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Alfredo Morales According to Aristotle there exist three forms of friendship, friendships of utility, friendships of pleasure, and complete

friendships. All friendships have different aims and are established for different reasons. Friendship of utility are formed to solely benefit the people engaged in it. For example, I have a relationship with the local store clerk because in his store are products that I need and he benefits from the money I give him. Friendships of pleasure are based on entertainment and delight that one friend finds or shares with another. For example, a tenant in my building and I like to play basketball and listen to music together so we meet up to engage in those activities. On the other hand, complete friendships are formed when one enjoys another’s character and has a similar character as well. In a complete friendship there is care for one another unlike in a friendship of a utility or pleasure. There exist a practice of altruism, justice and equal giving and receiving. Complete friendships allow for self-love. As a result, I conclude that all friendships are necessary but complete friendships are more desirable and admired because they are virtuous. Friendships of utility are necessary but it is not in itself virtuous and thus it is not favored and admired above pleasurable and complete friendships according to the concepts of selfishness and self-love. All friendships depend on the relationship that two people share. People need friendships of utility because we are an inter-dependent species. We live in a society were materials are necessary and needed thus trade between two people is needed. According to the concepts of self-love and selfishness there is a distinction between complete friendships and friendships of utility. In friendships of utility self-love can be viewed as selfishness and greediness, one “seems to go to every length for his own sake, and all the more vicious he is; hence he is accused, for instance, of doing nothing for [from any end part] from himself”.1

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for he will sacrifice them all for his friends” 4. Complete friends have virtue because they care for each other. Today altruism is viewed as one sacrificing him or herself for the better of another. Complete friendships are virtuous. self-love in complete friendships is virtuous and has a positive outcome. friendships of utility can make someone selfish and vicious thus un-virtuous. Being a complete friend involves altruism because friends care for one another. Complete friends fulfill today’s definition of altruism because they are “ready to sacrifice money as long as his friends profit. they are noble and find themselves important.2 As a result. In turn. where one’s actions determines what is best for him thus harming others though their base (utility) feelings. Complete friendships also have an equal balance of give 2 3 Page 147 book IX chapter 8 1169a line 12-13 Nicomachean ethics Page 147 book IX chapter 8 1169a line 13-14 Nicomachean ethics 4 Page 148 book IX chapter 8 1169a line 27-28 and 30-31 Nicomachean ethics . while utility and pleasure friends are not. But once this activity and pleasure ceases so does the friendship and friends separate. utility and pleasurable friendships are not. Because complete friends love each other. Complete friends are altruistic. On the contrary. Unlike friendships of utility.Therefore friendships of utility are undesirable when compared to complete friendships because they lack virtue in self-love and selfishness. For example. “So the good person must be a selflover”. Friendships of pleasure are only relevant when people are engaged in a common activity and when one feels pleasure out of the other person. a complete friend will “help himself and benefit others by doing fine actions”3. These hopes and wishes for one’s friend mirrors one’s self-love for them self. Friendships of utility and pleasure lack virtue. they want the best for each other. They do not share genuine care for each other and thus they are not fulfilling the action of being a friend to the best of their ability so they un-virtuous. one cannot be selfish if one is a complete friend.

and achieve goals that would have been harder or impossible to achieve without friendships of utility. In utility there is no connection between friends so they do not sacrifice for each other. live comfortably. We trade with people every day from a personal scale to a world wide scale. once the activity ceases so does the friendship. . Justice is not needed because one cannot be wronged by a complete friend. Some may argue that friendships of utility offer more because we are an inter-dependent species. Justice as a law is put in place by society to guide people into virtue. Complete friendships make justice as a law obsolete because one’s complete friend would has his friend’s interest in mind. On the contrary. Justice as law may advice people to be more virtuous and provide a model as an example like Michael Phelps being the paragon of what being fit should resemble. Modern day altruism cannot be found in a friendship of utility. Money and net working can offer better conditions which allow for us to take care of our families. Distributive justice is giving someone what they deserve. friendship of utility only involves receiving. We can ultimately reach happiness with friendships of utility as our main priority. They are both virtuous beings so they have an idea of what his or her friend deserves or has to offer. Complete friends fulfill this duty because they give and receive in equal amounts. One can find altruism in giving and another fulfills altruism in receiving. Friendship of utility and pleasure cannot fulfill distributive justice because they do not care for the other friend. For example. We need other people in order to make money and net work. Friendships of pleasure do not involve altruism because one only seeks pleasure out of the other person.and take. Friendship of utility cannot fulfill justice as law because they do not care for the other person. Friendship of pleasure cannot fulfill justice as law because although they are benevolent they are not interested in others interests. Complete friendships make justice as a law and distributive justice unnecessary.

And because happiness is the ultimate end it requires virtue.We need complete friendships in order to reach happiness. In conclusion. . not a possession and a man or woman cannot engage in an activity solitarily because it becomes continuous. complete friendships are more desirable and admired than friendships of utility and pleasure because they are virtuous. thanks to friendships of utility. Happiness is an activity. A man can have all the materials he needs. Pleasurable friendships are not virtuous because they do not care for the other person. Friendships of pleasure and utility do not fulfill altruism because they do not have the other person in mind. but without complete friendship he will not be happy. Friendships of utility are not virtuous according to self-love and selfishness because one only cares for their needs. Ultimately. It will be harder to reach happiness without complete friendships having the most importance in one’s life. friendships of pleasure and utility require justice while complete friendships do not require justice. Meanwhile. complete friendships involve altruism because you want the best for the other person.