, .








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El0-1014A MAY 1976


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t 4

Ch a pt e r 1

1.1 1.2

1. 2. 1 1. 2.2 1. 2. 3 1.3

1. 3. 1 1. 3. 2

Chapter 2
2. 1
~ 2.2
, 2.3
2.4 .
2.6 Ch.ap t e r

3. 1 3.2 3.3




GEN ERAL •...... .- ....•.....•..............•

General " "'" ..

Theory of Operation ....•..•............•.•••...

Gyro Co mpa s s •..•......•....•..•......•...•.•.

Transmiss"ion System .......•...•..............

Inverter .. II e oil oil ..

Description ........•..•.....•.•... :-_ ...•....•.. Master Compass ••............•...... - ... r" ••• Transmission U-nit .......•..................•..


1 -1

1-1 1-4 1-4 1-17 1-24 1 -28 1-28



G ene ca l '.' .- _. • 2-1

Preparation for Starting Compass............... 2-1

Starting ..........•... , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • 2-1

SOt opping . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 4

Setting Speed Corrector ~ .. ~ ..•.... -. . . . . • . .• •• . • 2-4

Setting Compass on Meridian fo;- Short -time •..•.. 2 - 5




General .- .

Lubrica ti on ..................................•

Maintenance " " " " ....


.................. II "'"



........................ , iii ..










3-1 3-1 3-2



:; ...




The gyro compass which has already been in use for more than 50 years, is an indispensable aid in navigation. for it provides navigators , with ess ential true bearing.

The TG-IOO Gyro Compass described in this manual has'been developed and manufactured by the Tokyo Keiki Co., Ltd. and is based on superior techniques gained from the manufacture ofrn o r e than 2, SOD gyro compasses, such as the Sperry Types MK. 14 Mod. Z" MK. 14 Mod.

T, KM. EN and our own MK. ES:' ,

The theory of this gyro compass is n o different from that of a~ conventional gyro compass. .How e ve r , in order to actualize the above

tb e o r y, new t e chrriq ue s have been adopted, These are described below.

,- el} Owing tc:. the use of the integrator, no latitude error, theoretically appears.

(2) With the adoption of the integrator. the north-south balance of the gyro compas s is automatically maintained for long periods.

(3) The transmitter unit drives a conventional step motor with a transmitter which is completely non-contacting and transistorized.

(4) The powe'r supply is not a motor-driven generator but a transistorized .. static inverter.

(5) With the u-s e of a liquid ballistic acceleration error due to as dlIa ti on is suppres sed to a minimum.

(6) Because of a new gi rnba l construction, the dud of the master compas 5 does nat swing.

(7), To protect the vital parts of the gyro compass from the impact , of violent wav~5. a new double -sodng type, vibration-proo£ing device is used.

(8) The follow-up performance of this gyro compass is particularly e'xcellent: a is-second turning is possible and a follow-up of 32Q /sec is also po~ sible at the peak:

In practice, the error of the north-seeking accuracy of the TG-IOO Gyro Compass is less than ± O. S°. The degree of angular freedom

.... '.


oscillations resulting from the rolling and pitching of a ship is 400•

The standard composition of the TG-IOO Gy r o Compass is shown b e l ow , a. Master Compass

b. Transmission Unit

c. Repeater Compass

d. Cour se Recorder

In many cases. however, in addition to the above, the instruments listed below are included in the cornposition.

e. Alarm Unit

- f. Repeater for Radar

The method of handling the TG-I00 Gyro Compass has been sitnplified greatly. More specifically, starting and stopping of the gyro compass

can be p e r fo r rrje d with a toggle switch alone. Moreover this Ins tr-urn erit does not require periodic maintenance or lubrication.

For the TG~lOO Gyro Compass. the following patents are used


Japanes e patent

No. 42.8317

II II No. 445696
" tf No. 437924
Br_i ti sh pa. tent No. 98532.4
" II No. 995485
French patent 'No. 14136-75
... ~ -1425465
II n No.
UtHity model No. 731995 , , '

I~:addHipn':tothe above; there,aT~ many Japanese and fordgn

pa tents and untility models which are pending •

. . "-~ :_':.





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Functionally, the TG -100 Gyro Cornpas s can be divid ed into the following three sections ~a.} a gyro compass possessing a northseeking function. b) a transmis sion 'unit which transmits the true bearing indicated by the gyro compass and c) and inverter which supplies the necessary power to t.he gyro compass and transmitter unit. An explanation is given below on each of these itelTls.

1. 2. 1

Gyro Compass

The theory of the gyro compass can be explained almost completely

by classical dynamics. A "gyroscopel! has a body which has a certain

mass rotating around its fixed axiil'. Normally, a flywheel which is rotating at a high speed can b e considered to illustrate the above. When the ~ gyroscope has three aXes of angular freedom. it is called a IIfree gyroscopel~

Hereafter the gyroscope will be simply called "gyrofl. By the three axes ~

of angular freedom is rne arrt {as shown ifl. Fig. 1-1) that the gyro can . ~

rotate freely around the three axes' of A, Band C. For instance, the gyro ;; can rotate around axis A (this rotation is called a flspinlt) : it can rotate around axis B (as a gyroscope, the_rotation a r oun d this axis 'b ec orn e s a rotation in the azimuth p l a.n e] and it also rotates around axis C (as gyroscope. the rotation a r ound- this axis becomes a "d i p "},


to: f


A free gyro such as-explained above has inherent qualities listed. (In f

this case, it is a s s urrie d that the gyro is supported at its~center of gravity.) c

(l)_ The 'spin axis of the gyro remains in space pointing in one definite dir,e.c:tion unless a torque is applied from the outside.


,. -c.,


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- .......



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......_ -- _:_~. .




·Fig. ]-1

. I




axis rotates in a direction which is different from the direction of the' force applied by 90" ,

(See Fig. 1-2. As shown in the diagram. when for'ce F is applied to the spin axis at o r que is created in th~ direction shown in the diagram and the gyro rotates So that the direction of the spin axis matches the direction of 'A

the above torque. ) "

This first quality is called the lIgyroscopicinertiall and the secoun quality is called the "precession".

Next. how a gyro which has the qualities such as those referred to above can be used as a compass is shown below,


fig, 1-2


North pole

Meridian -



South p o Ie

; Fig. 1-3


Now. suppose that the spin -a xi s of a free gyro is placed horizontally in the meridian of point A of a north latitude,

Further. suppose that poi nt A has moved to point B with the rotation of the earth. At that time. becau s e of the gyrdscopic inertia, the spin axis indicates the d i r e c bi on shown in the diagram or th~ directio~ which is off the meridian of the point. In order to have the spin axis indicate-the north at all times, it is only necessary to rotate the spin axis in the s arn e direction as the rotation of the eaithat a rate which is equal to the rate (angular velocity) of the rotation of the earth at that point.

. .

To rotate the spin axis. the precession of the gyro can be used.

While maintaining the spin axis horizontally, a force can be applied to the spin axis as in Fig. 1--2, to cause it to perform a pz ec e s s ion in a hor- , izontal plane. Since the angular velocity of the precession is proportional to the force applied, the spin axis can be constantly maintained in the meridian by selecting a suitable force,

North pole

South pole

Fig. 1-4

. '


(Note-: The angular velocity of the."·rotation of the; earth at a certain point is as'follows: at point A shown in Fig. 1-4, ift4'e angular velocity in the direction of earth's .axis is n ,the component ina. vertical direction at that point is expressed by 11 s in >.. ( A is the latitude). Here, since the spin axis is! h c r i z onta l, the precession of the gyro in a.horizontal plane ,~ must be the angular yelocity fl:sin ).. .)

Now, then frolnwhere is the suitable fc r ca for creating the above pree e s s icn obtained 7 It is obtained from the liquid baUis tic. The function

of the liquid ballistic as is described in paragraph 1.3 On construction is the same as if a weight has been attached to the upper part of the gyro .

. 0\

Preces S10n





Fig. 1-5









'j . .


North- . seeking end





Rotating d i r ec ti on of earth

- ,

Fig. 1-6

Fig~~ i-7

.' ....

: 1-8.

suppose that the gyro has been placed on the equator; the spin axis is set horizontally and the north-seeking end of the spin axis is pointina east.

• . 0

Further, suppose that the rn ov e rri e n t of the above gyro is seen from the

north a nd south. In Fig. 1-6 A, the gyro is in the first position. The .~ spin axis is h o r Lz on ta l an~ the no r th= s e ek.i.n g end of the spin axis is pointing east. Since no force is applied, the gyro keeps pointing in the above direction. After some time (because of the rotation of the earth), the gyro c orn e s to point B. Sinc~ the spin axis of ~he gyro is maintained in the same direction, the spin axis becomes tilted at point B. As the spin axis tilts, a torque about the horizontal axis is created by the weight

r e f e r r ed to before and the gyro starts precession. Since the gyro performs precession so that the direction of the spin axis matches the direction of torque. the spin axis gradually shifts to point north. This co~dition as spawn in C and D of Fig. 1-6. A point which must be noted here is

that {as can be estimated from the diagram} when the gyro come s to point b, or when the spin axis points north, the spin axis is still tilting,

As has been explained before, ~pen the gyro is on the quator, the spin axis must be horizontal when it indicates north. That the spin axis tilted at

this point means that the precession of the gyr_o is to continue. When ·the movement of the end of spin axis is projected on a screen for observation, it becomes as shown by" the dotted Iin e s in Fig. 1-7, The spin axis end

rn o ve rn e nt describe-s an oval strectched to the east and west with meridian as the center. If the vibration of the spin .axis end is damped so that th e rn ov e rn en t iof it becomes as shown by the, spiral solid Ii n e , it can be seen that it is po-ssible to use the gyro as a cornpas s. As a method of da mp irig , the application of a torque whi~h acts to decrease the tilt of the spin axis

at the time t he tiH is irrc r e a s in g can be considered. The damping condition of the spin axis epd is shown in Fig. 1-8. In this di a g r a m , the outermost oval shows an undamped locus of the nc r th vs e ekdn g end of the gyro s ta r t e d at point a ; the next oval is the locus of the north-seeking end of the gyrC?

\ \

... ........


..... -./

/ ,


'" ...

... '"



Fig. 1-8


started at point b {ob is 2/3 of oa).·, Then, ovals c. d and e are the loci of the north-seeking end of the gyro. (oc/ob': od/oc = oe/od = 2/3) Suppose that wh e n the gyro which has been started at point a reaches the meridian, the angle of tilt of the spin axis is decreased by vis, The movement of the gyro shifts fir st to oval b and then to ovals c, d and e and finally settles on the meridian. Actually, the above change does not take. place in steps as has been described, but the torque is such that' it constantly q,ecreas es the tilt angle in proporticn to the tilt angle. 'i' Actually. the above change does not tak_e place is steps as has been des c r ibed. but the torque is such that it constantly decreases the tilt angle in proportion to the tilt angle.

In Fig. 1 :"9, the condition und er which the above torque is applied is shown. Fig. 1-9 (a) shows the gyro rotor as Seen from the west side, and' it also' shows that a weight is attached to the west side. When the gyro is tilted. the g r'a vity w hi cb acts' on the weight can be con sidered as acting in the direction of the vertical axis of the gyro and in a dir e c ti on which is parallel to the spin axis. Of these two components of gravity, because

the position -of the weight is toward the west of the vertical axis. of the Gyrothe component which is parallel to the spin axis creates a torque around

the vertical axis of the Gyro. ',(Since the gravity component in the direction of the ... ·ertical axis of the Gyro is the torque' around the spin axis of

the gyro. it does not cause the gyro to perform a precession.) Moreover,

. this torque is practically proportional to the angle of tilt of the gyro.

Thus, when the tilt increases. the torque increases and when the gyro is horizontal, th e torque become s zero.

Torque due ., ~ to wei_ght .

<'P . ..

.. Weight .




C;r~vity.~ding on weigh1:


Perpendicular Axis







With the above torque, the gyro p e r fo r rn s preces s i ori in the direction of decreasing the tilt. The above fact does not change even when the direction of the tilt of the gyro is reversed and the direction of the pre _ cession is reversed; still the tilt of the spin axis is decreased. Thus, since the weight attached to the w e s t side of the gyro damps the oscillation of the gyro, it is called a damping weight. Wi tb this arrangement, the • oscillation of the north-seeking end of the gyro about the meridian is damped constantly, depending on the position 0.:: whichtb e gyro is started. Thus, we see that the north-seeking end of the gyro perfoms a movement

d e s c r i bi ng an oval while being damped and stops, finally pointing north.

However, the gyro which has stopped pointing north must perform (when it is at paints other than on the equator) a preces sian in proportion to the angular velocity of th e rotation of the earth, as has been explained before. Moreover, the above precession is performed when the spin- axis is tilted at a proper angle. {A torque is created by~ the weight located On the upper part of the rotor ca s e , } When the spin axis is tilted, the damping weight functions. Since it decreases the tilt of the gyro, if the gyro is ·pointing rro r t h, the angular velocity of the preces sian is somewhat insufficientj:o cancel the angul~r velocity of the ea r ch' s rotation. To compens a t eTo r the above insufficiency, the gyro tilts a little more and indicates a point slightly off the north. In other words, an error o c cu r s .

Since the above error ~s given theoretically, it is possible to correct the bearing signal transmitted from the gyro at points other than the gyro. (Gyro Comp~s,ses .MK 14 Mod. 2._ MK 14 Mod. T, MK EN and MK ES Mod. 2 correct the e~ror by the above method. J However, if th e spin axis becom~s horizontal when th e gyro points north, the damping weight c e a s es to c r eat eto r que a r ound the vertical axis. Consequently, the error refe'ired to abov~ does not occur .. Then, what should be done to have the gyro s p in axis maintain its horizontal position when the gyro points north?

When the gyro spin axis is horizontal. it is no longer possible to obtain the torque which causeS the gyro to p e r fo r rn a preces sion to cancel the rotation of the earth from the weight on the upper. part of the rotor. case.' In other words, it is necessary to create the necessary torque by a means other thanthew e ight On the upper part of the rotor case.

Wp_en the spin axis is horizontal. of an additional weight is attached to a point which is off the center of gravity of the rotor. as shown in Fig. 1-10 (b). a.nd.a precession is given to the gyro with the torque created by the ad d it i cria l weight, the above r·equired condition will be satisfied.

A' comparison on a) and b) of Fig. 1-10 is given below .

. ~ ..

In a), the weight located on the upper part o(the rotor case furnishes \he gyro with a precession with the tilt of the spin axis after the gyro has




Spin axi?



,':Fig._ 1-10

benri rria d e to point north. In b). after the weight on the upper part of the rotor case has caused fh e gyro to point north, the additional weight furnishes the gyro with a torque which ba Iaric e s with the torque created by the weight on the upper part of the rotor case and tilt of th~ spin axis caus - i n g the gyro to perform a precession. From the above explanation, it is clear that by adding some suitable weight. it is possible to keep the spin .axis horizontal. However. since the vertical component of the angular velocity of the rotation of the earth diff~rs according to latitudes and its

d i re c t i.ori is reversed in the north and south latitudes with respect to the surface of the earth. any simple fixed weight cannot be used: Then. what

a r e the requirements for any· additional weight? They are as follows : depending on the latitude on which the gyro is set. the position of the a d «. ditional weight must be corrected automatically and the amount corrected must change continuously. Aninstrurnent which satisfies the above conditions is. the integrator d e s cr ib ed below.

~ ;;. """

oil .

Tig. 1 -11


The c o n s truction of the integrator is given in Fig. 1-11. The integrator consists of a cylinder filled w it h high·viscosity oil and a steel ball sealed in the oil-filled cylinder. Suppose that this integrator is tilted to SOme degree. Then. the steel ball (because of the high viscosity of the oil) moves very s Iowl.yIn the direction of the tilt; its movement is p r opo rt i ona l to the angle of tilt and the t i rn e-Idu r i ng which the cylinder is tilted (or the amount of steel ball movement is proportional to the integration of the

time during which the cylinder is tilted), How. an integrator such a s the One referred to above satisfies the requirements of the additional weight

is explained below while referring to the action of a gyro equipped with

the integrator. (The integrator is attached to the center of gravity of the

n o r th v s outh direction of the gyro in parallel to the gyro spin axi s ) Let us return to the first part of this manual and consider the gyro of Fig, 1-6, supposing that this gyro is equipped .with an Irit e g r a to r , As sume that the steel ball of the integrator is at the center when the gyro is On position A.

That n o torque whatever is applied to the gyro at position A i~ the~ame

as in the case of a gyro without ~n integrator, While the gyro is performing preces sion of B, C and D, the change in the til~ angle of ~he gyro spin axis is large, but because the time is c orrip a r a t i v e Iy short, the .integrator does ·n~t impart much effect. However, wh en t here l Ii pt i ca I movement oi. the gyro be corne s smaller and in the vicinity of the point where the spin axis s ta r t s to enter the meridian, the spin axis hardly moves, If the spin axis is tilted (because the tilt lasts for' a long time), the effect of the ~tegrator becomes apparent and the integrator continues to fun c ti on until the

'. movement of the steel ball stops or. in other words, until the spin axis

. be ccrne s horizontal.

. - I

, I

{ I

- ~ - . - .

That th~ integrator fun ct i on s un t.i l the spin axis is horizontal means ,that

the position of th~ weight is" cc r r e c t ed automatically and that the amount

of steel ball·rn.cive~ent is proportional to the ~Il:tegration of th e time means that the c o r r e ct ing amount changes c on ti nu ou.s Iy. :r:he integrator gets its ·name f~orn. the fact that the correcting a rn oun t is p r opo r t iona l to the iote-

grati·o~ .~f th e time during 'oVhich the spin a.x i s is tilted. .< . _ '

The integrator is a tta ch'ed to a part (this part is called a "vertical ring~1 as described in paragraph 1. 5 on construction) which tilts in the

s a rn e way as the rotor case. From the mounti,ng position and the cba.za.c> t e rf s ti c s of the integrator, the fo'Il ow i.n g ~an be conjectured: when the gyr.o is tilted. the integarator corrects the tilt completely whether the tilt is due to the north-seeking characteristic of the gyro or not. In other words. when N side or S side of the gyro becomes heavy because of imbalance, even its correction is performed by the integrator. There are various of Im ba Ianc e, for example, the thermal' changes, or there is a

" shifting of mass due to secular change of the various materials composing' :. the integrator, or the to::que, due to the shape of the flexible cable, cross-




e s over the horizontal axis, etc. These were usually the causes for an error in the gyros of the past, but nOW they cannot constitute causes for an error in the TG -1 00 Gyro Compas s.





Spin axis

Fig. 1-12

Here. an explanation_of a speed error which is unavoidable wh e n the gyro is insta.lled on_a ship is given b e Iow, As has been explained up to now, to provide the gyro wit.h the north-s eeking characteristic, the rota tion of the earth is used.

In other worqs. the -gyro strives to :match the gyro spin axis to the N-S

di rection compon e nt of the earth' s rotation. The N -5 direction component of the earth' s rotati on is n cos >.. at the point of latitude " on the northern hemisphere. as shown in Fig. 1-13.

On the other hand, suppose a s h ip equipped with a gyro compass is sailing in the.N_Sdirectionat a speed of v , At this. time, an angular velocity of viR (R is the radius of the earth) is applied to the gyro. Let the course of the ship be .jn any ofh e r id i r e c t-i on than N direction and divide it into N-S andE-W dii·cctions. Then, the N-S component is v cos e as shown in

Fig. 1-15. WHit th"eab6v.e velocity component, the angular velocity applied to the gYT.O become s ':'". co~ 8 fR. A s is clear. from Fig. 1-14. the direction of the above angul a r velocity is vertically upward, namely, W direction. A.n ex:ror occurs because .tb e gyro spin- axis matches thecolTlpo site direction of the abov.e apparent angular velocity and the angular

velocity of the earth's rotation. .

.-. .. v sin 9

Thiser;r<:>!-is ~~p.re.s.s~d by the equa Hon below .. In Fig. 1--16., R is

V~}:"y..::.sm:a.:u,·C"oJnpared~o.n c o s >.. andit .. is omitted.

Sinc~e: -tan ._S ~= S ~,::,i~h smallang.~·~ s"S =v cps 9 IF.. n cos ). .. This error is c o r r e ct edIn the transmitter box. (Refer to 1.2: 2. b.)





n cos A



Fig. 1-13


Y cos B




_.L, .•

Fig. 1-17




Fig. 1-14




n. cos x


It cos B


Fig. 1-16


piano wire

Vertical ring

Rotor cas e

Rotor (gyr~)




In the explanations made up to now, it has been considered that a gyro is supported at the center of its gravity and is an ideal device with the degree of freedom of the three axes.

In the TG-I00 Gyro Compass, in o r d e rEo support the gyro at the center "of gravity, the rotor case' is suspended from above.

-An outline of the construction is shown in Fig. l-i7: (For details. refer to paragraph 1-3 on c on s t r uc t.ion , J Since the rotor case is suspend ed

from the vertical ring by a piano wire. when there is a change in the r e1ative position between the rotor case and vertical ring. the piano wire becomes twi s ted , As the tw i s t ed piano wire tends to return to its original

state, this movement creates a torque causing gyro to p e rfc r rn a precession. This precession. however. is ha;"mful.to the gyro compass. To eliminate

the relative displacement of the rotor ca se and vertical ring, the vertical; ring can be made to Con stantly follow the movement of the gyro. The system which performs the above role is the follow-up sys~~m described in subsequent paragraphs .

. The follow-up s y s t err, is a follow-up' transformer which detects the relative displacement and is composed of an amplifier which amplifies the signal of the transformer and an ~ z irrru th motor (2 "-phas e servo motor) which is d r i v en by the above signal.

The follow-up system schez=na tic diagram 5. s shown in Fig" 1-18, and the principle of th~ fo l low vup transformer is shown in Fig. 1-19.

The primary side of the follow-up transformer is a. coil wound on an.Eshaped iron core. Opposing the E-shaped iron core", there are two aircored coils and these constitute the secondary of the transformer. When the primary coil is energized by AC voltage, an alternating magnetic flux is induced as shown by the dotted lin e s in Fig. 1-19. In each coil of the secondary side,A~ voltage, which has the same frequency as the voltage energizing the. primary coil. is induced since the above interlinking flux cuts the secondary coils.

Follow-up transmitter

.! -i:

I .

, .

c >. Primary' Secondary

r-~~ _" _'/_'~'-":~:~~"side side



I .,

• ,:!. . . I . ~ ~ : ....

, ".


Azim"uth motor

Fig. 1-18

Fig. 1-19



1.1 1.2

1. 2. 1 1. 2. 2 1. 2.3 1.3

1. 3. 1 1. 3. 2


2. 1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6


3. 1 3.2 3.3






.......... , I .

General .. III ,_ " .. iI .

Theory of Operation .•..•.•..•.••..•.•..•••....•

Gyro Compas 5 __ ..

T ran smis s Ion 5y st em ••..••.••...••.•..••.•••••

Inverter ,. lit " ..

Description •..•.•.•...•.....•.•........•.•..•..

·Master Compass .. II "" I~ It' .

Transmis s i ori Un.it ••..•..•.••.•.•••.•...••...•.



G en e ral : .....•..........•....•.....•.........•

Preparation for Starting Coxnpass ••.•......•.•. -.

Starting '" to + : ..

Stopping , .

Setting Speed Corrector : ..........•

Settirig Compass on Meridian for Short-time .•.•.•



............... , ..

General.· .. .", : ••....•.......... '.' ..•...... - ..•..

Lubrication .....•................•. _ .


............................................. - '" .










.~7 /:/t~~




1-1 1-4 1-4 1-17 1-24 1-28 1-28



.-- 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-4 2-4 2-5


3-1 3-1 3-2









The gyro compass which has already been in USe for more than 50 years, is an indispensable aid in navigation. for it provides navigators with ess eritj a.I true bea r ing.

The TG-IOO Gyro Compass described in this manual has· been developed and manufactured by the Tokyo Ke i ki Co .• Ltd. and is based On superior techniques gained from the manufacture of more than 2. 500 gyro compasses, such as the Sperry Types MK. 14 Mod. 26• MK. 14 Mod.

T, KM. EN and our own MK. ES.

The theory of this gyro compass is n o different from that of a' conventional gyro compass. However. in order to actualize the above

theory. new techniques have been adopted. These are described below.

(1) Owing to the use of the integrator. no ~atitude e r r o r vthe o r et i c a l lv

appears ..


.:~: .

(2) With the adoption of the integrator, the north-south balance of the gyro compass is automat:i,_cally rria irita.i n ed for long periods.

(3) The transmitter unit d r Iv e s a conventional step motor with a

trar:,smitte! w~ich is c crnp l e t e Iy non-contacting ~nd t r an s Lst c r Lz ed , , : .. :;::~:~~§;

; (4) The power supply is not a motor-driven generator but a t:ransisto:r";~'-:;

ized •. static inverter. . "0. ; .:;t .. '

(S) With the use of a liquid ballistic acceleration error due to ascil_'

Ia ti on is suppres sed to a minimum.

(~) Because of a new g i m ba l construction, the ca r d of the master compas s does not swing.

(7). To protect the vital parts of the gyro compass from the impact of violent waves, a new double -soring type, vibration-prCfofix;g device is

used. '

(S) The follow-up performance of this gyro compass is particularly e·xcellent ; a 15 -second turning is possible and a follow -up of 320 Is e c is also pos sible at the peak.

In practice. the error of the north-seeking accuracy of the TG-IOO Gyro Compass is less than ::I: O. 5°. The degree of angular freedom


oscillations resulting f r o rn the rolling and pitching of a ship is 400•

The standard composition of the TG-lOO ~yro Co rrrpa s s is shown below. a. Master Compass

b. Transmission Unit

c. Repeater Compass

• d. Course Recorder

In many cases, however, in addition to the above, the instruments listed below are includ ed in the composition.

e. Alarm Unit

f. Repeater for Radar

T'h e TIlethod of handling the TG-IOO Gyro Compass has been simplified greatly. More specifically. starting and stopping of the gyro compass can be performed with a toggle switch alone. Moreover this instrument does not require p e r i'od i c maintenance or lubrication.

For the TG-IOO Gyro Cotnpass. the following patents are used !
.Tapanes e patent No. 4283"17
" I, No . 445696
" " ·No. 437924
British patent No. 985324
II " No. 995485-
Fr ench patent No. 14i3675
II . " " No • 142.5465
-~ .. .. ", ~ .
... -.
. l]tili tymod el ,--'" No. 731995 In addition to the above. there are many .Japanese and foreign

patents~.and ':lntiHty models" which. are pending. , ".-


The. 5 econdary 5 ide coils a r e connected So that. the induced voltage 5

of the coils a r e opposite to each other. When there is no relative displacement of the primary and secondary Sides, the voltages induced in the secondary coils are equal and of opposite polarity; thus the output voltage is ze roo If there is. a relative displacement between the primary and

se condary sides. th'e voltage s ioduced in the 5 econdary coils are equal and of opposite polarity; thus the output voltage is zero. If there is a

r e lative displacement between the primary and secondary side coils, the interlinking flux of One of the two secondary coils increases more than the other and the induced voltage becomes greater.

Owing to the method of connecting the two secondary side coils, the magnitude of the output ~ignal voltage becomes the d iffe r en c e of the induced voltages' of the two secondary coils and its polarity is the same as that of the voltage which is greater. Thus, the output s i gna Lof the follow-up transformer expresses the amount of displacement and direction with the

rn a gn i tud e and polarity of voltage.

The rotating direction of the. azimuth motor is determined by the

rn a gn it.ud e of the output signal. . Becaus e the shaft of the azimuth motor and the se c onda r y coils of the follow-up t r a n s fo r rri e r are mechanically coupled, the o utp ut -signal of the fo!low -up transformer constantly drives the azimuth l'flotor so that the output signal of the follow-up. t r a.n s fo r rn e r ,

b e c o rn e s zero. In other words. the output signal of the fallow-up transformer drives the azimuth motor so tha t there is no relative displacement between the rotor case and the vertical inner ring.

A follow-up sys tern. such as that d e s c rib ed in which the output (the.

_ rotation of the azimuth rn ot o r ] is coupled to the input (the displacement of th e fol.low -up transformer) and the s y st ern is driven so that the input be - comes zero is ca.lled a I~servo system".

l. 2. 2

Tr ans mi s stcc System

In these paragraphs. the manner in which the bearing of the rria s t e rcom.p,:s s is transmitted to various repeater compass is explained.

The speed e r r o r explained above is corrected ;n the transmission system described here. Ccri s e querit l y, the card of t h e mas;er compass indicates a hearing which c orita in s a speed error but the re;>eater cards 'indicate true bearing .

. Accordin'g to the functions. the transmission system can be classified as follows:


a. IX and 9X synchro control transmitters.,coupled mechanically to the

compas s card inside the mas ter compas S.


b. IX and 9X synchro control transformers inside the t r an s rni s s i on

unit. ~rnplifier which amplifies the signals of the above t r a n s rrri t t e r-,

Servo system consisting of the above elements. Spe ed error corrector which applies, as a bias. a voltage which is proportional to the speed error to the signal circuit of the servo loop.

c. A non-contacting transITIittei which is driven by the above Servo system and transistor t r an srrrit t e r which am.plifies 'Uie signal of the transrrrit te r ,

d. Repeater compass

(l) In the master compass there is the follow-up rn e c harri s rri for indicating on a card. (Of course, this is not the only object of the followup mechanism. See paragraph 1-2 - 1. ). Two synchro control trans-

rn i tte r s are mechanically connected to the follow-up rn e c'harri SIn. One -of' _" two transmitters named lX synchro transmitter makes one revoluti"on to one of the compa s 5 card. The other named 9X synchro tra:nsmitter rria.k e s 9 revolu.tions to one of th~ c ornpa s s card. In order to make the error of " the synchro t r a n s rrri s sion s y s t e rn "o"r a" negligible value wi th respect to the error of the master compass, a 9X synchro is us ed. Since nine synchronizing points are formed for one rotation of the card when only the 9Xsynchro is used. IX s yn cb r o is "used to form only one synchronizing point" (for automatic synchroniz~n"g).

(2) As has been described above. IX synchro"is used to sY11:chr;nize when there is a greater variance of bearing 'be tw e en the master compas s and the transmission unit. 9X synchro is used for more accurate synchronizing when there is a s rrra Ll, variance of bearing. This eledric circuit is

s h owri in Fig. 1-20. The output voltage of the IX syn,chro appears at the output terminals practically unchanged. However, the output terminal of the 9X synchrq is shorted by "two Zener diodes", CR 207 and CR 2.oB.

(A Zener diode has an e xt r e rn e l y high resistance in th e inverse direction

for applied voltage of less than a definite value arid ha s a ~ery low resistance in the invers e direction 'When the applied voltage exceeds a definite value. )

Consequently. the output voltage of the 9X synchr~ does not exceed" a

definite value since the output is shorted through the Zener diodes when

its voltage exceeds a definite value. The sum of the two voltags such as

that described above appears as the output of the circuit. When the master c o rnp a's s card and tran smis sian unit card a r e near the synchronizing

point. the output of the 9X synchro is greater than that of the IX synchro: "

thus the above output becomes practically the s arri e as the output of the

9X synchro.

V/hen there is a gr::eater diference between two compass cards, the output of the 9X synchro 15 shorted by the Zener diodes; thus only the signal of


the IX synchro b e c orri e s the output.

R1 }
R21S --- Output
GRZDa . -

. Fig. 1-20 The output circuit of the 9X synchro is biased from another synchro.

This electric circuit is shown in Fig. 1-2.1. The speed error. as has been explained in the paragraphs on the principle of gyro compas 5, is p_ro-

po r ti ona.I to the component of velocity of the NS direction of the ship and

is inversely proportional to the component of velocity around the NS axis

of the earth' s r~tation at that point. In Fig. 1-21. the synchro indicated

by SY 201 is a control transmitter and rotates at IX. The secondary side voltage of the synchro control transmitter is proportional to the cosine of t~e primary side energi~ing voltage and the po s it ion (angle) of the roto~.

Thus, if this SY 201 is .rotated according to the servo mechanism and the primary side of the SYlOl is energized with a voltage proportional to the ship's speed and inversely proportional to the cosine of the. latitude at ship's position •. -the voltage proportional to the speed error is induced on the secondary side of the SY2.0 1. A precalculated, proper -correcting voltage can' be applied as the energizing voltage when the knob for the speed error corrector is set according to the table attached to the outside of the transmi s sion unit.


The output of the IX and 9X synchros bias ed with a voltage from an-

other syn~hro control transmitter becomes .th e input of the servo ampli- . ·fier. With' this signal. the servomotor is driven and. by this servomotor, the card and non c oneac ttng transmitter are driven. Th~ positions


(b e a ,-inzs} of the card and n o nc orrta c t in g transInitter are not always the same as the bearing indicated by the master compass.

It is a bearing which has been biased with the correction amount for the s p e c d error. Since the position of the nox:contacting transmitter is

d a t e r rrri ne d with the above true beari!1g. true bearing is transmitted to the repeaters.

(3) an'Cl {4} Noncontacting transmitter and repeater motor

'The heading signal ~hich has been transmitted from the synchro control transmitter of the master c o rrrp a s s is given a speed correction treatment. and the true heading thus heading thus obtained is received by the synchro control transformer of the ste~ring repeater card. ' The steering repeater card is driven by the servomotor. The heading of the steering repeater ; cardis transmitted by the noncontacting transmitter and is t r an s rn i tt e d to each repeater from the steering stand.'

The repeater motor which drives the repeater. card is called a step motor, and its general construction is shown in Fig. 1-22.

} Output



Fig. 1-21

Step motor.


Fig. ·1-22

Two coils which are positioned at 1800 from each other. are connected in

s e ri e s, and three'sets of these series-connected coils are arranged at the intervals of 600• The rotor is located at the center of this coil arrangement: As shown in the diagram. the rotor is' supported in such a way

that it can rotate freely around O-point.


The power supply and a switch a~e connected to the step motor, as shown in Fig. 3 -6, and the order of the coils to be ener g iz.ed is changed with the switch,

In this rna nn e r , the step motor transmits rotations {angles} in steps.

The step motor makes one complete rotation is 12 steps and is coupled to the repeater card at a gear ritio of 180: 1. Thus, one rotation of the step motor co r r e sponds to 2" on the repeater c a r d, and one 5 tep of the motor b e c orrie s 2°-;- 12 = 1/60 or 0.166" on the card.

The device which forms the signal for driving the above step motor is the noncontacting transmitter.

An outline diagram of the noncontacting transmitter is shown in Fig. 1-23.

.. .

. The secondary coils of 51, S2 and 53 ~orm three pairs of coils .. with

. serie s -copnection of the two coils located at 1800 from each other and arranged at int eva Is of 30 Q. On the stator core are wound, i_n addition to the a bcv e 51, S2 and S3 coils, the primary coils of R 1 and R2. in such a . way that magnetic flux is generated th roug h the magnetic circuit which passes through the rotor located at the center of the coils. The primary coils are en e r g i z ed by an AC of 400Hz. lIOY. The r ot o r located at the center is cross -shaped as shown in the diagram,

Fig~ 1-23


-VrJIC'l the .rotor is at the position indicated iri. the diagram, the AC

-1l)I)H-r, .na gn e ti c field generated by coils Rl and R2 passes through one

:ii_)l~ 0t the rotor and the core on which coil S 1 is wound.

Wit;:n rna g ne t ic f'lux passes in the manner described above, a 400Hz /\C v ol i a g e is induced,iri the coil wo~.m·d On the core. The induced voltage becomes the s?gna1 voltage for driving the step motor.

As sh~wn in the d i a g r a.rn, . because this ste:r- signal transmitter is a fully noncontacting transmitter without any slip ring. trouble suc1;. as a poor contact never oc cu r s .

To drive the step motor with the output signal of the non~ontading if,

transmitter, a step motor control circuit which converts the output . '~

sfgnal of the noncontacting transmitter into a DC switcing voltage is n~ces-'l sary. -Because this tr'an s rrii tt e r utilizes a transistor amplifier type stkp motor control circuit, sometimes it is called a transistor relaying transmitter.

- Fig. 1-24 shows an outline ~Hagra;n of the control circuit for One phase of the step motor.

An explanation of the principle of operation is given below.

When there is n o signal from the noncontacting transmitt~r, because of the base current which flows through R207. 0201 is always in an ON state. At this time. the emitter of 0204 is connected to terminal (-) through the ba se= ern i tt e r s of 0207 and 0210 and also through CR207 and

Is at a potential which is higher than of terminal {-}, because of the

forward junction drop of CR207. Moreover. b e ca u s e a rever se bias of

R219 is a'pplied to the base of Q204, 020:4 is maintained in a completely

OFF state. Also. because the base of Q207 is biased in the r e v e r s e direction through R.222. - the transistor is in an OFF state.

Due to the above 0210 of c ou r s e i s in an OFF state and no cu r r ent flows in the coil of the ~tep motor.

When a signal comes from fhe noncontacting transmitter, this signal is rectified by CR201. A bias in reverse direction is applied to the base of 0201. and 0201 is placed i; an OFF state, When 0201 goes off, with the base current which fl ow s in through R21 0 and R213, 0204 goes into an

ON state. Because of this a current flows in the base of 0207; tran-

sistors 0207 and 0210 g<;> into ON state and a current flows in the coil of the step motor. There are three of the cicuit such as that described above. opposing the coils of the step motor. These circuits are changed over successively with the n on c ont a c t'irrg transmitter .to cause the step motor to perform synchronous rotations. Thus, the transmitter and the



~, "I'.


, ~.

.; ~,


... '~


: ~~
.:J co
i~ i
1 ;q\
' ....
" ~
:. ~
., .
.. ,
~~ various repeaters are always in synchronization.

H o


o r

S ....

0.. .... Q,l 0 .... o. (Q

-.r N' I ......






1. 2.3


In thi s paragraph. the Static Inverter, which supplies the power necessary to operate the TG-IOO Gyrocompass. is described.

The inverter can be divided roughly into three large section: (1) the inverter section which converts DC into AC, (2) a phase adaptor circuit and (3) a protective circuit for the SCR and th~ DC power supply circuit.

(1) Inverter section

The static inverter is as follows: As surne that switche s S 1 and S2 in

a circuit such as shown in Fig. 1-29 are opening and closing alternately. Further. assume that. as shown in Fig. 1-27, 51 closes with time to +- r I and 52 opens. With time-tl ~ t2. S 1 opens and SZ c Io s e s and these acti~ms are repeated. Durtng time to--tl. voltage VI is applied to the upper half of the primary winding of the trans former in the direction shown in the diagram. During time t1 ~ t2, voltage V2 is applied to the primary winding in the direction s hown ; While the c:bove .actions are being repeated,. a vo lta g ewhi cb r ev e r s e s its polarity as shown in Fig. 1-27 appears at the secondary side of the transformer .. ·When the operating time of the switches is determined. the ,frequency of the seconfary side voltage is determined.

In an SCR inv·eTter. SCRs p e r fo r rn the actions don e by S 1 and 52. A circuit diagram of the SCR inverter is shown in Fig. 1-28. The differences between Fig. 1-26 and Fig. 1-28 are that the switches are replaced with SCRs and with the addition of capacitor C306. reactor L30 1 and diode CR307-. To turn the SCRs on or ofr: that'the above parts are required can


In Fig. 1-28, the ga te c i rcuits of SCRs are omitted; however, . let us suppose that signals are applied alternately to the gates. Now, let us COn- t .s i d e r the moment at which SCR30l is on and SCR302 is off. At this time. l current is flowing in the direction iridicated by the solid line in the diagram. \

Since the forward voltage drop?f the SCR is slight. pra ctically the entire \

power supply voltage (~) is applied between A and C. As the primary t

side of the transformer can be regarded as an autotransformer, voltage f

2E appears between A and B. wiu. this voltage existing between A and B. j

C306 is charged in the direction indicated in the diagram. The gate signal I of 5CR301 disappears and a gate signal is applied to SCR302. When this : occurs. SCR302 is turned on; however. because the current which is flowing in SCR301 does not change. SCR30l cannot be turned off as long as the above current is not decreased to below the holding current. However. because SCR302 has been tur n e d on, the charge stored. in C306 is applied

be found in the explanation below.


to both ends of SCR301 th;rough SCR302 in reverse direction. Because of the above, the current which is pawing in SCR301 becomes less than the holding current and SCR301 is turned off.

I Eil lQ
51 Vl I ',1
to, ~l ~2 It3 I
I[EO lEi: I I n
V2 I
I. I I
I' I I ! I
52 I
+ EO
Ei - Fig. 1-26

Fig. 1-27








. '

F· ··1-2.8

19 .


In this rn ann e r , SCR301 is turned on and SCR302. is turned off. Then, the action is changed Over and SCR301 is turned off and SCR302 is turned on. This changeover is called a "coTTnnutationll because the path through which the current flows is changed, C306 and L301 are called the "cornTTmtation capacitor" arid "comITlutation choke" r_espectively. Here, an explanation is given ori-fh e pulsating DC referred to in paragraphs 1. 2. 2 c and d.

Let us observe more closely the phenomena wn i ch occur at the time of the above c orrirnu ta tl on, When capacitor c306 discharges (in the primary side of the tran sforrnerl. the current which strives to flow f'r orn the power supply through the SCR and the discharging current On the capacitor have opposite directions. Because the charging current of the capacitor flows rapidly. the current supplied from the power suppiyto cancel the above current in the primary of the transformer a l s o strives to increase rapidly. However, since a reactor is inserted in series with the power supply, no rapid current increase is possible and this is'tantamount to a temporary cut off of the circuit at the point where the reactor is inserted. Because

of this, the power supply of the 'inverter becomes a pulsating direct cu r r ent ; This pulsating DC is supplieJ to the SCR amplifier of the transmission unit and used to control SCRs.

Next. the gate circuit is d e s c r i b ed , and the electric circuit is shown

in F'i g , 1-29. T'r-an s fo r rn e r T305 is the sa-me as the' one shown in Fig.

1-28_ On this transformer a third winding is wound and is used for the

gate signal.. When voltage is create"d in the above winding, the gate circuit has a series resonance circuit consisting of capacitor C307 and inductance L304: thus a near-sine wave current whose frequency is determined by the above series resonance circuit flows in the winding. For instance, sup-

pos e that. at a certain instant, voltage is treated so that curr ent flows in

the gate circuit of SCR301 in the forward d i r e c t.i on , Then, by the action Zener diode CR309. high voltage is eliminated and current that rises falls Sharply (beca,use-only the lower half of the sine wave is used) flows in the gate of SCR301. This current uses the forward d i r e ct i on of CR308 as its return c i r c ui t , Once current flows in either SCR (since the gate of SCR301

is biased by R303-current will flow in SCR301 without fail when the switch is turned on), current flows in the rna i n winding of T30S; thus voltage is induced in the third winding of the' transformer. This induced voltage causes a resonance of the constant frequency signal (400 cps)' applied to the series resonance circuit. With this resonant frequency, the gate of the SCR is controlled.

An inverter which controls its ov ... ·n gate w i th the voltage induced by the rna in current which flows in th e SCR is discrimi·n ated f r orn another in- .

v e r t e r' which r e c e i v e s the contro.l signal for the gate from outside and is call e d a r t S e 1£ - E;-:. cit i n gIn vcr t e r ; I •



(2) Phase Adapter

As can be surmised from the foregoing ,~~p1anation, the output of the above inverter is a s in g le -pha s e aite'rri'ating cuz rent ,

. . ..

On the other hand, since the gyro r oto r is a three -pha s e induction

motor, three-phase power must.be supplied' to drive thegyro~ A diagram for the theory of a phas e-adapte.r' is shown in Fig,· 1-30. In the diagram, RLs are the load, In pa r a.He l with each load, a capacitor and an inductance ar econ~ected and, when these are c onrie c te d in series, the currents which flow i~ the: loads have phases different from that of the original current 11 such as those indicated by 12 and 13. Then, it is possible to de te rrriine- the values of C and L so that there is a phas e difference of60~ b etw een Il,

12 and 13 .. With the above method, it is possible to •. _obtain three-phase power 'f r orn single -phase power. In practice, because the impedance of

the induction motor, which is the load, changes with the revolution of the m9~or. the value of the capacitor is changed automatically at the starting

time and at the time of normal operation to supply const~nt three -phas e power at all t i rn e s _






Fig. 1-29

l4t _ Il
_...,.. E
15 ! ,E
_ Fig. 1-30

Fig. 1-31




(3) Power supply and SCR protection circuit

The DC 70V supplied to the inverter is obtained by vo lta'g e step-dov.m and by rectifying the ship's three -phase AC supply. The. coil of an overcurrent relay is inserted in series with the circuit which supplies DC 70V. When this relay actuates, another r e Ia y a c tua te s to cut off the DC 70V.

ci rcuit. This is the SCR protection circuit. ·;This. protection circuit is provided because, when SCRs perform c ornmucatf on, there exists a period, though extremely short, during which SCRs of both sides are turned on simultaneously. If. for some reason, the SCRs of both sides r e ma.In on

(or if no commutation is possible), the very small impedance of the power· supply side is the only thin that controls the current flowing in SCRs; th,!s; current inexces s of the rated current of the SCR flows and the SCRs are

. ,

damaged. This protection circuit detects the above over current. -cuts off the power supply and protects the SCRs from damage, Eveni! it occurs. the phenomenon of commutation failure occurs by mere chance and, for this reason, the protection circuit i~ of the automatic Fe -setting type. Since a chance commutation failure recovers at once. the operation of the gyro cornpas s its elf is not affected in the least.

1. 3



The gyro compass. master compass and t r an s rn i s s i orrwni t are the principal units in the TG -1 00 gyro c o rnp a s s equipment. Thi s section ineludes a general description of these units and a detailed description of

. their component parts.

1. 3. 1

Ma s t e r compass

In the upper section of the master compass. (Fig. 1-32) is the gyro which has the north -se eking function; in the lower section is the static inverter which supplies the power to the entire equipment. The gyro of the master compass consists of a movable e l e rn e n t which has a gyro rotor: a v e rtical ring, which supports the gyro r ot o r ; a horizontal ring, which supports the vertical ring; a phantom ring, which supports the horizontal ring. as-ta tionary element, which supports the movable element; and a shock absorber, which supports the stationary e l ern en t , The independent static inverter and power supply of the static inverter are incorporated

in the l ow er section of the master compass. A detailed discription of

each component and wiring system, explaining the construction features which enable the component to ful i l its function; is provided in the remaining paragraphs of this section.

] - ?.S




..... ~ " .

i I' , ";

, "


.1 .: "

... '!



.---- ---


I !-.-"


-"~:c:;~: .<

~ : )

. .

;,J:' • d ~ I -: ~ -: :; ...

""'._ ..... n:."J .. .,_..,_, -..." ,

,. ,

E! :~. ! .. ~,.,. :,'

" .

• .......w: ,_~~ •




1- 29

\- ..





Adjusting screw·

Follow-up (primary)


Follow-up transformer. (secondary)

Rotor case

Vertical inner ring

. Level

Horizontal r i

Revolution a:bservation window

Stabili z e r


Fig. 1-33 A s Seen From N Side





Level ~' ..

.. ~., ---- ..

..... Stopp~r

Vertical inner ring

(W side)

Horizontal ring


Fig. 1-34 As Seen From S Side


(I) Movable element

The parts which have the north-seeking functiorl:' that is, the parts which follow up the above action and "the parts which move to give the n e c e s sary degree of freedom to the gyro are called the "movable p a r t s !",

The views' of the interior. excluding the horizontal ring of the movable section as viewed from various sides, are s hown in Fig, 1-33 and 1-34. The gyro rotor and the case within which it. spins may be considered to be the heart of the gyro compass equipment, .. They form. respectively. the rotor and stator of an induction motor. The rotor is 176mrn in d i a rne t e r , weight· 8 kg and is designed to operate' at approximately 8000 rpm when the motor is connected to a 110-volt. 400-cyc1e • .3 -phas e AC s upply ,

When the compass is in, operation. one end of the gyro rotor is north:seeking. hence the corresponding part of the rotor case is refer r,ed to as the north side of the case.

T'h e rotor ca.s e window, shown in Fig. 1-3j. is used to observe the rotation of the gyrp rotor. The north' side of the rotor has a. mark painted' -on its surface which can be seen through the window, as viewed fr orn the north side of the case when starting the gyro. The ball bearings w hi c h support the 'rotor are lubricated by special grease'of high quality, To suppress the vibration completely during rotation, the gyro r oto r is given

a perfect dynamic balancing. '

The gyro rotor case is suspended in the vertical ring by means of suspen sian. The upper and lower guide studs are fasten ed to the top and bottom respectively of the rotor case, They fit into the inner races of the upper and lower vertical guide bea rings which are in the vertical ring. These b e a r i.n g s are for the pu r o o s e of guidance only .. All the weight of the rotor is supported by the s u sp e n s i on , When there is even the slighte st

fr i ct i on in these bearings. it appears immediately as an error in azimuth. In order .to maintain these bearings without any friction, care must be taken to keep the bearings clea~ at all times. To, lubricate these bearings, a special kind of oil is used.

The suspension consists of a group of I Z steel wire s by which the weight or'the rotor case is supported within the vertical ring. If the steel wires are twisted, the twist acts on the rotor as a tor.que and an azimuth' er ror o c cu'r s , With the parting and adjusting screw l oca t e d on the upper part of the suspension, a fine adjustment for eliminating twist of the steel wires ~an be performed ever after a s s ern bl y of the gyro.

The damping weight described in paragraph 1. Z is located on the west side of, the gyro rotor ca s e ,


• r ....... ••• ,._- _£


J The prima ry coil of the follow-up t r a n s for mer is attached to the east

s i d e of th e gyro rotor cas e.

, -

A s can be se en from the fact that the gy_:t;o rotor cas e is suspended by

the s up e n s i ori w i t hi n the vertical ring, the gyr~ is suspended on the vertical axis. Con~equently. the gyro has a degree of freedom ~round the vertic~l ring. However. since the- ve r ti ca L's ha It is held by the s u s pens i on (because one end "of the steel wire of the suspension is - e ucur ed to the rotor case and the other end is se c u r e d to the vertical ring). if the~e is a change in the ~elative p o s i t i on around the vertical axis b e tw e en the r oto r case arid ~ertical ring. the steel wire becomes twi st ed; this cannot be permitted. In order to eliminate any change in the relative position of the above two, the vertical ring rnu s t follew th e movement of the gyro.· Any change in the relative position of th~.gyro and vertical ring is detected by the "foH'Ow-up transformer. The secondary coil of the follow-up transform.er is mounted on the vertical ring at a position which opposes the primary coil mounted On the rotor case. With the signal o f the fo l.l ow=up trans former. the fc l Iowvu p s y s t e m is driven and there is practically no change in the relative position of the gyro and

ve rt i ca I :;-ing.

In a dd i t i on to the suspension and follow -up transformer 5 econdary coil.

a level. an integrator. a liquid ballistic and so forth are mounted on the vertical ring. On the eas t side of the vertica ring a precision level. which has

a scale of two minutes of arc per d iv i s i on i i s rn ount ed , This level indicates horizontallity when the gyro compas 5 is settled, as has be en explained it?: the paragraphs on the theory of the gyro compass. An integrator is mounted On the west side of the vertical ring. An outline of the const·ruction of the inte-

gq.tor is s hcwn in Fig. 1-35. ( »: ,

. . . i

• '" 'r

Bellow \ \ Steel ball.
- . Fig. 1-35

A cylinder is filled with high viscosity silicone oil and, to absorb a:nY change in the volume o_i the oil. a be ILcw s is attached to one end of the cylind e r , The cylinci'er a s a who"le is rotated slowly by a small motor. .


) i-J

If the steel ball inside the cylinder comes in contact with the inside wall of the cylinder and. if friction is created as a result, SOITlOoth operation of the integrator is interfered with. Thus, by rotating the cylinder slowly, it is pos s ib l e to have the steel ball floatin g in the high vis cosity oil without touch _ I ing any part of the cylinder wall as shown in the d i a g r a rn , The ballistic mounted on the vertical ring consists "of two pairs of reservoirs with connecting tubes in which a special liquid of high viscosity {ethylene chloride trifluoride polym~s s l is contained.


One pair of the 'reservoirs is located at the east side of the vertical ring.

and the oth e r pair at the west side. The two reservoirs in each pair are

c orme ct ed by a tu be , suspended below them, so that liquid can flow b etw e e n the north and south reservoirs according to the tilt of the unit. Since the gyro is supported in the vertlcal ring, any tilt of the gyro becomes, directly, 2.; tilt of the v e r ti ca Lr irig , Consequently. the liquid in the reservoirs flows

into the lower re servoir according to the tilt of the gyro. The. amount of liquid moved is proportional t.o th,e tilt of the gyro.. The to r q'ue created by

tb e j-n ove rne nt of the liquid or by the imbalance in the arnourit of liquid in the' r~ser,-~oirs of the north ;nd sbuth sides acts to further increase the tilt of the gyro. (It was described in 1.2. 1 that the action of the ballistic is the sa:me

as if a weight '\vas. attached to the top of the rotor case. This statement w a s based on the action of the ballistic described above.) The torque referred to above is the torque which causes the gyro to perfor:m the north-seeking action as has been described in 1.2. 1.

The horizontal ring is designed to support the vertical ring on the horizontal axis by means of two precision ball bearings'. Two horizontal studs

are fastened to the east and west side of the vertical ring and, to rria i n ta i n balance. "th e :..vest stud is locked to the inner race of the ball bearing so that

the stud rotates freely but cannot shift laterally. At the same time, the hori-

z o n ta l ring provides the gyro'with freedom of rotation around the north-south U 'Il If

Ii ~ ~



On the north sid e of the hori zontal ring, a small level is attached to. adjust the balance around the north-south axis of the gyro.

The phantom ring is a ring which supports the horizontal ring on the n o r th= : south axis by means of the ball bearing and gives the gyro a degree of fre edom of revolution around the north-south ax) s , At the south side of the horizontal ring is located the oil damper which stabilize the gyro against the ship's rolling' and pitching.

The vertical axis of the phantom ring is connected to the stationary part of the gyro ~ompa5s by means of the ball bearing. The compass card is attached to the upper end of the v e r t.i c a l axis; consequently: the ship's rolling and pitching have no' effect upon the c orrip a s s c a r d .. It makes reading of the large card {200 rn rn diameter} v ery easy under a n v a n d all circumstances. The azimuth g~ar l o c a t e d on the l~','!e r part of the ph a n t o rn ring constitutes






the follow -up servo mechanism of the gy:ro c orripa s s togethe r with the followup trans forme r , amplifier, se r v o motor and i nt e rmediary ge: a r system. Encircling the phantom lower stud are six collector rings. Brushes riding

on the collector rings are secured to the stationary element and are described in succeeding paragraphs. 'A

, The collector rings carry 3 -phase current for the gyro, out pu t current f rorn the follow-up transformer and power [01· the motor of the integrator.

(2) Stationary element shown in Fig . 1-36

The stationary element consists of the supporting frame. base plate and major part of the follow-up systerrl:'.

The supporting frame supports the phantom ring on lhe vertical axis by· me a n s of the ball bearing .. Furthermore, this frame is closely fitted to the base plate so that the parts on the base plate can move smoothly. These two parts are tightened with L-shaped fixtures. The reason why the .elatIve position of the base plate and supporting section can be changed is to rnake readjustment possible .wh en the base line of the compass and the keelline are off due to secular c han ge s , The supporting frame can be separated at the upper part and the lower part. This construction is very advantageous when d i s a s se rnbling the gyro c0r:'pas s.

On ·the bottom of the stationary element are located the azimuth motor (2-phase servo motor SM403). which is the driving unit" for the [allow-up

" system. two IX and 9X control transmitters (lSCX4). which transmit a z i rnu th signals to the transmission unit and the gear, trai~s which couple the above mechanically _arranged; on one 'bracket made of casting. (See paragraph 1.2. 1 for the action of the follow-up system and paragraph 1. 2. 2_ (l) and (2) for the

t r an s mi s s io nof azim~th signals.)

On the left side of the supporting frame are mounted the follow-up ampli-

. Her and IK relay. The amplifier is divided into the amplifier unit and its power supply. unit. The amplifier is a Class-B amplifier using transistors. The voltage amplification stages employ a r es i stan c e+c apa.c it anc e coupling and are composed of two 2SB227 transistors resistors. capacitors and so forth. Thes e ar e ar ranged on a printed circuit board. The Class -B power

~., amplifier stage consists of two 25B340 transistors, interstage and output k transformers, etc. The transistors are mounted on a he a tx ad i a cin g plate 'j through an insulation plate. The transformers and other parts are secured ~r~::

to the circuit board by screws. The power supply unit is mounted on a sepa-

;i rate board. The power supply furnishes DC 24V to the amplifiers and is

H composed of a power transformer for stepping down the gyro power supply, fL. a rectifier for full-wave rectification of the stepped-dov:m AC and capacitors

;l.,. ~or smoothing ~.he rectified DC.

H'l _ .. The plug-in type IK relay is for suppressing the follow-up of the compass

;1 follow-up system until the gyro reaches a certain r evolution at the time of

~.. . -

fI:' starting the compass.

jl' . .

); -:

f~;:c~: 1-35


~~ .


_, ~ . ~~~:




Slip rings


,. Pantagraph

\ \


Fig. 1-3·6


,Support section

Follow-up ring

Vibration-proof device



(3 )

Shock absorber

F our shock absorbers support the stationary element. The gyro compas s installed On board a ship is constantly exposed to vibrator and shock. The shock absorber protects the compass from vibration and excessive shock and consists of two springs each of which is given a preload. For smooth move=ment of the spring s of the shock a.b's o r b e r, proper gaps are necessary between the guide rod of the springs, guide cylinder and springs. To maintain the above gaps, a pantagraph is provided between the bas e plate and the binnacle to regulate th e relative position of the s e two. The pantagraph move 5 freely in the vertical direction or in the direction in which the shock absorber works but it does. move in the horizontal direction (revolution). For this reason, the shock absorber is always assured of correct operation.

{4}Inverter and power supply units

The inverter and power supply uriits are incorporated in the lower section of the master compass. The construction of the inverter unit is such that it can be drawn out toward the stern on rails. The power s~pply unit is assembled On the side plate of the bow side; the manner in which these are incorporated in the lower section of the master compass is shown in Fig. 1-37.

Power supply


Inverter unit

'- -- - -.- --_ ... _-----


Fig. 1-37

Fig. 1-38 shows a view with the side plate of the bow s ide removed. In this section are incorporated the power transformer, six silicon rectifiers for .3-phase, full-wave rectification, capacitors for protection of the rectifiers and smoothing capacitors. A view of the inverter unit is shown in Fig. 1-39. On the bottom are mounted the transfer reactor, and on the sides are mounted the relays and capacitors.


.... ,
. ~
. 0
0 0

0 r '"' >
I1J ~©
,.. >
0 ::© ,to
..... olCJJ~~ •
II) Mlr
t: 0
III > ~~
H ~@
J-o ~g

IlJ O@ ~&
3 CJ:)
0 M 1""1
o, ....
~ ·0






a:: I

- 1



" _,1

~ :
]-, : < ~ L •


Over current relay


Fig. 1-39


. Transfer relay

COInmutating capacito r

Power transformer

Corrirn ut a t i.n g choke

. ~ .. '_-'


:_; Lj

Since each of these parts are rn a r k e d with symbols a nd number, their identification is ea sy.

On the panel surface of the aft side are mounted. the switches and lamps'· necessary for operating the gyro compass. The panel surface is shown in

Fig. 1-406 ~

/ "
r ~
rQ9,-- - - - - --- - - - - -- __ U>'_ -- - - - -- --------,t:i)
[(6) @ ~ (e; 6 {Q) e;!
I' .. ., \ ;:, .,. r '\ I'" , ot. ,.
\. \CJ/ -r.: 'J,JI '~"'" " .... , \~): \(}, ~
. ..X'''' _ .. ;:; "-:' _.. .t"
3A-Lamp'-'5A-"Tepeater -:- - - - - - --- -.-- ----- ~p
p; . 3'\ ships supply15A DC s
'=' a
0 0 .
0 <£) o~' .
@ .
Lamp start RUn start-sto:") L
s e
. , ..

/Shlp s supply .;

Fig. 1-40

There are three types of switches listed below (see the w~ring diagram at the end of this rn arrua l}, lviAIN SWITCH S301. us ed to turn the shipt s supply on or off, is a di sconnector and is used when the gyro cornpas s is not operating. START-STOP SWITCH S302 is a toggle switch which p e r Io r rn s starting and stopping the gyro compass. The circuit of this switch f'o r rn s a three-way circuit with start-stop switch 5201 on the transmission unit. Starting and stopping of the gyro cornpass can be performed at the master compass or the transrnis si On unit.

For instance. the gyro cornpass can be started or stopped at the master compass and can be ·stopped or started at the transmission unit. The circuit of these switches is shown in·Fig .. 1-41. The START-STOP SWITCH controls current which energizes the c o il of the main relay. The other is switch

S303 for the binn<fcl€! -Ia rn p , The two lamps are neon lamps and indicate the

c o nd it i o n s of ph:'l s e s p'l i t t i ng per f o r rn e d by c ha ngi ng over the c a pa c i tor saccording to the r e v o Iu t i ori of the gyro rotor a s has been described in paragraph LiZ.;3.: (2)". T'h e w h i t e lamp marked START indicates that the inverter is



operating. and the blue lamp marked RUNNL"IG indicates that the revolution of the gyro rotor ha 5 risen c los e to a ce rtain r evolution and that the changeover of capacitors has been performed .

. _

Master compas 5 ---

Transmission unit

Power supply



Relay coil

Fig. 1-41

There are. seven fuses: three SA fuses, F30l. F302 and F303 for the s hi p+ s supply;" one ISA fuse, F304, for the inverter DC70V supply; one lOA fuse F30S. for r epeat ed supply; and two 3A fuses, F306 and F307, for the Iarrip po~er "supply AC n ov. l.p.

(S) Wiring

Th e ship' s ca bl e s are connected to the terminal board for external lines located on the lower s e cti cn of the master compass. From: the terminal board for external lines, wiring goes to the inve~ter unit. to the power supply unit and to the gyro unit of the upper part of the compass.' Each unit has a terminal board of its own. The wires are ordinary wires,but special flexible wi r e s are used for 1) wiring from the phantom ring to the horizontal ring and from the horizontal ring to the vertical ring, where the" wiring passes along the" bearing support sections, and for 2.) wiring from the vertical ring to the gyro r'ct o r , whe r'e the wiring passes along the suspension device:' As can be surmised from the explanations on the operating theory of the gyro compas sand its construction. the sections referred to above are "adversely affected by external torques. The flexible wires used here are for prevention of torques,

and the attaching method of these flexible wires is such that the wires do not generate any torque. Thus, handling of these flexible wires require special

"" care.


1. 3. "2

Transmission unit

The transmission unit is used to a. transmit the indication of the master compass to the repeaters and b. correct speed error of the indication of the rria s t e r compass. Practically the entire transmission system described in paragraph 1.2. 2 is incorporated in the._ transrnis sion unit, and an external view of the transmission unit is shown in Fig. 1-42. The cornpa s s card

a ttached to' the surface of the panel indicates tb·e true c ou r s e , W'h e n the lamp' is on. it shows that the gyro power supply is On and that the gyro c orrrpa s s

is in operating condition. The three knobs have the functions described below. The knob DIMMER R225 regulates the illumination of the compass card. The knob START-STOP switch S201 is the knob with which the gyro compas s can be started or stopped at the t r an s rrii s sion unit a s has been de'" sc·ribed in paragraph 1. 3. 1.(4}. The knob marked SPEED CORRECTOR is ; for performing corr ecti on of errorS by transferring the. value obtained from the speed corrector table located below. (A correcting value can be obtained

_ from the latitude of the present position of the ship and the ship's present speed. )

The interior of the transmission unit is s h owri in Fig. 1-43. On the

panel sid e are mounted 1 X and 9X synchro control transform er s (l5C T4), which received bearing signals from the master compass; the synchro control transmitter (15GX4). which supplies speed error correction voltage;

the azimuth mo"tor (2-phase servo rrio to r SM.403), for driving the above synch r o s : the non-contacting transmitter (15NT4), also driven by azimuth motor; and th~ circuit for synchroni zing the ou tpu t s of IX" and 9X synchros. The se are asse.mbled on a plate. On the reverse side cif"the above plate are the gear trains whi ch c oupl e the above rotary equiprnent mechanically.


T'he card is attached to the IX shaft of the above gear trains. On the lower side of the back fanel are rn o'un t e d eight fuses for each repeater c o rrrp a s s circuit. On the upper part of the box. from the left to the right, are located the SCR arnplifier. the power s upp l y unit for the servo amplifier and the servo amplifier. The Servo amplifier and its power supply are the same types as the follow-up amplifier" and its power supply of the master compass. These amplifiers employ printed circuit b o a r d s and are assembled compactly. On the lower section of the box are t e r rn i n a l boards for external l in e s . The t r a n s rn i s s i o n unit a l s 0 function 5 as a distribution board for r epeate r circuit. Since the parts located inside the transmission. unit are rn a r k ed

.... ~ith symbols. their identification is easy.

1 -1?

~ .....



'"' o


U It! M h o


't:l It! IV P.











=' Il'l

0 to)
E c:
..c 1-0
of:> E-<
~ .........
"0' ~
[ I I
'_/ (,)
1-0 .........
0' 1 --~,




The TG-IOO Gyro Compass employs a r ern ct e control system; therefore. it can be operated in the whe el house or in the cha r t room. Byop'erilting

the START -STOP switch of the transmission u~it installed in the wheefhouse or in the chart room. all the e quiprn ent of the TG-IOO Gyro Compass can be start ed and plac ed in normal operating condition.

It is recommend ed that preparations for starting the compas s be begun at least 4 hours before use.

1£ the time is short, the settling process can be reduced as will be described under 2.6 SETTING COMPASS ON MERIDIAN.

Starting and stopping of the TG-IOO Gyro Compass can also be performed at the master compass.


( l) Remove the c over of the switch panel on the lower part of the master compass and turn the SHIP'S SUPPLY switch to C?N. (See E1g. 2-2)

Keep this SHIP'S SUPPLY switch ilways on except when the ship is'in port (or in drydock) for a long time or when the TG-IOO Gyro Compass is being repaired.

(2) Turn the REPEATER switch to ON.

Ke ep this REPEATER switch always on except when the gyro com':' pas S is being r e pa ir ed ,

(3f Synchronize the compass repeaters with the transmission. unit.

The repeater card indicates exactly the same h e ad in g as the transmission unit. unless the repeater card h e a d in g shifted by handling after the TG-IOO Gyro Compass had been stopped.

(4)' Turn the knob of the SPEED CORRECTOR on the transmission un i t to 1 of the scale. {See Fig. 2-l}




(1) Starting the TG-IOO Gyro Compass 'from, the transmission unit installed in the wheel house or chart room.


- (/ .


(_ ~ .---.~-- .. _-----"_'-- ..



,a" "'----+---- Speed correcto


~_._~ J •

I, Ml.1 rnl!:tlll •

1 •


Fig. 2-1

a Turn the START-STOP switch knob on the transmission unit to

the o t h e r direction.

The rotating direction of this switch is determined by the position of the START-STOP sw it c h lever (See Fig. 2-2) of the switch panel on the Low e r i pa rt df the master compass, as has been described in Paragraph 1.3.1.(4).

b The square milky-white lamp of the transmission unit lights.

c As the card of the transmission unit starts to rotate, the re-

peater card also starts to rot<'l.te whi.le indicating the same heading as the card of the transmission unit.

d The ca r d s of the t r an s rn i s s i on unit and repeater compasses

ind i c a t e the same heading as those of the rn a s t e r compass.

After synchronizing with the master compass card, the card of the transmission unit rotates in step with the movement of the rn a st e r

c orn pa s s .

e ThTC'P h ori r s ;:;ftf!T the gyro c o m pa s s has heen started, the com-

pass is used for s r- r v i r- ... (::lccur;:J.cy a p p r ox i m a t c l v 0. 5D).





r t


) ,.

f When an illumination is required in reading the, card of the

transmis sian unit. turn the DIMMER knob of the transmis sion unit clockwise

When no illumination is required. keep the DIMMER knob at the OFF pas i t i o n ,

(2) Starting the TG-l00 Gyto Compass at the master, compass (See Fig. 2-2)

17 ~
O!I Q e
:- -,,! .. - - - ~~:::- - - -::;.~ -_ -~'"~ -- -~,;- - ...... _-c- - - -:;-: - - .•
J I .... ~' /.j\' , ... ;' It..' I~J\ , .... ; ... "·.l'\. ,- -
1 (~j (0) 0; 0 {OJ (0 (Q)_11
0 '- S:i_A_ t.A;'t-'::~"' . .Rs:py..reJl ~'! ~tiP2sJ,lm i'(L58 .9);;~y.rA 6
OfF ON P -
0 0 0 &> ~- Ship' s supply
~ I \.
LAr~ STrT AU\ 'TA:r'\ .-
of) SI-UP'S SUPPl. y e
~ I \ .#
\ - .\ Start-stop
Lamp switch
, - .-
.- Start Run - Fig. 2-2

a Remove the cover of the swi tch panel located On the lower part

of the master compass and turn the START-STOP lever to the other side.

Whether this START-STOP switch is turned upward or downward is d et e r m Ine d by the position of the START-STOP switch knob of the transmitter.



b When the START-STOP switch is turned to START, the round.

milky-white l~mp marked START goes on.

c With the lighting of the START lamp. the master compass rotor

starts to rotate and the card of the master. compass rotates slowly.

d A_s the master compass card rotates slowly. the gyro compass

be c o m e s s lowly horizontal.


e Approximately 10 minutes after starting, the round blue RUN

lamp of the switch panel on the lower part of the master compass goes on.

f As fhe RUN lamp lights. the card of the master compass rotates

rapidly several times and the r evolution of the gyro rotor rises to normal


g Three hours after starting. the heading of tbe master compass

reaches a range (approximat:ely O. 50) which car. be used i n actual practice with respect to the true heading •.

h When the illumination switch LAMP lever of the switch panel

(on the lower part of the master compass) is turned upward. the light bulb in side the master compas slights.

Keep the switch' turned downward except for a reading of the master compass card or for checking of the rna ste r compass interior.



(I) When stopping th e TG-l 00 Gyro Cornpas s at the transmission unit (See Fig. 2-1)

a Turn the START-STOP switch knoo in the other direction.

b The square, milky-white lamp of the transmis sian unit go e s

out and the TG-IOO Gyro Compass stops.

(2) When stopping the TG-lOO Gyro Compass at the master compass (See Fig. 2":'2)

a -!telTlove the cover of the switch panel of the master cOlTlpass

and turn the START -STOP switch lever. in the other dir ection.

b .. The START and RUN lamps go out and the TG-IOO Gyro Com-

pass stops.


Wh'en the ship is running. a speed error is created. This spe ed error ~ differs 'according to the latitude, course and speed of the ship and is cor- ~ rected by the t r a n s rn i s sion unit. The rn efh od of correcting the spe ed e r r o rsi


is gi ven below. ~


~ ~








~NOTS' -
5 to 15 20 25
u -. I 71 II /
20 /
25 I I .c V
:}O I / 7
;J~ -j I I / 7 /
40 /-- / / /
.;S / 3 / / ./
/ / + I v / /
:l.S / / / 5/ /
I / / V/; .:
97 / . / i V/ 1// y./
./ 1,1 V/J Vb v_)%'
70 J
Fig. 2-3

(l) Determine the '{alue of the speed corrector by referring to t he s p e ed cor r ector table. (See Fig, 2 -3)

For instance, :when the ship's speed' is 20 knots and the latitude is 30·, obtain the intersecting point for 20 knots and 30" latitude from the speed

corrector tab l.e r

~,. '._

The. area of this intersecting point 15 5. Match the knob of the speed corrector to 5.

(2) Provided the speed of the ship or the latitude does not change, the speed error is c-orrected automatically.

(3) When th e ship's spe ed changes more than 5 knots or the latitude more than 5". the speed corrector is reset by the speed corrector table.

(4) When a spe ed error. correction is being performed, the card bearing of the mas ter compas s and the card b e a r in g of the transmis sian unit differ only by the amount of the speed error.


After the compass is operating normally at a specified ship's speed, it

- will gradually seek and automatically settle on the meridian in 4 hours.

When the s hip+s heading is known, the settling time can be materially reduced. Start the compass and allow approx. 10 minutes for the compas s to settle. Then turn the gyro manually to the approxirn a north point and


level the rotor case (adjust the level on the vertical inner ring to 50).

(I) When aligning the compass card to meridian, follow the procedure described below. {SeeFig. 2-4}

As shown in Fig. 2-4, press the upp.er part of either the south Or north side of th e ballistic down and let the co rnpa s s to perform a prec e s sian.

Fig. 2-4

Whe.n-·theupper part of the south side of the ballistic is pressed down, the master co!-npass card turns ~ounterclockwi s e, and when the upper part of the north side of the ballistic is pressed down. the master compass card t:urnsc1ockwise ..

(2) When matching the level tb 50 (ho r iz onta l] follow the procedure below. (See Fig. 2-S)

. '



Fig, 2-5

, As shown in F~g, 2-5" push the east or west end of the rotor case In a

horizon tal direction.

When the east or west end of the rotor case is turned clockwise {horiz.ontal direction}, the bubble rnoves toward the north', and when the east or . west end of the rotor case is turned counterclockwise (horixontal direction', the bubble moves towa rd the south .

.. {3) When the operations d e s c ribed abo ve are pe rfarmed, the TG-IOO Gyro Compass can be settled within 1 degree in respect to true north in a.bout one h ou r and thirty minutes .


, .



c' .---t


. _" _>

... :::J:'__



., )


),..,-, 'k --.



: 1:.




Because superior techniques of non-contating and transistorization are used. the TG-100 Gyro Compass does not require replacement of parts due to wear. Attention is limited to maintenance. cleaning, lubrication and so forth for two years.

However. the simple maintenance and lubrication described below ar e n e c e ssary for the separately-installed repeater c orn pa s ses and repeater stands.


A s shown in Fig. 3 -1. lightly smear the roll shaft and pitch shaft of the repeater stand with greas e.

Roll shaft.



Fig. 3-1


Pitch shaft



The repeater compass glass may cloud up when the gyro Compass is operated a. directly after installation. b. when the gyro compass has not been used for a long time or c. after. the illuminating light bulb has been replaced.



'The above is due to the fact that moisture bside the repeater 'c ornpas s vaporizes and adheres to the glass.





Small screw

Fig. 3-2

(1) A s shown in Fig. 3 -2, remove two small screws on the sides of the r epe abe r compass Case.

(2) hours.

Ope r.at e rth.e repeater compass under tEeabov~ conditi~h for. sev

(3) When the water vapor On the glass disappears after several hours, replace the small screws which were removed in a above.


MARK-4 . ..








.. ~


-~ .

.... _ .........








5_ all CUP





16_ COvER suppORT



a, Th~ Course Recorder (figures 1 and 2) is a device.ioperated electrically from the master compass. which traces on a moving strip of paper a record of every lateral movement of the ship's head,

b. The paper bears time marks and is_ driven by clockwork The- time is automatically recorded to the nearest minute asread 011 a vernier scale, for each change of course and a gTaphic check 011 course is had from the moment the vessels leaves dock.

c, At the end of the voyage, the chart can be removed and entered as a part of the ship's log where it will always be available for reference a!l.a valuable navigational document.


a , The Course Recorder operates in the-repeater circuit of the master compass, It consists pf ;.\ repeater motor which drives hnt h the heading dial and the mechanism cont rotling a pair (If pens_ A clock-controlled [ecd rol lcr re€'ds a paper chart under the pens and a spring-driven n::rnll




I e' .. ,;--~-~~:.:-.~. l~

. . . '~. .' ...

~ . .: _'. .., ~ t!lf! -

.... ~ .or '. • •

~. -

" ,-' ....

... ~". .'#.:r _. <.;~;.: . . .;

.o;,f'p., ~ •

- ...... "." ... -~, ::~~~~







roller takes up the paper and keeps it taut, Excessive take up speed is prevented by an automatic lock provided on the spring drive of the reroll roller. _.


b. The mechanism is shown in figure 1. The repeater motor shaft extends in both direc. tion, each shaft end carrying a worm gear. The upper worm drives the heading dial, while the lower worm revolves a cylinder. A trolley assembly carrying the COURSE PEN follows a groove cut in the cylinder and causes the COURSE PEN to travel horizontally and record the position of. the heading dial. The heading dial periphery constitutes a cam which causes the ZONE PEN to shift from one zone to another on the paper chart. in accordance with the dial quadrant position.

.. .

c. The clock mechanism is enclosed in a metal casing from which the related winding stems

and control knobs protrude at the left.

d. The recorder chart is a specially printed sheet of paper 90 feet long. sufficient f.?r a continuous record .of 30 days.

e. A window is provided in the front cover to enable an observer to examine several hours of record without opening the instrument. An accurate indication of ship's heading 15_ also provided, when the cover is closed, by an azimuth scale concentric to the heading dial. .

t, A lamp, controlled by a switch on the upper rig~t comer of the front cover, provides illumination for reading the chart at night.

g. A wiring diagram (or the instrument is shown ill figure 3.

ncuaa J






a, Raise the recorder crl v ~r. then vvind the reroll roller spring and clock springs at their respective stems shown in figure 1.

h. Insert a new chart roll. if needed, (Directions will be Iound on page 4.)

c. J:;11 1"~I'S wit h :;'I-J?r:lal n·"! ink. m:in!! ~Iass dropper provided. Remove inkwells from horde!"!'; [(oJ" iillillp-. T0 rnr.r.\·'·. go, :)~p ]:!1;;;:~ inkv .. ell between thumb and f!lrefinge: and slide it down. ward frnm rpp r.l:p. r;l! thf' well ;ll..j full and replace in holder. Start-a flow of ink through pens hy means 'If l-h~ l'E'.11 primer. also provided. TO; df) 1 his. compress primer h111b. then insert pen puin t in rriP1Pr hole ~;nrl sl--wly release bulb, cJr;ndng ink up from t'l]_e well through the pen. Remove primer, anrl ;111pw r~:.11 1" 1"".\:';" on ch;rt. \VII!;:,. bnth pens have been thus primed. move chart lip anti down under r,!llS tu il~':llrf' thnt ill\.:: 1I0w:; PP'I)E:rly. Once started. the ink will continue to be Icd by c:lpill:lry action.

<I. To ~ynrhroni::~ recorder chart time with ship's lime. release Ieed roller clutch knob by t1lrning knnh couuterclockwise (see fi~ure 1_ item 11). l'It the same time holding" the feed roller hy h_J1lr! ~o 1 h:n it 'xi 11 1;,,[ tl1m.

e. ~t paper chart so th;)t the CUI ~I!:':'E PE:-J indicates ship's time <I:; represented hy the Ilwnrr:lI;':1t the righth<l!ld. siile of the chart, using the zero gradu<ltion of the vernier iscale ClS :l d_"um r use or the \·':rni.!;: scale is described in paragraph 2-6). Changes in chart position may l)t:: r.~ndc~ cnsily hy means uf t lie chart adjustment kn"I,. Turn the knob slowly tu prevent possible joc1dng of the reroll roller,

r. En!!;1.~e Ieed roller dutch by turning knoh clockwise unrilseatcd snunly,

g-. Si;Jrt clock h): mu\·in~.c1ntk s~()P nut arm forward. If the time indicated hy the C(lllRS[': PEN does n.,t ".~I·N~ \- .. ith ship's time repeat the previous adjustment or note the error fJll the chart.

. h. To syuchron ize "f'("!)rJt'r "'ith J1l~_S'~ '(lmpass -. turn the recorder repea ter motor sha rt

1Ji' ]1lC<111S ~Ir lhe knurh·ll !;y;1("hronizin~ kI1,;l;> di~\i;:el) l(ntirZONE PEN (Idt hand pen) enters . quadrant ill which ship' . .: hf':'rl1i~s. Contjnuellinlil~g UI\ti1 COURSE FE~ (right hand pen) reaches tile proper c1cgr~e line M in(iic:ltetl by Hie hot iZQlit"l.tro\\' eJf numbers whick corresponds In quadrant in which 7UNI!: PEN rests. The~ ·adjl1strncnts Cow be made with recorder circuit cln~ed .

., "

" hut it I:) easier to first set recorder to the apjlroxillUltl' ht~a<1in!-t with cit·cuit open. H the recorder is not ·synchnlllized with the master compass it will cont iuoe 10 [ull1)\". but with the existing error.

.. ~

i. Wheu nwking: a final check of the master compass ar.d repeaters, the Course Recorder may be synchronized exactly with the nUI.ster by. turning the motor ::;haft as described in preceding para.I.!r<lph .. CAUTION; . Do not attempt to 'lCljust recorder in auy.othcr manner than that described. Any attempt to set the instrument by apply iuS force til the ~rf)oved cylinder or to the heading dial may resul; ill darnage to the ~cal·iI1~ from [he repeater Inn!""

j. It clock f •• ils til start when clock Slop nut .mll is muved forward, start escapement wheel by muving it very carefully with a piece of paper, DO NOT TRY S1:ART ESCAPEMENT WHEEL BY MOVI>:C IT WITH THE FINGERS. To rf71ch liar: escapement wheel, slide bottom of dock case outward, then 51 ideinstrucrion plate and wiJHI, .,." .Iowuward.

k. Close and 1')I.:k. recorder cover,


01. When compuss equipment-circuits are opene-d, the r~n.'l(lcr is stepped,

b. Raise CIj~·':::I· 'l!\,1 :::top l~~'r:o! dvr clock by lTI!lvin!; ,I, cl- :;lUr nut arm backward.

c. Place a piece of p<q)~I· uuderneath JlI.!Il::; tc JH~I:P chart clcarn. Cflo::ic and lock cover.


a. Refer to figure L Release feed roller clutch an.I' allow remainder of chart to wind up un rerull ruller.· If preferred, the reroll roller call be removed and remainder of chart can be wound LIp by hand. .If r<!wil!~ by spring action do Ill'! allow I he roller to take up too fast. Unlike a window ~h'ld.·. it will-lock when ruiling Iast and mar be released by pulling a short length of paper b:Ll"k~uff the roller.

. b. With r,'mll .rulh'r removed, loosen paper 1'1.11 I)), holtiiug paper and turning slotted end uf rul lcr :shaft h;; .. vard wit 11 it screwdriver, Push rnllc r out uf paper mil when loosened sufficientIy, and r~plac_e empty roller 1m its bearings in reci 1 ,.(1<:-1'.

c. Any portion of a record may be removed by tearing paper, removing rolled-up portion us just described, and restarting the loose end (III the reroll roller.


a. Pla<.:<.: (: ... :--11 (·han.roll un supply "roller (locald j'I:~t ... III.I;-e rerull roller). ~nd insert roller 111 irs hL'i1rinj:!~ at rear oi muunting plate.

b. Feed paper over feed roller from back tu Irout, at same riine releasing feed roller from dock mechanism by turuiug dutch knob (figure 1) counterclockwise so as to allow feed roller to turn freely with the paper. Make ~ertain that paper feeds SIIII)()chly out from under the guides and that the holes at each margin run evenly over stud .. '~i' t~:I>d roller, The vertical lines denoting" the Iour quadrants ·::iholild upper at the left margi,. of the .;i1.1rL

- 4 -


c. Pull paper down far enough to Insure that it nms smoothly over feed, roller.

Then remove: reroll roller and insert free end of paper in slot. Wind a few turns of chart on reroll roller turning roller in such a way that paper is drawn from back to front at bottnm of roller.

d. Place roller on its hearings, making sure that slootted end fits over the key at lef t.hand side properly: Pull chart up and outward slightly until. reroll sprin2 takes hold. Then allow the paper to wing 'up on roller a small amount to insure that all is clear.


e. Engage feed roller dutch by turning clutch knob clockwise, The clock mechanism now controls the feed roller and the paper is kept taut by the reroll roller below.

f. Do not release feed roller from clock mechanism. when chart is in place, without holding feed roller by hand to keep chart from being wound up on reroll roller.


a, The cnart is divided into two distinct parts. The four vertical columns at the left are for the ZONE PEN which indicates the quadrant in which the ship is heading. The remainder of the chart is lined vertically in degrees for the COURSE PEN which indicates the exact heading of the ship. The chart is lined horizontally at ten minute intervals. and the hours are marked off at the right.hand side.

h. Enter chart from the left at the point of time where it is desired to ascertain the' course. The first red line (made by the ZONE PEN) indlcates in which of the four quadrants the ship was heading. Move on· across the chart to the second red. line (made by the COURSE PEN): :md from the point where it is desir-ed to determine the ship's heading, ._follo~ the vertical line -of the chart to the nearest row of numbers corresponding to the quadrant indicated by the ZO~E PEN. and read the heading, Note that the first quadrant reads from left to right, the second- from righ.t to left.· the third from left to right. and the fourth from right to left, When locating the heading, refer only to the row of numbers corresponding to the quadrant indicated by the ZONE PEN; disregard the other three rows .

... ~


8. A vernier scale is provided at the right side of the paper chart to facilitate readng the chart to 1 minute inter v als of time. To use the vernier, observe w hich line on the vernier scale is aligned with a horizontal line on the chart. Use this figure as a minute digit and add the indicated number of minutes to the time stamped on the chart, at the right o( the section the COURSE PEN is on. As an illustration, suppose the- COURSE PEN is at a position between .thehorizonta.1 lines designated 20 and 30 at the right, and .that the hour beneath these designations is 5 PM. Now suppose line !:-6 on the vernier scale is aligned with a chart line. The indicated time at the pen position then is 5:26 PM.

.. .; b .. The vernier scale may be used to start the record at' any perticular time. Hence. if the desired time ofstart is 5:25 .PM, that -particularsecti,on of the' paper which bears the desip.n;H~n t-i~eis. brQught under the pens, ·~nd the feed r~l1er clutch is ·~nga$!.edas proviously described,

.., ..

- 5 .-

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3. Interpretation of the chart is illustrated oy the sample record shown in figure 4.

Four cases are presented.

(l) Case A. Referring first to the zone column, at, the bottom and reading upward, ' ,

the chart shows that the heading was in the first quadrant (0·-90") until 12:55 PM, and then swung into the second quadrant (90"-180·). Sighting across the record at 12:50 PM and reading

the first quadrant figures, the course is seen to be 74". Again sighting across at 1:00 PM, the course is read in the second quadrant figures as ]09~. (The course ehan'ge from 74° to 109" is shown on the smnll dhtgram superimposed on the middle of the record.)

(2) Case B. Ag::!.inreferring first to the zone column: the heading for 'case B is shown to start in the second quadrant, then to swing to the third quadrant for only a brief time. then h;:tc~ again to -the second quadrant. Consequently, the initial course is read as

, -

1F.~~, and the final course as 159ft• The re-entrant part of the plot is read in the third quadrant

and shrews the maximum point in the swing' to -be 182°.

(3) Cace C. The zone column shows the initial heading to be in the fouth quad. rartt, and therefore to he read as 342u• The final heading -,is in the first quadrant and consequent ly is 2·j·.

(4.1 Ca sc 'D. Tl11'. ZrtllC column indicated a swing from the _second to the fourth quadrant, Therefore the initial he:icling was 172\ and the fin at heading 277·. The gradual upward !;weep ~f the trace indicates a slow but fl,irly constant rate of tum.

P. 111 order to allgt~lE"lt the v?l~e of the record. it is recommended, that notations be

entered liberally on thl"-_> chart in regard to alterations of course, weather wind. -::tllything. in fact which lends to affact the steering of' the ship.

conditions. If steering

~l1t.JTn(ltk'tl\y. the weather and rudder adjustments employed should be noted on the chart, :lui! also the nature of the sea, whether moderate, have, abeam: or head-on. The recorder clock should be, checked every eight hours, and the error, if any, noted on the chart, Some str-arnsh ip lines also re-rcire that each officer sign his name on the "chart when coming off his lJridgc watch. maId!:". ::t note also of the GMT, and explaining whatever departures from course that have taken place. If these suggestions are carrier out, the chart becomes a move

w, valuable record.


c. D1PORTr\NT: Check recorder time with ship's time -at the t-eginning of each watch and note a ny error on tl-e recorder chart. Jf necessary, reset the time (see 2-1, d to h and 2-G. a and h) and made a note of th;~ on the chart.

- 7 -



~ 1 •. ~.-:G E.NER:AL·

a; .' \Vind dock· springs and reroll rotler'spring e~ery. three days.

b. Keep inkwells approximately 3/4 full by adding ink once or twice-a week. using the dropper provided, The wells . may be slipped out of their holders fer -,plling.without disturbing the ~ns.

c. Do not use ink ot any kind other than that originally supplied with the instru-


d •• .If the recorder is [0 be out of use for several weeks, it is advisable to emply the in'kwe!ls and clean o~t the pen tubes, The pen tube is cleaned readily by holding the large end up against a hot water faucet, and allowing the water under pressure to flush

the tube. .1


a. To remove pens from pen arms, push pens straight up and off of their supporting brackets. Avoid bending the pen 'arm or hinge; hold the hinge on the pen ann with one hand and push up on the pen with the other, guiding the pen carefully and using a steady pressure. Clean pens with hot water every month. If pens are clogged they sh~uld be cleaned as described in the next paragraph, When replacing, pens must be pushed down into the brackets from behind, making a tight, sliding fit so that the pens are held III position by the hooks at the top.

b. The fine stainless steel tip fitted to each pen tube my become partially clogged after! considerable use. To clean, use the fine wire provided in the spare parts box. In. sert wire in tip and work it back and forth to loosen the foreign matter. Then blowout pen with the pen primer.




a. Using same oil as used for the master compass, oil motor shaft ball bearings and moving parts of pen control mech1i>lism sparingly every six months. Lubrication points are indicated by small daubs of red paint. Avoid using excessive oil in order to prevent oil dripping or creeping to the paper chart.

b. Oil the clock e~'ery six months, using only high grade clock oil. Apply with' a fine wire flattened slightly at the end, putting one drop only on each of the pivots.

8 _'



2. Zone Pen. At the upper end of the. ZONE PE~x arm is the zone cam stud (figure 1) which cam be rotated to adjust the position of the ZONE PEN on the chart. The ec-centriclty of this stud causes a shift of the pen ann near to or farther from the heading dial cam. It is necessary to loosen a nut beneath the pen arm before the stud can be roted, Check that nut has been tightened again, after adjustment.

b. Course .Pen. The COURSE PEN (figure 1) is mounted _ ~n "the four-wheel trolley assemhlyby double-slotted plate which permits shifting the -pen ve~t;cal1y, to align it with

I "

the ZONE PEN. and horizontally. to align it with the proper degree line on the chart as

determlned by the reading of the master compass, The screw which must be loosened to - permit the- v~i-tical adjustment "is located at the tapol the pen arm, The horizontaladjust. ment screw is to the left of the vertical adjustment screw.

c, YeTriTl!~ Scale. The zero nia~k on the vernier "scale should-be on the same horlzontalline="'~iththe COURSE PEN and should seldom, if ever; requir-adjustmenl- If adjustment js""n~ce'ssaTy. 100sen "the two screws which ' hold the stale 'in pl::tce,line up -the zero mark with th_e COURSE PEN, and tighten the screws, Check to see that the scale has not been pushed inward so that it presses on the paper chart.

" ;-,1",

::' ...

-, ~

- ~ :;.

. "

-- CI --



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• '<: ••


10 -






Symbol Part No,

~o, Number E"q'd

)5,'il25 1

9~.l'i90 1

97,H2 4

9~S7B .l

9~899 1

94573 1

16-1S53 1

)~S52 1

16-tS51 1

!J~S!:,5 1

1651[,2 1

2 4 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1\ 1 1 1 1

AA 1 2 3 ,I

5 6 7 8 9


11 12 ]3 14 15 16 Ii 18 19 20

.', .. 21 "," 22

23 2~ 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 3-1

]6-1556 165397 95362 95363 100316


1011756 %!?~2-' 9~906 9~':J~:J 91i~~1 91g..'U 9~903 72001 95581

2Si",1 J5515 lOO09~

95373 100108 IDOI07 16-:576 lti51S6 1521177

35 36 37 3S 39 ~o Jl ~2

llii:;,.q_g lOO5i3 9SS79

100102 ](X.I123 9;411 100105 100105

[)e$C ri ptic," Fr.'lme Ass·y,. "l'r otley Frame, Trolley

Wh~~I. Trolley

Sh.:ft. Tr ollcv Wheel CaUl, Trollej: Holler Follower, Trolly

Arm, Course Pen Holder Sl;ck. COI1r!;;e Pen Adju~ti,,~ I'Iar e, Course Pen Ad» rtf! Spring. Holder

I:Sr:>ct;et. H~~n;n~ r~n Hold e r

(Lipper) Wash~f

Ri·.'rt: Attaching Plare, Cover Locklng' SIJTinl!". Lt)cking Pt;,.te Sz rip. Hold;n!:

Screw. lInln;n!:" ~, rir &rrw. Base

Holder, IIr;)nill~ pi"l Wind!)",'. 11~ a n;"1! (;lI!'l:ec \\';nn::\\

0;:11. l[r~ct;nJ:! "·j"duw. Ch;;n

Clip, Char.!. \\';nuow-

Cleek $' Recorder Unit A~~'>, Clip C~hle

Ar." I\~s·r,. Zo ne Pen Peu .\s,:'r,. 2up<" !\I"t"f. Rf'p~31er Screw, rh'"r

Slu·J. J'cn :\ni' I'i"ot

Sprinp.. Rt'!Slorin1:

5\1 .. 1. Z, no: Cam

P·:n A.,,·;-., CUIITi"e

;::,,·;tch. TO~J:le. tCutlcr,!1l1m'l,,:r C!', ::~",C)K~) Sc~k. Verrier

\\'~!'her. 5prinl!"

Di;,.1 and C~rn. Compass Sh~ft, D;~l a nd \Vor m Wheel GI!';tr. Worm

Guide. Tp)l1r)' (Lnwer ) Guide, Trulky (t lpp~r) Screw. TrOlley Guide l Upper )


Symbol Part No.

N'): Number r:~q'd

--43- 100104 -"j-

44 9·1839 1

4S 94872 I

46 95391 2

47 96386 1

-lS 9~900 2-

49 %979 2

50 10066S 1

51 100330 1

52 97253 1

53 SOOS39 1

S-1 109931 1

S5 100169 3

56 123332 1

57 263958 3

58 263959 1

S9 2639&4 1

60 253%1 1

61 112170 1

62 167559 1

63 146593 3

S4 1~6595 3

65 0188-9 3

66 403&.1 12

67 1:'lSS76 6

53 146592 1

69 83519 1

70 i46591 1

it 1.16539 1 \

72 1~6-l90 1

,3 89%~ 1

0165-7 r 207049 5

1 .

Desc:ription Spring. Trolley Guide CoUar. Adjusting Shalt, Cylinder

Plate, Cylinder End Cylinder

Pin. Roller Cam Bushing. Cylinder Sha rt Gear. Urum Worm

Holder. 10k BOHle & Primer

CR.-H,) Primer. Pen

Chart &. Box, Recor der (Hours) Chart &. Box, Recorder

. (No Hours)

HOlder, Oil Cup

Knob, Synchronizing

Cup & Bottom Ass·y., Oil C~p &. Tube Ass·y., Oi\

. Cap &. Tube Ass'y" Oil Cap (.:. Tube Ass·y:, Oil

Ink &. Dropper Ass·y., Recorder Plate. Vernier Scale Clamping Resistor (40 Watt .• 6 Arnp.) Screw, Resistor MIg.

Wlisher, Mounting Washer.lnsultating

Washer, Centering (Ward Leonard Elec:._ Co. ;25151.17-2) Plate, Insul~ting

Wire Ass·y,. Le3d

Wire Ass·y,. r-;o. 1 Lead Wire Ass·y,. No, 2 Lead Wire Assy., No, 3 Lea d Cable Ass'y., (Twin Condo)

t~O'lg, :18 Junior Okccerd) Bloc'k; Terminal

Terminal (Aircraft Marine Products ~31666)

Socket, Lamp (Bryant Elec,

Co. ~9~45) Wasner, Insulating Clamp, Cable Bracket, Lamp

Lamp (70 volts 8 Watts)

1 Lamp {45 volts 8 watts

1 LocK, Cover

(HasterLock Co. !83C





1 .

1 -, 1 . :.




74 75



77 78 79· SO eo 81

965Z3 1

148944 2

. 159S43 1

95666 1

100111580 200511


Quirk ~h;pm('llt" :1110 pr"lllpt,; rfplic:,:. LII inquit·c:; ;m~ pos!'<;h1t" only when complete identifying ill·f,Jrlll;l\;oll ftlr parts j:, ;_!;\·en,

Ordering Ins+ruct ions

(';lrt'i11! ()h';l'l"\,;I1~"" ",- th(' ["n .. ·.,. i:;;..: p"inl:< un lI1(il"~'I(,,'; 1'1' orders ill essential for prompt service,

1. \";II""~ t he 1';1;': :m(l p:trt !luml>cr ;1$ sho-vn ill the list and ;.t~!e quantity desired.

2. rtlrl1i~'.h lh~ :l;tl11~ 1'1;11(' (hl:1 nr th~ :lrp;II';Itus for "'hich parts <Ire desired.

- - 11 _-