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The Language of Terrorism:

Analysing the Public Discourse and Evaluating RICU’s Impact

January 2007 – March 2008

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CONTENTS
1 Objectives 3

2 Executive Summary 4

3 Events Timeline 5

4 Coverage Trends by Prominence, Media Type and Readership 7

5 Messages 10

6 Language Guidance Uptake – All Spokespeople 37

7 Themes 38

8 All Government Press Analysis – Pre And Post RICU Guidelines 41

11 Trend - Government Representative Message Uptake 45

12 Language Guidance Uptake By Representative 48

15 Broadcast Analysis 51

16 Conclusions 56

17 Methodology 58

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OBJECTIVES
RICU overarching objectives:
1. To analyse the language used to report issues relating to terrorism in UK public discourse
2. To evaluate the impact of the Research, Information and Communications Unit (RICU) on UK public discourse.

SPECIFIC EVALUATION REPORT OBJECTIVES


To deliver top line data and conclusions on all key indicators to all stakeholders within RICU, and Government..
To identify long term trends in message/language reporting.
To deliver perspective and insight on report findings and to provide a context for conclusions.
To establish whether variance from RICU guidance occurs at source, or is due to alteration by the media.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Between January 2007 and March 2008 inclusive, TNS Media Intelligence analysed 13,827 print and online articles to evaluate the
impact of Key Messages and Themes issued in Research, Information and Communications Unit (RICU) language guidance from
26 June 2007. Broadcast coverage was analysed quantitatively. There were 31,094 broadcast clips mentioning terrorism over the 15-
month period.
Within print and online coverage, all four Key Messages were mentioned positively 10,437 times across the 15-month period. Key
Messages that were conveyed negatively occurred 1,204 times (see charts on page 10 to 12). If an article contained a positive and a
negative Key Message, both mentions were recorded.
There were 2,513 articles that contained positive Key Messages before 26 June 2007, which covers a period of 176 days. Following
RICU’s guidance, there were 4,228 articles that contained one or more positive Key Messages, which covers a period of 280 days.
Despite an increase of more than one and half times, the proportion of articles containing positive Key Messages remained at 47 per
cent of all coverage after the guidance was issued. The share of articles containing negative Key Messages rose slightly by three
percentage points (see article volume and message charts on page 16).
Positive mentions of all four Key Messages rose significantly in July 2007, following RICU’s guidance and the terrorist attacks in
Glasgow and London. Negative Key Message mentions dropped in July from the previous month (see charts on pages 19 to 24). The
number of articles containing positive and negative Key Messages reflected this change between June and July (see charts on 13 and
14).
Key Message 1, Terrorism is a real and serious threat to us all, was the most prominent message between January 2007 and
March 2008. It was communicated 5,450 times. However, following the RICU guidance at the end of June, the proportion of positive
Key Message 1 mentions declined by six percentage points despite an increase of 908 positive mentions in the post-RICU period. This
is because there were slight increases in the proportion of negative Key Message 1 mentions and in those articles with no Key
Message 1. The proportion of positive messages for Key Message 2, Terrorists are criminals and murderers, also declined for the
same reasons. Importantly, there were more mentions of each message post-RICU. Positive mentions of Key Messages 3 and 4,
Terrorists attack the values that we all share and We all need to work together to tackle the terrorist challenge increased both
in incidence and proportion (see charts on pages 25 to 36).
Across Government press releases, just one Foreign and Commonwealth Office press release conveyed a negative message and it
was released before the RICU guidance (see charts on pages 41 to 44).
Theme 1, A link is made between terrorism and Islam, was the most prominent of all five Themes. A chart on page 38 illustrates
that Theme 1 often appeared in the media across the entire period, both before and after the guidance. It also appeared in the largest
number of articles primarily about terrorism, compared to the other four Themes (see chart on page 38).
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EVENTS TIMELINE
JANUARY 2007: The beginning of the period was marked by coverage of terrorism and its impact on countries outside of the
United Kingdom. Terrorism in Iraq, Afghanistan and other countries was mentioned in 16 per cent of articles and linked to a threat
to either UK forces or interests.
FEBRUARY 2007: Foreign news continued to appear in February. Cleric Abu Qatada appeared in discussion over his right to
stay in the country. This prompted extensive comment from government and third party representatives. Positive scores for key
message one were widely recorded. There was also comment on Tony Blair’s impending exit from Downing Street and the
prospect of Prince Harry serving in Iraq.
MARCH 2007: Domestic and foreign news was closely linked. Four Britons were kidnapped in Ethiopia. A man was found guilty
of inciting terror during protests at the Danish Embassy. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed claimed to have been involved in major
terrorist attacks. Al Qaeda threatened to kidnap and kill Prince Harry in Iraq.
APRIL 2007: BBC journalist Alan Johnston was said to have been murdered. Charging of various men in connection to bomb
plots in the UK. John Reid barracked by Muslim convert in 2006 – Abu Izzadeen arrested. A British man held at Guantanamo Bay
was released. Discussion of freeing of British sailors by Iran, and what the consequences might be.
MAY 2007: Calls for inquiry in to 7/7 bombings. David Cameron stays with a Muslim family and speaks about his experiences.
Comment and discussion on Tony Blair’s impending departure from Downing Street. John Reid argues for the amendment of
human rights law to allow for easier deportation of terrorist suspects.
JUNE 2007: Gordon brown becomes Prime Minister. Bomb attacks in Glasgow and London. RICU language guidance circulated.
A poll in to attitudes among British Muslims claims that the majority do not believe the official story of 7/7. Gordon Brown
promises tougher anti-terror laws when he becomes Prime Minister.
JULY 2007: Discussion of Glasgow airport bomb. Arrest of men in connection with the plot. Prime Minister Gordon Brown says
Britain continues to face a sustained terrorist threat. Discussion of Salman Rushdie’s knighthood. BBC correspondent Alan
Johnston released after being kidnapped in Gaza.
AUGUST 2007: Possibility of men identified as “extremely dangerous” to be repatriated from Guantanamo Bay to UK. Jose
Padilla found guilty in US of supporting terrorism. US President George Bush brands Iranians as terrorists. Korean’s taken
hostage in Iraq.

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EVENTS TIMELINE
SEPTEMBER 2007: Benazir Bhutto pledges return to Pakistan. Bin Laden releases video in which he threatens to escalate
violence in Iraq and urges West to convert to Islam. Lebanese army ends siege in refugee camp. Reports in the UK that Asians
are twice as likely as whites to be stopped and searched by police. The Home Secretary argues that the 28-day pre-charge
detention limit for terrorism suspects should be extended to 42 days owing to the nature of the evidence in such cases and the
nature of such investigations themselves.
OCTOBER 2007: Increasing violence in Pakistan between army and militants. Benazir Bhutto returns to Pakistan: greeted by
cheering crowds, but also by a massive suicide blast that kills 126. Teenager Atif Siddique sentenced to 8 years after he was
found guilty of providing bomb making material.
NOVEMBER 2007: Conviction of “Lyrical Terrorist”. Twenty one jailed in Spain for 120,000 years over Madrid bombings. Jonathan
Evans, Head of MI5, claims Al Qaeda is recruiting British children. Imran Khan arrested in Pakistan. Gordon Brown argues for 58
day detention limit.
DECEMBER 2007: “Lyrical Terrorist” released. Home secretary announces plans to extend pre-charge detention to 42 days. Four
British residents to be released from Guantanamo Bay despite US fears of terror risk. Benazir Bhutto murdered in Pakistan.
JANUARY 2008: Fears for future of Pakistan after assassination of Benazir Bhutto. A man pleads guilty to a plot to kidnap and
behead a British Muslim soldier. Ministry of Defence admits to losing three laptops containing sensitive information. US tightens
visa rules for UK citizens.
FEBRUARY 2008: Bin Laden aide killed in US air strike. Abu Hamza is to be extradited to the US to face charges. Detainees in
Guantanamo bay are said to be facing possible execution over 9/11 charges. Appeal judges clear Muslims of terror charges.
Terrorists use Down’s Syndrome woman to carry bomb in to crowd in Baghdad.
MARCH: “Osama Bin London” jailed for terror plot. Two men jailed for terror offences are released, allegedly because prisons are
full. Defence secretary Des Brown says the West must seek diplomatic as well as military solutions in Iraq and Afghanistan, and
so talk to the men of violence.

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TREND – COVERAGE VOLUME, PROMINENCE & KEY
EVENTS 27 June 2007 – Gordon
30 July 2007 –
25 Sept 2007 –
Home Secretary
Brown becomes PM says time has
JCHR says not
30 June 2007 – Glasgow come to consider
26 June 2007 – RICU enough evidence
airport attack extending 28-day
language guidance first to extend pre-
limit on holding
issued across government charge
terrorism
detention.
1600 suspects.
8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical
1400 Terrorist” convicted
under the Terrorism
1200 Act

1000
Volume

800

600

400

200

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

PASSING 158 250 250 232 209 216 180 189 351 199 425 135 140 311 252
TERTIARY 143 184 156 186 263 192 337 281 213 271 318 277 140 179 208
SECONDARY 218 206 88 239 236 138 389 192 159 256 266 319 172 155 159
PRIMARY 388 371 226 162 315 276 532 94 282 160 189 152 212 241 190

PROMINENCE: A descending scale measuring the importance of the issue of terrorism within an article. A Primary prominence mention indicates that the article was solely driven by the issue of
terrorism. A Secondary prominence mention indicates that the article was substantially about the issue of terrorism but contained significant references to other topics. A tertiary prominence mention
indicates that the article was mainly concerned with other matters, while the lowest score indicated no more than a passing mention of the issue of terrorism.

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MEDIA TYPE – SHARE OF VOICE
Total Volume of Online and 25 Sept 2007 –
Print coverage by Month. 27 June 2007 – Gordon Home Secretary
Brown becomes PM 30 July 2007 –
says time has
JCHR says not
30 June 2007 – Glasgow come to consider
26 June 2007 – RICU enough evidence
airport attack extending 28-day
language guidance first to extend pre-
limit on holding
issued across government charge
1600 detention.
terrorism
suspects.
8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical
1400 Terrorist” convicted
under the Terrorism
1200 Act

1000
Volume

800

600

400

200

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

ONLINE 70 78 105 193 163 201 515 219 219 293 252 240 213 194 215
PRINT 837 933 615 626 860 621 923 537 786 593 946 643 451 692 594

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READERSHIP SPLIT BY DEMOGRAPHIC, AGE AND
GENDER (PRESS ONLY)
PRESS READERSHIP SPLIT BY PRESS READERSHIP SPLIT BY
DEMOGRAPHIC AGE
65+ 15-24
E A 55-64 25-34
5% B
7% 5%
D 6% 16% 23%
15% 25%

C2 45-54
21% C1 35-44
22%
28% 27%

PRESS READERSHIP SPLIT BY


GENDER
Female Male
47% 53%

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TREND - MESSAGE DELIVERY MENTIONS Total Volume of Positive and
Negative Messages by Month
ALL COVERAGE
1400

1200

1000

800
Mentions

600

400

200

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

POSITIVE MESSAGES 1006 862 425 584 466 681 1120 385 724 1071 792 612 727 448 534
NEGATIVE MESSAGES 38 50 36 31 54 116 63 25 113 265 151 69 83 49 59

We all need to work together to


Terrorism is a real and serious Terrorist are criminals and Terrorists attack the values that
tackle the terrorist challenge
threat to us all. murderers we all share
The terrorist challenge is primarily a
Terrorism is not a real and serious Terrorist attacks against the UK Terrorist attacks are justified by
problem for Muslims or Muslim
threat to us all. are legitimate “Muslim values”
communities to address

No Positive,
No Positive, Positive,
Positive, Negative Message, (1,190)
Message, (3,007) (1,242) 9% Negative,
(4,998) (281) 2% (1,2478) 9%
(8,699) 21% (253) 2%
35% 89%
62%

Negative,
No (216) 2%
Negative, No Message,
(452) 3% Message,
(12,528)
(10,706)
77% RESTRICTED 89%
10
TREND - MESSAGE DELIVERY MENTIONS Total Volume of Positive and
Negative Messages in Print
IN PRINT COVERAGE
1200
Coverage by Month

1000

800
Mentions

600

400

200

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

POSITIVE MESSAGES 949 781 303 404 310 515 636 233 588 866 514 375 489 255 334
NEGATIVE MESSAGES 38 44 7 11 43 104 39 15 106 241 130 14 43 19 20

We all need to work together to


Terrorism is a real and serious Terrorist are criminals and Terrorists attack the values that
tackle the terrorist challenge
threat to us all. murderers we all share
The terrorist challenge is primarily a
Terrorism is not a real and serious Terrorist attacks against the UK Terrorist attacks are justified by
problem for Muslims or Muslim
threat to us all. are legitimate “Muslim values”
communities to address

No No Positive, Positive,
Positive, Negative Negative,
Message, Positive, Message, (786) 7% Negative, (732) 7%
(2,313) (219) 2% (139) 1%
(6,840) (3,721) (9,810) (170) 2%
21%
63% 34% 91%

No
No Message,
Negative, Message, (9,862)
(346) 3% (8,268)
77%
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11
TREND - MESSAGE DELIVERY MENTIONS Total Volume of Positive and
Negative Messages in Online
IN ONLINE COVERAGE
600
Coverage by Month

500

400
Mentions

300

200

100

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

POSITIVE MESSAGES 57 81 122 180 156 166 484 152 136 205 278 237 238 193 200
NEGATIVE MESSAGES 0 6 29 20 11 12 24 10 7 24 21 55 40 30 39

We all need to work together to


Terrorism is a real and serious Terrorist are criminals and Terrorists attack the values that
tackle the terrorist challenge
threat to us all. murderers we all share
The terrorist challenge is primarily a
Terrorism is not a real and serious Terrorist attacks against the UK Terrorist attacks are justified by
problem for Muslims or Muslim
threat to us all. are legitimate “Muslim values”
communities to address

No Positive,
No Positive,
Positive, Message, (458), 14%
Message, Negative (456) 14%
(1,277) Positive, (2,668)
(1,859) (62) 2%
39% (694) 22% 83%
58%

Negative,
(83) 3% Negative,
(77) 2%
No
Negative, No
Message,
106, 3% Message
(2,666)
(2,438)
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76% 12
POSITIVE MESSAGES BY TOTAL ARTICLE VOLUME
27 June 2007 – Gordon 25 Sept 2007 – Home
Brown becomes PM 30 July 2007 –
Secretary says time has
JCHR says not
30 June 2007 – Glasgow come to consider
26 June 2007 – RICU enough evidence
airport attack extending 28-day limit
language guidance first to extend pre-
on holding terrorism
issued across government charge
suspects.
detention.
800 8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical
Terrorist” convicted
700 under the Terrorism
Act
600

500
Volume

400

300

200

100

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

ONLINE 39 50 78 119 108 117 311 103 92 132 167 160 142 126 138
PRINT 598 446 221 297 212 318 444 191 320 431 346 288 306 204 237

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NEGATIVE MESSAGES BY TOTAL ARTICLE VOLUME
27 June 2007 – Gordon Brown 25 Sept 2007 – Home
becomes PM 30 July 2007 – JCHR Secretary says time has
30 June 2007 – Glasgow says not enough come to consider
26 June 2007 – RICU language evidence to extending 28-day limit on
airport attack
guidance first issued across extend pre-charge holding terrorism
government detention. suspects.

180

160 8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical


Terrorist” convicted
140 under the Terrorism Act

120

100
Volume

80

60

40

20

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

ONLINE 0 5 22 18 9 9 21 10 6 19 13 37 28 24 27
PRINT 24 31 6 9 34 70 37 12 86 143 95 14 34 17 20

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MESSAGES AGGREGATED BY ANNUALISED TREND
1400 400

1200 350

300
1000
250
Volume

800
200
600
150
400 100
200 50

0 0

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

Message 1 593 433 243 345 280 355 605 246 267 435 500 248 357 230 313
Message 2 350 347 125 134 107 237 301 71 289 323 244 283 205 142 130
Message 3 45 85 32 91 71 127 89 40 201 333 64 65 121 60 71
Message 4 56 47 61 45 62 78 188 53 80 245 135 85 127 65 79
Average Monthly Vol. 261 228 115 154 130 199 296 103 209 334 236 170 203 124 148
Annualised Average Monthly Vol. 261 245 201 187 178 181 198 186 188 203 206 203 198 189 192

• This is a key indicator of longer term shifts in the pattern of coverage. TNS calculates a rolling monthly average for coverage volume to establish trends in media
reporting not apparent via short term month-to-month comparisons.
Terrorism is a real and serious threat to us all. Note: us is interpreted as “the UK”, “UK citizens” and “UK interests
KEY MESSAGE 1
overseas”. Terrorism is not a real and serious threat to us all. The terrorist threat is exaggerated by the UK government
KEY MESSAGE 2 Terrorists are criminals and murderers. Terrorist attacks against the UK are legitimate
Terrorists attack the values that we all share. Note: “we” can refer to UK citizens and any other members of humanity
KEY MESSAGE 3
that oppose violent extremism. Terrorist attacks are justified by “Muslim values”
We all need to work together to tackle the terrorist challenge. Note: “we” can refer to UK citizens and any other members
KEY MESSAGE 4 of humanity that oppose violent extremism (regardless of religious belief). The terrorist challenge is primarily a problem for
Muslims or Muslim communities to address
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MESSAGE TREND VOLUMES – SHARE OF VOICE
(ALL COVERAGE)1600
Message Share of Voice: Pre
1400 RICU Guidance
Pos. Neg.
1200 Messages, Messages,
(2,513) (235) 4%
1000 47%
Volume

800

600

400 No
Messages,
200 (2,570)
49%
0

Jan- Feb- Mar-


07 07 07
Apr- May- Jun-
07 07 07
Jul-
07
Aug- Sep- Oct-
07 07 07
Nov- Dec- Jan- Feb- Mar-
07 07 08 08 08
Message Share of Voice: Post
POSITIVE MESSAGE
NEGATIVE MESSAGE
637
24
496
36
299
28
416
27
320
43
435
79
755
58
294
22
412
92
563
162
513
108
448
51
448
62
330
41
375
47
RICU Guidance
NO MESSAGE 264 507 419 395 691 362 671 457 412 313 682 415 196 534 415 Pos. Neg.
Messages, Messages,
(4,228) (645) 7%
Terrorism is a real and serious threat to us all. Terrorism is not a real and serious 47%
KEY MESSAGE 1
threat to us all. The terrorist threat is exaggerated by the UK government

Terrorists are criminals and murderers. Terrorist attacks against the UK are
KEY MESSAGE 2
legitimate

Terrorists attack the values that we all share. Terrorist attacks are justified by No
KEY MESSAGE 3
“Muslim values” Messages,
(4,162)
We all need to work together to tackle the terrorist challenge. The terrorist 46%
KEY MESSAGE 4
challenge is primarily a problem for Muslims or Muslim communities to address

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MESSAGE TRENDS VOLUMES – SHARE OF VOICE
(PRINT COVERAGE)
1200
Message Share of Voice: Pre
1000
RICU Guidance
Pos. Neg.
Messages, Messages,
800
(2,036) (174) 4%
45%
Volume

600

400

No
200
Messages,
(2,291)
51%
0

Jan- Feb- Mar-


07 07 07
Apr- May- Jun-
07 07 07
Jul-
07
Aug- Sep- Oct-
07 07 07
Nov- Dec- Jan- Feb- Mar-
07 07 08 08 08
Message Share of Voice: Post
POSITIVE MESSAGE
NEGATIVE MESSAGE
598
24
446
31
221
6
297
9
212
34
318
70
444
37
191
12
320
86
431
143
346
95
288
14
306
34
204
17
237
20
RICU Guidance
NO MESSAGE 231 479 392 326 636 280 473 344 386 154 599 344 137 474 346
Pos. Neg.
Messages, Messages,
Terrorism is a real and serious threat to us all. Terrorism is not a real and serious (2,823) (458) 7%
KEY MESSAGE 1
threat to us all. The terrorist threat is exaggerated by the UK government 43%

Terrorists are criminals and murderers. Terrorist attacks against the UK are
KEY MESSAGE 2
legitimate

Terrorists attack the values that we all share. Terrorist attacks are justified by No
KEY MESSAGE 3 Messages,
“Muslim values”
(3,223)
50%
We all need to work together to tackle the terrorist challenge. The terrorist
KEY MESSAGE 4
challenge is primarily a problem for Muslims or Muslim communities to address

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MESSAGE TRENDS VOLUMES – SHARE OF VOICE
(ONLINE COVERAGE)
600
Message Share of Voice: Pre
500
RICU Guidance
Pos. Neg.
Messages, Messages,
400
477, 58% (61) 8%
Volume

300

200

No
100
Messages,
(275) 34%
0

Jan- Feb- Mar-


07 07 07
Apr- May- Jun-
07 07 07
Jul-
07
Aug- Sep- Oct-
07 07 07
Nov- Dec- Jan- Feb- Mar-
07 07 08 08 08
Message Share of Voice: Post
POSITIVE MESSAGE
NEGATIVE MESSAGE
39
0
50
5
78
22
119
18
108
9
117
9
311
21
103
10
92
6
132
19
167
13
160
37
142
28
126
24
138
27
RICU Guidance
31 28 26 69 55 82 198 113 126 159 79 68 55 59 67
Pos.
NO MESSAGE
Messages, Neg.
(1,405) Messages,
Terrorism is a real and serious threat to us all. Terrorism is not a real and serious 56% (187) 7%
KEY MESSAGE 1
threat to us all. The terrorist threat is exaggerated by the UK government

Terrorists are criminals and murderers. Terrorist attacks against the UK are
KEY MESSAGE 2
legitimate

Terrorists attack the values that we all share. Terrorist attacks are justified by No
KEY MESSAGE 3
“Muslim values” Messages,
940, 37%

We all need to work together to tackle the terrorist challenge. The terrorist
KEY MESSAGE 4
challenge is primarily a problem for Muslims or Muslim communities to address

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TREND – POSITIVE KEY MESSAGES 25 Sept 2007 – Home
30 July 2007 –
(ALL COVERAGE) 27 June 2007 – Gordon
Brown becomes PM
JCHR says not
Secretary says time has
come to consider
enough evidence extending 28-day limit
30 June 2007 – Glasgow to extend pre- on holding terrorism
26 June 2007 – RICU airport attack charge suspects.
language guidance first detention.
1200 issued across government 8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical
Terrorist” convicted
1000 under the Terrorism
Act
800
Mentions

600

400

200

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

Message 1 582 412 221 329 250 320 559 240 212 377 437 219 332 217 291
Message 2 343 337 115 128 97 196 290 59 263 264 194 275 197 127 122
Message 3 36 78 30 85 60 93 85 34 170 257 56 51 99 48 60
Message 4 45 35 59 42 59 72 186 52 79 173 105 67 99 56 61

KEY MESSAGE 1 Terrorism is a real and serious threat to us all

KEY MESSAGE 2 Terrorists are criminals and murderers

KEY MESSAGE 3 Terrorists attack the values that we all share

KEY MESSAGE 4 We all need to work together to tackle the terrorist challenge

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TREND – NEGATIVE KEY MESSAGES 25 Sept 2007 – Home

(ALL COVERAGE) 27 June 2007 – Gordon


Brown becomes PM
30 July 2007 –
JCHR says
Secretary says time has
come to consider
extending 28-day limit
not enough
30 June 2007 – Glasgow on holding terrorism
evidence to
26 June 2007 – RICU airport attack suspects.
extend pre-
language guidance first
charge
300 issued across government
detention. 8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical
Terrorist” convicted
250 under the Terrorism
Act
200
Mentions

150

100

50

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

Message 1 11 21 22 16 30 35 46 6 55 58 63 29 25 13 22
Message 2 7 10 10 6 10 41 11 12 26 59 50 8 8 15 8
Message 3 9 7 2 6 11 34 4 6 31 76 8 14 22 12 11
Message 4 11 12 2 3 3 6 2 1 1 72 30 18 28 9 18

KEY MESSAGE 1 Terrorism is not a real and serious threat to us all. The terrorist threat is exaggerated by the UK government

KEY MESSAGE 2 Terrorist attacks against the UK are legitimate

KEY MESSAGE 3 Terrorist attacks are justified by “Muslim values”

KEY MESSAGE 4 The terrorist challenge is primarily a problem for Muslims or Muslim communities to address

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TREND – POSITIVE KEY MESSAGES 25 Sept 2007 – Home
(PRINT COVERAGE) 27 June 2007 – 30 July 2007 – Secretary says time has
come to consider
Gordon JCHR says extending 28-day limit
Brown not enough on holding terrorism
26 June 2007 – RICU becomes PM evidence to suspects.
language guidance first extend pre-
1000 issued across government 30 June 2007 – 8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical
charge
Glasgow Terrorist” convicted
900 detention.
airport attack under the Terrorism
800
Act
700
600
Mentions

500
400
300
200
100
0

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

Message 1 560 381 169 252 189 256 321 176 156 283 319 112 223 123 201
Message 2 324 308 76 70 45 137 176 19 221 204 146 228 161 90 108
Message 3 26 62 14 54 38 64 34 12 145 228 7 13 62 17 10
Message 4 39 30 44 28 38 58 105 26 66 151 42 22 43 25 15

KEY MESSAGE 1 Terrorism is a real and serious threat to us all

KEY MESSAGE 2 Terrorists are criminals and murderers

KEY MESSAGE 3 Terrorists attack the values that we all share

KEY MESSAGE 4 We all need to work together to tackle the terrorist challenge

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21
TREND – NEGATIVE KEY MESSAGES
(PRINT COVERAGE) 27 June 2007 – 30 July 2007 – 25 Sept 2007 – Home Secretary
says time has come to
Gordon JCHR says consider extending 28-day
Brown not enough
26 June 2007 – RICU limit on holding terrorism
becomes PM evidence to
language guidance first suspects.
extend pre-
300 issued across government 30 June 2007 – 8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical
charge
Glasgow Terrorist” convicted
detention.
250 airport attack under the Terrorism
Act
200
Mentions

150

100

50

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

Message 1 11 19 6 8 27 34 30 3 52 51 59 12 16 6 12
Message 2 7 9 0 0 5 39 7 9 24 50 47 2 4 12 4
Message 3 9 4 0 2 8 27 0 3 29 68 5 0 10 1 4
Message 4 11 12 1 1 3 4 2 0 1 72 19 0 13 0 0

KEY MESSAGE 1 Terrorism is not a real and serious threat to us all. The terrorist threat is exaggerated by the UK government

KEY MESSAGE 2 Terrorist attacks against the UK are legitimate

KEY MESSAGE 3 Terrorist attacks are justified by “Muslim values”

KEY MESSAGE 4 The terrorist challenge is primarily a problem for Muslims or Muslim communities to address

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TREND – POSITIVE KEY MESSAGES 25 Sept 2007 – Home
(ONLINE COVERAGE) 30 July 2007 –
JCHR says not
Secretary says time has
come to consider
enough evidence extending 28-day limit
27 June 2007 – to extend pre- on holding terrorism
Gordon charge detention. suspects.
Brown
600 becomes PM 8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical
30 June 2007 – Terrorist” convicted
500
Glasgow under the Terrorism
26 June 2007 – RICU airport attack Act
400
language guidance first
Mentions

issued across government


300

200

100

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

Message 1 22 31 52 77 61 64 238 64 56 94 118 107 109 94 90


Message 2 19 29 39 58 52 59 114 40 42 60 48 47 36 37 14
Message 3 10 16 16 31 22 29 51 22 25 29 49 38 37 31 50
Message 4 6 5 15 14 21 14 81 26 13 22 63 45 56 31 46

KEY MESSAGE 1 Terrorism is a real and serious threat to us all

KEY MESSAGE 2 Terrorists are criminals and murderers

KEY MESSAGE 3 Terrorists attack the values that we all share

KEY MESSAGE 4 We all need to work together to tackle the terrorist challenge

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23
TREND – NEGATIVE KEY MESSAGES 25 Sept 2007 – Home
30 July 2007 –
(ONLINE COVERAGE) JCHR says not
Secretary says time has
come to consider
enough evidence extending 28-day limit
to extend pre- on holding terrorism
27 June 2007 –
charge detention. suspects.
Gordon Brown
becomes PM 8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical
60
30 June 2007 – Terrorist” convicted
50 Glasgow airport under the Terrorism
attack Act
26 June 2007 – RICU
40 language guidance first
issued across government
Mentions

30

20

10

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

Message 1 0 2 16 8 3 1 16 3 3 7 4 17 9 7 10
Message 2 0 1 10 6 5 2 4 3 2 9 3 6 4 3 4
Message 3 0 3 2 4 3 7 4 3 2 8 3 14 12 11 7
Message 4 0 0 1 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 11 18 15 9 18

KEY MESSAGE 1 Terrorism is not a real and serious threat to us all. The terrorist threat is exaggerated by the UK government

KEY MESSAGE 2 Terrorist attacks against the UK are legitimate

KEY MESSAGE 3 Terrorist attacks are justified by “Muslim values”

KEY MESSAGE 4 The terrorist challenge is primarily a problem for Muslims or Muslim communities to address

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24
TREND – MESSAGE ONE (ALL COVERAGE): TERRORISM IS A
REAL AND SERIOUS THREAT TO US ALL / TERRORISM IS NOT A REAL AND SERIOUS
THREAT TO US ALL All Coverage Share of Voice: Pre
26 June 2007 - RICU
language guidance first
RICU Guidance
issued across government
Terrorism is
Terrorism is
700 not a real
a real and
and serious
serious
threat to us
threat to us
600 all, (2,045)
all, (134)
3%
39%
500
No
Message,
400 (3,062)
Mentions

58%

300
All Coverage Share of
200
Voice: Post RICU Guidance
100
Terrorism is Terrorism is
a real and not a real
0
serious and serious
threat to us threat to us
Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08 all, (318) 4%
all, (2,953)
POSITIVE 582 412 221 329 250 320 559 240 212 377 437 219 332 217 291 33%

NEGATIVE 11 21 22 16 30 35 46 6 55 58 63 29 25 13 22
No
messsage,
(5,637) 63%

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25
TREND – MESSAGE ONE (PRINT COVERAGE): TERRORISM IS
A REAL AND SERIOUS THREAT TO US ALL / TERRORISM IS NOT A REAL AND
SERIOUS THREAT TO US ALL
Print Share of Voice: Pre RICU
26 June 2007 - RICU
language guidance first
Guidance
issued across government
Terrorism is Terrorism is
a real and not a real
600 serious and serious
threat to us threat to us
all, (1,761) all, (105)
500 40% 2%

400 No
Message,
(2,591)
Mentions

58%
300

Print Share of Voice: Post


200
RICU Guidance
100 Terrorism is
Terrorism is
a real and not a real
serious and serious
No
0 threat to us threat to us
all, (241) 4% messsage,
all, (1,960)
30% (4,249) 66%
Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08
POSITIVE 560 381 169 252 189 256 321 176 156 283 319 112 223 123 201
NEGATIVE 11 19 6 8 27 34 30 3 52 51 59 12 16 6 12

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26
TREND – MESSAGE ONE (ONLINE COVERAGE): TERRORISM
IS A REAL AND SERIOUS THREAT TO US ALL / TERRORISM IS NOT A REAL AND
SERIOUS THREAT TO US ALL
Online Share of Voice: Pre RICU
26 June 2007 - RICU
language guidance first
Guidance
issued across government
Terrorism is Terrorism is
a real and not a real
300 serious and serious
threat to us threat to us
all, (284) all, (29) 4%
36%
250

200 No
Message,
(471) 60%
Mentions

150
Online Share of Voice: Post
100 RICU Guidance
50
Terrorism is
Terrorism is
a real and
not a real
serious
0 and serious
threat to us
threat to us
all, (993)
all, (77) 3%
Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08 40%

POSITIVE 22 31 52 77 61 64 238 64 56 94 118 107 109 94 90


NEGATIVE 0 2 16 8 3 1 16 3 3 7 4 17 9 7 10 No
messsage,
(1,388) 57%

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27
TREND – MESSAGE TWO (ALL COVERAGE): TERRORISTS ARE
CRIMINALS AND MURDERERS / TERRORIST ATTACKS AGAINST THE UK ARE
LEGITIMATE
26 June 2007 - RICU Share of Voice: Pre RICU
language guidance first
issued across government Guidance
Terrorists Terrorist
400
are attacks
criminals against the
and UK are
350
murderers, legitimate, No
(1,175) 84, 2% Message,
23% (3,918)
300
75%

250
Mentions

200

150
Share of Voice: Post RICU
Guidance
100

Terrorist
Terrorists attacks
50
are against the
criminals UK are
No
and legitimate,
0 Message,
murderers, (197) 2%
(6,788) 77%
(1,832) 21%
Jan- Feb- Mar- Apr- May- Aug- Sep- Nov- Dec- Jan- Feb- Mar-
Jun-07 Jul-07 Oct-07
07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 08 08 08
POSITIVE 343 337 115 128 97 196 290 59 263 264 194 275 197 127 122
NEGATIVE 7 10 10 6 10 41 11 12 26 59 50 8 8 15 8

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28
TREND – MESSAGE TWO (PRINT COVERAGE): TERRORISTS
ARE CRIMINALS AND MURDERERS / TERRORIST ATTACKS AGAINST THE UK ARE
LEGITIMATE
26 June 2007 - RICU Online Share of Voice: Pre RICU
language guidance first
issued across government Guidance
Terrorists Terrorist
are attacks
350
criminals against the
and UK are
300 murderers, legitimate,
(932) 21% (60) 1%

250

No
200 Message,
Mentions

(3,419)
78%
150

Online Share of Voice: Post


100
RICU Guidance
50 Terrorist
Terrorists
are attacks
criminals against the
0 UK are
and No
murderers, legitimate, Message,
Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08 (1,381) (159) 2% (4,849)
22% 76%
POSITIVE 323 308 76 70 45 137 176 19 221 204 146 228 161 90 108
NEGATIVE 7 9 0 0 5 39 7 9 24 50 47 2 4 12 4

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29
TREND – MESSAGE TWO (ONLINE COVERAGE): TERRORISTS
ARE CRIMINALS AND MURDERERS / TERRORIST ATTACKS AGAINST THE UK ARE
LEGITIMATE
26 June 2007 - RICU Online Share of Voice: Pre RICU
language guidance first
issued across government Guidance
Terrorists
140 Terrorist
are
criminals attacks
and against the
murderers, UK are
120
(243) 32% legitimate,
(24) 3%

100

No
80
Message,
(499) 65%
Mentions

60
Online Share of Voice: Post
RICU Guidance
40

Terrorists Terrorist
20 are attacks
criminals against the
UK are No
and
legitimate, Message,
murderers,
0 (38) 2% (1,939)
(451) 19%
79%
Feb- May- Aug- Sep- Dec- Feb-
Jan-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Jan-08 Mar-08
07 07 07 07 07 08
POSITIVE 19 29 39 58 52 59 114 40 42 60 48 47 36 37 14
NEGATIVE 0 1 10 6 5 2 4 3 2 9 3 6 4 3 4

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30
TREND – MESSAGE THREE (ALL COVERAGE): TERRORISTS
ATTACK THE VALUES WE ALL SHARE / TERRORIST ATTACKS ARE JUSTIFIED BY
MUSLIM VALUES
26 June 2007 - RICU All Coverage Share of Voice: Pre
language guidance first
issued across government RICU Guidance
Terrorist
Terrorists attacks are
350
attack the justified by
values we Muslim No
all share, values, (68) Message,
300
(371) 7% 1% (4,737)
92%
250

200
Mentions

150

All Coverage Share of


100
Voice: Post RICU Guidance
50
Terrorist
attacks are
Terrorists
0 justified by
attack the
Muslim
values we
Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08 all share,
values,
No
(185) 2%
POSITIVE 36 78 30 85 60 93 85 34 170 257 56 51 99 48 60 (871) 10% Message,
(7,741)
NEGATIVE 9 7 2 6 11 34 4 6 31 76 8 14 22 12 11 88%

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31
TREND – MESSAGE THREE (PRINT COVERAGE):
TERRORISTS ATTACK THE VALUES WE ALL SHARE / TERRORIST ATTACKS ARE
JUSTIFIED BY MUSLIM VALUES
Print Share of Voice: Pre RICU
26 June 2007 - RICU Guidance
language guidance first
issued across government Terrorist
Terrorists
attacks are
350 attack the
justified by
values we No
Muslim
all share, Message,
300 values, (50)
(254) 6% (4,102)
1%
93%
250

200
Mentions

150
Print Share of Voice: Post
100
RICU Guidance
50
Terrorist
0 Terrorists attacks are
attack the justified by
Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08 values we Muslim
all share, values, No
POSITIVE 26 62 14 57 38 64 34 12 145 228 7 13 62 17 10 (532) 8% (120) 2% Message,
(5,708)
NEGATIVE 9 4 0 2 8 27 0 3 29 68 5 0 10 1 4 90%

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32
TREND – MESSAGE THREE (ONLINE COVERAGE):
TERRORISTS ATTACK THE VALUES WE ALL SHARE / TERRORIST ATTACKS ARE
JUSTIFIED BY MUSLIM VALUES
Share of Voice: Pre RICU
26 June 2007 - RICU Guidance
language guidance first
issued across government
Terrorist
60 Terrorists attacks are
attack the justified by
values we Muslim
all share, values, No
50 (117) 15% (18) 2% Message,
(635) 83%

40
Mentions

30

20 Share of Voice: Post RICU


Guidance
10

Terrorist
0 Terrorists attacks are
attack the justified by
Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08 No values we Muslim
Message, all share, values, (65)
POSITIVE 10 14 16 31 22 29 51 22 25 29 49 38 37 31 50 (2,033) (339) 14% 3%
83%
NEGATIVE 0 3 2 4 3 7 4 3 2 8 3 14 12 11 7

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33
TREND – MESSAGE FOUR (ALL COVERAGE): WE ALL NEED TO
WORK TOGETHER TO TACKLE THE TERRORIST CHALLENGE / PRIMARILY A PROBLEM
FOR MUSLIM COMMUNITIES Share of Voice: Pre RICU
26 June 2007 - RICU Guidance
language guidance first
issued across government We all need to The terrorist
w ork to challenge is
together to primarily a
tackle the problem for
terrorist Muslim
300 challenge, communities,
(294) 6% (36) 1%

No Message,
250 (4,822) 93%

200
Mentions

150
Share of Voice: Post RICU
100 Guidance
We all need to The terrorist
50 challenge is
w ork to
together to primarily a
tackle the problem for
0 terrorist Muslim
challenge, communities,
(896) 10% (180) 2% No Message,
Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08
(7,706) 88%
POSITIVE 45 35 59 42 59 72 186 52 79 173 105 67 99 56 61
NEGATIVE 11 12 2 3 3 6 2 1 1 72 30 18 28 9 18

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34
TREND – MESSAGE FOUR (PRINT COVERAGE): WE ALL NEED
TO WORK TOGETHER TO TACKLE THE TERRORIST CHALLENGE / PRIMARILY A
PROBLEM FOR MUSLIM COMMUNITIES
Print Share of Voice: Pre RICU
26 June 2007 - RICU Guidance
language guidance first
We all need to
issued across government w ork to
The terrorist
challenge is
together to
primarily a
tackle the
250 terrorist
problem for
Muslim
challenge,
communities,
No Message, (228) 5%
(31) 1%
(4,130) 94%
200

150
Mentions

100
Print Share of Voice: Post
RICU Guidance
50
We all need to The terrorist
w ork to challenge is
together to primarily a
tackle the problem for
0 terrorist Muslim
challenge, communities,
Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08 (504) 8% (108) 2% No Message,
(5,732) 90%
POSITIVE 39 30 44 28 38 58 105 26 66 151 42 22 43 25 15
NEGATIVE 11 12 1 1 3 4 2 0 1 72 19 0 13 0 0

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35
TREND – MESSAGE FOUR (ONLINE COVERAGE): WE ALL NEED
TO WORK TOGETHER TO TACKLE THE TERRORIST CHALLENGE / PRIMARILY A PROBLEM
FOR MUSLIM COMMUNITIES Online Share of Voice: Pre RICU
26 June 2007 - RICU Guidance
language guidance first
We all need to
issued across government w ork to
The terrorist
challenge is
together to primarily a
tackle the problem for
terrorist Muslim
challenge, communities,
90 (66) 9% (5) 1%
No Message,
(692) 90%
80

70

60

50
Mentions

40
Online Share of Voice: Post
30
RICU Guidance
We all need to
20 w ork to
The terrorist
challenge is
together to
primarily a
10 tackle the
problem for
terrorist
Muslim
challenge,
0 (392) 16%
communities,
(72) 3%
Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08
POSITIVE 6 5 15 14 21 14 81 26 13 22 63 45 56 31 46
NEGATIVE 0 0 1 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 11 18 15 9 18
No Message,
(1,974) 81%

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36
LANGUAGE GUIDANCE UPTAKE –
SHARE OF ALL SPOKESPERSON ACTIVITY

All Spokespeople/Commentators: All Spokespeople/Commentators:


Pre RICU Guidance Post RICU Guidance
With Positive
With Positive With Negative
Messages,
Messages, Messages,
(896) 77%
(2,439) 73% (660) 20%

With No With No
With Negative
Message, (211) Message, (234)
Messages, (63)
18% 7%
5%

Terrorism is a real and serious threat to us all. Terrorism is not a real and serious threat to us all. The terrorist threat is
KEY MESSAGE 1
exaggerated by the UK government
KEY MESSAGE 2 Terrorists are criminals and murderers. Terrorist attacks against the UK are legitimate
KEY MESSAGE 3 Terrorists attack the values that we all share. Terrorist attacks are justified by “Muslim values”

We all need to work together to tackle the terrorist challenge. The terrorist challenge is primarily a problem for Muslims or
KEY MESSAGE 4
Muslim communities to address

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37
27 June 2007 –
30 July 2007 –
TREND - THEMES Gordon
Brown JCHR says
not enough
25 Sept 2007 – Home Secretary
says time has come to
becomes PM consider extending 28-day
evidence to limit on holding terrorism
26 June 2007 – RICU 30 June 2007 – extend pre-
language guidance first suspects.
Glasgow charge
issued across government airport attack detention. 8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical
1400 Terrorist” convicted
under the Terrorism
1200 Act

1000

800
Volume

600

400

200

0
Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08
Theme 1 547 520 351 302 536 512 637 185 495 619 568 418 405 363 315
Theme 2 355 346 343 331 413 360 471 192 275 353 380 407 263 225 273
Theme 3 89 97 46 88 76 78 54 19 173 103 24 47 52 59 88
Theme 4 37 66 34 45 33 36 44 29 110 118 41 68 59 81 46
Theme 5 37 59 78 69 75 116 78 48 230 49 31 163 66 13 24

THEME 1 A link is made between terrorism and Islam

THEME 2 A specific link is made to Al Qaeda


THEME 3 Overseas threat to UK forces/interests: Iraq
THEME 4 Overseas threat to UK forces/interests: Afghanistan
THEME 5 Overseas threat to UK forces/interests: Other country

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38
THEMES BY PROMINENCE
8000

7000 Themes Share of Voice: Non-


(54) 2% UK (22) 1%
6000 (28) 1%
(60) 2% (21) 1%
(33) 1%
5000 (297) 10% (19) 1%
Volume

(402) 14%
4000 (16) 1%

3000

2000

1000 (1,076) 37%


(847) 29%
0
Linked to Al Threat to UK: Threat to UK:
Linked to Islam Threat to UK: Iraq
Qaida Afghanistan Other country Iraq Afghanistan Pakistan
Passing 982 593 153 75 179 Israel/Palestine Iran Lebanon
Tertiary 1574 1035 197 193 456 Somalia Saudi Arabia Algeria
Secondary 1865 1518 367 303 259 Germany Yemen Indonesia
Primary 2352 1841 376 276 242

PROMINENCE: A descending scale measuring the importance of the issue of terrorism within an article. A Primary prominence mention indicates that the article was solely driven by the issue of
terrorism. A Secondary prominence mention indicates that the article was substantially about the issue of terrorism but contained significant references to other topics. A tertiary prominence mention
indicates that the article was mainly concerned with other matters, while the lowest score indicated no more than a passing mention of the issue of terrorism.

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39
GEOGRAPHIC SPREAD

Share of Voice, Key Message -


Share of Voice - Domestic/International Split
Domestic/International Split
4000
3500
Afghanistan,
All Other
(847) 14% 3000
(1,136) 18%
2500

Volume
Iraq, (1,093) 2000
18%
1500
1000
500

0
Top Ten
Domestic Afghanistan Iraq
Other
Attacks on Values We 607 195 203 208
All Share
Criminals & Murdereers 1164 284 359 555
Domestic, 1541 457 631 425
Real Threat
(3,076) 50%
We Need to Work 490 199 172 110
Together

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40
ALL GOVERNMENT PRESS RELEASE ANALYSIS –
PRE & POST RICU GUIDELINES

JANUARY 1 2007 – JUNE 25 2007 JUNE 26 2007 – MARCH 31 2008

Article Includes
Positive
No Message, No Message,
Message, (141)
(38) 35% (62) 31%
69%

Article Includes Article Includes


Negative Positive
Message, (1) Message, (70)
1% 64%

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41
PRESS RELEASE ANALYSIS BY DEPARTMENT
– PRE & POST RICU GUIDELINES
HOME OFFICE: HOME OFFICE:
PRE-RICU GUIDELINES POST-RICU GUIDELINES
Article Includes
Article Includes
Positive No Message, Positive
No Message, Message, 39,
Message, 12, 11, 22%
3, 20% 78%
80%

COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVT: COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVT:


PRE-RICU GUIDELINES POST-RICU GUIDELINES
Article Includes
No Message, Positive
11, 44% Message, 14,
56%

Article Includes No Message,


Positive 15, 50%
Message, 15,
50%

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42
FCO: FCO:
PRE-RICU GUIDELINES POST-RICU GUIDELINES
Article Includes Article Includes
No Message,
Positive 8, 36% Positive
Message, 13, Message, 26,
59% 96%

Negative
Message, 1,
5% No Message,
1, 4%

OTHER: OTHER:
PRE-RICU GUIDELINES POST-RICU GUIDELINES
Article
Includes
No Message,
No Message,
Positive 35, 37%
16, 34%
Message, 31,
66%

Article Includes
Positive
Message, 60,
63%

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43
PRESS RELEASE MESSAGE ANALYSIS – KEY
MESSAGES: ALL MENTIONS
Positive Messages by Prominence Negative Messages by Prominence

250 2

200
Volume

Volume
150

1
100

50

0 0
Message 1 Message 2 Message 3 Message 4 Message 1 Message 2 Message 3 Message 4
Passing 13 1 1 3 Passing 0 0 0 0
Tertiary 59 3 7 12 Tertiary 0 0 0 0
Secondary 74 15 35 36 Secondary 1 0 0 0
Primary 55 12 28 29 Primary 0 0 0 0

Terrorism is a real and serious threat to us all. Terrorism is not a real and serious threat to us all. The terrorist threat is
KEY MESSAGE 1
exaggerated by the UK government
KEY MESSAGE 2 Terrorists are criminals and murderers. Terrorist attacks against the UK are legitimate

KEY MESSAGE 3 Terrorists attack the values that we all share. Terrorist attacks are justified by “Muslim values”
We all need to work together to tackle the terrorist challenge. The terrorist challenge is primarily a problem for Muslims or
KEY MESSAGE 4
Muslim communities to address

PROMINENCE: A descending scale measuring the importance of the issue of terrorism within an article. A Primary prominence mention indicates that the article was solely driven by the issue of
terrorism. A Secondary prominence mention indicates that the article was substantially about the issue of terrorism but contained significant references to other topics. A tertiary prominence mention
indicates that the article was mainly concerned with other matters, while the lowest score indicated no more than a passing mention of the issue of terrorism.
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44
TREND - GOVERNMENT REPRESENTATIVE MESSAGE
UPTAKE (VOLUME) 30 July 2007 –
JCHR says 25 Sept 2007 – Home
27 June 2007 – Gordon not enough Secretary says
Brown becomes PM evidence to time has come to
extend pre- consider
30 June 2007 – Glasgow
charge extending 28-day
200 airport attack
detention. limit on holding
180 26 June 2007 – RICU
terrorism
language guidance first
160 suspects.
issued across government 8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical
140
Terrorist” convicted
120 under the Terrorism
Volume

100 Act
80
60
40
20
0

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

MESSAGE 1 47 63 8 34 14 47 69 14 5 27 46 9 9 3 2
MESSAGE 2 32 40 1 7 2 16 31 2 6 7 18 10 0 0 1
MESSAGE 3 6 29 1 8 1 14 27 2 3 11 8 9 0 1 0
MESSAGE 4 6 1 7 8 5 22 48 4 11 20 16 9 1 3 1

Terrorism is a real and serious threat to us all. Terrorism is not a real and serious threat to us all. The terrorist threat is
KEY MESSAGE 1
exaggerated by the UK government
KEY MESSAGE 2 Terrorists are criminals and murderers. Terrorist attacks against the UK are legitimate

KEY MESSAGE 3 Terrorists attack the values that we all share. Terrorist attacks are justified by “Muslim values”
We all need to work together to tackle the terrorist challenge. The terrorist challenge is primarily a problem for Muslims or
KEY MESSAGE 4
Muslim communities to address

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45
TREND - GOVERNMENT REPRESENTATIVE MESSAGE
UPTAKE (POSITIVE) 30 July 2007 –
JCHR says 25 Sept 2007 – Home
27 June 2007 – Gordon not enough Secretary says
Brown becomes PM evidence to time has come to
extend pre- consider
30 June 2007 – Glasgow
200 26 June 2007 – RICU airport attack
charge extending 28-day
180 language guidance first detention. limit on holding
issued across terrorism
160
government suspects.
140 8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical
120
Terrorist” convicted
under the Terrorism
Volume

100 Act
80
60
40
20
0

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

MESSAGE 1 47 63 8 34 14 47 69 14 5 27 46 9 9 2 2
MESSAGE 2 32 40 1 7 2 16 31 2 6 7 18 10 0 0 1
MESSAGE 3 6 29 1 8 1 14 27 2 3 11 6 9 0 1 0
MESSAGE 4 6 1 7 7 5 22 48 4 11 19 16 9 1 2 1

KEY MESSAGE 1 Terrorism is a real and serious threat to us all

KEY MESSAGE 2 Terrorists are criminals and murderers

KEY MESSAGE 3 Terrorists attack the values that we all share

KEY MESSAGE 4 We all need to work together to tackle the terrorist challenge

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46
TREND - GOVERNMENT REPRESENTATIVE MESSAGE
UPTAKE (NEGATIVE) 30 July 2007 –
JCHR says
27 June 2007 – Gordon 25 Sept 2007 – Home Secretary says time has
not enough
26 June 2007 – RICU Brown becomes PM evidence to
come to consider extending 28-day limit on
language guidance first holding terrorism suspects.
extend pre-
issued across 30 June 2007 – Glasgow
7 charge
government airport attack
detention. 8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical
6 Terrorist” convicted
under the Terrorism
5
Act
4
Volume

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

MESSAGE 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
MESSAGE 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
MESSAGE 3 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
MESSAGE 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 0

KEY MESSAGE 1 Terrorism is not a real and serious threat to us all. The terrorist threat is exaggerated by the UK government

KEY MESSAGE 2 Terrorist attacks against the UK are legitimate

KEY MESSAGE 3 Terrorist attacks are justified by “Muslim values”

KEY MESSAGE 4 The terrorist challenge is primarily a problem for Muslims or Muslim communities to address

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47
LANGUAGE GUIDANCE UPTAKE BY REPRESENTATIVE –
ENTIRE PERIOD
A. Share of Voice - Top Ten Representatives
B. Top Ten Representatives - Total Message
David Miliband, Jonathan Evans,
Unnamed, (25),
(11), 3% (13), 4% Gordon Banks, Volume
7%
(8) 2%
Lord West, (31), David Miliband, Jonathan Evans, Gordon Banks,
9% Jack Straw, (15) (10) 3% (13) 4% (8) 2%
4% Unnamed, 24, Jack Straw, (15)
7% 5%

Lord West, (30) Gordon Brown,


9% (93) 28%
Gordon Brown,
(94) 29%

Jacqui Smith,
Jacqui Smith,
(36) 11%
(36) 11%
John Reid, (45) John Reid, (45)
Tony Blair, (57) Tony Blair, (56)
13% 14%
18% 17%

D. Top Ten Representatives - Total Negative Message C. Top Ten Representatives - Total Positive Message
Volume Volume
Jonathan Evans,
Unnamed, (24), David Miliband,
Lord West, (30) (13), 4%
7% (10), 3% Gordon Banks,
Jonathan Evans,
9%
(1) 14% (8), 2%
Jack Straw, (15)
John Reid, (3) 43%
5%
Jacqui Smith,
(36) 11%

Gordon Brown,
(93) 28%

Lord West, (2) John Reid, (45)


29% 14%
Tony Blair, (56)
17%

National government and security services representatives are measured by overall engagement by the media (Chart A) as well as by
transmission of key messages (Chart B). Representatives are also tracked for compliance/variance from RICU guidelines (Charts C & D).

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48
LANGUAGE GUIDANCE UPTAKE BY REPRESENTATIVE –
PRE RICU
A. Share of Voice - Top Ten Representatives B. Top Ten Representatives - Total Message
Hazel Blears, (5) Margaret Beckett, Volume
Unnamed, (11) 7% 3% (4) 3% Unnamed, (10) Hazel Blears, (5) Margaret Beckett,
Shahid Malik, (7) Shahid Malik, (5)
6% 3% (4) 3%
4% 3%
Ruth Kelly, (7) 4% Jack Straw, (8)
5% Ruth Kelly, (7) 5% Jack Straw, (8)
Sir Ken 5%
Sir Ken
MacDonald, (7)
Gordon Brown, MacDonald, (7)
4%
(16) 10% 5%
Gordon Brown,
(16) 10%

Tony Blair, 52,


John Reid, (40) Tony Blair, (53) 34%
25% 35% John Reid, 40,
26%

D. Top Ten Representatives - Total Negative C. Top Ten Representatives - Total Positive
Message Volume Unnamed, (10)
Message Volume
6% Hazel Blears, (5) Margaret Beckett,
3% (4) 3%
Shahid Malik, (5)
Shahid Malik, (2) Ruth Kelly, (7) 5% 3%
33%
Sir Ken
Jack Straw, (8)
John Reid, (3) MacDonald, (7)
5%
50% 5%

Gordon Brown,
(16) 10%

John Reid, (40)


26%
Hazel Blears, (1) Tony Blair, (52)
17% 34%

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49
LANGUAGE GUIDANCE UPTAKE BY REPRESENTATIVE –
POST RICU
A. Share of Voice - Top Ten Representatives B. Top Ten Representatives - Total Message
Jonathan Evans, Gordon Banks, Jonathan Evans, Volume Jack Straw, (7),
David Miliband, (13), 7% Gordon Banks, (8), 4%
(8), 4% (13) 7%
(10) 5% 4%
Unnamed, (14) Jack Straw, (7) David Miliband, (9)
7% 4% 5%
Gordon Brown,
Lord West, (31), Unnamed, (14) 7% (77) 38%
16%

Lord West, (30)


15%

Gordon Brown,
(78) 38%

Jacqui Smith, (34), John Reid, (5) 3%


Jacqui Smith, (34) 17%
16% John Reid, (5) 3%

D. Top Ten Representatives - Total Negative C. Top Ten Representatives - Total Positive Message
Message Volume Volume
Jonathan Evans, Gordon Banks,
David Miliband,
(13) 7% (8) 4%
Unnamed, (14) (9) 5%
Jonathan Evans, (1) 7%
33%
Jack Straw, (7)
Lord West, (30) 4%
15%

Lord West, (2) 67%


Jacqui Smith, Gordon Brown,
(34), 17% (77), 38%
John Reid, (5)
3%

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50
BROADCAST TREND – BY MEDIA TYPE & KEY EVENTS
27 June 2007 – Gordon 30 July 2007 – JCHR
says not enough 25 Sept 2007 – Home Secretary says time has come to
Brown becomes PM
evidence to consider extending 28-day limit on holding
7000
30 June 2007 – Glasgow extend pre-charge terrorism suspects.
6000 26 June 2007 – airport attack detention.
RICU language
5000
guidance first issued 8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical Terrorist”
across government convicted under the
4000
Volume

Terrorism Act
3000
2000
1000
0

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

BBC Radio 1273 1505 1173 811 1269 1260 2964 827 574 859 1538 728 687 526 456
Commercial Radio 563 800 548 621 397 238 1419 255 378 213 466 246 176 297 197
Commercial TV 468 389 279 244 372 236 1005 316 179 211 301 263 259 129 116
BBC TV 226 324 223 199 185 164 701 159 112 153 182 144 118 89 84
Total 2530 3018 2223 1875 2223 1898 6089 1557 1243 1436 2487 1381 1240 1041 853

Q1 2007 Q2 2007 Q3 2007


10% 14% 11%
21%
15% 9% 17%
49%
50%

25%
56% 23%

Q4 2007 9%
Q1 2008
9%
59% 54%
15%

16%

17%
RESTRICTED 21% 51
BROADCAST - SOV BY MEDIA TYPE

All TV
25%

All Radio
75%

BBC TV
10%
BBC Radio Commercial TV
53% 15%

Commercial
Radio
22%

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52
BROADCAST – BBC REPORTING 25 Sept 2007 – Home Secretary
says time has come to
consider extending 28-day
27 June 2007 – Gordon 30 July 2007 – JCHR limit on holding terrorism
Brown becomes PM says not enough suspects.
4000 evidence to
30 June 2007 – Glasgow
extend pre-charge
BBC Regional Radio
3500 airport attack
26 June 2007 – detention.
BBC Radio 4
RICU language
3000
guidance first issued 8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical Terrorist” BBC Radio 5 Live
across government convicted under the
2500
Terrorism Act BBC 1
Volume

2000
BBC Radio Scotland
1500 BBC 2
1000 BBC News 24
500 BBC World Service
0 BBC Radio 2
BBC Radio 1
7
7

8
07

07
07

07

08
7
07

08
07

07
7
-0

-0
-0

l-0
r-0

-0
g-

-
n-

n-

n-
b-

b-
p-

-
ar

ar
ay

ov

ec
ct
Ju
Ap
Ja

Ju

Ja
Au
Fe

Fe
Se
M

M
O
M

D
BBC Regional Radio

BBC Radio 4

BBC Radio 5 Live 1%1% 2% 2% 3%


7%
BBC 1

BBC Radio Scotland 11%


BBC 2

BBC News 24 50%


BBC W orld Service 11%
BBC Radio 2
12%
BBC Radio 1

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000


Volume
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53
BROADCAST – COMMERCIAL STATION REPORTING
27 June 2007 – Gordon 30 July 2007 – JCHR
Brown becomes PM says not enough 25 Sept 2007 – Home Secretary
3000 evidence to extend
30 June 2007 – Glasgow says time has come to
pre-charge
airport attack detention.
consider extending 28-day Regional Radio
2500 26 June 2007 – RICU limit on holding terrorism
language guidance suspects.
first issued across
2000 government ITV
Volume

1500
8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical Terrorist” Sky News
convicted under the
1000 Terrorism Act

500 Channel 4

0
CNN
7
7

8
07

07
07

07

08
7
07

08
07

07
7
-0

-0
-0

l-0
r-0

-0
g-

-
n-

n-

n-
b-

b-
p-

-
ar

ar
ay

ov

ec
ct
Ju
Ap
Ja

Ju

Ja
Au
Fe

Fe
Se
M

M
O
M

D
Regional Radio

5% 6%
ITV
13%

Sky News

59%
Channel 4 17%

CNN

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000


Volume

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54
INTERVIEWS WITHIN BROADCAST COVERAGE
27 June 2007 – Gordon Over the period, just over a third (35 per cent) of
Brown becomes PM broadcast items contained an interview
25 Sept 2007 – Home
7000
30 June 2007 – Glasgow Secretary says time
airport attack has come to
6000
26 June 2007 – RICU consider extending
language guidance 28-day limit on
5000 holding terrorism
first issued across
government suspects. 8 Nov 2007 – “Lyrical Terrorist”
4000
Volume

convicted under the


Terrorism Act
3000

2000

1000

Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08

No Interview 2266 2535 1821 1171 1358 1023 3557 810 798 871 1477 723 772 596 485
Interview 264 483 402 704 865 875 2532 747 445 565 1010 658 468 445 368
Total 2530 3018 2223 1875 2223 1898 6089 1557 1243 1436 2487 1381 1240 1041 853

Q1 2007 Q2 2007 Q3 2007


Interview Interview
15% 41% Interview
42%

No Interview No
No 59%
Interview
Interview 58%
85% Q4 2007 Q1 2008 No Interview
No Interview
58% 59%

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Interview Interview 55
42% 41%
CONCLUSIONS
June 2007 witnessed a confluence of several major events that had a direct and profound impact on the issue of terrorism in the
United Kingdom. The attempt to drive a car-bomb into Glasgow airport and the near-successful bid to attack the Tiger Tiger
nightclub in London coincided with the resignation of Tony Blair from Downing Street and Gordon Brown’s new role as Prime
Minister. On June 26th, RICU released guidelines on the use of language when discussing the issue of terrorism.
TNS Media Intelligence has found that these events formed a fulcrum around which it has been possible to identify a significant
shift in press treatment of the issue of terrorism. Judging by the incidence of the four key messages and their negative
counterparts, some proved more amenable to transmission than others.
Key Message 1, Terrorism is a real and serious threat to us all, was the most prolific and widely transmitted message.
Straightforward, almost terse, it proved to be particularly amenable to transmission by commentators and journalists. It was also
suited to a large number of scenarios: “West threatened with campaign of suicide attacks” wrote the Daily Telegraph (06/09/2007)
about the Palestinian group Islamic Jihad’s threats to target the West. The Sunday Times (13/01/2008), conversely, included the
message in an article about a humorous film to be made about “Dad’s Army terrorists”. The Guardian (25/10/07) reported on how
militant groups are using Google Earth for bombing campaign information. The message also featured positively in the Daily Star
(11/10/07) in an article about the trial of Mohammed Hamid.
The negative version of this message was also suited to diverse application. Al Jazeera, a prominent conveyor of this message in
its negative version, included coverage of the issue of the Lebanese arm of Al Qaeda. In July 2007 the station reported that the
US was backing the Lebanese government against Al Qaeda influence. Showing displeasure about this development, the station’s
website also expressed scepticism about the level of threat posed by Al Qaeda and similar organisations.
There were increases in the incidence of Key Message 1 following specific events, such as the terrorist incidents in June and the
announcement of plans for 42-day detention of terror suspects at the end of 2007. However, although there were considerably
more positive Key Message 1 mentions during these periods, negative mentions also increased. Following the issue of RICU
guidance, there was an increase in positive Key Message 1 mentions but the proportion of positive Key Message 1 incidence
remained the same. However, the charts on pages 45, 46 and 47 show that there was significantly more positive mentions of Key
Message 1 by Government spokespeople immediately following RICU guidance and the terrorist attacks.
Key Message 2, Terrorists are criminals and murderers, was mentioned fewer times than Key Message 1 both before and after
the guidance. However, there was a significant rise in Key Message mentions in July and again towards the end of the year,
reflecting major news, such as the conviction of the “Lyrical Terrorist”.

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Despite, a fall in the proportion of positive Key Message 2 mentions following the RICU guidelines (see charts on page 28, 29 and 30), the
positive message take-up by Government spokespeople increased for this message following 26 June (see chart on page 46).
The third message, Terrorists attack the value that we all share, proved to be less transmittable. This was due to media reticence when
dealing with the notion of “values” rather than the more concrete formulation of “threats”. However, the research found a definite and striking
increase in the occurrence of this message after June 2007. The first six months of 2007 saw the message running at 62 incidents per
month. For the remaining nine months of the period, there were on average 97 incidents of this message per month (see charts on pages
31,32 and 33).
Key Message 4, We all need to work together to tackle the terrorist challenge, was the least transmitted message over the entire period.
However, there was a rise in the proportion of positive Key Message 4 mentions (see chart on pages 34, 35 and 36) and there was an
increase in positive Key Message mentions in quotes from Government representatives following RICU guidance and for the rest of 2007.
Reviewing Key Message penetration between January to March 2007 and January to March 2008 (see bar chart on page 10), there is an
absolute decline in both positive and negative Key Message delivery. However, this decline can be attributed to a fall-off in terrorism news
stories in the early part of 2008. The Events Timeline on pages five and six mentions that there was a considerable amount of reportage on
non-UK terrorism, and how it affects the UK, which accounts for the large Key Message penetration in January and February 2007. There
was increased coverage in the autumn owing to the suggestion by the Home Secretary that the pre-charge detention limit for terrorism
suspects might be increased.
Positive Key Message penetration increased in absolute terms following RICU’s guidance. The increase was above average in coverage
which included Government spokespeople. However, the proportion of positive Key Messages remained constant in relative terms at 47 per
cent. This suggests that RICU guidance is keeping pace with fluctuations in how terrorism is reported and perceived in the media. Post-
RICU guidance there was an increase in the proportion of negative Key Messages. The challenge to RICU is to increase its share of
positive media coverage against the increase in the proportion of negative Key Messages following the 26 June 2007.

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METHODOLOGY
Project Objectives Study Period
1. To analyse the language and semantics used to report issues relating to The study covers the period 01 January 2007 to 31st of March 2008
terrorism, counter-terrorism and extremism in UK public discourse
2. To evaluate the impact of the Research, Information and Communications Pre RICU guidance period: 01 January to 25 June 2007 (176 days)
Unit (RICU) on UK public discourse, effective from release of official Post RICU guidance period: 26 June 2007 to 31 March 2008 (280 days)
communications guidance in June 2007

Tender Process & Agency Selection Sources*


The project was commissioned by RICU in March 2008 with scheduled UK national daily newspapers
delivery in June 2008
TNS Media Intelligence was selected on the basis of an open competitive UK national Sunday newspapers
tender managed by RICU and COI. All preferred agencies on the COI Key mainstream online news sites
framework agreement were eligible to tender for the project
RICU / COI issued a PQQ in March 2008. Shortlisted agencies were invited to Key Muslim news sites
submit full tender proposals. The final selection round included a one-hour BBC national television & radio
presentation to a RICU / COI panel. The presentation covered reporting
structure, methodology and budget BBC regional television & radio
ITV
Channel 4
Commercial radio network
CNN
Sky News

* Full sources list in Appendix A

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METHODOLOGY
Article Selection Yield
Newspapers
Duplication between early / late newspaper editions excluded
National Newspapers
Websites
10,657 articles
Websites were selected in order to provide a balanced view of both
mainstream and Islamic online media
A large-scale study by TNS Consumer analysed the consumption of online Websites
media by British Muslims. The results of this study informed the choice of
websites to align the analysis with the real-world media consumption habits of 3,170 articles
British Muslims
TV & Radio
TV & Radio:
TV & Radio coverage quantified.
31,094 broadcasts
Search terms
Extremist and variations (inc. extremism, extreme) OR
Fundamentalist and variations (inc. Fundamental, Fundamentals,
Fundamentalism) OR
Jihad and variations (inc. Jihadi, Jihadism, Jihadist) OR
Islam and variations (inc. Islamist, Islamism, Islamic) OR
Qaeda and variations (inc. Qaida, Qa'ida, Qa'idah) OR
Laden OR
Muslim and variations OR
Koran and variations (inc. Qu'ran) OR
Taqfir and variations (inc. Taqfiri) OR
Religion and variations (inc. religious, religiosity

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METHODOLOGY CONTINUED
The primary analysis elements were prominence, key message & language and THEME
theme. To understand the context of media engagement by all parties engaged in the debate on
terrorism, each print and online article was analysed by theme. Five separate themes
PROMINENCE were used to benchmark context:

A descending scale measuring the importance of the issue of terrorism within an


THEME 1 A link is made between terrorism and Islam
article, a Primary prominence mention indicating that the article was solely driven by
the issue of terrorism. A Secondary prominence mention indicated that the article THEME 2 A specific link is made to Al Qaeda
was substantially about the issue of terrorism but contained significant references to THEME 3 Overseas threat to UK forces/interests: Iraq
other topics. Tertiary prominence indicated that the article was mainly concerned THEME 4 Overseas threat to UK forces/interests: Afghanistan
with other matters, while the lowest score indicated no more than a passing mention THEME 5 Overseas threat to UK forces/interests: Other country
of the issue of terrorism.
A quantitative survey of broadcast coverage was undertaken. Broadcast
KEY MESSAGE & LANGUAGE coverage was not analysed for Prominence, Messages or Themes.
To identify press and commentator hostility to the values set out in RICU’s
guidelines, positive and negative versions of four key messages were analysed in
all print and online media coverage
The output of Government representatives and official sources quoted in the press
was analysed for compliance with the four positive key messages.
Spokespeople from political parties, third party organisations and interest groups
were measured for output of positive and negative key messages.

POSITIVE NEGATIVE
Terrorism is a real and serious threat to us Terrorism is not a real and serious threat to us
all. Note: us is interpreted as “the UK”, “UK all. The terrorist threat is exaggerated by the UK
citizens” and “UK interests overseas” government
Terrorists are criminals and murderers Terrorist attacks against the UK are legitimate
Terrorists attack the values that we all
share. Note: “we” can refer to UK citizens and
Terrorist attacks are justified by “Muslim values”
any other members of humanity that oppose
violent extremism
We all need to work together to tackle the
terrorist challenge. Note: “we” can refer to UK
The terrorist challenge is primarily a problem for
citizens and any other members of humanity
Muslims or Muslim communities to address
that oppose violent extremism (regardless of
religious belief)

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60
APPENDIX A: SOURCES
Newspapers Websites TV & Radio

Times BBC BBC1

Sunday Times Channel 4 BBC2

Daily Telegraph Al Jazeera BBC Radio 4

Sunday Telegraph Sky News BBC Radio 1

Mail Islam Online BBC Radio 2

Mail on Sunday BBC Regional Network

Express BBC News 24

Sunday Express ITV1

Guardian ITV Regional Network

Observer Channel 4

Independent CNN

Independent on Sunday Sky News

Mirror
Sunday Mirror
Sun
News of the World
Financial Times

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