which do you read newspapers, magazines or websites in? All respondents (1124)

March 2010

British Muslim Media Consumption Report

Table 10:
% Base English Urdu Hindi Arabic Punjabi Bengali Turkish Kurdish Sylheti Farsi Pushto Gujarati Somali French

Languages used for watching TV/listening to radio
Total (1124) 86 34 19 13 12 9 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 Pakistani (306) 88 65 18 4 22 1 1 1 1 Bangladeshi (124) 83 9 25 2 55 14 5 5 1 1 Iraqi (133) 80 2 3 81 1 1 6 Somali/ Other East African (175) 87 2 2 33 1 39 North African (145) 84 2 1 65 1 2 6 Turkish/ Kurdish (126) 63 1 7 59 8 Other Muslim (144) 88 19 25 18 8 2 5 5 2

Higher than ‘regularly speak language’ Note: Source: Base:

Lower than ‘regularly speak language’

Only shown >5% Q10 Which of the following languages do you watch TV or listen to the radio in? All respondents (1124)

The second most common language to consume media in was Urdu, with just over a third watching TV or listening to the radio in Urdu (35%), though fewer consumed any written media in this language (24%). The watching/listening figure is in line with the proportion regularly using Urdu at home (35%). Like English, Hindi was also stronger in media terms compared to being spoken regularly at home. Only five per cent of British Muslims spoke Hindi regularly at home, but 18 per cent watched TV or listened to the radio in this language and eight per cent read some form of media in it. Punjabi, conversely, featured less in media terms compared to its use at home. Just over a fifth of British Muslims (22%) regularly spoke this language, but only 12 per cent watched or listened to anything in it and only six per cent read anything in it.

Relatively few British Muslims consumed any media in Arabic or Bengali. This is likely to reflect the availability of media in the various languages. Table 10 examines the languages in which each ethnic group watched TV or listened to the radio. Clearly, in general terms, the languages in which each ethnic group consumed TV or radio reflected the languages they spoke regularly at home. There were, however, some exceptions to this. Pakistanis and Bangladeshis were more likely to consume broadcast media in Hindi than they were to speak it regularly, with English media also featuring more strongly than the English language among Bangladeshis.

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Table 11:

Languages used for reading print media and websites
Somali/ Other East African (175) 85 1 15 1 22 North African (145) 78 38 1 1 1 Turkish/ Kurdish (126) 62 3 54 Other Muslim (144) 87 12 11 10 2 1 -

% Base English Urdu Arabic Hindi Bengali Punjabi Turkish Farsi Somali

Total (1124) 80 24 8 8 6 6 2 2 1

Pakistani (306) 78 47 2 7 12 1 -

Bangladeshi (124) 80 5 1 13 37 5 -

Iraqi (133) 80 1 65 1 1 1 1 4 -

Consume print/web media less than TV/radio in that language Note: Source: Base: Only shown >5% Q10 Which of the following languages do you read newspapers, magazines or websites in? All respondents (1124)

Among Somalis, broadcast media in Arabic figured more strongly than the use of the language itself. The reverse was true of Somali, no doubt reflecting media availability. Table 11 examines their consumption of print media and websites by language and ethnic group. In broad terms, this reflected the languages spoken regularly at home.

On this basis respondents were classified as more or less observant and the degree of observance for each statement is summarised in Figure 4. Those interviewed generally did observe many of the religious behaviours. Relatively few – just seven per cent of those interviewed – were in the most observant category for all five of them. However, almost two-fifths (38%) were in the most observant category for at least four out of five of the behaviours and two-thirds (65%) placed themselves in the most observant category for at least three out of five behaviours. The area of greatest observance related to halal food, where no fewer than four out of five (80%) of the British Muslims interviewed claimed they only ever ate halal food. A further one in ten (11%) said they mainly ate halal food but also ate some other foods. Just five per cent said they ate equal amounts of halal and other foods. A similar pattern was evident relating to observance of fasting during Ramadan or Lent. Three-quarters of

Religious and cultural behaviour
All respondents were shown five sets of statements reflecting various religious and cultural practices and the frequency with which they adopted these practices. They were asked which of each set of statements best reflected their own behaviour or views on religion. For example, one set of statements concerned attending mosque or church, with the response options being ‘I go to the mosque/church more than once a week’, ‘I go to the mosque/church only on Fridays’ and ‘I go to the mosque/church once a month or less’.

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Figure 4:

Religious/cultural behaviour
% MOST OBSERVANT

7% most observant on all 5 behaviours 11 Halal food 4 5 38% most observant on at least 4 of 5 behaviours 65% most observant on at least 3 of 5 behaviours

80

Only ever eat Halal food

Ramadan/Lent 5 11 Halal food (Only ever eat 9 Halal food) DK 4 percent 75 1 5 percent 2 11 percent 3 80 percent Ramadan/Lent fasts Ramadan/Lent (Observe all Ramadan/Lent fasts) DK 5 percent 1 9 percent 2 11 percent 3 75 percent Pray at home 16 60 Praying 3 Praying (Pray at home everyday) DK 21percent 3 1 16 percent 2 21 percent 3 60 percent every day Mosque/Church (Go to mosque/church more than a week) DK 11 percent 1 31 percent 2 23 percent 3 35 percent Go to mosque/ Mosque/Church (Always wear traditional clothes) DK 1 percent 11 31 23 35 church more Traditional clothes 1 14 percent 2 56 percent than 29 3 a week percent 100 per cent = MOST OBSERVANT Traditional clothes 1 14 56 29 Always wear traditional clothes

Observe all

DK

1

2

3

7% most observant on all 5 behaviours 38% most observant on at least 4 of 5 behaviours 65% most observant on at least 3 of 5 behaviours

Source: Base:

Q62 I am now going to show you 5 sets of statements. For each, please tell me which best reflects your own behaviour or views on religion All respondents (1124)

those interviewed (75%) claimed they observed all the fasts during this period and a further one in ten (11%) claimed they observed most of them. Just under one in ten (9%) only observed a few of the fasts. There was somewhat lower general observance relating to prayer. Nevertheless, three out of five (60%) claimed they prayed at home every day, though one-fifth (21%) stated they only prayed at home about once a week and a further 16 per cent admitted they hardly ever did so. Observance in terms of attendance at mosque or church was lower still, with only just over a third (35%) claiming to do so more than once a week and only a quarter (23%) stating they attended on Fridays. As many as a third (31%) said they attended only once a month or less.

Looking at adoption of traditional clothes, three out of ten (29%) said they always wore this type of clothing. However, the majority (56%) did so only sometimes and a further 14 per cent never did. Looking at the subgroups, those who spoke only English and/or were not interested in their religion/ culture were less likely to be in the most observant category for all five behaviours. Females, those aged over 35 and first-generation immigrants were more likely to pray every day; males and those aged over 45 were more likely to attend mosque/church more than once a week; females and those aged 45+ were more likely always to wear traditional clothes. Figure 5 summarises the key differences in level of observance by ethnic group. 17

British Muslim Media Consumption Report

March 2010

Figure 5:

Differences in level of observance by ethnic group
Religious/cultural behaviour

Pakistanis
Higher on: Only ever eat halal food (89%)

Bangladeshis
Higher on: Mainly eat halal food (19%), Sometimes wear traditional clothes (62%)

Iraqis
Higher on: Go to the Mosque/ church only on Fridays (34%)

Somali/Other East Africans
Higher on: Go to the Mosque/church > once a week (47%)

North Africans
Higher on: Never wear traditional clothes (30%)

Turkish/Kurdish
Higher on: The least observant measure on all religious behaviours

Other Muslims
Higher on: Sometimes wear traditional clothes (61%)

Source: Base:

Q62 I am now going to show you 5 sets of statements. For each, please tell me which best reflects your own behaviour or views on religion All respondents (1124)

Pakistanis and Bangladeshis were more likely to be more observant in terms of eating halal food, with 89 per cent of the former group claiming they only ever ate halal food and 19 per cent of the latter stating they mainly did so. Bangladeshis were also more likely to sometimes wear traditional clothes (62%), as were those in the Other Muslim grouping (61%). North Africans, however, were more likely never to wear traditional clothes (30%). Somalis/Other East Africans were more likely to go to the mosque/church more than once a week (47%). Iraqis were more likely to go to the mosque/church only on Fridays (34%).

Those of Turkish/Kurdish ethnic origin were least likely to observe all of the religious behaviours e.g. 21 per cent of this group ate equal amounts of halal and other food; 35 per cent of them only observed a few of the Ramadan/Lent fasts and 54 per cent of them never wore traditional clothes.

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4.

General concerns
security (11%), traffic congestion (10%) and standards in education (10%). All other issues were mentioned by fewer than one in ten of those interviewed. Examining the subgroups (other than ethnic origin, which is discussed below), no consistent pattern emerged of any particular subgroup being more or less concerned. Figure 7 sets the responses of British Muslims in context against the views of the general population (ascertained via an omnibus survey of 2,150 adults conducted in March 2008).

All respondents were asked, using a prompted list, which of a number of issues they felt were the major concerns facing them today. Figure 6 summarises their concerns. The issue mentioned by the highest proportion of British Muslims was crime levels and anti-social behaviour, which was selected by almost a third of those interviewed (31%). Second in their hierarchy came drugs, mentioned by a quarter (26%). A fifth (20% in each case) mentioned each of house prices and terrorism. Discrimination and employment were each mentioned by just over one in ten of the British Muslims interviewed (13%). Slightly fewer/around one in ten selected each of feeling safe in the UK/national

Figure 6:

Respondents’ major concerns
% % 9 8 7 7 7 6 2 1

Crime levels\antisocial behaviour 31 per cent Crime Drugs 26 per centlevels\ Household finances 31 House prices 20 per cent anti-social behaviour Terrorism 20 per cent Discrimination 13 Drugs per cent Immigration 26 Employment 13 per cent Feeling safe in the UK\national security 11 per cent Provision of health House 10 per 20 Traffic congestionprices cent services\NHS Standards in education 10 per cent The economy 9 per cent 20 International issues Healthy eatingTerrorism 9 per cent Household finances 9 per cent Immigration 8 per cent 13 Discrimination Local community issues Provision of health services\NHS 7 per cent International issues 7 per cent Pollution\environmental issues Employment Local community issues 7 per cent 13 Pollution\environmental issues (including global warming) (including global warming) 6 per cent Pensions 2 perin the UK\ Feeling safe cent Pensions 11 Animal welfare 1 per cent Other 0 national security per cent DK 2 per cent Traffic congestion Animal welfare 10 None 11 per cent
Standards in education The economy Healthy eating 10 9 9 Other DK None

2 11

Source: Base:

Q13 Looking at the screen which of the following are the major concerns facing you today? All respondents (1124)

19

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March 2010

Figure 7:

British Muslims’ major concerns compared to those of the general population

% % Crime levels\antisocial behaviour All respondents 31 per cent General Population 35 per cent 9 Crime levels\ 31 Drugs All respondents 26 per cent General Population 25 per cent Household finances 14 35 anti-social behaviour House prices All respondents 20 per cent Significant at 95 per cent. General Population 17 per cent 8 26 per cent Terrorism All respondents 20 per cent General Population 18 Immigration Drugs 20 25 Discrimination All respondents 13 per cent Significant at 95 per cent. General Population 5 per cent Provision of health 7 20 Employment All respondents 13 per cent General Population 13 per cent House prices 18 17 services\NHS Feeling safe in the UK\national security All respondents 11 per cent General Population 9 per cent 7 20 Population 13 per cent Traffic congestion All respondents 10 per cent General International issues Terrorism 4 18 Standards in education All respondents 10 per cent General Population 14 per cent 7 13 The economy All respondents 9 per cent General Population 16 per cent Local community issues Discrimination 5 7 Healthy eating All respondents 9 per cent General Population 10 per cent Pollution\environmental 6 13 Employment Household finances All respondents 9 per cent General Population 14 per cent 13 13 issues (including global warming) Immigration All respondents 8 per cent General Population 20 per cent Feeling safe in the UK\ 2 11 Pensions Provision of health services\NHS All respondents 7 per cent General Population 18 per cent 14 9 national security International issues All respondents 7 per cent General Population 4 per cent 1 10 Animal welfare Traffic congestion Local community issues All respondents 7 13 cent General Population 7 per cent per 6 Pollution\environment al issues (including global warming) All respondents 6 per cent General Population 13 per cent 10 Other 1 Standards respondents Pensions All in education2 per cent General Population 14 per cent 14 Animal welfare All respondents 1 per cent General Population 6 per cent 2 9 DK The economy Other All respondents 0 per cent General Population 1 per cent 16 1 DK All respondents 2 per cent General9Population 1 per cent 11 None Healthy eating None All respondents 11 per cent General Population 4 per cent 4 10

All respondents

General Population

Source: Base:

= Significant at 95% Q13 Looking at the screen which of the following are the major concerns facing you today? All respondents (1124)/All adults via Omnibus (2150)

As for British Muslims, crime and drugs were the main concerns facing the general population. British Muslims were more concerned than the general population about relatively few issues – only discrimination (selected by 13% of this group compared to only 5% of the general population) and to a lesser extent, house prices (mentioned by 20% of British Muslims and 17% of the population as a whole). There were far more issues where British Muslims expressed lower levels of concern compared to the general population and for some of these issues, the gap between the views of the two groups was greater. Only eight per cent of British Muslims were concerned about immigration, compared to 20 per cent of the general population; hardly any British Muslims mentioned pensions (2%, versus 14% of the population as a whole) and only seven per cent mentioned the provision of health services/the

NHS as a concern (compared to 18% of the general population). Other concerns that were mentioned by fewer British Muslims compared to the general population were the economy; pollution/environmental issues; household finances; crime and anti-social behaviour; educational standards; and traffic congestion. Looking specifically at the issues of terrorism and national security, these were mentioned as concerns by very similar numbers of British Muslims compared to the general population. Slightly more British Muslims mentioned each one, but the difference between the two samples was not significant in either case. Figure 8 summarises the differences in concerns that emerged by ethnic group.

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British Muslim Media Consumption Report

Figure 8:

Major concerns by ethnic group
Bangladeshis
Higher on: Standards in education (16%)

Pakistanis
Higher on: Drugs (36%)

Iraqis
Higher on: Immigration (20%)

Somali/Other East Africans
Lower on: Crime levels (17%) House prices (4%) Traffic congestion (5%)

North Africans
Little difference versus total

Turkish/Kurdish
Lower on: Discrimination (4%)

Other Muslims
Little difference versus total

Source: Q13 Looking at the screen which of the following are the major concerns facing you today? Base: All respondents (1124)/All adults via Omnibus (2150)

In fact, there was relatively little significant variation by ethnicity and no pattern of particular ethnic groups sharing areas of concern or being generally more or less concerned about these issues. Compared to other ethnic groups, Pakistanis were more likely to express a concern about drugs (36%) and more Bangladeshis were concerned about standards in education (16%). Iraqis were more likely than other groups to mention concern over immigration (20%).

Looking at those groups who expressed less concern about some issues, Somalis/Other East Africans were less likely to mention crime levels (17%); house prices (4%) and traffic congestion (5%). Those of Turkish/ Kurdish ethnic origin were less likely to have a concern about discrimination (4%). The views of North Africans and the Other Muslim grouping were broadly in line with that of British Muslims as a whole.

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June 2008

5.

General interests
mentioned by 58 per cent. This was particularly the case for those aged 35 to 54 (66%). However, far fewer of those who spoke only English expressed an interest in this topic (33%). World news and current affairs – and also sport – were next, each mentioned by two-fifths of this group (39% in each case). Just slightly fewer mentioned each of music (36%) and entertainment (35%). Some predictable subgroup differences emerged, with far more males interested in sport (61%) and the youngest age group particularly mentioning music (16–24 – 58%).

Early on in the interview respondents were asked which of a number of topics they were interested in (using a prompted list). Later on, they were then asked to state their level of interest in a number of key topics using a four-point scale.

General Interests
Figure 9 shows the responses to the early question about respondents’ general interests, where a list of possible topics was shown and they selected those they were interested in. The issue selected most frequently by British Muslims as of interest was their religion and culture,

Figure 9:

Respondents’ general interests

Your religion and culture 58 per cent Higher: 35-54s (66%) Lower: Speak EnglishHigher: 35-54s (66%) only (33%) % World News/Current affairs 39 per cent Higher: 35-54s (48%), Degree+ Lower: Speak English only (33%) Your religion Sport 39 per cent Higher: Males (61%), GCSE+ Degree- (52%) Lower: Females (15%) Over 55s, (19%) 58 and culture Music 36 per cent Higher: 16-24s (58%), Not interested in religion & culture (61%) Lower: Over (48%), Degree+ Higher: 35-54s 45s (17%) Entertainment 35 per cent Higher: Females (39%), 16-24s (52%), Educated (41%), 2nd Gen (46%) Lower: Over 45s World News/ 39 Current affairs (15%), non-educated (24%) Higher: Males (61%), GCSE+ Degree- (52%) Lower: Females (15%) Over 55s, (19%) British News/Current affairs 30 per cent Higher: Males (35%), 45-54s (43%), degree+ (41%), English + Other 39 languageSport (36%) Higher: 16-24s (58%), Not interested Lifestyle (e.g. parenting) 20 per cent Higher: Females (25%), 25-34s (31%), Lower:culture (61%) in religion & Non-educated (10%) Music Lower: Environmental issues 15 per cent Higher: Degree+ 36 (25%) Lower: 16-24s (6%)Over 45s (17%) None of these 3 per cent
Entertainment British News/ Current affairs Lifestyle (e.g. parenting) Environmental issues None of these 3 15 20 30 Higher: Males (35%), 45-54s (43%), degree+ (41%), English + Other language (36%) 35 Higher: Females (39%), 16-24s (52%), Educated (41%), 2nd Gen (46%) Lower: Over 45s (15%), non-educated (24%)

Higher: Females (25%), 25-34s (31%) Lower: Non-educated (10%) Higher: Degree+ (25%) Lower: 16-24s (6%)

Source:

22 22

Base:

Q14 Now we would like to know about some of your general interests. Which of the following topics are you interested in? All respondents (1124)

March 2010

British Muslim Media Consumption Report

Somewhat fewer British Muslims were interested in British news compared to world news – only 30 per cent mentioned domestic current affairs, compared to 39 per cent who had selected world news as of interest. Other topics were of interest to rather fewer British Muslims. One in five (20%) mentioned lifestyle issues such as parenting and only 15 per cent chose environmental issues. Examining the responses of the various ethnic groups, those of Turkish/Kurdish origin were less likely than most other groups to express an interest in their religion and culture (40%) but the group most likely to be interested in music (46%).

Those in the Other Muslim grouping were more interested than almost every other group in world news (49%) and also more interested than most in entertainment (41%). Environmental issues were of more interest to North Africans (20%) and those in the Other Muslim group (23%) compared to Pakistanis, Iraqis and Turkish/ Kurdish respondents.

Interest in key types of information
A four-point scale was used to assess respondents’ interest in the topics of religion and culture; domestic news; world news and entertainment. Figure 10 summarises the responses to this measure.

Figure 10:

Interest in key types of information

Your religion and culture Mean 3.5 VeryDomestic (4) 55 per cent Fairly interested (3) 37 per cent interested Your religion International Not very interested (2) 7 per cent Not at all interested (1) 1 per cent DK 1Entertainment per cent and culture Gen (96%) Lower among: Spk English only (80%), Not interested in news news news Higher among: Females (94%) 2nd (81%) Domestic news Mean 3.1 Very interested (4) 27 per cent Fairly interested (3) 55 per cent Very Not very interested (2) 13 per cent Not at all interested (1) 3 per cent DK 1 per cent Higher among: 25-44s (87%) Degree + (89%) Interested in int-news (91%) Lower among: Non-educated (78%) interested (4) International news Mean 3.1 Very interested (4) 35 percent Fairly interested (3) 47 per cent Not very interested (2) 13 per cent Not at all27 interested (1) 5 per cent DK 1 per 28 cent 35 Higher among: Males (86%), Degree + (90%) Lower among: Speak English only (61%) Fairly Entertainment Mean 3.0 Very interested (4) 28 per cent Fairly interested (3) 48 per cent interested (3) 55 Not very interested (2) 15 per cent Not at all interested (1) 8 per cent DK 1 per cent Higher among: 16-34s (85%), GCSE+ Degree- (86%) , 2nd Gen (82%), Interested in news (81%) Lower among: Over 45s (53%), Non Educated (70%)
92% 82% 82% 76%

% 55 47 48

Not very interested (2) Not at all interested (1) DK

37 13 3 3.1
Higher among: 25-44s (87%) Degree + (89%) Interested in int-news (91%) Lower among: Non-educated (78%)

13 5 3.1
Higher among: Males (86%), Degree + (90%) Lower among: Speak English only (61%)

15 8 3.0
Higher among: 16-34s (85%), GCSE+ Degree(86%) , 2nd Gen (82%), Interested in news (81%) Lower among: Over 45s (53%), Non-educated (70%)

7 Mean 3.5
Higher among: Females (94%) 2nd Gen (96%) Lower among: Spk English only (80%), Not interested in news (81%)

Interested (Very interested/ fairly interested)

Source: Base:

Q57 How interested if at all would you say you are in each of these different areas? All respondents (1124)

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British Muslim Media Consumption Report

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Claimed interest in all four topics was high, but the highest level of interest was in religion and culture, with more than nine out of ten (92%) British Muslims interested in this topic and over half (55%) ‘very interested’ in it. This is in contrast to all of the other topics, where only between a quarter and a third claimed to be very interested. Around four out of five were interested in each of domestic and international news (82% in each case), although somewhat more were ‘very interested’ in world news (35%) compared to domestic issues (27%). Slightly fewer – but still three-quarters of the sample – (76%) were interested in entertainment.

Looking at the key subgroups, those with a higher level of education, for example a degree, were more likely to be interested in both domestic and world news (89% and 90% respectively) – though entertainment was also of interest to this group (86%). Across the age groups, entertainment was of interest to younger respondents (16–34 – 85%) and domestic news to those aged 25–44 (87%). Examining the ethnic groups, all other ethnic groups were more likely to be interested in their religion and culture compared to the Turkish/Kurdish group and most were more interested in this topic compared to the Iraqis.

24

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British Muslim Media Consumption Report

6.

General media consumption
Types of television received
Figure 12 shows which types of television were received by the household. Just over four out of five households/respondents received any form of multi-channel TV (83%), with Sky satellite TV the most common type, received by just over half (53%). Multi-channel TV was therefore slightly over-represented among British Muslims compared to the general population, 76 per cent of whom access it (NRS, January to December 2007). Thus, 17 per cent of British Muslims received only the five main channels – broadly in line with the general population (19% – BARB data). Three-quarters (74%) received any satellite or cable service. Aside from Sky satellite TV, there was a fairly even spread across the sample of receiving other types of television. Some 14 per cent had Freeview; 13 per cent received some other form of satellite TV and 12 per

Respondents were asked a series of questions relating to their media consumption.

Media reach summary
Figure 11 gives an overview of media reach among British Muslims. The subsequent sections of this report then examine usage of each medium in greater detail. As would be expected, almost all British Muslims (93%) watched some form of TV. Just under half (46%) listened to the radio. Looking at written media, two-thirds (67%) read any newspapers nowadays, with considerably fewer (27%) reading magazines. Just over half of those interviewed (55%) accessed the Internet at least monthly, with just under half of this group (48%) visiting any of a prompted list of types of websites (e.g. auction, business, news, sports, women’s interests, etc.).

Figure 11:

Overview of media reach among British Muslims
46% listen to any radio stations at all nowadays 93% watch any TV channels at all nowadays

67% read any newspapers at all nowadays 27% read any magazines at all nowadays

55% access the internet at least monthly 48% visit any of the types of websites covered

Source: Base:

Q25/Q28/Q30/Q32/Q15/Q17 All respondents (1124)

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Figure 12:

Types of television received

Satellite TV (Sky) 53 per cent % The five main channels ONLY (BBC1, BBC2, ITV1, C4, FIVE) 17 per cent General population (ref: BARB) = 19 per cent Freeview (through a set-top box or digital television set) 14 per cent Satellite TV (Other) 13 per Satellite TV (Sky) cent 53 Cable TV (through Virgin Media) 12 per cent PC or laptop - via the Internet 4 per cent The five main channels ONLY 17 General population* 07) = Net: Any(BBC1, BBC2, ITV1, C4, FIVE) General population (NRS Jan-Dec = 19% 76 per cent multi-channel 83 per cent Net: Any satellite/cable 74 per cent
Freeview (through a set-top box or digital television set) Satellite TV (Other) Cable TV (through Virgin Media) PC or laptop - via the Internet 4 14 13 12

Net: Any multi-channel Net: Any satellite/cable 74

General 83 population** = 76%

* BARB, **NRS Jan-Dec 07 Source: Q20 Which of these types of television does your household receive at the moment? Base: All respondents (1124)

cent received cable TV (via Virgin Media). Only around one in 20 (4%) watched TV via the Internet. There was some significant variation by ethnic group, with Pakistanis and Bangladeshis more likely to receive Sky (64% and 71% respectively). Those in the Turkish/Kurdish (45%), North African (33%) and Iraqi (30%) groups were more likely to have other types of satellite TV. North Africans and those in the Other Muslim grouping were more likely to use Freeview (21% and 20% respectively).

Three out of ten (29%) watched programmes on religion. A similar proportion watched soaps (27%); programmes about music (26%), or documentaries (25%). A smaller proportion usually watched drama series or serials (18%) or comedies (17%), followed by current affairs (13%), children’s programmes (13%), wildlife programmes (12%) or history (12%). All other programme types were mentioned by fewer than one in ten of those interviewed. Looking at the main themes across the demographic subgroups (see Figure 14), films, music and comedies were more likely to be watched by younger respondents and those very interested in entertainment. Religious programmes were more likely to be watched by those aged 45 to 54 (41%) and those who were very interested in their religion and culture (39%).

Types of TV programmes usually watched
Respondents were asked which types of TV programmes they usually watched, using a prompt list. Figure 13 shows all types mentioned by five per cent or more of the sample. 26 Films were most popular, watched by half of those interviewed (50%), followed by news and weather (38%) and sport/football (also 38%).

March 2010

British Muslim Media Consumption Report

Figure 13:

TV programmes usually watched by five per cent of more of sample
% 93 Children's Wildlife History Drama: One off plays\dramas Reality television Science Sport: Cricket Chat shows Game shows\ quizzes Sci-fi\Fantasy Talent shows 13 12 12 10 8 8 7 7 7 6 5

Any 93 per cent % Films 50 per cent Any News\weather 38 per cent Sport: Football 36 per cent Religious 29 per cent Drama: Soaps 27 per cent Music 26 per cent Documentaries 25 per cent Films 50 Drama: Series\Serials 18 per cent Comedies 17 per cent Current Affairs 13 per cent 38 Children’s News\weather 13 per cent Wildlife 12 per cent History 12Sport: Football per cent 36 Drama: One off plays\dramas 10 per cent Reality television 8 per cent Religious Science 8 per cent 29 Sport: Cricket 7 per cent Chat shows 7 per cent Drama: Soaps 27 Game shows\quizzes 7 per cent Sci-fi\Fantasy 6 per cent Talent shows 5 per cent 26 Music
Documentaries Drama: Series\ Serials Comedies Current Affairs Source: Base: 18 17 13 25

Q23 Which of the following types of television programmes do you usually watch? All respondents (1124)

Figure 14:

TV programmes watched by demographic subgroups

% Any 93 per cent Films 50 per cent Higher: 16-34s (61%), 2nd Gen (60%), English and other language (57%), V interested in 93 Any entertainment (68%) News\weather 38 per cent Higher: 35-54s (45%), English and other language (46%), V interest in news (53%) Sport: Football 36 per cent Higher: Males (55%), 35-54s (41%), GCSE+ but Degree- (46%). In UK 6-10 years (48%) Religious 29 per cent Higher: 45-54s (41%), V interest in Religion/culture (39%) Drama: Soaps 27 per cent Higher: Females (36%), 16-34s (33%), GCSE only (37%) English and other language (57%), Higher: 16-34s (61%), 2nd Gen Music 26 per cent Higher: 16-24s (49%), V interested in entertainment (45%) (60%), 50 Films V interested (33%), 2nd Gen Documentaries 25 per cent Higher: NW (38%), Higher than GCSEin entertainment (68%)(32%) Drama: Series\Serials 18 per cent Higher: Females (25%) Comedies 17 per cent Higher: 16-24s (25%), GCSE+ Degree – (45%), English and other language (46%), V interested in news(24%) Higher: 35-54s (29%), V interested in News/Entertainment (53%) News\weather 38 Current Affairs 13 per cent Higher: Males (16%), 35-54s (20%), Degree + (23%), V interested in News (21%) Sport: Football Religious Drama: Soaps Music Documentaries Drama: Series\Serials Comedies Current Affairs 18 17 13 29 27 26 25 36
Higher: Males (55%), 35-54s (41%), GCSE+ but Degree- (46%). In UK 6-10 years (48%) Higher: 45-54s (41%), V interested in Religion/culture (39%) Higher: Females (36%), 16-34s (33%), GCSE only (37%) Higher: 16-24s (49%), V interested in entertainment (45%) Higher: NW (38%), Higher than GCSE (33%), 2nd Gen (32%) Higher: Females (25%) Higher: 16-24s (25%), GCSE+ Degree – (29%), V interested in news/entertainment (24%) Higher: Males (16%), 35-54s (20%), Degree + (23%), V interested in news (21%)

Source: Base:

Q23 Which of the following types of television programmes do you usually watch? All respondents (1124)

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Figure 15:

TV programmes watched – key differences by ethnic group
Bangladeshis
Higher on: Films, Children’s programmes Lower on: News

Pakistanis
Higher on: Drama soaps, Serials, Current affairs

Iraqis
Higher on: Films, Drama Serials, Current Affairs, History, One-off plays

Somali/Other East Africans
Higher on: Sports, History Lower on: Drama

Turkish/Kurdish North Africans
Higher on: History Higher on: Films, Music Lower on: Religion, Documentaries

Other Muslims
Higher on: Wildlife, One-off plays

Figure 16:

TV channels watched and frequency
%

BBC One 54 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 40-59% % ITV1 39 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 40-59% BBC Two 35 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 39% or less Jazeera Al BBC One five (Channel 5) 29 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ 54 Frequency = 40-59% 11 English The Islam channel 27 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 40-59% Channel 4\S4C 27 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 40-59% ITV1 39 Bangla TV 10 BBC News 24 24 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 60% or greater GEO TV 23 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 60% or greater Sky News BBC Two 22 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 60%Prime 35 PTV or greater 10 Zee TV 17 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 60% or greater BBCfive (Channel 5)cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 39% or less Three 16 per 29 ITV2 15 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 39% or less 9 CNN BBC Four 13 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 39% or less Sky One 12 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 40-59% The Islam channel Prime TV MTV 11 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ 27 Frequency = 40-59% 9 ARY One World 11 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 40-59% Channel 4\S4C Al Jazeera English 11 per cent 27 ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 40-59% 8 Bangla TV 10 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 40-59% Venus TV PTV PrimeNews 24cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 40-59% BBC 10 per 24 CNN 9 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 40-59% Aapna Channel 8 Prime TV 9 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 40-59% Venus TV 8GEO TV ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 40-59% per cent 23 Aapna Channel 8 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ FrequencyAl Jazeera Arabic = 40-59% Al Jazeera Arabic 8 per cent 22 ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 60% or greater 8 Sky News Living 5 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 39% or less Channel S 5 per cent ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 40-59% Living 5 Al Arabiya MBCTVper cent17 ‘Watch Daily’ Frequency = 60% or greater Zee 5 Any (Net) 94 per cent Channel S 5 5 main channels only (Net) 9 per cent BBC Three Ethnic minority channels 16 59 per cent (Net) None of these 6 per cent Al Arabiya MBC 5
ITV2 15 BBC Four Sky One MTV ARY One World 13 12 11 11 Any (Net) 5 main channels only (Net) Ethnic minority channels (Net) None of these 9

94

59 6

‘Watch Daily’ Frequency Source:

= 60% or greater

= 40-59%

= 39% or less

28

Base:

Q25 Which of the following TV channels do you watch at all nowadays? Q26 And how frequently do you normally watch each of these? All respondents (1124) / All who watch each channel

March 2010

British Muslim Media Consumption Report

Figure 15 summarises the key differences by ethnic group, though no real pattern of interest emerged.

greatest proportion – 54 per cent did so and between 40 per cent to 59 per cent of these did so daily. Almost three-fifths of respondents (59%) watched some specialist ethnic minority channel, with the Islam Channel most likely to be watched (27%). News channels also received notable levels of mentions (BBC News 24 – 24%; Sky News – 22%). These, together with GEO TV (23%) and Zee TV (17%) were most likely to be watched daily. Table 12 examines the profile of those watching the main TV channels daily. A full list of other channels watched is included for reference in the Appendix.

TV channels watched nowadays
Using a prompted list of channels, respondents were asked which TV channels they watched nowadays and how frequently they normally watched each one. Figure 16 summarises this information, using a ‘trafficlight’ system to denote frequency. Those which were viewed daily by 60 per cent or more of those watching that channel are indicated in green; amber shows that 40 per cent to 59 per cent of viewers watched daily and red that 39 per cent or less of viewers watched daily. The main terrestrial channels were generally the most likely to be watched, with BBC One watched by the

Table 12:
%

Profile of those who watch TV channels daily
Total BBC One BBC ITV 1 News 24 (166) 51 49 29 34 19 11 7 47 17 2 3 2 3 26 (162) 67 33 22 26 35 9 8 45 14 2 3 5 1 30 GEO TV (113) 49 51 25 32 22 11 11 90 3 7 Sky News (139) 52 48 30 25 25 11 9 52 14 2 3 3 3 24 The Islam Channel (137) 42 58 23 21 26 10 20 60 14 1 3 4 2 17 BBC Channel Channel Zee TV Two 5 4 (141) 55 45 26 29 20 15 9 36 15 3 5 5 3 33 (122) 40 60 42 27 15 10 6 40 26 3 3 3 3 22 (116) 40 60 42 26 15 11 7 36 30 4 3 3 2 22 (84) 39 61 25 28 16 12 19 67 10 22 29

(1124) (307) SEX Male Female AGE 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ ETHNICITY Pakistani Bangladeshi Iraqi Somali/Other E. African North African Turkish/Kurdish Other Muslims
Source: Base:

52 48 27 24 24 9 15 43 17 4 3 3 5 27

45 56 30 30 22 9 8 41 19 3 4 3 2 29

Q26 And how frequently do you normally watch each of these? All respondents who watch each channel daily

British Muslim Media Consumption Report

March 2010

Viewers of BBC News 24 were more likely to be males, while those watching BBC One, Channel 4, Channel 5, the Islam Channel or Zee TV daily were more likely to be females. Viewers of Channels 4 and 5 tended to be in the youngest group (16–24) while those watching BBC One and ITV 1 were more likely to be 25- to 34-yearolds. Daily viewers of BBC News 24 were more likely to be 35- to 44-year-olds while those watching BBC Two tended to be aged 45–54 years.

Looking at the ethnic groups, viewers of GEO TV, Sky News, the Islam Channel and Zee TV were more likely to be Pakistanis. Those watching Channels 4 and 5, however, were more likely to be of Bangladeshi origin. Tables 13 and 14 show the TV channels watched by the various ethnic groups.

Table 13:
%

TV channels watched by ethnic group (1)
Total (1124) Pakistani Bangladeshi (306) 48 36 31 26 24 32 23 45 28 25 14 14 9 12 12 (124) 61 38 34 33 34 28 21 4 20 14 15 14 19 14 16 Iraqi (133) 65 43 36 34 36 19 28 3 14 3 12 8 13 11 6 Somali/ Other East African (175) 63 42 45 30 25 26 24 2 18 5 22 21 13 18 12 North African (145) 53 22 37 26 20 24 33 1 17 3 21 11 7 19 11 Turkish/ Kurdish (126) 53 38 38 26 19 9 15 * 15 1 16 6 5 11 7 Other Muslim (144) 56 44 39 31 29 24 27 9 18 16 19 20 17 13 11

BBC One ITV1 BBC Two five (Channel 5) Channel 4\S4C The Islam channel BBC News 24 GEO TV Sky News Zee TV BBC Three ITV2 E4 BBC Four Sky One
Note: Source: Base:

54 39 35 29 27 27 24 22 22 18 16 15 13 13 12

Only shown >5% Q25 Which of the following TV channels do you watch at all nowadays? All respondents (1124)

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Table 14:
%

TV channels watched by ethnic group (2)
Total Pakistani (1124) (306) 9 22 12 22 18 10 2 16 13 1 1 5 Bangladeshi (124) 4 2 12 * 57 1 3 1 1 4 * 29 5 Iraqi (133) 28 3 3 3 2 3 11 45 2 3 33 1 1 Somali/ Other East African (175) 32 12 * 3 12 29 * * 13 6 North African (145) 29 1 7 1 3 8 45 1 29 1 2 Turkish/ Kurdish (126) 3 4 * 1 13 5 * 3 2 1 Other Muslim (144) 11 6 13 3 5 9 9 4 5 6 7

Al Jazeera English ARY One World MTV PTV Prime Bangla TV Prime TV CNN Al Jazeera Arabic Aapna Channel Venus TV Al Arabiya MBC Channel S Living
Note: Source: Base:

11 11 11 10 10 9 9 8 8 8 5 5 5

Only shown >5% Q25 Which of the following TV channels do you watch at all nowadays? All respondents (1124)

There was relatively little variation across the ethnic groups in terms of their viewing of the mainstream channels of BBC One, ITV 1 and BBC Two. The exceptions were that fewer North Africans watched ITV 1 (22%) and fewer Pakistanis watched BBC Two (31%). More of the former group watched BBC News 24 (33%) and far more of the latter (45%) watched GEO TV, the Pakistan news channel. As Table 14 shows, Pakistanis were also more likely to watch ARY One World (33%) and PTV Prime (22%).

Bangladeshis were more likely to watch Bangla TV (57%) and Channel S (29%). Iraqis, those in the Somali/Other East African group and North Africans were more likely to watch Al Jazeera English and/or Al Jazeera Arabic. Iraqis and North Africans also were more likely to watch Al Arabiya MBC.

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Figure 17:

TV programmes usually watched

Any 69 per cent % Higher among: 16-34s (77%), GCSE and above but below degree (82%), 2nd Gen (86%), in UK 30+ years (80%), interested in News (80%) Any Lower among: Don’t speak English (47%) 69 Eastenders 33 per cent Crimewatch 31 per cent Newsnight 24 per cent EastEnders 33 Panorama 20 per cent The Bill 18 per cent Crimewatch 31 Higher among: Coronation Street 16 per cent Dispatches 13 per cent Newsnight 16-34s (77%), GCSE and above but 24 Hollyoaks 12 per cent below degree (82%), 2nd Gen (86%), Tonight with Trevor McDonald Panorama 11 per cent 20 in UK 30+ years (80%), interested in Question time 11 per cent Emmerdale 9 per cent Bill News (80%) The 18 Casualty 9 per cent Lower among: Holby City 7 per cent Coronation Street 16 Don’t speak English (47%) Have I got news for you 6 per cent Mock the Week 4 per cent Dispatches 13 None of these 31 per cent
Hollyoaks Tonight with Trevor McDonald Question time Emmerdale Casualty Holby City Have I got news for you Mock the Week None of these 4 31 7 6 9 9 12 11 11

Source: Base:

Q24 Which of the following programmes do you usually watch? All respondents (1124)

TV programmes usually watched
Respondents were asked which programmes they usually watched, using a prompt list. Figure 17 illustrates the findings on this measure. Almost seven out of ten respondents (69%) watched one or more of these programmes, this being higher among younger respondents (16–35 – 77%); those with GCSE and above qualifications but below a degree (82%); second-generation immigrants (86%); those who had been in the UK more than 30 years (80%); and those interested in news (80%). Predictably, fewer respondents who did not speak English usually watched any of these programmes (47%).

EastEnders was the most popular programme/soap opera (viewed by 33%) and Crimewatch was viewed by a similar proportion of respondents (31%). There were gender differences between these programmes, with more females watching EastEnders (44%) and more males watching Crimewatch (36%). EastEnders was more likely to be watched by Pakistanis (40%) and Bangladeshis (37%). Crimewatch was more likely to be watched by Pakistanis (33%) and Other Muslims (38%). These were followed by current affairs programmes, Newsnight (24%) and Panorama (20%) and then by the soaps, The Bill (18%) and Coronation Street (16%).

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Figure 18:

TV programmes would watch if specific issue of interest

Crimewatch 31 per cent TV programmes usually watched % 9 per cent TV programmes not currently Total watched but would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims Total 40% (%) Eastenders 33 per cent TV programmes usually watched 4 per cent TV programmes not currently watched but would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims Total 37% 31 Crimewatch 40 9 Panorama 20 per cent TV programmes usually watched 17 per cent TV programmes not currently watched but would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims Total 37% EastEnders 37 4 33 Newsnight 24 per cent TV programmes usually watched 12 per cent TV programmes not currently watched but would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims Total 36% The Bill 18 per cent TV programmes usually watched 4 per cent TV programmes not currently watched Panorama 20 37 17 but would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims Total 22% Dispatches 13 per cent TV programmes usually watched 8 per cent TV programmes not currently Newsnight 36 12 24 watched but would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims Total 21% Coronation Street 16 per cent TV programmes usually watched 4 per cent TV programmes not currently watched but would watch if featured18 issues affecting Muslims Total 20% The Bill 22 Question time 11 per cent TV programmes usually watched 4 5 per cent TV programmes not currently watched but would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims Total 16% Dispatches 13 21 87 per cent TV programmes not currently watched Casualty 9 per cent TV programmes usually watched but would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims Total 16% Tonight with Trevor McDonald 11 per cent TV programmes usually watched 4 per cent TV 20 4 Coronation Street 16 programmes not currently watched but would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims Total 15% Hollyoaks 12 per cent TV programmes usually watched 2 per cent TV programmes not currently 11 16 Question time 5 watched but would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims Total 14% Emmerdale 9 per cent TV programmes usually watched 3 per cent TV programmes not currently watched but would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims Total 12% 9 16 7 Casualty Holby City 7 per cent TV programmes usually watched 5 per cent TV programmes not currently watched but would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims Total 12% 15 Tonight with for you 6 per 11 Have I got newsTrevor McDonald cent TV programmes 4 usually watched 4 per cent TV programmes not currently watched but would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims Total 10% Mock the Week 4 per cent TV programmes usually watched 3 per cent TV programmes not currently 14 2 Hollyoaks 12 watched but would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims Total 7%
Emmerdale Holby City Have I got news for you Mock the Week 4 7 6 3 4 9 5 3 12 12 10 7

TV programmes usually watched TV programmes not currently watched but would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims Source: Base: Q24 / Q27 All respondents (1124)

TV programmes would watch if featured issues affecting Muslims
For programmes they did not currently watch, respondents were asked which they would watch if that programme featured issues affecting Muslims. Figure 18 shows the programmes usually watched (as shown in Figure 17) and the additional viewing that would accrue to each programme if it featured issues of interest. Panorama was the programme most likely to be watched if it featured an issue affecting Muslims, being mentioned by 17 per cent of respondents in this context. Newsnight also figured, being mentioned by 12 per cent. In total this would mean approaching two-fifths of the sample (Panorama – 37%; Newsnight – 36%), would watch each of these programmes.

Radio stations listened to/ frequency of listening
Using a prompted list respondents were asked which radio stations they listened to and how frequently they listened to each one. Figure 19 shows the main radio stations mentioned and again uses a ‘trafficlight’ system to indicate frequency of listening. Green indicates that 40 per cent or more of those who listen do so daily, amber is 30–39 per cent listen daily and red 29 per cent or less.

Just under half of those interviewed (46%) listened to any radio station. BBC Asian Network (11%), BBC Radio 1 (9%) and Sunrise Radio (9%) were the stations most likely to be listened to. All three of these stations were listened to daily by between 30 per cent and 39 per cent of respondents.

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Figure 19:

Radio stations listened to and frequency

BBC Asian Network 11 per cent ‘Listen Daily’ Frequency = 30-39% Lower Among: Been in UK 5 years or % less (5%), not interested in religion/culture (4%) BBC Radio 1 9 per cent ‘Listen Daily’ Frequency = 30-39% Higher among: Degree+ (18%), Lower Among: Over 45s (4%) Sunrise Radio 9 per cent ‘Listen Daily’ Frequency = 30-39% Higher among: 2nd/ 3rd generation (13%), 25-34s in UK (15%), LowerAsian Network educated (5%) Not interestedLower among: Been(5%) 5 years or less (5%), not in BBC Among: Non ‘Listen Daily’ Frequency = 40%entertainment 11 Kiss 100 FM 7 per cent or greater Higher among: 16-24s (14%) interested in religion/culture (4%) BBC Five Live 5 per cent ‘Listen Daily’ Frequency = 40% or greater Higher among: Males (8%), GCSE+ Degree(10%) Rammadan Radio 5 per cent ‘Listen Daily’ Frequency = 29% or less 34% once a year or less Any (net) 46 per cent Higher among: Degree+ (18%),
BBC Radio 1 9 Lower among: Over 45s (4%) Higher among: 2nd/3rd generation (13%), 25-34s (15%), Lower among: Non educated (5%) Not interested in entertainment (5%) Higher among: 16-24s (14%)

Sunrise Radio

9

Kiss 100 FM

7

BBC Five Live

5

Higher among: Males (8%), GCSE+ Degree- (10%)

Rammadan Radio

5

34% once a year or less

Any (net)

46

‘Listen Daily’ Frequency
Note: Source: Base:

= 40% or greater

= 30-39%

= 29% or less

Only shown >5% Q28 Which of the following radio stations do you listen to at all nowadays? Q29 And how frequently do you normally listen to each of these? All respondents (1124)/All who listen to each radio station

No particular group was more likely to listen to BBC Asian Network, though those with a degree were more likely to listen to BBC Radio 1 (18%). Kiss 100 FM and BBC Five Live had fewer listeners (7% and 5% respectively), but were more likely to be listened to daily. A full list of other radio stations listened to is included for reference in the Appendix.

Table 15 shows listening by ethnic group.

Pakistanis were more likely than most other ethnic groups to listen to BBC Asian Network (17%) and Sunrise Radio (15%). Turkish/Kurdish respondents were more likely to listen to Heart 106.2 FM than most other groups (12%) and also – along with Iraqis – to Choice FM and Classic FM.

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Table 15:
% Base Any (Net) BBC Asian Network BBC Radio 1 Sunrise Radio (Greater London) Kiss 100 FM BBC Five Live Rammadan Radio BBC Radio 4 Galaxy Heart 106.2 FM Magic TalkSPORT LBC News 1152 Choice FM Classic FM BBC Worldwide None of these

Radio stations listened to by ethnic group
Total (1124) 46 11 9 9 7 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 54 Pakistani Bangladeshi (306) 48in 17isnt 8 15bisnto 5 5 6 4 3 2 3 3 2 1 1 1 52 (124) 36 8nt 9 6 7 2 3 1 6 2 2 3 2 2 2 64to Iraqi (133) 30 2 9 2 5 4 2 3 5 5 1 4 10pbsn 6po 1 70pto Somali/ Other East African (175) 39 2 11 7 10bt 3 8b 1 4 3 4b 2 2 3 4p 61o North African (145) 37 1 7 11p 5 5 9pbt 4 9pbo 3 5 1 4 6po 63o Turkish/ Kurdish (126) 50bin 1 10 10 1 5 3 12pbsno 6 4b 1 8pbsn 7pbo 3 50 Other Muslim (144) 53bisn 9snt 11 7snt 10 7 5 4 4 3 3 6b 3 4 2 1 47

Sig higher than: p=Pakistani, b=Bangladeshi, i=Iraqi, s=Somali/other East African, n=North African, t=Turkish/Kurdish, o=Other Muslim Note: Only shown >5% Source: Q28 Which of the following radio stations do you listen to at all nowadays? Base: All respondents (1124)

Newspapers read/frequency of reading
Respondents were asked which of a list of newspapers they read at all nowadays and how frequently they did so. The main papers read are shown in Figure 20 and once again a ‘traffic-light’ system is used to denote the frequency of reading of each one. In this instance green indicates 50 per cent or more read daily, amber is 40–49 per cent and red is 39 per cent or less reading so frequently.

Just over two-thirds of respondents (67%) read any newspapers. Readership of Metro was highest at 24 per cent, which is much higher than among the general population and is no doubt due to the concentration of Muslims in urban areas. Younger respondents (16–34 – 30%) and those educated to degree level or above were more likely to read Metro. 35

British Muslim Media Consumption Report

March 2010

Figure 20:

Newspapers read and frequency

% General General population* 5% Metro 24 per cent ‘Read Daily’ Frequency = 50% or greater Higher among: 16-34s (30%), Degree+ (40%), In UK 6-10 years (38%) population* General population* 16% The Sun 17 per cent ‘Read Daily’ Frequency = 40-49% Higher among: Males (21%), 1634s (21%), V interested in entertainment (22%) Higher among: 16-34s (30%), Degree+ (40%), Metro 24 5% General population* 8% Daily Mirror 9 per cent ‘Read Daily’ Frequency =In UK 6-10 years (38%) among: 50% or greater Higher Males (12%), NE (17%), Interested in News (13%) General population* 11% Daily Mail 7 per cent ‘Read Daily’ Frequency = 40-49% General population* 2% The Guardian 6 per cent ‘Read Daily’ Frequency = 50% or greater Higher among: Males (21%), 16-34s (21%), General population* NA The Sun Jang The Daily 5 per cent ‘Read Daily’ Frequency = 40-49% 17 16% General population* 3% The Times 5 per cent ‘Read Daily’ Frequency = 39% or less V interested in entertainment (22%) Any newspaper 67 per cent 8% Daily Mirror 9 Higher among: Males (12%), NE (17%), Interested in News (13%)

11%

Daily Mail

7

2%

The Guardian

6

NA

The Daily Jang

5

3%

The Times

5

Any newspaper

67

‘Read Daily’ Frequency

= 50% or greater

= 40-49%

= 39% or less

*NRS Jan-Dec 07 Note: Only shown >5% Source: Q30 Which of the following newspapers do you read at all nowadays? Q31 And how frequently do you normally read each of these? Base: All respondents (1124) / All who read each newspaper

The Sun is the tabloid with the highest readership (17%), followed some way behind by the Daily Mirror and the Daily Mail (9% and 6% respectively). The Sun was more likely to be read by males (21%) and younger respondents (16–34 – 21%) and also by those very interested in entertainment (22%). The Daily Mirror was more likely to be read by males (12%); by those in the North East (17%) and those interested in news (13%). Among the broadsheets, readership of The Guardian and The Times was on a par (6% and 5% respectively). The Daily Jang was the specialist ethnic minority

paper with the highest number of mentions at five per cent. Metro, the Daily Mirror and The Guardian were read more frequently than other publications, with 50 per cent or more of those who read nowadays reading them daily or on most days. A full list of other newspapers read is included for reference in the Appendix. Table 16 shows readership by ethnic group.

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Table 16:
% Base Metro The Sun Daily Mirror Daily Mail The Guardian The Daily Jang The Times

Newspaper readership by ethnic group
Total (1124) 24 17 9 7 6 5 5 4 4 4 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 33 Pakistani Bangladeshi (306) 24 14 6 6 5 10 6 6 3 2 3 2 1 2 3 1 1 33 (124) 17 19 8 3 4 1 1 4 3 2 2 2 4 1 2 6 41 Iraqi (133) 36 15 8 4 6 4 3 3 21 3 4 3 2 3 1 1 2 32 Somali/ Other East African (175) 39 19 13 6 11 7 2 2 7 4 2 2 1 6 4 1 24 North African (145) 37 18 14 5 10 1 8 2 20 4 10 2 3 4 5 2 36 Turkish/ Kurdish (126) 28 30 12 5 8 8 4 1 10 6 8 1 3 10 7 22 Other Muslim (144) 25 17 14 12 7 3 4 4 8 2 3 2 4 3 1 2 29

The Daily Telegraph News of the World London Lite The Independent The London Paper Sunday Times Sunday Mirror The Muslim News Daily Star Turkish newspapers Other None of these
Note: Source: Base:

Only shown >5% Q30 Which of the following newspapers do you read at all nowadays? All respondents (1124)

Iraqis, Somalis/Other East Africans and North Africans were more likely than other ethnic groups to read Metro, while among the smaller titles Iraqis and North Africans were also more likely to read London Lite. Turkish/Kurdish respondents were more likely to read The Sun (30%) and Pakistanis were, unsurprisingly, more likely to read the Daily Jang (10%). Bangladeshis, however, were more likely than other ethnic groups to read no newspapers at all (41%).

Magazines read/frequency of reading
Respondents were asked which of a list of magazines they read at all nowadays and how frequently they read each one. The magazines read are shown in Figure 21, but the frequency measure is not shown as the base size for each magazine was too small to permit robust analysis.

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Figure 21:

Magazines read

General population* 5 OK 4 per cent Higher among: Females (6%), V interested in Entertainment (8%) not General religion (9%) population* General population* NA Asian Woman % 4 per cent Higher among: Females (8%), 16-24s (8%), 2nd Gen (7%), V Higher among: Females (6%), V interested in interested in entertainment (7%) General population* 4 Hello 4 per cent Higher among: Females (6%), (8%) not religion in religion/culture entertainment Not interested (9%) 5 OK 4 (9%) General population* 3 Auto Trader 3 per cent Higher among: Males (6%) Higher among: Females (8%), 16-24s (8%), V interested in GeneralNA population* 8 What’sWoman 34per cent Higher among: Females (5%), 16-24s (6%), 2nd Asian on TV Entertainment (7%) Gen (7%), V interested in entertainment (7%) General population* 4 Heat 3 per cent Higher among: Females (5%), 16-24s (7%), V interested in 4 Entertainment (7%) Hello 4 General population* NA Asian Choice Magazine 2 per cent Higher among: Females (6%), General population* 3 Glamour 2 per cent Not interested in religion/culture (9%) 3 Auto Trader 3 per cent General population* 2 Woman & Home 2 General population* 6 Take a Break 2 per cent General population* 4 TV Times TVper cent 2 8 What's magazines3 per cent Higher among: Males (6%) General population* NA Sport’son 2 General population* 4 Cosmopolitan 2 per cent General population* NA Net: Any 27 per cent 4 Heat 3
NA 3 2 6 4 NA 4 NA Asian Choice Magazine Glamour Woman & Home Take a Break TV Times Sport's magazines Cosmopolitan Net: Any 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 27 Higher among: Females (5%), 16-24s (6%), V interested in entertainment (7%)

Higher among: Females (5%), 16-24s (7%), V interested in entertainment (7%)

NB Source: Base:

Base sizes too low to look at frequency Q32 Which of the following magazines do you read at all nowadays? Q33 And how frequently do you normally read each of these? All respondents (1124)

Just over a quarter of respondents read any magazines. This is lower than other media, but is in line with the general population. All titles received relatively low levels of mentions, with OK, Asian Woman and Hello being most frequently mentioned (each by four per cent of the sample). Not surprisingly, each of these titles was more likely to be mentioned by females. There was relatively little variation in magazine readership by ethnic group. A full list of other magazines read is included for reference in the Appendix. 38

Internet access, forums/blogs and website usage
All survey participants were asked whether they had access to the Internet. Users were asked how often they accessed it and where this took place. They were also asked whether they ever logged onto discussion forums or used blogs to talk about or listen to issues affecting them and their community and which types of websites they used. Usage of specific websites was also investigated. Figure 22 summarises the measures relating to Internet access.

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Figure 22:

Internet access

Q.15 Do you have access to the Internet? Higher among: 16-24s (76%), Higher than Yes 61 per cent No Q.15 Do you have access to the Internet? 39 per cent GCSE (69%). English main Lang (66%) Higher among: 16-24s (83%), educated (74%), English main language (72%) Q17 How often do you access the Internet? Q16 Where do you have access to the Internet? At home\In someone else’s home 88 per cent Public place (e.g. library/internet cafe ) School\College\University\Other learning centre 19 per cent At work 17 per cent Daily Outside home (Net) 11 per cent Higher Somewhere else outside the homeamong: 7 per cent No Most days Anywhere via aYes Mobile Phone\via blackberry 3 per cent 16-24s (83%), educated 61% 39% 58 Community or voluntary organisation main1 per cent (74%), English Weekly DK 1 per cent % language (72%) Higher among: 16-24s (92%), 2nd generation (94%), Pakistanis (94%), Iraqis (96%) Monthly Q17 How often do you access the Internet? Never 7 per cent 19 Less than once a month Less than once a month 3 per cent Monthly 2 per cent 11 2 Never Weekly 11 per cent Most days 19 per cent 3 7 Average: 260 times/year Daily 58 per cent Higher among: 16-24s (76%), Higher than GCSE (69%). English main Lang (66%) % Average: 260 do you have access to the Internet? Q16 Where times/year
At home\In someone else's home Public place (e.g. library/internet cafe ) School\College\University\ Other learning centre At work Outside home (Net) Somewhere else outside the home Anywhere via a Mobile Phone\via blackberry Community or voluntary organisation DK 1 1 3 7 11 19 17 88

Higher among: 16-24s (92%), 2nd generation (94%), Pakistanis (94%), Iraqis (96%)

Source: Base:

Q15 (1124), Q16 (683), Q17 (683) All respondents / All respondents who have Internet access

Three out of five respondents (61%) had Internet access. This is broadly in line with the general population, 66 per cent of whom access the Internet. Using the Internet was more common among the youngest age group (16–24 – 83%); among those educated to GCSE or above (74%) and among those for whom English was their main language (72%). The majority of Internet users – almost three out of five (58%) – accessed it daily, with a further fifth (19%) doing so on most days. A further 11 per cent accessed it weekly. On average, those with Internet access did so 260 times a year. Daily usage was higher among the youngest age group (16–24 – 76%), among those with education above GCSE level (69%) and where English was their main language (66%).

The vast majority (88%) had Internet access in their or someone else’s home. Having access at home/ someone else’s home was more likely among the youngest group (16–24 – 92%) and those who were second-generation immigrants (94%) and also among Iraqis (96%) and Pakistanis (94%). Some 19 per cent accessed it at their place of education or a library/Internet café and 17 per cent did so at work. Comparing the profile of those without Internet access to those who had it, respondents without access were more likely to be aged 55+ (27% versus 7%) and to have no qualifications (40% versus 17%). They were also more likely not to speak English regularly (63% versus 78%) and less likely to have it as their main language (29% versus 45%). In line with this, they were more likely to have been born outside

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Figure 23:

Participation in discussion forums and blogs

Q18 Do you everever log on to discussion forumsor use blogs toWhich discussion forums or blogs that affect you and Q19 talk about or listen to issues do you use? Q18 Do you log on to discussion forums or your community? about or listen to issues that use92 per cent blogs to talk No Yes affect youcent your community? 8 per and Higher among: 25-34s (14%) BBC 8 Q19 Which discussion forums or blogs do you use? BBC 8 per cent Pal Talk 4 per cent MSN 3 per cent Pal Talk 4 Somali websites 2 per cent Other 91 per cent Don’t know 5 per cent MSN 3
Higher among: 25-34s (14%)

No 92%

Yes 8%

Somali websites

2

Other Don't know Source: Base: Q18 (683), Q19 (54) All respondents with internet access

91 5

the UK (77% versus 57%). They were less likely to read any newspapers at all nowadays (55% versus 75%). Figure 23 shows the results for discussion forums and blogs among those with Internet access. A minority of those who accessed the Internet logged onto forums/blogs (8%), though this was higher among younger respondents (25–34 – 14%). There was very little variation by ethnic group in terms of whether forums/blogs were used. Not surprisingly, a wide range of forums/blogs were used and any single one was mentioned by relatively few respondents – the most commonly mentioned 40

being the BBC (by 8%). Others mentioned were Pal Talk (4%), MSN (3%) and Somali websites (2%). Figure 24 shows the types of websites visited by those with Internet access (all sites mentioned by more than five per cent of the sample are shown). A prompted list of website types was shown and respondents were asked which they visited at all nowadays. Education was the type of website mentioned most frequently (by 27%) of those who accessed the Internet. Music (23%), news (23%), jobs/recruitment (22%) and sports (22%) websites were the other types most likely to be visited.

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Figure 24:

Types of websites visited

% Education 27 per cent Higher among: 16-24s (37%), Degree+ (38%), in UK 5yrs or less (44%) Music 23 per cent Higher among: 16-24s (44%), In UK 10yrs or less (35%) News headlines 23 per cent Higher among: Males (28%) Higher among: 16-24s (37%), Degree+ (38%), in Jobs\recruitment 22 per cent Higher among: 25-34s (28%), Degree+ 27 (40%), 2nd Gen (28%), in UK 5 years or less Education UK 5yrs or less (44%) (40%) Sports 22 per cent Higher among: Males (35%), Higher than GCSE (30%), In UK 10 years or less (34%) Films\cinema 18 per cent Higher among: 16-34 (24%), in UK 5 years or less (33%) Higher among: 16-24s (44%), In UK 10yrs or less (35%) Music 23 Religious guidance\info 12 per cent Games 12 per cent Higher among: 16-24 (21%), v-interested entertainment (20%) Health 11 per cent Higher among: Females (16%), 25-34s (19%) Shopping\retail (grocery) 11 per cent Higher among: Males (28%) News headlines 23 Jobs\recruitment Sports Films\cinema Religious guidance\info Games Health Shopping\ retail (grocery)
Note: Source: Base:

22 22 18 12 12 11 11

Higher among: 25-34s (28%), Degree+ (40%), 2nd Gen (28%), in UK 5 years or less (40%) Higher among: Males (35%), Higher than GCSE (30%), In UK 10 years or less (34%)

Higher among: 16-34 (24%), in UK 5 years or less (33%)

Higher among: 16-24 (21%), v-interested entertainment (20%)

Higher among: Females (16%), 25-34s (19%)

Only shown >5% Q34 Which of the following types of website do you visit at all nowadays?  All respondents with Internet access (683)

Film/cinema sites were mentioned by 18 per cent and games by 12 per cent. The same proportion (12%) mentioned websites which gave religious guidance and information. Health-related websites and shopping/retail (including grocery) were each mentioned by 11 per cent of respondents. Education websites were mentioned more frequently by the youngest respondents (16–24 – 37%), by those with a degree or above (38%) and by those who had been in the UK for five years or less (44%). It is possible that some of these respondents are in higher education in the UK. Music, films and games websites were more likely to be mentioned by 16- to 24-year-olds (by 44%, 24%

and 21% respectively). Recruitment websites were more likely to be mentioned by 25- to 34-year-olds (28%), by those with a degree or above (40%) and respondents who had been in the UK five years or less (40%). There was relatively little variation in the types of website visited by the various ethnic groups. Respondents were also asked which of a list of specific websites they had visited more than once and how frequently they visited them. This is shown in Figure 25, which again uses a ‘traffic-light’ system to show frequency of use. In this instance green indicates 60 per cent or more visit daily, amber is 40–59 per cent and red shows that 39 per cent or less visit daily.

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Figure 25:

Websites visited and frequency

Google 68 per cent ‘Visit every day/most days’ Frequency = 60% or greater % % Youtube 43 per cent ‘Visit every day/most days’ Frequency = 40-59% Yahoo 35 per cent ‘Visit every day/most days’ Frequency = 60% or greater Ebay 31 per cent ‘Visit every day/most days’ Frequency = 39% or less Yell.com MSN 29 per cent ‘Visit every day/most days’ Frequency = 60% or68 greater Google 7 BBC 24 per cent ‘Visit every day/most days’ Frequency = 40-59% Facebook 20 per cent ‘Visit every day/most days’ Frequency = 60% or greater Sky news 15 per cent ‘Visit every day/most days’ Frequency = 60% or greater Islam online 10 perYoutube every day/most days’ Frequency = 39% or less Directgov cent ‘Visit 43 7 Myspace 8 per cent ‘Visit every day/most days’ Frequency = 40-59% Yell.com 7 per cent Directgov 7 per cent Al Jazeera (English) 6 per Yahoo cent 35 Multimap 3 per cent 6 Al Jazeera (English) Channel 4 3 per cent Al Jazeera (Arabic) 2 per cent Muslim Youth Net 2 per cent Ebay 31 Foreign Office website 2 per cent Multimap 3 Mpacuk.com 1 per cent
MSN BBC Facebook Sky news Islam online Myspace 10 8 15 Foreign Office website 2 24 Al Jazeera (Arabic) 20 Muslim Youth Net 2 2 29 Channel 4 3

Mpacuk.com 1

‘Visit every day/most days’ Frequency Source: Base:

= 60% or greater

= 40-59%

= 39% or less

Q35 Which of the following websites have you visited (more than once)? Q36 And how frequently do you normally visit each of these sites? All respondents with Internet access (683)/All who visit each website

The website most likely to be visited was Google, which just over two-thirds of respondents with Internet access (68%) had visited more than once. This was followed by YouTube (43%) and Yahoo (35%). Google and Yahoo were used more frequently than YouTube. Other sites used by around three out of ten respondents were eBay (31%) and MSN (29%). The BBC website was used by a quarter of them (24%) and Facebook by one in five (20%). The only other sites used by one in ten or more of these respondents were Sky News (15%) and Islam Online (10%). In total, 16 per cent of the sample visited any ethnic minority site. 42

There was relatively little significant variation by ethnic group in the specific sites that were visited. However, Somali and North African respondents were more likely to visit ethnic minority sites, particularly Islam Online (14% and 15% respectively) and Al Jazeera English (17% and 15%) and Al Jazeera Arabic (10% and 21% respectively). Iraqis were also more likely than most other groups to use Al Jazeera Arabic. A full list of other websites used is included for reference in Appendix 1.

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7.

Information sources used to find out about interest areas
topics, where only between a quarter and a third claimed to be very interested. Around four out of five were interested in each of domestic and international news (82% in each case), although somewhat more were ‘very interested’ in world news (35%) compared to domestic issues (27%). Slightly fewer – but still three-quarters of the sample – (76%) were interested in entertainment.

Respondents were asked which media channels they used to find out about different types of information and then which specific television channels, publications and online sources they used for each purpose.

Reminder: Interest in key types of information
To set the scene before discussing the media channels used, this section recaps on respondents’ interest in key types of information, as discussed in Chapter 5 above. Claimed interest in all four topics was high, but the highest level of interest was in religion and culture, with more than nine out of ten (92%) British Muslims interested in this topic and over half (55%) ‘very interested’ in it. This is in contrast to all of the other

Media used for different types of information
Respondents were asked which of the following channels they used to find out about the topics discussed in the section above. Table 17 summarises this information.

Figure 26:

Interest in key types of information

Your religion and culture Very interested (4) 55 per cent Fairly interested (3) 37 per cent Your religion International Entertainment Domestic Not very interested (2) 7 per cent Not at all interested (1) 1 per cent DK 1 per cent Domestic news Very interested (4) 27 per cent Fairly interested (3) 55 per cent and culture news news Not very interested (2) 13 per cent Not at all interested (1) 3 per cent DK 1 per cent International news Very interested (4) 35 percent Fairly interested (3) 47 per cent Not very interested (2) 13 per cent Not at all interested (1) 5 per cent DK 1 per cent Very Entertainment Very interested (4) 28 per cent Fairly interested (3) 48 per cent interested (4) Not very interested (2) 15 per cent Not at all interested (1) 8 per cent 28 1 per cent DK
27 35 55
82% 82% 76%

Fairly interested (3) Not very interested (2) Not at all interested (1) DK

92%

% 55 47 48

37 13 3 13 5 15 8

7

Source: Base:

Q57 How interested if at all would you say you are in each of these different areas? All respondents (1124)

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Table 17:

Media used for different types of information
Religion & Culture % Domestic News % 43 12 63 17 13 International News % 29 10 74 23 17 Entertainment % 20 10 62 23 18

NEWSPAPERS (NET) RADIO (NET) TELEVISION (NET) THE INTERNET (NET) SPECIALIST/ETHNIC MINORITY (NET)
Source: Base:

23 9 59 27 33

Q37-40 Which of the following do you use to find out about? All respondents (1124)

Television was the key channel for all types of information. This was particularly so for international news, which 74 per cent of respondents accessed via TV, compared to domestic news (63%), entertainment (62%) or religion and culture (59%). Newspapers were primarily used for domestic news information (43%), but also for international news (29%). Those seeking information about religion

and culture were more likely to use specialist/ethnic minority media channels (33%). While only around one in ten used radio, it figured consistently for all these types of information. Table 18 shows the subgroups which were more likely to use each channel to find out information about a particular topic.

Table 18:

Subgroups’ use of media to find out about key types of information
Higher Amongst Religion & Culture In UK 21-30 yrs (31%), speak English and other language, (26%), GCSE only (27%), Degree+ (27%), V interested in news (34%)/entertainment (28%) 45-54s (15%), North (15%), V interested in news (13%) Domestic News Males (46%), 1624s (51%), E.Mids (59%), Educated (50%), 2nd Gen (51%), V interested in news (57%) International News Males (33%), Degree+ (44%), V interested in news (39%) Entertainment 16-34s (22%), Degree+ (28%), V interested in news (25%)

NEWSPAPERS (NET)

RADIO (NET)

35-54s (18%), North (20%), 45-54s (19%), NW NW (19%), Degree+ (20%), V (19%), V interested in Degree+ (16%), interested in news news (15%) (17%) Males (20%), 16-34s (24%), E.Mids (28%), Higher than GCSE (26%), 2nd Gen (26%), V interested in news (23%) Males (27%), 16-34s (31%), E.Mids (33%), GCSE+ (37%), 2nd Gen (29%), in UK 5 yrs or less (34%), V interested in news (30%) Males (26%), 16-24s (42%), North (31%), E.Mids (30%), GCSE+ (37%), 2nd Gen (34%), in UK 5 years or less (38%)

THE INTERNET (NET)

16-34s (38%), NE (40%), Educated (37%), 2nd Gen (39%), In UK 5 yrs or less (37%), V interested in News/ entertainment (33%)

SPECIALIST/ 35-54s (38%), NE (41%) E.Mids Been in UK 6-10 ETHNIC (44%), V interested in religion years (21%) MINORITY (NET) & culture (40%)/news (39%) 44
Source: Base: Q37-40 Which of the following do you use to find out about? All respondents (1124)

35-44s (23%), E.Mids E.Mids (29%), In UK 5 years or less (31%), Don’t speak (28%), English (24%)

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Figure 27: Iraqis

Key differences in channel use by ethnic group North Africans
Higher on: RELIGION & CULTURE: Internet (vs. Bangladeshis, Somali/Other East Africans) DOMESTIC NEWS: Radio (vs. Bangladeshis) Internet (vs. Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Somali/Other East Africans) INTERNATIONAL NEWS: Radio (vs. Iraqis) Internet (vs. Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Turkish/Kurdish) ENTERTAINMENT: Internet (vs. Somali/ Other East Africans)

Turkish/Kurdish
Higher on: DOMESTIC NEWS: Specialist/ethnic minority sources (vs. Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Somali/Other East Africans, other Muslims) INTERNATIONAL NEWS: Radio (vs. Bangladeshis, Iraqis) Specialist/ethnic minority sources (vs. Pakistanis, Somali/ Other East Africans, other Muslims) ENTERTAINMENT: Internet (vs. Somali/ Other East Africans) Specialist/ethnic minority sources (vs. all except Iraqis)

Other Muslims
Higher on: RELIGION & CULTURE: Internet (vs. Bangladeshis) DOMESTIC NEWS: Radio (vs. Bangladeshis) Internet (vs. Pakistanis) INTERNATIONAL NEWS: Internet (vs. Pakistanis) ENTERTAINMENT: Internet (vs. Somali/ Other East Africans, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis)

Higher on: DOMESTIC NEWS: Internet (vs. Pakistanis) ENTERTAINMENT: Specialist/ethnic minority sources (vs. Pakistanis, Somali/ Other East Africans) Lower on: ENTERTAINMENT: Radio (vs. all except Bangladeshis)

The key themes which emerged were the use of radio by respondents aged 35 and over and the use of the Internet by younger respondents. In addition, those who had been in the UK for five years or less were more likely to use the Internet for most types of information. Figure 27 summarises key differences in channel use which were observed between various ethnic groups. Table 19 examines in more detail the specific television stations used to access key types of information.

Clearly, BBC One dominates for both types of news and also for entertainment. A third used BBC One for domestic news (33%), slightly fewer for international news (30%) and a fifth (21%) for information about entertainment. Dedicated news channels – BBC News 24 (20%) and Sky News (21%) were also strongly used for international news and to a slightly lesser extent for domestic news. The Islam Channel was the key source for information about religion and culture, being used by 27 per cent of those interviewed.

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Table 19:

TV channels used to find out about key types of information (1)
Religion & Culture % Domestic News % 3 6 33 2 16 3 8 10 16 14 3 6 3 1 2 International News % 3 12 30 2 12 6 6 9 20 21 7 5 4 1 3 Entertainment % 3 8 21 2 14 9 11 3 3 2 10 2 3 3

The Islam Channel GEO TV BBC One PTV Prime ITV 1 ARY One World Channel 4\S4C BBC Two BBC News 24 Sky News CNN Five (Channel 5) AJ Arabic Prime TV Bangla TV
Note: Source: Base:

27 12 8 7 3 6 3 4 4 3 1 2 5 5 5

Only shown >5% Q49-52 Which television stations or channels do you use to find out about …. All respondents (1124)

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8.

Information sources used to find out about interest areas
For information on religion and culture, word-ofmouth channels were most trusted, with over half (54%) mentioning their parents and almost as many (47%) mentioning community, youth or religious leaders. The same proportion (47%) mentioned Islamic books/CDs/DVDs. All other sources were mentioned by considerably fewer respondents in the context of religion and culture. Looking at domestic news, the most trusted sources were newspapers (35%) and television (33%). Around half as many respondents mentioned either the Internet (18%) or the Government/police/local authorities (17%) in this context.

For each of the areas of interest respondents were shown a list of possible information sources and asked to choose the ones they trusted most and least. At the ‘trusted’ question they were asked to select up to five trusted sources for each information type. For sources they did not trust, no limit was set and respondents simply selected those they did not trust. Figure 28 shows the main sources that were mentioned as trusted for each information type. In some cases the level of mentions of specific sources was very low and all sources within that type have been aggregated to show a total for that channel e.g. ‘any Internet’.

Figure 28:

Trusted sources of information

Religion/Culture Parents 54 per cent Community/youth/religious leaders 47 per cent Islamic Books/ CDs/DVDs Religion/Culture International News Entertainment Domestic News 47 per cent Any Internet 20 per cent Any TV 15 per cent Any Newspapers 10 per cent Government/police/local % % % % authorities 9 per cent Any specialist/ethnic minority 8 per cent Any Radio 4 per cent Domestic NewsParents 14 per cent Parents Community/youth/religious leaders 8 per cent Islamic Books/ 10 14 6 54 CDs/DVDs 4 per cent Any Internet 18 per cent Any TV 33 per cent Any Newspapers 35 per cent Government/police/local authorities 17 per cent Any specialist/ethnic minority 8 per cent Any Radio 9 per cent Community/youth/ 6 8 International News Parents 10 per47 cent Community/youth/religious leaders 6 per4 cent Islamic religious leaders Books/CDs/DVDs 3 per cent Any Internet 27 per cent Any TV Any Newspapers 24 per cent Government/police/local Islamic Books/ 47 per cent authorities 8 per cent Any specialist/ethnic minority 11 per cent Any Radio 6 per cent 4 3 4 47 CDs/DVDs Entertainment Parents 6 per cent Community/youth/religious leaders 4 per cent Islamic Books/ CDs/DVDs 4 per cent Any Internet 15 per centAny Internet 39 per20 Any TV cent Any Newspapers 19 per cent Government/police/local 15 27 18 authorities 3 per cent Any specialist/ethnic minority 8 per cent Any Radio 9 per cent
Any TV Any Newspapers Government/police/ local authorities Any specialist/ ethnic minority Any Radio 4 15 10 9 8 8 9 6 17 33 35 8 11 24 3 8 9 47 19 39

Source: Base:

Q58 Please select the most trusted sources of information for each area of interest (up to 5) All respondents (1124)

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Figure 29:

Non-trusted sources of information

Religion/Culture Government/police/local authorities’ 26 per cent Any Newspapers 22 per cent Any Religion/Cultureper cent Domestic News International News Entertainment Internet 21 per cent Any Radio 10 Any TV 9 per cent Community/youth/religious leaders 8 per cent Islamic Books/CDs/DVDs 6 per cent % % % % Any specialist/ethnic minority 6 per cent Parents 4 per cent Domestic News Government/police/local authorities’ 14 per cent Any Newspapers 21 per cent Any Government/police/ 14 12 8 26 Internet 17 per cent Any TV local authorities Any Radio 7 per cent 8 per cent Community/youth/religious leaders 5 per cent Islamic Books/CDs/DVDs 3 per cent Any specialist/ethnic minority 6 per cent Parents 2 per cent International News Government/police/local authorities’ 12 per cent Any Newspapers 19 per cent Any 21 per cent Any Internet Newspapers Any Radio 9 per cent Any TV 21 19 22 11 10 per cent Community/youth/religious leaders 4 per cent Islamic Books/CDs/DVDs 3 per cent Any specialist/ethnic minority 6 per cent Parents 2 per cent Entertainment Government/police/local authorities’ 8 per cent Any Newspapers 11 per cent Any Internet 12 per cent Any TV Any Internet Any Radio 7 per cent 21 17 21 12 6 per cent Community/youth/religious leaders 3 per cent Islamic Books/CDs/DVDs 3 per cent Any specialist/ethnic minority 4 per cent Parents 2 per cent
Any Radio 10 9 8 6 6 4 2 5 3 6 2 7 8 4 3 6 9 10 3 3 4 2 7 6

Any TV Community/youth/ religious leaders Islamic Books/ CDs/DVDs Any specialist/ ethnic minority Parents

Source: Base:

Q59 Please select the sources of information you don’t trust for each area of interest All respondents (1124)

Television was more frequently mentioned (by almost half – 47%) as a trusted source of international news. Newspapers were mentioned by 24 per cent for international news and the Internet by 27 per cent. Around one in ten mentioned each of parents (10%) and specialist/ethnic minority media (11%) as trusted sources of international news. Television was also the most trusted source for entertainment (mentioned by 39%), with the Internet (15%) and newspapers (19%) in the second tier, as for international news. Figure 29 examines the sources of information that were not trusted.

The least trusted source for information on religion and culture (by 26%) was the Government or any agency associated with it such as the police or local authorities. In addition, around one in five respondents did not trust newspapers or the Internet for this type of information (22% and 21% respectively). Newspapers and the Internet were also the least trusted sources for information on both domestic and international news, and to a lesser extent also relating to entertainment.

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APPENDIX 1: Special interest groups and other channels by media
Examples of findings
Example of findings: Media consumption of 16- to 24-year-old males Around three out of five young males (61%) claimed they sometimes wore traditional clothes – broadly in line with all males (64%).

Language
For 42 per cent of this age group English was their main language (compared to 37% of males in general). One in ten young males (9%) spoke only English at home and 68 per cent were multilingual (compared to 9% and 61% of males in general).

Interest in key information
Young males expressed the same level of interest in religion and culture, domestic news and international news as males in general (‘Very interested’: 16–24s – 49%, 21% and 35% respectively; all males – 54%, 26% and 41% respectively). However, young males were significantly more likely to express an interest in entertainment (43%) than were males in general (27%).

Country of birth
More than two-fifths (43%) of the 16- to 24-year-olds were born outside the UK. This is significantly lower when compared to males in general (70%).

Most trusted sources of information
For information on religion and culture young males were more likely to rely on parents (68%) than were males in general (52%). Both groups were as likely to refer to community or religious leaders (16–24s – 51%; all males – 51%). For domestic news young males were more likely to trust newspapers (51% versus 37% of all males), but both groups were as likely to trust television (29% and 34% respectively). Television figured more strongly for international news, though not significantly more so for young males (16–24s – 54%; all males 47%). For this topic 33 per cent of the young age group trusted newspapers (versus 27% of all males). For information on entertainment young males were more likely than males in general to trust both television (53% versus all males 42%) and newspapers (30% versus all males 21%).

Main concerns
The main issues for the 16–24 age group were drugs (38%) and crime/anti-social behaviour (36%). Males in general expressed similar levels of concern about these issues (30% and 32% respectively).

Religious behaviour
In most respects young males did not differ significantly in their claimed behaviour from males in general. The exception related to prayer, with fewer of this age group claiming to pray at home every day (43% – compared to 55% among all males). Around three-quarters of this age group claimed they observed all fasts during Ramadan/Lent (76%) or ate only Halal food (79%). In both respects they closely resembled males in general (76% and 82% respectively). Just under half the 16- to 24-year-olds (47%) claimed to go to the mosque/church more than once a week (compared to 53% of all males).

Not trusted sources of information
The views of young males were very similar to those of males in general on this topic. The same proportion of both groups did not trust the Government and

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its various agencies for information on religion and culture (16–24s – 30%; all males – 24%). Only relating to domestic news was there any significant variation between the two groups, with young males more likely to mention the radio as not trusted compared to all males (17% versus 9% of all males).

compared to males in general (35%, 24% and 20% respectively). They were more likely to have visited (more than once) Google (83% versus 71%) and YouTube (70% versus 48%). The majority of males (92% 16- to 24-year-olds versus 89% males in general) consumed TV/radio in English (with 42% only in English – compared to 34% of all males). Looking at newspapers/magazines, the same proportion of young males consumed them in English (89% versus 85%), but young males were more likely to do so only in English (58% compared to 46%). Example of findings: Media consumption of mothers of children aged 11–15/16+

Media consumption
Young males were more likely to watch most programme types – but particularly football (65% versus 55% of all males) and films (62% versus 49%). In common with all males, they mainly watched BBC One (56% versus 54%) and ITV 1 (46% versus 40% of all males). Key programmes watched were EastEnders (35% versus 23%) and Crimewatch (34% versus 36%). Just under three out of five young males listened to any radio station (59% versus 52% of all males). Key stations were Kiss 100 FM (18% versus 8%) and Galaxy (8% versus 3%), where in both cases significantly more young males listened than males in general. Radio 1 was also listened to by eight per cent of young males (and 10% of all males). Three-quarters of young males (75% versus 70% of males in general) read any newspaper. They were significantly more likely to read Metro (36% versus 26%) and as likely to read The Sun (22% versus 21%). Just under one in three read any magazines (30%), this being significantly higher than the proportion of all males doing so (20%). Auto Trader was the most commonly mentioned title (by 10%, compared to 6% of all males). A far higher proportion of young males had Internet access (84% versus 62% of all males), mainly accessed at home/someone else’s home (96% versus 90%). They were also more likely to access the Internet daily (77% versus 59%). Key website types were sports (48%), education (37%) and music (33%) and they were significantly more likely to visit all of these types

Language
One in ten mothers of this age group spoke only English (10%). Those with older children were more likely to do so (15% compared to only 4% of those with children aged 11–15). There was no significant difference in the number speaking English as their main language (child/ren aged11–15 – 30%; child/ren aged 16+ – 27%).

Country of birth
Just over three-quarters of mothers of children aged 11 and over (77%) were born outside the UK. This was true of 81 per cent of those with children aged 16+ – significantly higher than for those with slightly younger children (66%).

Main concerns
The main concerns of mothers of both age groups were crime and drugs. Significantly more mothers of 11- to 15-year-olds mentioned crime/anti-social behaviour (42% compared to 27% among those with children aged 16+).

Religious behaviour
There were few significant differences in claimed behaviour between mothers of the two age groups. Just over half of each group went to the mosque

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or church once a month or less (52% and 55% respectively); most prayed at home every day (82% and 77% respectively), observed all fasts (86% versus 81%) and ate only Halal food (88% versus 84%). They did differ, however, in adoption of traditional clothing, with mothers of older teenagers more likely always to do so (69% versus 54% among mothers of 11- to 15-year-olds) and mothers of younger children more likely to do so only sometimes (43%, versus 28% among mothers of those aged 16+).

Mothers in both groups were equally likely not to trust the Government and its agencies for information about religion and culture (11–15 years – 27%; 16+ – 19%). However, mothers of 11- to 15-year-olds were more likely not to trust the Internet as a source of information on this topic (20% versus 11%). The only other significant difference between these groups concerned entertainment, where more of the mothers with children aged 11–15 years did not trust the radio as a source of information (12% versus 5%).

Interest in key information
Mothers of children in both age bands were equally interested in information about religion and culture (mothers of 11- to 15-year-olds – 65%; of 16+-yearolds – 69%) and also entertainment (24% and 16% respectively). Mothers of younger teenagers were, however, more interested in domestic news (34% versus 22%) and international news (40% versus 28%).

Media consumption
There were some differences in the programme types watched by these subgroups. Mothers of younger teenagers were more likely to watch soaps (48% versus 24%), films (50% versus 34%) and the news/weather (47% versus 26%). The main TV channel watched by both groups was BBC One (56% and 44% respectively). Both were equally likely to watch the Islam Channel (37% and 39% respectively). Mothers of older teenagers were more likely to watch ARY One World (29% versus 18%), but those with younger teenage children were more likely to watch ITV 1 (41% versus 29%) and Channel Five (41% versus 24%). Key programmes watched were Crimewatch and EastEnders, with more of the mothers of younger children watching the latter (52% versus 32%). Listening to radio was more common among the mothers of younger teenagers, 49 per cent of whom did so compared to 30 per cent among those with children aged 16+. Key stations listened to by both groups were BBC Asian Network and Sunrise Radio (Greater London). Mothers of 11- to 15-year-olds also were more likely to read any newspapers (69% versus 50%). In particular, they were more likely to read The Sun (13% versus 6%). Magazine readership levels were not significantly different across these two groups (31% versus 24%).

Most trusted sources of information
Mothers of younger teenagers were more likely to nominate parents as a trusted source of information on religion and culture (57% versus 41% for those with children aged 16+). For domestic news they were more likely to trust newspapers (33% versus 21% among mothers of older teenagers). The same was also true for information on entertainment (19% versus 8% respectively). However television was the main trusted source for this topic among both groups (42% and 34% respectively). Looking at international news, mothers of 11- to 15-year-olds were more likely to state that they trusted the Internet (30% versus 18% among mothers of 16+ children). Here too, though, television was the main trusted source (by 51% and 41% respectively).

Not trusted sources of information
There was relatively little variation between the two parental groups on this measure.

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March 2010

More of the mothers of younger teenagers had Internet access (72% versus 55%), but both groups were equally likely to access the Internet daily (41% versus 42%). The types of website visited were broadly similar, though mothers of younger teenagers were more likely to visit education-related sites (34% versus 16%). TV and radio were more likely to be consumed in English by mothers of younger teenagers (84% versus

66%). However, both subgroups were equally likely to also consume these channels in languages other than English (82% versus 87%). The same was true for print media, with 81 per cent of mothers of 11- to 15-year-olds using English, compared to only 45 per cent of mothers of older teenagers. They were also more likely to consume printed material in English only (40% versus 21%).

Other channels by media
Figure A1.1: Q25 – TV channels watched nowadays
3% mentions STAR TV VIRGIN ONE 1% mentions 118 KISS THE BOX CHANNEL U IRAQ TV KUWAIT TV DUBAI TV AFRICAN WILDLIFE RAYAT TV UNIVERSITY TV AL IRAQIA ALFRAT AHLULBAYT TV KURDIST AN TV EURONEWS 1% mentions AL MANAR BBC WORLD FLUSH CHANNEL BRTV KANAL68 CHANNEL D ATN BANGLA CHANNEL I ARY DIGITAL TROUBLE FILM 4 SONY PLAYBOY BANGLA TV

5% mentions ALARABLYA MBC LIVING CHANNEL S

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Figure A1.2:

Q28 – Radio stations listened to nowadays
3% mentions HEART 106.2 FM MAGIC CHOICE FM LBC NEWS 1152 2% mentions BBC RADIO 2 CLASSIC FM VIRGIN RADIO 1% mentions SOMALI RADIO ASR KISMAT NEWS STATION RED ROSE WWW.NONSTOP PLAY. COM JAZZ 809 5 TOWN MTV BASE CNBC LIVE 5 UNIVERSAL RADIO HORNAFRIK SOMALI HORN AFRIC 1% mentions BBC TALK FM95 AWPZ FM RADlO VAZ REAL RADIO SOMALIAN RADIO SARABIC RADIO BIZIM FM BBC RADIO 3 BBC WORLDWIDE MALADI MALADI RADIO

5% mentions RAMMADAM RADIO 4% mentions BBC RADIO 4 GALAXY

Figure A1.3:
THE TIMES

Q30 – Newspapers read nowadays
3% mentions EASTERN EYE 2% mentions 1% mentions CITEZEN F.T RECORDER BENGALI NEWS SURMA THE FREE PRESS MEN NEWS JAZEERA EASTEDLIFE HUYTERET KURDISH COURIER & ADVERTISER ECONOMIST ALQUDS HORIYET THE MUSLIM NEWS THE MUSLIM WEEKLY SUNDAY TIMES THE OBESERVER SUNDAY MAIL SUNDAY MIRROR 1% mentions NEW DAKH BLOT ADVERTISER OLIL OLAY

5% mentions THE DAILY JANG 4% mentions THE DAILY TELEGRAPH NEWS OF THE WORLD LONDON LITE

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Figure A1.4:
OK

Q32 – Magazines read nowadays
2% mentions ASIAN CHOICE GLAMOUR WOMEN & HOME TAKE A BREAK TV TIMES SPORTS MAGAZINES COSMOPOLITAN 1% mentions ECONOMIST T3 STUFF SOAP LOCAL MAGAZINES NEW HAM MAGAZINES AL HAYA ZAHARATUL KHAlIJ SPEGELESMER READERS DIGEST HOUSE IN TRUST CHACHU LOOK SOP LIFE TIME SOAP MAGAZINE 1% mentions WAQAT WEEKLY PICK ME UP SCINSE NEW CLOSE ARCHITECTS JOURNAL RIBA

4% mentions ASIAN WOMAN HELLO 3% mentions AUTO TRADER WHATSONTV HEAT

Figure A1.5:
MULTlMAP CHANNEL 4

Q35 – Websites visited more than once
2% mentions AL JAZEERA (ARABIC) MUSLIM YOUTH NET FOREIGN OFFICE 1% mentions TIMES ONLINE ISLAMIC WEBSITE JOB PLUS CNN IBN GUM TREE SOMALI LAND COSMOPOLITAN SHIAVOICE.CQM SKYPE AOL LOOT MPACUK.COM HOTMAIL IIPC.TV MINICLlP.COM CARS AVON SOMALI 1% mentions FENERBAHCE

3% mentions

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© Crown Copyright 2010 Extracts from this document may be reproduced for non-commercial purposes on condition that the source is acknowledged. This information is also available on the Home Office website: http://security.homeoffice.gov.uk First Published: March 2010 Research completed: June 2008 ISSN 2042-8251 ISBN 978-1-84987-160-0 55

End of report

ISSN 2042-8251 ISBN 978-1-84987-160-0

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