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Compressed natural gas

CNG's volumetric energy density is estimated to be 42% of LNG's (because it is not liquefied). CNG is made by compressing natural gas (which is mainly composed of methane [CH4]). and trains. and disperses quickly when released). transit and school buses. to less than 1% of its volume at standard atmospheric pressure. and 25% of diesel's. and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill (natural gas is lighter than air. . CNG is starting to be used also in tuktuksand pickup trucks. usually in cylindrical or spherical shapes. it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels. at a normal pressure of 200–248 bar (2900–3600 psi). diesel. or propane fuel. It is stored and distributed in hard containers.Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline (petrol). Natural gas vehicles are increasingly used in Europe and South America due to rising gasoline prices. CNG is used in traditional gasoline internal combustion engine cars that have been converted into bi-fuel vehicles (gasoline/CNG). In response to high fuel prices and environmental concerns. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases.

CNG cylinders can be made of steel. Lean-burn Otto-cycle engines can achieve higher thermal efficiencies than stoichiometric Otto-cycle engines. Electronically controlled stoichiometric engines offer the lowest emissions across the board and the highest possible power output. The CNG cylinders bundled with safetyvalve generally follow the ISO 11439 standard. and three-way catalytic converters.Technology CNG can be used in Otto-cycle (gasoline) and modified Diesel cycle engines. especially when combined with exhaust gas recirculation. which leads to lower fuel consumption. Lightweight composite (fiber-wrapped thin metal "ISO 11439 CNG-3" / fibre-wrapped plastic "ISO 11439 CNG-4") cylinders are especially beneficial for vehicular use because they offer significant weight reductions when compared with earlier generation steel and aluminum cylinders. at the expense of higherNOx and hydrocarbon emissions. turbocharging and intercooling. or plastic. aluminum. A suitably designed natural gas engine may have a higher output compared with a petrol engine because the octane number of natural gas is higher than that of petrol as this would allow for an engine design with a higher compression ratio. . but suffer in terms of heat rejection and fuel consumption.

[7] The fuel is stored at similar or greater energy density than CNG. such asactivated carbon[6] and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). .Developments Scientists are developing methods of storing methane in a new form known as ANG (Absorbed Natural Gas) at 35 bar (500 psi. The benefits are that vehicles can be refuelled from the natural gas network without extra gas compression. less strong materials. the fuel tanks can be made of lighter. and the tank designed to be much slimmer. the pressure of gas in natural gas pipelines) in various sponge like materials.

CNG cars available in Europe are bi-fuel vehicles burning one fuel at a time.[9][10] with South America leading with a global market share of 48%. China.4L FIRE engine that runs on E100. installing a CNG injection system and the electronics. Several manufacturers (Fiat. The driver can select what fuel to burn by simply flipping a switch on the dashboard. In 2006. . there are more than 7 million NGVs on the roads as of 2008.CNG cars Worldwide. this involves installing a CNG cylinder in the trunk.with the largest number of NGVs in Argentina. Opel(General Motors). Brazil. This means that they can indifferently run on either gasoline from a gasoline tank or CNG from a separate cylinder in the trunk. Volkswagen.Italy. installing the plumbing. Their engine is a standard gasoline internal combustion engine(ICE). Honda and others) sell bifuel cars. Any existing gasoline vehicle can be converted to a bifuel (gasoline/CNG) vehicle. Gasoline and CNG. India. Fiat introduced the Siena Tetrafuel in the Brazilian market. Authorized shops can do the retrofitting. Peugeot. Pakistan. Toyota. Thailand . equipped with a 1. and Iran. E25 (Standard Brazilian Gasoline).

. • CNG is as safe as. • Less knocking and no vapor locking. • CNG provides superior starting and driveability. • Requires less vehicle maintenance. • Gives the same mileage as gasoline in a converted vehicle. • Produces the fewest emissions of any motor fuel. other vehicle fuels. pipes and mufflers. or safer than. even under severe hot and cold weather conditions. fewer oil changes. and prolongs the life of engines.Advantages of compressed natural gas: • One of the cleanest burning fuels available.

Fiat Multipla. the tanks used to store the CNG usually take up additional space in the trunk of a car or bed of a pickup truck which runs on CNG. Chevy Taxi (sold in countries such as Peru)]. CNG-powered vehicles are considered to be safer than gasoline-powered vehicles. leaving the trunk free [eg. CNG takes up more space for each gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). Volkswagen Touran Ecofuel. This problem is solved in factory-built CNG vehicles that install the tanks under the body of the vehicle. Therefore. New Fiat Panda. Since it is a compressed gas.Drawbacks Compressed natural gas vehicles require a greater amount of space for fuel storage than conventional gasoline power vehicles. thanks to a more rational disposition of components. rather than a liquid like gasoline. .

CNG has a lower cost of production and storage compared to LNG as it does not require an expensive cooling process and cryogenic tanks. While both are stored forms of natural gas. . CNG requires a much larger volume to store the same mass of gasoline or petrol and the use of very high pressures (3000 to 4000 psi. or 205 to 275 bar). while LNG is in uncompressed liquid form. the key difference is that CNG is gas that is stored at high pressure.CNG compared to LNG CNG is often confused with liquefied natural gas (LNG).

In case of an accident. . The kit. Follow them strictly. Installer's certificate must be collected from the workshop.Do's and Don'ts for CNG conversion Ensure that the workshop is authorised and observes Safety Standards and Code of Practices in kit installation and commissioning. Do not buy components from different sources and install the kit yourself. Any modification or improvisation should only be done at an authorised workshop. Do not install an LPG. Additional premium is charged by the insurance company for CNG run cars. Propane or any other cylinder in place of a CNG cylinder. Ensure that the car undergoes the required pre-conversion checks thoroughly. ensure a complete and thorough leak test of the gas system. including the cylinder must be of the type approved for the make of the car. One should run the vehicle only after the risks of the additional CNG kit system are covered by the insurance company. After the connections are made. get the vehicle thoroughly checked by an authorised workshop and obtain re-certification. It is illegal and unsafe. Acquaint yourself with the mechanism of CNG and the precautions essential for a CNG vehicle.

Natural gas has a high ignition temperature. compressed natural gas (CNG) is stored onboard vehicles in tanks that meet stringent safety requirements. . Natural gas fuel systems are "sealed. compared with about 600° Fahrenheit for gasoline. Natural gas is not toxic or corrosive and will not contaminate ground water. creating a fire hazard. Even if a leak were to occur in a fuel system. which in the event of a leak or accident.200° Fahrenheit. pools on the ground. the natural gas would dissipate up into the atmosphere – unlike gasoline." which prevents spills or evaporative losses.Safety When used as an automobile fuel. about 1.

Since the 1930's.History and Global Use Of CNG • The first natural gas engine was invented in the mid-1800's. During World War II some cars in Australia were converted to run on "town gas". • The adoption of CNG as a vehicle fuel is now accelerating worldwide. • Currently the leading nations adopting CNG around the world is as follows. . In the last decade. the number of Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles (CNGV's) around the world has jumped by 500% from around 1 million vehicles in 1996 to in excess of 5 million vehicles in 2006. Italy has been using natural gas as a vehicle fuel and developing its associated technologies.

000 Bangladesh 55.000 Egypt 63.200 1.World Standing Country CNG vehicals & Fuel Stations:World Standing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Fuelling Stations 1.000 Iran 115.000 Ukraine 67.1 Million 1.000 China 97.400 1.000 Colombia 60.300 140 360 150 100 90 120 Country Argentina Brazil Pakistan Italy Vehicles 1.4 Million 0.000 500 200 1.5 million 1.25 India Million USA 130.0 Million 0.000 .

000 60 150 210 60 650 300 220 • The online Newspaper DNA (Daily News and Analysis) states that according to statistics available with the Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL). the consumption of natural gas in Mumbai. natural gas and hydrogen.000 42.000 25. By 2020.000 38.000 20.000 44.13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Bolivia Venezuela Russia Armenia Germany Japan Canada 45. India has risen by a whopping 374% over the past 3 years. • To improve security of energy supply and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.000 33. at . the European Union has set itself an objective to have substituted 20% of all traditional fuels used in the road transport sector (petrol and diesel) with alternative fuels before the year 2020. Three alternative solutions are seen as promising: biofuels.

G.Road Owner Company MGL Type of Outlet Mother Station with 7 mother compressors and 8 refuelling points Operating Hours 24 HPCL Online station 24 with 4 refuelling points BPCL Daughter-booster 24 station with 3 .M. G. Anik Bus Depot Near Everard Nagar Sion – 400 022 407 4748 NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRUCKING CENTRE 76-77.least 50% of alternative fuel substitution is expected to be natural gas CNG Retail Outlets In Mumbai Name of the Outlet MAHANAGAR GAS LIMITED City Gate Station Opp.Road Chembur – 400 089 522 1759 / 522 4244 KAUSAR AUTO SERVICES S.

Agripada – 400011 308 1782 / 309 1926 GUJRAT SERVICE CENTRE Arthur Road Pin Code – 400 011 307 4118 / 307 5789 MODERN AUTO Near Maratha Mandir Bombay Central 307 7783 PAREKH PETROLEUM SERVICES S.V. Andheri – 400059 838 6319 / 837 7197 BPCL Daughter-booster 24 station with 2 refuelling points Online station 24 with 2 refuelling points IOCL CHEMBUR SERVICE STATION Sion-Trombay Road Opp Swastik Mills Chembur – 400071 BPCL Online station 24 with 2 refuelling points . Mascarenhas Road Mazagaon – 400 010 371 3417 / 375 8363 ROYAL SERVICE STATION near Hotel Leela Kempinski.Road Vile Parle (W) – 400057 612 2035 / 613 2051 SHRISEVA ENTERPRISES Kherani Road Saki Naka – 400 072 511 8917 MUMBAI TAXI ASSOCIATION CST. LBS Kurla – 400 070 511 4853 / 514 3680 refuelling points IOCL Daughter-booster 24 station with 4 refuelling points Daughter-booster 6 am to 10pm station with 2 refuelling points Daughter-booster 24 station with 3 refuelling points Daughter station 24 with 1 refuelling point Daughter-booster 24 station with 4 refuelling points HPCL IOCL Private BPCL UNIVERSAL MOTORS Dr.

Approximate cost of CNG Conversion: Approximate cost of CNG conversion of LMVs (taxi / Pvt.petrol driven) : Rs.90 per kg. the new price in Mira-Bhayandar area will be Rs 21 per kg and in the Thane area Rs 21. 32. Wadi Bunder Mumbai 375 4670 / 377 4307 BPCL Daughter-booster 24 station with 2 refuelling points AMERICAN AUTO SUPPLY Victoria Road Opp.D’Mello Road 46.The current price of CNG in Mumbai is Rs 19. compressed natural gas (CNG) price will be revised with effect from July 1. Rustom Baug.000/-** .77 per kg. car .petrol driven : Rs.000/-** Approximate cost of CNG conversion of Auto . Byculla – 400 027 372 5108 HPCL Daughter-booster 24 station with 2 refuelling points CNG prices revised in Mumbai CONSEQUENT to the increased input price of natural gas. 23.AMAR AUTOMOBILES P. Owing to Octroi.30 per kg. The revised price will be Rs 20.

Approximate cost of CNG conversion of in-use diesel buses / tempos : Rs. Safety aspect: Safety is of paramount importance to MGL. To check with CNG retrofitters. CNG is delivered to vehicles having CNG cylinders. Identification labels (metal plate) are provided by MGL and installed in CNG vehicles near the refueling valve after the vehicle owner has got certification from RTO & necessary endorsement on RC book. Every dispensing operator is trained and have been instructed to dispense gas to only those vehicles who have a valid metal plate.5 lacs** ** . . which are approved and are within the periodic test life. 3. Continuous improvement in the process is a part of MGL's policy.5 to 4.approximate only.


Dedhia ------010 Submit to:Dr.Karan . A . Rode Sir .