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Electrical Enerl' Meiers

Publication No. 304

Editors

S. Biswas V.K. Kaojlia P.P. Wahl

Manual on

Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

Publication No. 304

Editors:

S. Biswas V .. K.. Kanjlia P.P. Wahi

CENTRAL BOARD OF IRRIGATION & POWER

JULY

2008

2008

ISBN : 8t~7336~31t~O

"Reproduction of any part of this publication in any form is permissible subject to proper acknowledgement and intimation to the publisher. The publisher I author / editors have taken utmost care to avoid errors in the publication. However, the publisher I author / editors are in no way responsible for the authenticity of data or information given in the book."

Central Board of Irrigation & Power

Malch a M arg. Chanakyapu ri, New Delhi 11 0 021 Phone: 2687 5017/2687 6567 Fax: 2611 6347

E-mail: cbip@cbip.orgicbip@vsnl.com Web: www.cbip.org

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ST ANDING COMMITTEE ON ENERGY METERS

Chairman Shri S. Biswas Advisor

CESC Ltd., Testing Department 4, Sashi Sekhar Bose Row Kolkata 700025

Members

Shri Ch. Chakrapani Divisional Engineer

MRT North Circle, APCPDCL Ai rpo rt Sub-station, Begu m pet Hyderabad

Shri Sunil Kumar Singhvi Vice President

Secure Meters Ltd

P.O_ Box No_30

P ratapnagar I ndu stria! A rea Udaipur 313003

Shri M.K. Mittal Scientist F

Head, A.C. Power & Energy STD National Physical Laboratory Room No.102,

Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg New Delhi 110012

Shri J.e. Biswas Alternate Member Scientist F

A.C. Power & Energy STO National Physical Laboratory Room No.1 02,

Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg New Delhi 110012

Shri Alok Gupta Chief Engineer

Central Electricity Authority Sewa Bhawan, R.K.Puram New Delhi 110066

Ms. Anjuli Chandra Alternate Member

Director (Dist. & Planning) Central Electricity Authority Sewa Shawan, R.K. Purarn New Delhi 110066

Shri Subodh K. Bhatnaqar Retd. S.E. (Protection), RRVPNL

B-82, Flat No. 302, Rama Golden Cottage Raman Marg, Tilak Nagar

Jaipur 302004

Dr. L.R. Rajagopal Managing Director

Singals & Systems (India) Pvt Ltd. M F- 7, Th i ru. Vi. Ka. I ndustri al Estate CIPET Hostel Road, Ekkaduthangal Chennai600097

Shri A.K. Ram Manohar Alternate Member

Singals & Systems (India) Pvt. Ltd. No.6, First Floor, Begampur Park Shivalik Main Road, Malaviya Nagar New Delhi-11 0 030

The Chief Executive Officer Naida Power Compan.y Ltd, Commercial Complex, H Block Alpha - II Sector

Greater Naida City 210308

Shri Gaurav KapoorJAviroop Gupta Alternate Member

Executive (Operations)

Naida Power Company Ltd. Commercial Complex, H Block

Alpha - II Sector

Greater Naida City 210308

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Shri Ashok Hattangady

Director - Technology Development Conzerv Systems Pvt. Ltd.

44P Electronic City Phase II

Hosur Road, Bangalore 560 100

Shri Ramesh Bhatia Alternate Member General Manager Delhi Office

Conzerv Systems Pvt. Ltd. a7, First Floor,

Industrial Development Colony Mehrauli Road, Gurgaon 122001

Shri Koshy Cherail

Sr. Consultant - Business Development Conzerv Systems Pvt. Ltd.

87, First Floor

Industrial Development Colony MehrauH Road, Gurgaon 122001

The Chief Engineer (System Planning) H.P. State Electricity Board

Vidyut Bhawan, Shimla (HP)

Shri C.L. Gupta

Executive Engineer (Test) U.P. Power Corp. Ud. Electricity Urban Test Division III - B, 119, Sector 18,

Noida 201301 (UP)

Shri R.K. Mehta S.E (T&C)

M.P. Electricity Board Block 3, Shakti Bnawan Jabalpur 482008 (MP)

Shri RM. Malhotra Deputy General Manager (Meter/Protection)

Delhi Transco Limited

220 kV Substation Building Park Street, Near Ram

Manhor Lohia Hospital, New Delhi

Shri V.K. Awasthi

Chief Engineer (Transmission) Chhatisgarh State Electricity Board Guoiyari, Raipur

The Advisor - DS/R

Ministry of Science & Technology

Technology Shawan .

New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110016

Shri Surendra Jhalora

Secure Meters Ltd

P.O. Box No.30,

Pratapnagar Industrial Area

Udaipur 313003

Shri P.C. Karnik

Vice President-Operations Elster Metering (P) Ltd. Unit No. 11, Paradigm 'B' Mind Space, Link Road

Malad (West) Mumbai 400 064

Ms. Manjushri Shah Alternate Member

Elster Metering (P) Ltd. Gurgaon

Shri B.A. Sawale Engineering Officer

Central Power Research Institute Switchgear Testing and Development Stn, Govindpura, Bhopal 462023

Shri R.K. Hegde

Joint Director

Central Power Research Institute Prof. Sir C.V. Raman Road

P.B. No. 8066, Banga/ore-S60D80

Shri N. Murugesan

Central Power Research Institute Prof. Sir c.v. Raman Road

P.B. No. 8066, Bangalore-5600BO

Ms. Nishat S. Haque I Manju Gupta Joint Director (Electrotechnical) Bureau of Indian Standards

Manak Shavan

9, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg New Delhi 110002

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Shri P.O. Thakur

Assn General Manager (R&D) Static Meters

ESPRIT Switchgear Pvt. Ltd

Plot No.14/15, Western Express, Highway

. No.B, Sativali, Vasai (E), Thane 401202

Shri H.K. Mishra

Dy. Manager

Electrical Research and Development Association

P.B.760, ERDA Road, Makarpura Industrial Estate, Vaoodara 390010

Shl'i M.K. Shah

Alternate Member

Electrical Research and

Development Association

P.B.760, ERDA Road

Makarpura Industrial Estate

Vadodara 390010

Shri Ravi M. Bhakta

Joint General Manager

Larsen & Toubro Limited

KIADB Industrial Area, Hebbal Hootagalli Mysore 570018

Shri Sanjay Ahuja

Alternate Member

Dy. General Manager - Marketing Metering & Protection Systems SBU Larsen & Toubro Limited

KIADB Industrial Area, Hebbal Hootagalli Mysore 57001 B

Shri J.S. Oberai

Sales Manager

Metering & Protection Systems Section Larsen & Toubro Limited

32, Shivaji Marg, New Delhi 110015

Shri Bal Mukund Vyas Manager

Yadav Measurements Pvt. Ltd. Post Box 169, Plot No. 19-20 Haridas Ji Ki Magri, Trident Road Udaipur 313004

Shri R.K. Singh Manager

Meter Management Group North Delhi Power Limited C-2 Block, Lawrence Road Keshavpuram, Delhi 110035

Shri Rajesh Bansal

Chief Manager (Meters & AMR) BSES Shavan, Nehru Place Behind Nehru Place Bus Depot New Delhi 110019

Shri Ashok Dash

Manager Technical Support (Electricity) ACTARIS Metering System -

An ITRON Company

C-7, Sector 3

Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201301

Shri Sandeep Jain Alternate Member

ACTARIS Metering System - an ITRON Company

C-7, Sector 3 Naida

Uttar Pradesh 201301

Shri V.K. Kanjlia Secretary

Central Board of Irrigation & Power Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri

New Delhi 110021

Shri P.P. Wahi Director

Central Board of Irrigation & Power Malcha Marg. Chanakyapuri

New Delhi 110021

Shri S.K. Batra Manager (Technical)

Central Board of Irrigation & Power Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri

New Delhi 110021

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FOREWORD

In early 1990's CBIP constltuted an experts' committee comprising representatives of various stakeholders of energy meters, for the purpose of publication of a specification for AC Static Electrical Energy Meters, The exercise was initiated by a communication from the Central Government. Funds were made available for modernization of metering equipment. The draft specification was authored by Shri S. Biswas, CESC Ltd., Shri B.S. Babel, Secure Meters Ltd. and Shri P. Chidambaram, TNEB, three members of a Panel set up by the committee. There were several deliberations and the specification was finally issued vide Technical Report No. 88 (Power) in December, 1992. It is a matter of great satisfaction that the specification, a pioneering work in the field of standardization in India, found wide acceptance as a defacto national standard all over the country.

Since then there have been many fast technological and application specific developments during the last two decades. National standards, Regulations and Code of practice have been evolved. Almost all utilities have introduced high accuracy static meters for various consumer and inter-grid tariff, energy audit and load survey purposes. The experience of different types of meters is available today, which was not there at the time of formulation of the above Technical Report. Moreover certain issues also emerged following wide use of static meters.

In 1996, based on the experience gained and the development of technology, the specification was revised, taking into account the feed back from users and issues which emerged during usage of static meters in the country. A committee was constituted to review the specification in the light 01 the suggestions I comments I recommendations received. There were frequent enquiries in regard to the availability of test facilities in the country. An Annexure was 1here1ore added giving details of the testing laboratories where individual tests could be performed. The list of Committee members who finalised the first revision is given separately. It was hence upgraded as a Standing Committee of Experts to review the specification as and when required. Shri K. Ramachandra Rao, Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Board, was its tirst chairman. Shri Subrata Biswas, CESC Limited, is chairman since 2000, and is guiding CBIP in the field of electricity metering Imetrology.

In 1999, static meters in India came under a test of time as it was revealed that almost all meters were severely affected by influence of strong external magnetic field. An emergency meeting of the standing committee was called, where various stakeholders from across the country were invited. A twomember sub-committee, comprising Shri Sub rata Biswas, CESC Limited and Shri Mukesh Kumar Mittal, National Physical Laboratory, were formed. CBIP initiated a project involving various manufacturers under the guidance of

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Shri Biswas and extensive tests were conducted in the AC Power & Energy and magnetic measurements laboratories of NPL and meter test laboratory of CESC. The sub-committee studied extensively the reference materials and the test data and recommended 3 new influence quantity tests for incorporating in CBI? technical report including the format of specifying the magnetic field strengths for influence tests, the maximum magnetic field strengths for such tests and the maximum tolerable influence after remedial measures taken by manufacturers and accordingly, an amendment was issued. It is a matter of great satisfaction that such an effort of CBIP could not only sustain the use of static meters, but also served as a landmark in the field of international standardization. International drafts are now being drawn in the same format of dc magnetic field strength as given in this Technical Report for magnetic influence tests.

Between 1999 and 2006 a number of other amendments had been issued. New series of IEC meter standards were published, replacing the old standards. The Standing Committee, therefore, decided to bring out fresh publication on the subject covering all relevant aspects which has been titled as 'Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters'. Representatives from various sectors across the country, comprising manufacturers, power utilities, testing laboratories, central organizations like CEA & BIS are members of the Standing Committee that deliberated a number of times and after considering their valuable comments, this new edition is being published. This also takes into account various suggestions from countries abroad. The new items involved are some definitions, uncertainty and repeatability, acceptance inspection, in-service considerations durability, prepayment functions etc. This manual supersede the Technical Report No. 88 prepared earlier.

The technological work involved in completion of this manual could be accomplished by the untiring efforts and invaluable contribution of the members of the Experts Group and CBIP.

The Central Board of Irrigation & Power wishes to acknowledge its grateful thanks to aU the members of the Standing Committee for their immense contribution. Special thanks are due to Shri S. Biswas, Chairman of the Standing Committee for the tremendous input and direction given in finalizing the manual.

It \s hoped that this manual would serve as a useful and valuable guide for the users.

New Delhi May 2008

I

, .

V.K. Kanjlia Secretary Central Board of Irrigation & Power

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CONTENTS

Foreword

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1. INTRODUCTION 1

2. ALTERNATING CURRENT. STATIC ELECTRICAL ENERGY 3 METERS FOR ACTIVE, REACTIVE AND APPARENT ENERGY

1. Scope

2. Standards Used

3. Definitions

4. Requirements

5. Tests and Test Conditions

6. Special Requirements

Appendix - A Guidelines for Combined kWh, kVArh and

kVAh Measurements

Appendix - B Considerations for Rated Operating Conditions Appendix - C Acceptance Inspection

Appendix - D Test Circuit Diagrams for DC, Even Harmonics, Odd Harmonics and Sub-Harmonics

Appendix - E Voltage Wave from the Tests of Influence of Supply Voltage 72

3

4

5

17

36

60

62

65

67

Appendix - F Test Circuit Diagram for the Test of Abnormal 74

Voltage Condition (Immunity to Earth Fault)

Appendix - G Test Circuit Diagram for Fast Transient Burst Test 75

Appendix - H Electromagne1 for Testing the Enfluence of Externally 76

Produced DC Magnetic Fields

Appendix - I Meter Test Facilities Available in Competent 77 Laboratories in the Country

Details of Laboratories

78

Appendix - J Recommended Methods of Connection of Current / Voltage 79

Circuit Conductors to Meter Terminals

Appendix - K Me1rological Stability 80

Appendix - L Power/ Energy - True Value and Traceability 83

Appendix - M Prepayment Processes and Functions for Active Energy 84

Appendix - N Recommended Guaranteed Points for Inclusion in Technical 103

Particulars to be Furnished by Manufacturers/Suppliers

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INTRODUCTION

Static electrical energy meters permit the highest attainable accuracy of energy measurements and are employed for the accurate measurement of large amounts of energy.

The reliability of static meters depends on the reliability 01 their electronic components and inter-connections and is always in the process of upgrada1ion.

The best possible accuracy is achieved by the class 0.2, but electronic techniques available also allow smaller errors and deviation under inlluence quantities for class 0.5 and 1.0 meters as permitted for induction meters of same accuracy classes.

Classes 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 have been defined for kWh meters. Formats of IEC: 62052-11, 62053-21 and 62053-22 have been adopted in this revised specitication. For kVArh measurements, specifications for classes 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 were arrived at as per requirements 01 similar accuracy classes 01 kWh measurements. Since kVAh is derived by electronic computation, no additional error has been recommended for this parameter. Since MD measurements (kWI kVA) are computed from kWhl kVAh and time measurements, there is no need to provide for additional errors for this case also. Although this Technical Report covers kVAhl kVA as a functional element of a multi-energy meter, for practical reasons this does not support kVAh as a stand alone meter.

For class 1.0 meters, it was found that the specifications of IEC: 62053-21 reflected directly the IEC: 62053-11 for the conventional induction type meters. As errors smaller than that for induction meters are possible, it was decided to have error limits more stringent compared to that of lEG: 62053-21 for class 1.0 meters. Requirements for class 1.0 were arrived by extrapolation from lEG: 62053-22 and keeping in view the requirements of lEG: 62053-21.

Tho determination of accuracy of kVAh measurement! computation in the electronic meter is directly based on kWh and kVArh measurements and so it was decided that it was not necessary to provide additional error. The test po.nts required have been incorporated.

In second revision 01 this Technical Report

• some new definitions are Included,

• metrological requirements on uncertainty and repeatability havo been added I revised in view of international trend in preparing standards,

• all the requirements have been updated in respect 01 current IEC standards, maintaining deviations in respect of certain items, where considered necessary,

• criteria 10r acceptance inspection have been revised, considering acceptance quality limit as per lEG standard,

2 Manuslon Sfzmdardization of AC Sist«: Electrical EnfJrgy Meters

• considerations for in-service Maximum Permissible Errors have been added,

• genera! gUidelines for A8T meters are given, based on ABT orders of CERe I SERe's,

• the list of competent laboratory facilities for meter testing has been updated, concept of durability has been introduced as a first step to opening up experimentation and data buHding.

• prepayment metering functions for active energy have been outlined.

ALTERNATING CURRENT, STATIC ELECTRICAL ENERGY METERS FOR ACTIVE, REACTIVE AND APPARENT ENERGY

1. SCOPE

This Technical Report applies only to static electrical energy meters of accuracy classes 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 for the measurement of alternating current electrical active and reactive energies. Class indices of active and reactive energies are the same unless mentioned otherwise.

This also applies to static multi-energy meters including apparent energy, the accuracy and other metrological requirements of which are dependent on those of active I reactive energy measurements. Guidelines for combined kWh, kVArh and kVAh measurements are given in Appendix-A.

It applies to polyphase as weI! as special purpose single phase energy meters, and does not distinguish between special and general measuring ranges. For other general applications of class 1 and 2 static kWh meters, relevant Indian Standard(s) shall be referred.

It applies to static energy meters consisting of a measuring element and register(s) enclosed together in a meter case. It also applies to operation indicator(s) and test output(s). The meters covered under this specification shall be capable of performing functions of revenue meter in credit mode and also for interface to networks and energy audit and load survey applications. Active energy measurement is true for periodic quantities involving harmonics, subject to their influence on performance. The specification applies to indoor meters only.

The specification also covers metrological requirements for diverse applications involving:

• Multiple credit modules housed in a single enclosure for registration of energies in multiple circuits. The necessary mechanical/constructional requirements will be agreed between the user and the manufacturer (till the availability of an appropriate standard)

• Operation in prepayment mode (reference shall be made to appropriate lEG I IS standard for functional requirement).

It does not apply to

(a) Static energy meters where the voltage across the terminals exceeds 600 V (line-to-line voltage for meters for polyphase systems),

'b) External interfaces to the meter,

'c) Reference meters,

4 Manual on Stand,udlzaiion of AC Static Electrical Energy Meiers

(d) Heactive energy measurement involving harmonics,

Note: Tile same is undar consideration by lEe and wilJ be iflcluded laler once an international COn5f!rJS[JS has been teecnoo.

2. STANDARDS USED

(e) Three-phase apparent energy measurement in a stand alone meter.

For revision of this document assistance has been derived from the following pubucations :

IEC 62052-11 ; 2003

lEG 62053-21 ; 2003

IEC 62053-22 ; 2003

IEC 62053-23 ; 2003

IS 13779,1999 IS 14697, 1999

IS 11448: 2000 IS 12346: 1999

IS 15707 : 2006

IECJ ISO: GUM

ISO 2859- 1: 1999 IEC 62058-11: 2008

lEe 62058-31 :2008

Electricity Metering equipment (AC) - General requirements, tests and test Conditions - Part 11: metering equipment.

Electricity Metering equipment (AC) Particular requirements - Part 21: Static Meters for Active Energy (Classes 1 & 2)

Electricity Metering equipment (AC) Particular requirements - Part 22: Static Meters for Active Energy (Classes 0.2 S & 0.5 S)

Electricity Metering equipment (AC) Particular requirements- Part 23: Static Meters for Reactive Energy (Classes 2 & 3)

AC Static Watthour Meiers, Class 1 and 2 - Specification

AC Static Transformer operated Watthour and VAr-Hour Meters, Class 0.2 S, 0.5 Sand 1.0 S " Specification

Application Guide for AC Electricity Meters (First Haviaion) Testing Equipment for AC Electrical Energy Meters (First Revision)

Testing, Evaluation, Installation and Maintenance of AC Electricity Meters - Code of Practice.

Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. IS 2500(Part 1): 2000/ Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes - Sampling schemes indexed

By acceptance quality limit (AQL) for lot-by-lot inspection. Electricity Metering equipment (AG) Acceptance Inspection - Part 11 : General Acceptance Inspection Methods (FDIS version).

Electricity Metering equipment (AC) Acceptance Inspection - Part 31 : Particular requirements tor static meters lor active energy (classes 0.2 S, 0.5 S, 1 and 2, FDIS version)

!1itornating Current, Static Electrir:al Enorgy Motors for Activo, Reectivo and Apoeron! Fnvrqy 5

3. DEFINITIONS

3.1 General Definitions

3.1.1 Electrical Energy Meter

An instrument intended to perlorm function(s) of Watt-hour meter, Var-hour meter or Volt-Ampere-hour meter.

No(c . If may function individ!JaJly or in combination. For functions in combination soc 3. 1. f 4

3.1.2 Meter Type

Designations used for defining a particular design 01 meter manuiactured by one manufacturer having (a) similar metrological properties (b) the same principle of operation and uniform construction of parts determining these properties (c) the same ratio of the rated maximum current to the basic current. They may have several values 01 basic current and several values 01 reference voltages. These meters are designated by the manufacturer by one or more groups of letters or numbers, or of a combination of letters and numbers. Each 1ype has one designat"ron only.

Noto : Tne: type is repros en tad by the sample meter(s) intended for type tests and those characteristics (basic I rated current and referonce vol/age) are chosen from veluo of ratio proposed by the manufacturer.

3.1.3 Waft-hour Meter

An lllstrument intended to measure and rogiS\cr active energy continuously by integrating active power with respect to time, summated over the phases.

Note: The summation is erithmctk:

3.1.4 Var-hour Meter

An Instrument intended to measure and register reactive energy contmuousry by integrating reactive power with respect to time, summated over the phases.

Note: Tho summation is arithmetic.

3.1.5 Static Waft-hour Metcr

A Meter in which current and voltage act on solid state (electronic) elements to produce an output pulse I count proportional to Watt-hours.

Noje· The word "contin(Jous/y" in 3.1.3 aJso incorporates ''by snmpling at IJig/) speed" so thai performance requirements of this specification are mot.

6 Manual on Standardizalion of AC Stetic Electrical Energy Meiers

3.1.6 Active Power (P) in a Single Phase Circuit

Mean value of instantaneous power (p) over one period (T) under periodic conditions, i.e.

P = 'h x 0 J T p dt

Notes:

I. Under Sinusoidal conditions. the product of the moduli! of curren 1(1) and vonage(V) pnesors and sine of the displacement anglc(O) between them. i.e .• P -'= VI cose

2. Phesor is representation of a sinusoidal integral quanlily whose root-meen-equere value is equal 10 its modulus

3.1.7 Reactive Power (Var) in a Single Phase Circuit

Under sinusoidal conditions, the product of the modulii of current(l) and voltage(V) phasors and sine of the displacement angle (0) between them, i.e., VI sinO

3.1.B Reactive Energy (Var-hour) in a Single Phase Circuit The time integral of the reactive power as defined under 3.1.7

3.1.9 Static ver-nour (Reactive Energy) Meter

A Meter in which current and voltage act on solid state (electronic) elements to produce an output pulse I count proportional to Var-hours.

Note : The word "continuously" in 3.1.4 also incorporates "by sampling at high speed" so that performance requirements of this speCification are mel.

3.1.10 Apparent Power (Volt-Ampere) in a Single Phase Circuit Product of r.rn.s values of voltage (V) and current (I), i.e., VI.

3.1.11 Volt-Ampere-hour Meter

An instrument intended to measure and register continuously apparent energy by !~tc~r~1in9 apparent power with reference to time, summated over the phases.

Note : There is no unique definition for three phase Volt-Ampere. The summation depends on dcfinilion(s) adopted. c.g. "arithmetic". "roof -sum - eauero: etc. which may run in parallel.

3_1.12 Static Volt-Ampere-hour (Apparent Energy) Meter

A Meter in which current and voltage act on solid state (electronic) elements to produce an output Pulse I count proportional to Volt-Ampere-hour.

Note _- The word "continuous/y" in 3.1.11 a/so incorporates Hby sampling I summation at high speed" so ttuu performance reouiromcnts of this specification are mel.

3.1.13 Indicated Maximum Demand

The highest value of the mean power (Active, Reactive or Apparent) indicated by the maximum demand register during successive equal intervals of time between one zero resetting of the maximum demand regisler and the next.

Alternating Current, Static Electrical Energy Meters for Activo, Reaetivo and Apparent Energy 7

3.1.14 Demand Integration Period

The Nominal duration of the consecutive equal intervals of time (For example, 15 / 30 minutes), upon which the maximum demand measurement is based.

3.1.15 Maximum Demand Meter

A multi-energy meter intended to measure demand or maximum demand or both, and which registers the values in specified registers provided in meter case.

3.1.16 Multi-Energy Meter

Meter which, in a Single case, measures two or three type of electrical energies (watt-hour, Vat-hour, VA-hour).

3.1.17 Multi-Function Meter

Basic or multi-energy meter which, in a single case, has functions that are not described in basic standards for energy meters.

Note: Multi-function meter may include maximum demand indicator, time switch. radio transmitter/ receiver, pulse output devico, etc.

3.1.18 Multi-Rate Meter

A meter provided with a number of registers, each operative at different tarin rates determined by time, load or some other quantity.

3.1.19 Two-Part Tariff

It combines unit tariff and maximum demand tariff with or without reactive energy based surcharge for low power factor, and with or without time based differential pricing of unit and/or maximum demand tor preferential time of use. It is generally applied for consumers supplied at medium and high voltages. It is made up of two parts, one to pay for the fixed power dependent cost and other for running energy dependent cost Tho metering consists of kWh and kVArh and/or kVAh meters/ metering elements in a single case, having the required accuracy with an arrangement to measure the maximum demand. The integrating period of maximum demand indicator is controlled by an internal timo clock or by an external time switch.

3.1.20 Time of Use (TaU) I Time of Day (ToO) Tariff

In this type of time based unit or two part tariff for differential pricing ot energy andlor maximum demand, the entire hours of one day or of seven days of one week or 365 days of one year are grouped in specific time slots, each slot being associated with specific metering register(s). Different Time of Use (TaU) tariff for energy and/or maximum demand are then applied to various meter values obtained from these registers, with the objoctive of encouraging consumption in the lean demand hours 01 dayfweek/year and discouraging the same in the peak demand hours of the day/week/year in order to even out the profile of energy consumption curve. When the preferential "Time of Use" tariff (TaU) is limited only to 24 h of the day, it is called the "Time 01 day" tariff (ToD).

8

Manual on Stand"rdization of /Ie Static Electrical Energy Meters

3.1.21 Availability Based Tariff

A form of three part performance based regulated tariff levied for bulk supply of electricity by generating agencies (suppliers) and for drawal of electricity by beneficiaries (consumers) in a grid system. For administering the tariff, a day is divided into ninety six equal time slots of fifteen minutes' duration. It comprises of :

• Capacity Charges (CC): The charges payable monthly by a beneficiary to a generating agency towards annual fixed charges of generation, based on its cumulative allocated share of generation capacity and also on average availability of the plant, working on a committed schedule of sent-out ex-bus for each 15 minutes' block of a day.

• Energy Charges (EC) or Variable Charges (VC) : The charges payable by a beneficiary to a generating agency towards its share of variable cost of generation, based on its committed schedule of cumulative drawal at the receiving point for each 15 minutes' block of a day ahead.

• Unscheduled interchange (UI) Charges: The charges payable / receivable by a generating agency or a beneficiary to / from a regional pool towards deviation from scheduled supply or drawal of energy, and are based on such deviation for each 15 minutes' block of a day and also on condition of system frequency in the time block. Above a band of frequencies around 50 Hz, the rate of UI charge is zero and steps up linearly for each stepped decrease of frequency and attains the maximum at the bottom of the band and below.

• Reactive Energy (VArh) Interchange Charges : The charges payable / receivable by a beneficiary to / from a slate pool to facilitate load centric compensation of reactive energy in Intra-State network. At a voltage below a specified band around the declared value, the charges are payable / receivable by a beneficiary for drawall injection of VArh. At a voltage above the specified band, the charges are payable / receivable by the beneficiary for injection / drawal of VArh.

Noles:

(a) /lvailability o! a generating agency for a given poriod is tho porconteqo ratio of tho summatod Sont Out CapiJiJllily for et! tho limo blocks during that period and its rated Sent Qui Capabilily, with deduction for normative al/xiliary consumption and idle capacity due to scheduling.

(b) Below i1 tarqc: av,11Iabilily, fixed charges arc recoverable by a generating agency on pro-rata basis. Jlbove this, incentives ato rocaiveblo in addition 10 fixed charges.

(c) Scheduling for drawal of energy by a beneficiary for each time block of a day ahead. is carried out on the basis of scheduled "vail"bllity of ttie generating plant for the time block and ettocation of cepacitv for the beneficiaries.

(d) At present. the frequency band is SO.S· 49.0 Hz, frequency step is 0.02 Hz and voltage band is 97 . 103% vi //10 nominal.

3.1.22 Static Pre-payment Active Energy Meter

Static watt-hour meter in which flow of energy is initiated by transferring value of credit into the meter from a valid token issued by a vending system on prior

Altematin(J Current, Suuic Elec'ric"i EI1Ngy Meters for Activo, Reactive and Apoerent Energy 9

payment, ma.intained by credit available in the meter and replenished on transferring value of credit from time to time and interrupted automatically when the available credit is exhausted in the meter.

Nate; A token may be a physical, numerical or vinuet entity.

3.1.23 Competent Laboratory

laboratory of National Metrology Institute (NM1)(1) which is the custodian of measurement standards of a country and which actively participates in the mutual recognition arrangement of International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM); alternatively, any laboratory maintained under the provisions of International Standard(2) on competence of testing and calibration laboratories and accredited by the !lationa! accreditation body(31 of a country that actively participates in the mutual recognition arrangement of International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC).

Noles.

j. National Physical Laboratory (NPL), New Dolhi, in India:

2. ISO / lEG /7025 : 2005 (Second Edilion) - GBnorai Requirements for tho Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories;

3. Na./i(mal Accrcditarion Board for Testing aOd Calibration Laboratories (NABLJ, New Delhi, in India.

3.2 Definitions Related to the Functional Elements

3.2.1 Measuring Element

Part of the meter which produces an output proportional to the energy.

3.2.2 Output Devices 3.2.2.1 T as! Output

Device which can be used for testing the meter. The output may be in the form of pulses or high resolution display.

3.2.2.2 Operation Indicator

Device which gives a vis.ible signal 10r the operation of the Meter.

3.2.3 Memory

Element which stores digital information.

3.2.3.1 Non-voletite Memory

Storage device which can retain information in the absence of power. NoJe . Oa!tory backed Memory shall not be considered as NOll Volatile Memory.

3.2.4 Display

Device which displays the content(s) of (a) memory (ies).

1 0 Manual Oil Standardization 01 AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

3.2.5 Register

Electromechanical or electronic device comprising both memory and display which stores and displays information.

A single display may be used with multiple electronic memories to form rnuitipie registers.

3.2.6 Direct-Connected

The meter meant for connection to its external circuit under measurement of energy and registration, direct without any device.

3.2.7 Transformer-Operated

The meter meant for connection to its external circuit under measurement of energy and registration, through instrument transtormerts).

3.2.8 Current Circuit

Internal connections of the meter and part of the measuring element through which flows the current of the circuit to which the meter is connected.

3.2.9 Voltage Circuit

A circuit comprising of internal connections of the meter, part of the measuring element and power supply for the meter, supplied with the voltage to which the meter is connected.

3.2.10 Auxiliary Circuit

Elements (lamps, contacts etc.) and connections of an auxiliary device within the meter case intended to be connected to an external device for example clock, relay, impulse counter etc.

3.2.11 Meter Constant

Value expressing the relation between the energy registered by the meter and the correspondIng value of the test output. If this value is number of pulse countts), the constant should be either pulse count(s) per unit or unit per pulse count where the unit may be kWh, kVArh or kVAh.

3.3 Mechanical Elements

3.3.1 Indoor Meter

Meter intended for use under normal ambient conditions inside a building and can be used in areas with additional protection against environmental influences (in a house, in a cabinet).

Alternating Current, Static Eloctrica! Energy MeJers for Active, Reactive and Apparent Energy i 1

3.3.2 Base

Back of the meter by which it is generaHy fixed and to which are attached the measuring element, the terminals of the terminal block, and the cover. For a flushmounted meter, the meter base may include the sides of the case.

3.3.2.1 Socket

Base with jaws to accommodate terminals of a detachable watt-hour meter and which has terminals for connection to the supply line. It may be a single-position socket for one meter or a multiple-position socket for two or more meters.

3.3.3 Cover

Enclosure on the front of the meter, made either wholly of transparent or opaque material provided with window(s) through which the opera~ion indicator (if fitted) and the display can be read.

3.3.4 Case

Comprises the base and the cover.

3.3,5 Accessible Conductive Part

Conductive part which can be touched by the standard test finger, when the meter is installed and ready for use.

3.3.6 Protective Earth Terminal

Terminal connected to accessible conductive parts of a meter for safety purposes.

3.3.7 Terminal Block

Support made of insulating material on which all or some of the terminals of the meter are grouped together.

3.3.8 Terminal Cover

Cover which covers the meter terminals and, generally, the ends of the external wires Of cables connected to the terminals.

3.3.9 Clearance

Shortest distance measured in air between two conductive parts.

3.3.1 0 Creepage Distance

Shortest distance measured over the surface of insulation between two conductive parts.

12 Manual on Siandardil'ation of AC Static Electrical Enc(qy Me/cIs

3.4 Insulation

3.4.1 Basic Insulation

Insulation applied to live parts to provide basic protection against electric shock. NOlO: l3asic insula lion docs not necessarily include insulation uscd cxe/usivoly for functional purposes.

3.4.2 Supplementary Insulation

Independent insulation applied in addition to the basic insulation, in order to provide protection against electric shock in the event of a failure of the basic insulation.

3.4.3 Double Insulation

Insulation comprising both basic insulation and supplementary insulation.

3.4.4 Reinforced Insulation

Single insulation system applied to live a part which provides a degree of protection against electric shock equivalent 10 double insulation.

Nato: Tho term "insula lion system" does not imply thatlhe insul<l/ion should be one ticmoqonous piece.

II may comprise several layers which cannot be tested singty as supplementary or basic insutation.

3.4.5 Insulating Encased Meter of Protective Class I

Meter in which protection against electric shock does not rely on the basic insulation only but which include an additional safety precaution by way of connecting the conductive accessible parts of the protective earthing conductor in the fixed wiring of the installation in such a way that conductive accessible parts do not become alive in the event of a failure of the basic insulation.

Nolo: This provision is for molars having a protective oettt: tcrminet.

3.4.6 Insulating Encased Meter of Protective Class /I

Meter with a case of insulating material in which protection against electric shock does not rely on basic insulation only, but in which additional salety precautions, such as double insulation or reinforced insulation, are provided, there being no provision for protective earthing or reliance upon installation conditions.

3.5 Definitions of Meter Quantities

3.5.1 Basic Current (Ib)

The value of current in accordance with which the relevant periormance of a directconnected meter are fixed.

3.5.2 Rated Current (In)

The value of current in accordance with which the relevant performance of a transformer operated meter are fixed.

AI/omating Current, Static Electrical Energy Meters for Active, Renctivo Arid Apparent Energy 13

3.5.3 Maximum Current (Ima,J

The highest value of current maintained continuously, at which the meter purports to moot the accuracy requirements of this specification.

3.5.4 Reference Voltage

Value of voltage in accordance with which the relevant performance of the meter are fixed.

3.5.5 Reference Frequency

Value of frequency in accordance with which the relevant performance of the meier are fixed.

3.5.6 Class Index

A number which gives the limits of the permissible percentage error, for all values of current between 0.05 Ib and lrnax, for unity power factor (and in case of poly-phase meters with balanced loads) when the meter is tested under reference conditions (including permitted tolerances on the references values) as definod in this specification. This refers to active energy meters. For reactive energy meter, the definition is true at zero power factor instead of at unity power factor. (at Sin<jl =1 ,Inductive or capacitive)

NOlo . In this specitication, meters am classified according to tlleir respective ctess inaicos l. e. 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 as applicable.

3.5.7 Percentage Error

Percentage error of a meter is given by the following formula: energy registered by meter - true energy

Percentage error = --------------------

x 100

true energy

Note : Since the true value cannot be determined, it is approximated by a value wittt a stated unccriilinly tllat can be traced to national standards or equivalent in/ernational standards in illl established chain of calibration.

3.5.8 Uncertainty of Measurements

An estimate attached to a measurement result, which characterises tho dispersion of values within which the true value is expected to lie, at a specified confidence level.

Noto .' Usually, the ostimeto is provided with a probability of 95%, i.e. approx/Illatc/y at s: 2 cr coaiidence

level. and expressed as an ebsotuto value or as a percentage of tiio mcesuromcnt result.

3.5.9 Maximum Permissible Error (MPE)

Extreme value of percentage errors of a meter at a given load in-service under rated operating conditions, permitted by this Technical Report.

Noto . the MPE provides the limit of combined uncertainty due to rated operating conditions, 10 be summated to the percentage error under reference conditions

14

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

3.5.10 Repeatability

Degree of closeness of successive results of measurement performed on an equipment at a particular testing / calibration point, under identical conditions of environment, power supply, test equipment, personnel etc. (known as repeatability conditions).

It is expressed by dispersion of the measurement results, usually at a confidence level of 95% approx (± 20 probability range for normal distribution.)

3.5.11 Durability

The ability of an item to perform a required function under given conditions of use and maintenance, until a limiting state is reached.

Notes:

1. A limiting steto of an item may be characterized by end of useful life. unsuitability due to any economic or technological reasons, or other relevant factors.

2. For an electricity meter, it may be interpreted as - "the ability of a meter to maintain its performance characteristics over a period of use."

3.5.12 Traceability

The ability of a measuring instrument or of measurements performed in a calibration/ testing laboratory, to establish an indirect relation to national standard(s) with stated uncertainty(ies), through an unbroken chain of stage by stage calibrations / comparisons involving intermediate standard(s) in competent laboratories.

3.6 Definitions of Influence Quantities

3.6.1 Influence Quantity

Any quantity, generally external to the meter, which may affect its working pe rformance.

3.6.2 Reference Conditions

Appropriate sot of influence quantities and performance characteristics, with reference values, their tolerances and reference ranges, with respect to which the intrinsic error is specified.

3.6.3 Variation of Error due to an Influence Quantity

Difference between the percentage errors of the meter when only one influence quantity assumes successively two specified values, one of them being the reference value.

Alternating Current. Static Electnca.1 Energy Meters for Activt:'. Reactive and Apparent Energy 15

3.6.4 Distortion Factor

Ratio of the r.m.s, value of the harmonic content (obtained by subtracting from a non-sinusoidal alternating quantity its fundamental term) to r.rn.s. value of nonsinusoidal quantity. The distortion factor is usually expressed in percentage.

3.6.5 Electromagnetic Disturbance

Conducted or radiated electromagnetic interferences which may affect functionally or metrologically the operation of the meter.

3.6.6 Reference Temperature

Ambient temperature specified for reference conditions.

3.6.6.1 Mean Temperature Coefficient

Ratio of the variation of the percentage error to the change of temperature whictl produces this variation.

3.6.7 Rated Operating Conditions

Set of specified measuring ranges for performance characteristics and specified operating ranges for influence quantities, within which the variations of operating errors of a meter are specified and determined.

3.6.8 Specified Measuring Range

Set of values of a measured quantity for which the error of a meter is intended to lie within specified limits.

3.6.9 Specified Operating Range

Range of values of a single influonce quantity which forms a part of the rated operating conditions.

3.6.10 Limit Range of Operation

Extreme conditions which an operating meter can withstand without damage and without degradation of its metrological characteristics whon it is subsequently operated under it's rated operating conditions.

3.6.11 Storage and Transport Conditions

Extreme conditions which a non-operating meter can withstand without damage and without degradation of it's metrological characteristics when it is subsequently operated under its rated operating conditions.

3.6.12 Normal Working Position

Position of the meter defined by the rnanuracturer for normal service.

16

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

3.6.13 Thermal 5tabifity

Thermal stability is considered to be reached when the change in error as a consequence of thermal effects during 20 min is less than 0.1 times the maximum permissible error for the measurement under consideration.

3.7 Definition of Tests

3.7.1 Type Tests

Series of tests carried out on one or more prototype meter(s) of the same type having identical characteristics, selected by the manufacturer, to verify that the respective type of meters compHes with all the requirements of this technical report for the relevant class of meters. These are intended to prove the general qualities and design of a given type of meter.

3.7.2 Routine Tests

Test carried out on each meter to check conformity with the requirements of this technical report in aspects which are likely to vary during production.

3.7.3 Acceptance Tests

Tests carried out during inspection by the user to determine whether a lot is acceptable.

3.7.3.1 Inspection Lot

A coUection of produced units, e.g. electricity meters, from which a statistically valid sample is to be drawn and inspected to determine conformance with acceptability criteria.

Note : Tho insp(x(ioll lot may differ 110m a collection of units designated as a 10/ for other purposes.

3.7.3.2 100% Acceptance Inspection

Acceptance inspection where the acceptability is determined by means of inspection of selected characteristic(s) of every item in the lot under consideration.

3.7.3.3 Acceptance Sampling Inspection

Acceptance inspection where the acceptability is determined by means of inspection at selected items in the lot under consideration.

3.7.3.4 Norma/Inspection

Inspection which is used when there is no reason to think that the quality level achieved by the process differs from a specified level

3.7.3.5 Lot-by-Lot Inspection

Inspection of a product submitted in a series of lots.

Alternaling Current, Static Electrical Energy Meters for Acliv8, HeaclivD and Apparent Encryy 17

3.7.3.6 Single Acceptance Sampling Inspection

Acceptance sampling inspeclion in which the decision, according to a defined rule, is based on the inspection results obtained from a single sample of predetermined size.

3.7.3.7 Double Acceptance Sampling Inspection

Multiple acceptance sampling inspection in which at most two samples are taken Nole ." The decisions are made according 10 defined rules.

3.7.3.8 Quality Level

Quality expressed as a rate of nonconforming units or rate of number of nonconformities

3.7.3.9 Acceptance Quality Limit (AQL)

Worst quality level tolerable to the user during acceptance inspection.

NOle 1 .. Although individual/ots with quality as bad as the acceptance quality limit can be accopted wilh fairly high probability. lho designation Of an acceptance quality limit docs not suggest thiJ.1 ttll~ is a desirable quality level

Neto 2: The usc of the term AQL to mean "acct.'Pfabie qlJiJ.lity level" is no longer rooommendod.

3.7.3.10 Acceptance Number (Ac)

largest number of ncncontormtties or nonconforming items found in the sample by acceptance sampling by attributes that permits the acceptance of the 101, as given in the acceptance sampling plan

3,7.3.11 Rejection Number (Re)

Smallest number of nonconformities or nonconforming items found in the sample by acceptance sampling by attributes that requires the lot to be not accepted, as given in the acceptance sampling plan

4. REQUIREMENTS

4.1 Standard Electrical Values

4.1.1 Standard Reference Voltages

Direct Connections

Line to Neutral

230 V

line to Line

400 V

18

Manual on SWnd<lrdiz<Jtion of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

Connection through Voltage Transformers

Line to Une

110 V

Line to Neutral

63.5 V (1101\/3)

Nolo." (Rofer is; 12360) Special values to be agreed between the purchasor and the msmstactun»:

4.1.2 Standard Basic Currents

Table 1 Standard basic i rated currents

4.1 .2.1 Maximum Current

The maximum current for direct connected meters shall preferably be an integra! multiple of the basic current (e.g., four times the basic current).

When the meter is operated from (a) current transformer(s) attention is drawn to the need to match the current range of the meter In relation to that of the secondary of the current transformer(s). The maximum current of the meter is 1.2 In or 2 If) in general. Special values are to be agreed between the purchaser and the manufacturers.

4.1.3 Standard Reference Frequency Standard values for reference frequency is 50 Hz

4.2 General & Constructional ReqUirements

4.2.1 General Requirements

Meters shall be designed and constructed in such a way as to avoid introducing any danger in normal use and under normal conditions, so as to ensure especially:

• Personnel safety against electric shock

• Personnel safety against effects of excessive temperature

• Protection against spread of fire.

• Protection against penetration of solid objects, dust and water

• Detection of fraud! pilferage

All parts which are subject to corrosion under normal working conditions shafl be protected effectively. Any protective coating shall not be liable to damage by

AJ!emalillgCurrellt.SlalicElecln.calEnergy Meters for Active, Reectivo and Apparent Energy 19

ordinary handling nor damage due to exposure to air, under normal working conditions.

Noto . For metors for special use in corrosive etmosphoro, additional requirements 5118/1 be fixed in til{) purchase contract (o.g .• Stilt mist test according 10 lEG 60068-2-11).

4.2.2 Constructional Requirements 4.2.2.1 Meier Case

The meter shall have a case which can be sealed in such a way that the internal parts of the meter are accessible only after breaking the seaJ(s).

The cover shall not be removable without the use of a tool.

The case shall be so constructed and arranged that any non-permanent deformation cannot prevent the satisfactory operation of the meter.

Unless otherwise specified, meters intended to be connectod to a supply mains whose case is wholly or partially made of metal shall be provided with a protective earth terminal.

4.2.2_2 Window

\1 the cover is not transparent, one or more windows shall be provided for reading the display and observation of the operation indicator. These windows shall be of transparent material which cannot be removed undamaged withou1 breaking the seal(s).

4.2.2.3 Terminals - Terminal Block(s)

Terminals may be grouped in (a) terminal block(s) having adequate insulating properties and mechanical strength. In order to satisfy such requirements when choosing insulating materials for the terminal bloc!«s) adequate testing of materials should be taken into account

The material ol which the terminal block is made shall be capable of passing the test given in ISO 75 for temperature of 135°C and pressure of 1.8 MPa.

The holes in the insulating material which form an extension of the terminal holes shan be of sufficient size to accommodate thcmsulation of the conductors.

For volt free contacts for auxiliary output/input the above terminal sizes will not be applicable though housed in the same terminal blocks.

The manner of fixing the conductors to the terminals shall ensure adequate and durable contact such that there is no risk of loosening or undue heating. Screw connections transmitting contact force and screw fixings which may be loosened and tightened several times during the life of the meter shall screw into a metal nut

Two screws shall be provided in each current terminal for effectively clamping tho external leads or thimbles. Alternatively, if an elastic pressure plate or similar effective device is provided to keep the entire length of the conductor within the terminal we\) pressed, one screw may be used. Each clamping screw shalt engage a

20

Manual on Stilndardizi'.!tion of AC Static Eiec[ricElI Energy Meters

minimum of three threads in the terminal. The ends of screws shall be such as not to pierce and cut the conductors used.

The current circuit conductors 01 a meter shaH be connected to it's current terminals inside tho meter terminals block adopting any of the recommended methods given in Appendix J, so as to ensure satisfactory durable and adequate contact surfaces between the conductors and the terminals.

All parts of each terminal shall be such that the risk of corrosion resulting from contact with any other metal part is minimized.

Electrical connections shall be so designed that contact pressure is not transmitted through insulating material.

The internal diameter of terminal holes shall be as specified in Table 2.

Table 2 Terminal holes

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

The protective earths terminal, if any. shall have minimum of 4 mm size

shall be electrically bonded to the accessible metal parts should, it possible, form part of the meter base

should preferably be located adjacent to it's terminal block

shall accommodate a conductor having a cross-section at least equivalent to the main current conductors but wjth a lower limit of 6 mm2 and an upper limit of 16 mm2 (these dimensions apply only when copper conductors are used).

shall be clearly identified by the earthing symbol

{f)

After instaUation, it sha!! not be possible to loosen the protective earth terminal without the use of a tool.

For completely insulated body, no earthing terminal is required.

4.2.2.4 Terminal Coverts)

Every terminal block shall be provided with a terminal cover conforming to 4.2.2.4.1 or 4.2.2.4.2.

4.2.2.4.1 Sf/ORT TERMINAL COVEA

The terminals, their fixing screws and the insulated compartment housing them shall be enclosed by a cover with a provision for sealing. The cover may be of the same

Al!cmnling Current, SIalic Elecfrical Ene-rgy Molers for Activo, ncacliv~' sna Apparent Energy 21

size as thai of the terminal block. The wiring with this type of cover may be carried out from the tront of the meter board.

4.2.2.4.2 EXTENDED TERMINAL COVER

The terminals, their fixing screws, a suitable length of external insulated conductor and its insulation shall be enclosed by a cover with a provision for sealing. Th8 wiring with this type of cover shall be carried from the rear of the meter board.

The fixing screws used on the terminal cover for fixing and sealing in 4.2.2.4.1 and 4.2.2.4.2 shall be held captive in the terminal COVeL

The requirements of 4.2.2.4.1 and 4.2.2.4.2 shall not apply to portabl e m etors provided with back connections,

When the meter is mounted on the meter board. no access to the terminals shan be possible without breaking the seal(s) of the terminal.

4.2.2.5 Clearance and Creepage Distances

The clearances and creepage distances of terminal block and those between the terminals and the surrounding parts of the metal enclosure shall be not less than the values specified in Table :3 for voltages existing when operating under reference conditions.

1able 3(a) Clearance and creepage distance for insulating encased meter of protective class I

1"'- .'-- ._ .. -- 'l' --.-- '-"--'--"1- ._-" .. _-' -_.- ....

I Voltage phase to earth . Rated Miniml.lm Minim~m creepage

derived from system Impulse. _ __E!~~rance.£_ __ . __ dlsJa_1!£1;l _

_ "IIoltage ~~} _ _ __ __ Voltage (V~ ~ndo.Gr ~tel" (~m~ _~n~: meter ~~m)

t---~{!_-~- -j!:. 1= H. .~- .~! ~=-:-

~ _~~~ ~ {~~ ~- _ -~ ~ggg ---=~L=- _}~ - - -- ~ ~ --

Table 3(b) Clearance and creepage distance for insulating encased metor 01 protcctilic cl;>ss II 1'1-'-'---'

V(lilage phase to I! Rated

:;si::ev::;~~~J v~~:~!s(~)

Minimum- r-' Minimum'creepage-

_ _:Ie.aran.c~:_ _~. ~~~_tan:e __

Indoor meter Indoor meier (mm)

~ 5Q__ __ . ...l~.90__ .-=~{r6.~J .. __ L .. _. __ ~.4 __ . _

~~~_o . __ 2500__ __ ~ ~ .. __2~ __ ._j

.. -.~. ~~~ .-- .. -- .... ---= ~.g~g. ~- -~=-- ~-:~ ~·=r·~~=0 ... --=-~-

"'; 600 8000 8.0. 12.5

-- ._- .--- ._. . .-'.~--' .-~ .. _-_. _- .. _- --"~~-' -~ - -~-- _. __ .," ..

The requirement of the impulse voltage test shall also be met (see 5.4.6.2)

22

Manual on Standardizmjon of AC Static Electrical Enorgy Meters

4.2.2.5.1 For current circuits, the voltage shall be considered to be the same as tho related voltage circuit.

4.2.2.5.2 Clearance of minimum 3 mm shall be provided between incoming outgoing terminals of the same phase.

4.2.2.5.3 For phantom loading during test, the pressure terminals are required to be connected separately from the current terminals of the same phase. A clearance of minirnum 2 mrn shall be provided between pressure terminal and current terminals of the same phase. (applicable for meters with external finks between voltage and current circuit)

4.2.2.5.4 Terminals with different potentials which are grouped close together shall be protected against accidental shortcircuiting. Protection may be obtained by insulating barriers. Terminals of one current circuit are considered to be at the same potentia!.

4.2.2.5.5 The terminals, the conductor fixing screws, or the external or internal conductors shall not be liable to come into contact with metal terminal covers and meter terminal base. For this purpose, terminal blocks shall be rigidly fixed to the meter base.

4.2.2.5.6 The clearance between the terminal cover if made of metal, and upper surface of the screws when screwed down to the maximum applicable conductor filted sha!! not be less than the relevant values specified in Table 3. If the terminal cover is made of insulating material, the clearance shall not be less than 1 mm.

4.2.2.5.7 INSULATING ENCASED MET:':'R OF PROTECTIVE CLASS II

A meter having a durable and substantially continuous enclosure made wholly of insulating material, including the terminal cover, which envelopes all metal parts, with the exception of small parts, for example, name-plate, screws, suspensions and rivets. If such small parts are accessible by the standard test finger from outside the case, then they shall be additionaJly isolated from live parts by supplementary insulation against failure of basic insulation or loosening of live parts. The insulating properties of laquer, enamel, ordinary paper, cotton, oxide film on metal parts, adhesive film and sealing compound or similar unsure materials shall not be regarded as sufficient for supplementary insulation.

For the terminal block and terminal cover of such a meter reinforced insulation is sufficient.

4.2.2.6 Resistanco to Heat and Fire

The terminal block, the terminal cover and the meter case shall ensure reasonable safety against the spread of fire. They should not be ignited by thermic overload of live parts in contact with them. To comply therewith they must fulfil the tests as specified in 5.2..4 of this specification.

4.2.2.7 Protection Against Penetration of Dust and Water

The meter shall conform to the degree of protection IP 51 as per (S 12063.

Allcmating CUrrent, Static Etcctncet Energy Meters for Active, Roectivo and Apparent Enorgy 23

4.2.2.8 Display of Measured Values

The information can be shown either by an electromechanical register or an electronic display. In the case of multiparameter display the electronic is essential. In the case of an electronic display the corresponding non-volatile memory shaH have a minimum retention time of 5 years.

In the case of multiple values presented by a single display it sha\\ be possible to display the content of al( relevant memories. When displaying the memory, the identification of each tariff applied shall be possible. The display shat! have ON time of atleast 10 seconds for each measured value for auto display cycling.

When the meter is not energized, the electronic display need not be visible. The principal unit for the measured values shall be the kilowatt-hour (kWh) or tile megawaU-hour '(MWh), for' active energy, kVArh or MVArh for reactive energy and kVAh or MVAh for apparent energy.

For electromechanical registers, provided, when continuously rotating, the lowest values shall be either graduated and numbered in ten divisions, each division being subdivided into ten parts, or any other arrangement ensuring the same reading accuracy.

The drums which indicate a decimal fraction of the unit shaf be marked differently when they are visible.

The register shall be able to record and display; starting from zero, for a minimum of 1500 h, the energy corresponding to maximum current at reference voltage and Cos ¢ I Sin ¢ c;:: 1 for active I reactive energy meters respectively.

The display of Maximum Demand in kVA JMVA IkW lMW should have adequate resolution as per accuracy class of the active part of the meter at 20% of the rated load. In short, the display of kVAlkW should have more decimal points than the normal kWh IkVArh JkVAh display having lower resolution. For example, a Class 1.0 meter may have kWh display with 1 decimal point 1, but wi!! require at least three decimal points for kW IkVA display to record M.D. correctly at 20%, of the rated load.

Nole. Values higher than 1500 h should be the subject o( purchase cDrllracl

4.2.2.9 Output Device

"The meter shall have a test output device accessible from the front and capable of being read with suitable testing equipment.

The operation indicator, if fitted, must be visible from the front.

For test output pulse may not be homogeneous, therefore the manufacturer shall state the necessary number of pulse count(s) to ensure measurement repeatability of at least 1 /1 Oth of limits of error at the different test paints.

The resolution of the test output shall be sufficient to enable conduction of the >tarting current test in less than 10 minutes and accuracy test at the lowest load shall be completed with desired accuracy within 5 minutes.

24

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Encrgy MeterB

The test period shall however, contain sufficient number of cycles (more than 1000) to take care of Instantaneous power variation within a cycle.

4.2.2.10 Auxiliary Power

The auxiliary power supply if drawn from V. T. circuit shaJJ be from ali the three phases, preferably equally, so as to ensure meter power supply even if anyone of the three phases of the potential supply, in case of 3 phase-3 wire and any two of the three phases or neutral of the potential supply, in case of 3 phase-4 wire is lost at a time.

4.2.2.11 Marking of Meters

4.2.2.11.1 MARKING AND NAM EPLA TES

Every meter shall be marked with the following information and the marking shall be indelible, distinct and readable from outside the meter:

(a) Manufacturer's name and or trade-mark and place of manufacture;

(b) Designation of type;

(c) Nature of current and the number of phases and number of wires for which the meter is suitable (for example, 1phase 2-wire, 3-phase 3 wire, 3 phase 4 wire);

(d) Serial number and year of manufacture. It the serial number is marked on a plate fixed to the cover, this number is also to be marked on the base or frame;

(e) Principal unit in which the meter records (for example, kWh or kVArh);

(f) Reference voltage in one of the forms given in Table 4;

(g) Currents in the form given as example in Table 5;

(h) Reference frequency in Hertz;

(i) Meter constant, for example, in the form of pulse count (kWh or kVArh);

U) Class index, for example, Class 0.5, Class 1;

(k) Reference temperature, if different from 2JOC;

(I) Transformation ratio(s), if the meter register energy through instrument transformer(s) of which account is taken in the meter constant;

(m) Sign of double square for insulating encased meters of protective class II

Notes:

1. The information under (a), (b) and (c) may be marked on an external plate permanently attached to the meter cover.

The Information under (d) to (i) shall be marked on a namoplate pwferabJy placed within the meter and Which may, for example, be attached to the meter reqister. The information may be marked on tho meter dial.

2. If the meter is of a special type (for example, intended for a capacitive toad, this shall be indicated on Ihe nameplate or on a separate plate.

Alternating Current, Sialic Electrical Envrgy Meters for Active, nosctive and Appercnt Energy 25

3. Siandarri symbols may be usea as per lEC-60387.

4. For Mulli energy Meters, tho class indices of all energy peremotors, if dittoront She!1f bo separ3fOly indicated. In Iho aosencos of this, Ihe meier shall be regarded 10 ha ve the same class index (or ai/ parameters.

4.2.2,11.2 The meter will also be marked with the Indian Standard Mark under license from 8(S, if applicable.

4.2.2.11.3 Connection Diagrams and Terminal Marking

4.2.2.11.3.1 Every meter shan be indelibly marked with a connection til agram. For polyphase meters, this diagram shall also shows the phase sequence for which it is intended.

4.2.2.11.3.2 If the meter terminals are marked, this marking shan appear on the diagram_

Table 4 Vo\\age markings (Clause 4.2.2_ 12.1)

b---- - -.-. -. -.--_._-

Type of Meter

"_ - ~-.- -- .~~--~--

-phase, 2-w'rre, direct-connected

~~-~ -.~~~~-~~--~-

2-phase, 2~wile, uansforrneroperated

Voltage between line & nC\Jlval

230V

Method of Marking

Example

Motor circuit voltage

-ill0V 6600J11D V

3·phase, 3-wirc, trallsformor-

______ o2_e~~~_._._

3-phase, 4 will)

2)( voltage oolwoon lines

2x11{)V

2. x 6600{11D V

3 x voltage between line and neutral

3)(230 V

50-100 A

a-phase, direct-connected, to 50 A, l Basic current and

1"",100 A maximum current

-;p~~;i~~~~:~~:~~:~~] __ :-_~-~_~~c~~~~~ ~.~ __ ---- - ~/~ ~ -- - - --

4.3 Climatic Conditions 4.3.1 Temperature Range

The temperature range of the meter shall be as shown in Table 6,

26

Manual on Standardizarkm of AC Stst«: Elecl{/ca/ Energy MeIers

Table 6 Temperature range

t=----- ------- ------- ---- ---------- ---=B--- ------ ---- -----j--

_____ ._~pecified operating ra.nge _ _~~~ to 55 o_C

________ L!mit range of operation_.___ -2.~_~_~_~0 oC __

Limit range for storage and transport -25°C to 70°C -

---- ._--_ .... ~- .. - .. ~-.- ---_- - --- - ..... _-._ .. -~- --.-.---_

Note : For spccial application, other temperature values may be used if required by the purchaser.

4.3.2 Relative Humidity

The meter shall be able to meet the relative humidity requirements of Table 7. For combined temperature and humidity testing, see 5.3.3.

Table 7 Relative humidity

r-- ------ ~u~;.:;_------ --- T --- -':'-;;/0 -_

r;:,. 30 dey, '"0;" days be,"" spread In a natural manner 0,,,,, one """ I <95%

r ---- ·--OccaSlonally on other d~;------'-- ---. <85'1c-o ---

_____ . . __ . . l__

4.4 Electrical Requirements Notes .-

1_ All the Tables furnished under this clause and the subsequent clauses, are applicable to active and / or roecttvo energy measurements_

2. In the fOl/owing Tables. in the column showing Cos ¢ / Sin ¢. Cos ¢ values are applicable to kWh meesutemonts and Sin q, values for kVArh measurements. Cos rp I Sin rp values correspond to inductive and cilpac/tive circllits unless otherwise specified.

4.4.1 Power Consumption 4.4.1.1 Voltage Circuits

The active and apparent power consumption in each voltage circuit of a meter at reference voltage, reference temperature and reference frequency shall not exceed the values shown in Table 8.

Table 8 Power consumption per circuit in voltage circuits including the power suppty

l- - M-t ---~±~-C-lass o;-M-eter --- -1

e ers 1, 0.5, 0.2

-~ -- --- -- --_ ---- ----- --- --- --_--

Single Phase I Polyphase 1 5 Wand 10 VA

--- -- --- --.-_. -------- ----- ----

Note: The above figures arc mean values. Switching power supplies with peak values in excess of these are permitted. but attention should be paid to the rating of associated voltage transformers.

AJlom<lling Cuaon: St<ltic Electncst Energy Moters for Active. Reactive and Apparent Encrgy 27

4.4.1.2 Current Circuits

The apparent power taken by each current circuit 01 a direct-connected meter at basic current, reference frequency and reference temperature, shalt not exceed the value shown in Table 9.

The apparent power taken by each current circuit of a meter connected through a current transformer shall not exceed the value shown in Table 9 at rated current, reference frequency and reference temperature.

Table 9 Powor consumption per circuit in current circuits

4.4.2 Influence of Supply Voltage 4.4.2.1 Voltage Range

Table 10Vollage rango

Permissible error due to voltaqe variation is given in Table 17.

Note.' Extended operating ranges on the above may be mulually agreed upon be/ween purcnesers and suppliers.

4.4.2.2 Voltage Dips and Short Interruptions

Voltage dips and short interruptions shall not produce a change in the register of more than X units and the test output shan not produce a signal equivalent of more than X units, The value of X is derived from the following formula.

X = 10.6 m Vn Imax where

m == No. of measuring elements,

Vn = Reference Vol1age in Volts,

Im"x z: Maximum current in amperes.

For testing purpose, the register of electricity meter shall have a resolution of at least 0.01 units.

When the voltage is restored, 1he meter shall not have suffered degradation of its metrological characteristics. For testing, see 5.4.2.1

28

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meiers

4.4.3 Influence of Short- Time Overcurrents

Short-Time Overcurrents shall not damage the meter. The meter shall perform correctly when back to its initial working condition and the variation of error shall not exceed the value shown in Table 11.

After the application of the short-time overcurrent with the voltage maintained at the terminals, the meter shall be allowed to return to the initial temperature with the voltage circuits energized for one hour.

The meter shall be able to carry for one half cycle for direct-connected meter and 0.5 second for CT -operated meter, a current equal to:

(a) Meter for direct-connection:

Meter shall be able to carry a short time overcurrent of 30 lm~~ with relative tolerance of +0% to -10% for one half cycle at rated frequency.

(b) Meter for connection through current transformer

Meter shall be able to carry for 0.5 sec a current equal to 20 Im~x with relative tolerance of + 0% to -10'%.

After this test, the variation of the error shan not exceed the value shown in Table 11.

Table 11 Variation in percentage error (due to short-urns over current)

rl Mct~':s for' -- - jV'alueOf I -'COS$~I . limits of variation in percentage ~

I Direct-connection -- ~7 l_-":"o' --= ~'~r:!j-k2~_:__=

I ~onf'1ectlof'1 through -- lin-I- '-0- +0.5'" ±0.2 . - :to-'-

~.rrcnl "!:ranslorm.£.!..... L ~ _ __. __ j_ __ '. j_ _ .. _

Note: Maximum % error of the motor at above load shall be within class of accuracy.

4.4.4 Influence of Self-Heating

The variation of error due to self-heating shall not exceed the values given in Table 12.

Table 12 Variation in percontaqo error due to self-neatinq

P~:>1>;;~::~~~---1r-r1rBe~lt~1~n~

4.4.5 Influence of Heating

Under normal conditions of use, electrical circuits and insulation shalf not reach a temperature which might adversely affect the operation of the meter. The temperature rise at any point of the external surface of the meter shaU not exceed 20 K with the ambient temperature at 25°C to 45°C.

Altemiolting Current, Stalic E!er;trica! Enorgy Meiers for Active, Reactive and Apparent Energy 29

4.4,6 Insulation

The meter and it's incorporated auxiliary devices, if any, shan be such that they retain adequate dielectric qualities under normal conditions of use, taking account at the atmospheric influences and different voltages to which thoy are subjected under normal conditions of use.

The meter shall withstand the impulse voltage test and the AC voltage test as specified tn 5.4.6.

4.4.7 Abnormal Voltage Condition

For three- phase four-wire and single- phase two-wire meters, connected to distribution networks which are equipped with earth fault neutralizers or in which the star point is isolated (in the case of an earth fault and with 10% over voltage, the !"rne-to-earth voltages of the two lines which are not affected by the earth fault will rise to 1.9 times the nominal voltage), the following requirements apply:

For a test under a simulated earth fault condition in one of the three lines,(only line for single-phase) voltage(s) are (is) increased to 1,1 times the nominal voltages during 4h. The neutral terminal of the meter under test is disconnected from the ground terminal of the meter test equipment (MTE) and is connected to the MTE's line terminal at which the earth fault has to be simulated (see Appendix F). In this way, the two voltage terminals (one terminal for single- phase) of the meter under test which ate (is) not affected by the earth fault are (is) connected to 1,9 times the nominal phase voltaqets). For this test the current circuits are set to 50% of the basic Ib f rated current '/1, Cos 4> j Sin <p =1 for active / reactive energy meters respectively, and symmetrical load. After the test, the meter shan show no damage and shall operate correctly.

The change of error measured when the meter is back at nominal working temperature shall not exceed the limits given in Table 13.

Table 13 Change 01 error due to abnormal voltage condition (earth fault)

r-vaJueo'- . - Umlt$Of va,\alion jn_eerc!:_"i!I~c'!Oi~r:::_nl~~o!_Ci.isI--=--_J

I current 0.2 0.5 + , __ ._

L...-..-...ii!'!- _ _ __ ±O._2_ _ __ :!:Q2 \ ~<!: 7 _

For test diagram see Appendix F

4,5 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

4.5,1 Immunity to Electromagnetic Disturbance

The meter shall be designed in such a way that conducted or radiated electromagnetic disturbance as well as electrostatic discharge do not damage or substantially influence the meter.

Note: The disturbances to be considered am Elecfrostatic discharges

• Electromagnetic radiated RF fields

• Electromagnetic conducted RF field

30 Ma.nual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

• Electrical Fast Transients I bursts.

• Surges

• Oscillatory waves

For testing see 5.5

4.5.2 Radio Interference Measurement

The meter shall not generate conducted or radiated noise which could interfere with other equipment.

For testing, see 5.5.

4.6 Accuracy Requirements

4.6.1 Uncertainty of Measurement of Percentage Error

The measuring process shall be such that uncertainty of the measurement of the percentage error should not exceed 1/5th of the limit of percentage error for the given test point at reference conditions.

Note : /f uncertainty of measurement exceeds this limit, all the limits ot perconteqe errors shall be reduced to make allowance for such uncetteinty.

For determining the uncertainty of measurement, see lEe IISO : GUM.

If the uncertainty exceeds this limit, the limits of percentage error shall be corrected using the following formula. (For reactive energy meters, Cos 0 will be replaced by Sin 0) :

e,,,,., ( / , cos rp) ;;; 6/5 x e( I .cos rp) =U

where:

e( I, cos rp) is the limit of percentage error for the given test point at reference

conditions;

• U is the measurement uncertainty.

Example: If, for a given test point, the limit of percentage error at reference conditions is

C>( I C()'· m) = + '1 OL

..' ., 't' - L n: ; and

U = 0.5 %; then

e,,,,) 1 .cos rp) = ±(6/5 2.0 - O.S) = ±l ?f';!o

Instead of the original limit, this corrected limit applies.

Table 14 gives percentage error limits corrected with uncertainty of measurement, using the formula above.

Alternating Current, Static Electrical Energy Moters for Active, Reactive and Appamnt Energy 31

4.6.2 Repeatability

During the tests tor accuracy requirements, proper repeatability conditions shall be maintained. Particularly, during type tests, repeatability at any test point determined OIl the basis 01 minimum three readings at short intervals, shall be better than 1/101h 01 the limit of percentage error under reference conditions. The manufacturer shall slale the necessary number of pulses/ pulse counts for maintaining the repeatability condition.

Noto : This requirement as per international standeras shall be effective from Janlldf}' 2010. TiJi then ropeatbilily may be better than TI5th of the limit of percentage error and shall be eccoptebto.

4.6.2.1 Type Test

A test shall be carried out under the reference voltage, raled frequency and Cos ¢ / Sin ~ =: 1 for active! reactive energy meters respectively, with the following load currents:

(a) 5 percent basic / rated current, and (b) Maximum continuous current

In each of the above load conditions, 20 error tests are to be successively carried out at intervals of minimum 5 min. The variation in error-expressed by the difference between the maximum and minimum of the errors so obtained in 20 error tests shall not exceed the value correspon din 9 to 1!1 O\h of th e limits of error at the test points.

U.2.2 Acceptance Test

As an acceptance test, the test shall be carried out under the reference voltage, rated frequency and Cos 4> I Sin 4> == 1 for active I reactive energy meters

32

Manual orr Starrdardizatiorr of AC Static ElectriCal Energy Meters

respectively, at 5% of basic! rated current. Six error tests are to be successively carried out in the above load condition at intervals of 5 minutes. The variation in meter error as expressed by the difference between the maximum and the minimum of the e rro rs so obtai ned shall not exceed th e val uo co rrespond ing to 1/1 01h of the limits of error at the test points.

4.6.3 Limits of Error due to Variation of the Current

When the meter is under the reference conditions given in 5.6.1, the percentage errors shall not exceed the limits for the relevant accuracy class given in Tables 15 & 16.

Table 15 Percentage error limits (Single Phase Meters & Polyphase meters with balanced loads)

Value of Current

1.0

± 1,0

..... - .... ----.- .. ---.~

Limits of pcrcenta_ge error for class

_. --~-.. -~-- ---~. -~. --_. ----~ ._-

.~.-.J ~~

,0,2

.~ 0.5 '-1

0.4

0.5

_.__. __ 9:9_!kJ < 0.05_\,_... ± 2.0

. , 0.02 I~:'OJ < 9·05 10 ---j--------+-------t--

... ....Q:05M<.1 :<I",~, __ .. ._:1_1_,0 __ .

_.2c_Q?_\" :'0 .. 1 < O.lln ,, __ '

005 10 <.1 <0. 1 In

.lO.5

0.5 inductive 0.8 capacitive

i1.D

1:0.5 I

_. J

0,8 capacitive

12.0

± 1.0

1. 1.2

±0.6

J. 0.3

(When specially asked by the user) 0.1 In/I" <_l :'0.,1",",

0.25 inductive 0.5 capacitive

±2.S

Table 16 Percentage error limits (Polyphase meters carrying a single phase load. but with

balanced polyphase voltages applied to voltage cir(;uils)

[ V'~OI c~~nt ~. .. c:' • {Stn .1.1.0 Urn', of .... e:~.e .''"['.'.'O:==-]

1 .. __Q·09J.tL1.~1 '" 1.".,--- .'_ 1_.0____ .-....!2.5 J;+O~6'_'I'_ jcO.3~ L....?_:_1yl~LI_:':'~~~._. __ 0.:5 indu~live _ _L__. ±2,O_ =_r .. -----= __ .±!~._j_ .. ____:!__ 0_:_4 __ .

The difference between tho percentage error when the meter IS carrying a single-phase load and a balanced polyphase load at basic / rated current and Cos (0 / Sin ¢ = 1, shaf not exceed 1.5%,1.0% & 0.4% for meters of classes 1.0, O.E & 0.2 active! reactive energy meters respectively.

Note : When (esting for compliance wilh Table 16, (he test current shall be appJied fa each e!emen! h sequence.

4.6.4 Limits of error due to other influence quantities (Voltage Variation, frequency variation, waveform, phase sequence, voltage unbalance etc.)

The additional percentage error due to the chango of influence quantities with respect to reference conditions as given in 5.6,1, shall not exceed the limits for the relevant accuracy class given in Table 17.

Alternating Current, Stmic E/ccfJjeaJ £nDlgy Moters for Active, Roecuve and App<Jrent Energy 33

In % of error tor meters ___ ~ _ __2:!. ela.~~ . __ ~. ~

~~ -~~--{;~-~

~~~_ ±O~ __ ' . __ I--;~:': --

~0_:2___ \ ±~_:O~.

Voltage vari<ltion --.-.--- Q:05 1&< I ",T"",,_'

·1 10% " . 1) 0.1 (din'" I ~\'""'

[eque::y ~afi'~iion~ ~% - '-' 0.05 I~Jo~JA@~'

1 - _, __ ._ 0.1 VI" 5,' 5(",,,,

~vefse PhasiJ S<:\qUC\l\:;o 0,11"; 10

\ Voltage u(lba(anc';-:-_-.::-:~.~2T'-l;;'-I~n ---'---

1 'SirayTbC-magnc.i"ic ;-floucl;0n of _. -- -- --.

k external orig'ln .. ,3,1.1 1,) Je

1 'AlmorrnafDC- magneiicinductio I 01 extoma\ migin ---3,2)

1--'-Stia1 AC magnetic illduction -([

l~~( Qrigill:~:~ , ,_, _

I 'i\lll'lormal (10rnT)' lie rrmgnef

~i";;~E'f:';~~£~:;~~i~( :~~- - --

armonlCColl1pof\ei;ts in tllB- -' --- --~.

w«eflt anI) vQ\tage Circuit .4),6.1) 0.5 I",." 5)

( Wave lorrn:1 0 ~~ of tll'ird'harmon-'

irlClJrro(1.t circlIit... 4) 6.2)

o ,Caodtrron;:.'armonic--s:1nii:G,

wrmnl ci~l!!L:::-.~ . ..::6_:__:,3"'--- -+- ~ -t- __ ~---+_±_3----,.D'--------l--"-'-

Odd harmonics in curron ,,=3.0

1~~ClJ.it. . .:±l.~~) _'~ . __

I Suo-harmonics in ClJrrerlt circuit ...

{ 4)~,5)_ __ ._ .. -. .. ._._ ~ " .. __ . __ . _ .~.

\ Electromagnetic RF field!> .,' .8) hi (0 ;1;2.0

\cMductedrJjslurronce: Induced 0 --.-~,-- -'-~-'--'

~dio-treqllet\cy iiclds .. ", .s) i:2.0

I Fast·Transierits bursttest .. :8) -,

~e.I11fl-\ld oscillatory wave-'I imm(jnity--,--,.:J})~ ._.~_ I Allxi~ary voltage ± 15% .. 10\

r---~_\J_-X_il;a_ry_'I_ol_ta_g_e_-_I'_1_2_0~c_ .. _j_O_) __ ~t_Q_·O_1_{t/_I" __ ~-t-_~_----\-_:l_Q _ _4--j~~.-2~-i-±O:1-=

I 0Ee(~?on()l ~CC~S~()ry C- .. ]_1L_. Q,fJ~~ '; . 1 ±O,2 ±O_,j '_. __ ' ~Q.?S ._1

Table 17lnilucl"ICc quantities

\~-- .. - - -~--- .. -.~

Influence quantities

--.,-.,--'-----, r- -----

Cos ill'

Value at current Sin ..

(balance load)

Limits of variation

i:2.0

±.4.0

± 1 ,()

:to.5

",3.0 ;t3.0-,,-2.Q

±4.0 ),4.0 lA·.O

±2,Q ±1,0 ±0.5

:!-4.0

-1:4.0

:1:4-.0

:t.4,O

.-t4.0

-o.e

;.lOA

«i.z

:to.1

1;0.6

ott.\)

:t1.0

s to

-r.o

:10.05

34

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Etectttcst Energy Meters

Notes:

I. For the voltage ranges frem -20 % to -10 % and + 10 % to +20 % the limits of variation in percentage errors are two times the values given in Table 15. Below 0.8 Vref and upto 0.7Vrel., the limits of variations in percentage errors are three rimes, the values given in the Table 16. Below 0.7 Vref. error may vary be/ween + IOta - J 00 %.

2. Polyphase meters with throe measuring elements shall measure and register, within the limits 01 variation in percentage error shown in this Table 17, if the following phases are interrupted

in a throo-pbese, four wire nelwork one or two phases,

in a three-phase, three wire network one of the three phases.

However removal of Neutral in 3ph-4W meter and Y phase in 3Ph-3W meier shall not affect tho operation of the meter. This only covers phase interruption and does nor cover event such as transformer fuse failuros.

3.1 The Test conditions am specified under 5.6.2.1

3.2 The Test conditions are specified under 5.6.2.2, In event of logging of tamper event with date and time a variation of error mom tilan 4% is permitted. However, tile maximum percentage error in such case shall be limited to "e", where e = ((1m"" II"",J X 150) - 100

3.3 The Test conditions are specified under 5.6.2.3

3.4 The Test conditions are specified under 5.6.2.4, In event of logging of tamper event with date ana limo a variation of error more than 4% is permitted. However, the maximum percentage error in such case shall be limited to "e", as given in 3.2 above.

3.5 The Test conciuonser« specified under 5.6.2.5. In event of logging of tamper event with date and time a variation of error more than 4% is permitted. However, tile maximum percentage error in such case shall be limited to "en. as given in 3.2 above.

4. Applicable to active energy only.

5. The distortion factor of the voltage Shall be less than J %. The test diagrams are specified in 1 Appendix - D.

6.1 Test conditions are specified in 4.6.6

6.2 Under the most untevoumoi« condition of phase displacement of tne ~ harmonic in the cun-ent, comparocf with the. fundamental current.

6.3 This lest is not applicable to transformer operated meters. The test conditions are specified in

4.6.8. Also see 0.1,2 &- 3

6.4 The test conditions are specified in 4.6.7. Also see D.4, 5 & 6.

6.5 The test conditions are specified in 4.6.7. Also see D.4. 7 & 8.

7. lire test conditions are specified under 5.5.3 and Appendix G

8. This test only applies to the transformer operated meters.

9. Applicable only if the auxiliary supply voltage is not internally connected to the voltage measuring circuit.

10. Such an accessory, when enclosed in the meter case. is energised intermediately, for example

electrcmoqnet 0/ multi-rate rogister.

It is preferable that connections to tho auxiliary devices are marked to indicate the correct method 01 connection. If these connections are made by means of plug and sockets, they should be irreversible,

However, in the absence of those markings or irreversible connection, the venetton of errors shall not exceed those indicated in Table 16 if the meter tested with the connections giving most unfavouralJ1iJ condition.

A llama ling Current, Static Electrical Energy Meters for Active, Reactive and Apparent Energy 35

4.6.5 Limits of Error due to Ambient Temperature Variation

The mean temperature co-efticiem shall oat e-xceed the limits given in Table 18,

Table 18 Temperature co-efficient

The determination of the mean temperature co-efficient at the reference temperature shall be made over a temperature range from 15 K above to 15 K below that temperature, but in no case the temperature shall be outside the specified operating temperature range.

4.6.6 Accuracy Test in the Presence of Harmonics in Voltage and Current

Circuits (applicable to active energy only)

Test condition:

• Fundamental frequency currem l, :;;; 0.5 lmax

• Fundamental frequency Voltage V, :;;; Vmf•

• Fundamental irequency Power tactor -. 1

• Con1ent 01 5th harm onic vottage : V 5 =; 1 0"/" of V rot-

• Content of 5th harmonic current: 15:;;; 40% of fundamental current

• Harmonic power factor :1

• Fundamental and harmonic voltages are in phase, at positive zero crossing.

• Resulting harmonic power due to 5th harmonic is P5 '" 0.1 VI x 0.4 '1 =:: 0.04 Pf or lotal Active

power =-1.04 PI (fundamental + harmonics)

4.6.7 Tests of the Influence of Odd Harmonics and Sub~harmonics in the

Current (applicable to active energy only) :

The tests of the influence of odd harmonics or sub-harmonics shatl be made with the circuit shown in Figure D.4 or with other equipment able to generate the required wavelorms, and the current waveforms as shown in Figure D.5 or 0.7 as applicable.

The variation in percentage error when the meter is subjected to the test waveform given in Figure 0.5 or D.7 as applicable and when it is subjected to the reference waveform shall not exceed the I imits of variation given in T able 17.

36

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy MeIers

4.6.8 Tests of the Influence of DC and even Harmonics in the Current

(applicable to active energy only):

The tests of the influence of DC and even harmonics shall be made with the circuit shown in Figure 0.1 or with other equipment able to generate the required waveforms, and the current waveforms as shown in Figure D.2.

The variation in percentage error when the meter is subjected to the test waveform given in Figure 0.2 and when it is subjected to the reference waveform shall not exceed the limits of variation given in Table 17.

4.6.9 Starting and No-load Conditions

For these tests, the conditions and the values of the influence quantities shall be as stated in 5.6.1 except for any changes specified below.

4.6.9.1 fnitial Start-up of the Meter

The meter shall be fully functional within 5 sec. after the reference voltage is applied to the meter terminals.

4.6.9.2 No-load Condition

When the voltage is applied with no current flowing in the current circuit, the test output of the meter shall not produce more than one pulse / count. For testing, see 5.6.

4.6.9.3 Starting Condition

The meter shall start and continue to register at the current shown in Table 19.

If the meter is designed for the measurement of energy in both directions, then this test shall be applied with energy tlowing in each direction.

Table 19 Starting current

: ••• n_n I_ ~nCiaSs~, ~~rC";li""~1

b~.entage ojbasiGlr~~t~d curr!?~i"' . -.~~.- '--l-g~~-_ -I ~t.~:::._:_jJ_··_~-'---· .

For testing, 5005.6.5

4.6.10 Meter Constant

The relation between the test output and the indication in the display shall comply with the marking on the nameplate.

5. TESTS AND TEST CONDITIONS

5.1 General Testing Procedures 5.1.1 Test Conditions

All tests are carried out under reference conditions unless otherwise stated in the relevant clause.

Altemating Current, Static Electrical Energy Meters for Acf(vC', Roacti'lc and ApP4fcnt Energy 37

5.1.2 Type Test

The type test defined in 3.7.1 shall be made on one or more specimens of tho meter to establish it's specific characteristics and to prove its conformity with the requirements of this speclficaticm. A recommended test sequence is given in T abJe 20 (all tests).

In the case of modifications to the me~er made after the test and affecting only part Of the meter, it will be sufficient to perform limned tests on tile cnaracterisncs that may be affected by the modifica1ions.

5.1.3 Acceptance Tests

Recommended acceptance tests are marked in Table 20. See Appendix C for I)ormatlve practices.

5.1.4 Routine Tests

Recommended routine tests are marked in Table 20.

38

Manuaf on Standardization of AC Stst«: Eleclrical Energy Meiers

Table 20 (contd.)

5.5.3

5.5.4 5.5.5 5.5.6

Radio interference suppression _

Tests of climatic influences

• • o·· _

Dry heat ~_ _ _

5_5.7 5_5_8

5_3 5_3.1 5.3_2

5.3.3 5_2 5_2_3

5.2_2

6.4

1 ests of protection against penetration of oust and water

-----------~~---. =-:;:~

A - Acceptance Test

R ~ Reutine Test

5.2 Tests of Mechanical Requirement 5.2.1 Spring Hammer Test

The mechanical strength of tho meter case sball be tested with a spring hammer (lEe 60068-2-75)

The metor shall be mounted in its normal working position and the spring hammer shall act on the outer surfaces of the meter cover (including windows) and on the terminal cover with a kinetic energy of 0_22Nm j: O.OSNm.

The result of the test is satisfactory if the meter case and terminal cover do not sustain damage which could affect the function of the meter and it is not possible to touch live parts. Slight damage which does not impair the protection against indirect contact or the penetration of solid objects, dust and water is acceptable.

5.2.2 Shock Test

The meter shall be subjected to shock test by method specified in section 1 of (S 9000 (Part 7) to shocks as described below:

(a) Peak acceleration 392 mls2 (409 ; g -' 9,8 m/s", acceleration due to gravity)

(b) Pulse shape

(c) Pulse duration

(d) Number of shocks

Half sine wave 18 ms

two in both directions of three mutual perpendicular axes (Total of 12 shocks)

Alternating Curren!, Slatic Electrical Energy Moters for Active, Reactive and Apparent Energy 39

After the test, the meter shaH show no damage or change of the information, After conc'usion of test, the variation of meter error shall not exceed 50 percent of accuracy class index at basic current, 5 percent basic current and maximum current, at Cos ~ = 1 for active mete rs and Si n !jI = 1 inductive, for reactive meters,

5.2.3 Vibration Test

The meter shall be subjected by the method specified in IS 9000 (Part 8) to 'JibraHons as detailed below:

(aj Range and sweep frequency 10-150-10 Hz
(0) Cut-off frequency 60 Hz
(c) Amplitude between
(10 Hz and 60 Hz) 0.15 mm (0,3 mm peak-to-peak)
(d) Acceleration between
6D Hz and 150 Hz 2,0 9 (~ ::: acceleration duo to gravity,
9,8 rrvs )
(e) Sweep rate One octave per minute
(I) Duration One hour in each direction
(g) Directions Along three mutually prrpondicular
axes (in the directions of upper and
lower, right and left, back and forth After the test, the meter shall show no damage or chango of the information.

After conclusion of test, the variation of meter error shall not exceed 50 percent of accuracy class index at basic / rated current, 5 percent basic f rated current and maximum current at Cos !jI =1 for active meters and Sin !\J ::=1 inductive, for reactive meters

5,2.4 Resistance to Heat and Fire

The terminal block, the terminal cover and meter case shalt ensure reasonable safety against spread of fire. They should not be ignited by thermal overload of live parts in contact with them, To comply therewith they shall 1ulfit tho following test.

The test shall be carried out according to IS :11000 (Part I & ll), with the following temperatures:

• termillal block 960°C ± 15"C

terminal cover and meter case duration of application

650°C ±10°C 30 s ±1 s

The contact with the glow wire may occur at any random location. If tho terminal block is integral with the meter base, it is sufficient to carry out the test only on the terminal block,

40

Manual on Standardization of AC Slatic Electrical Energy MeIers

5.2.5 Tests Protection against Penetration of Dust and Water

The shall be carried out according to IS : 12063, under the following conditions:

(a) Protection against penetration of dust

meter in non-operating condition and mounted on an artificial wall;

the test should be conducted with sample lengths of cable (exposed ends sealed) of the types specified by the manufacturer in place

for indoor meters only, the same atmospheric pressure is maintained inside the meter as outside (neither under-nor over-pressure)

first characteristic digit: 5 (IP 5X)

Any ingress of dust.shall be only in a quantity not impairing the operation of the meter and its dielectric strength (insulation strength).

(b) Protection against penetration of water

meter in non-operating condition

seco nd characte ristic dig it 1 (I PX 1) fa r indoor mete rs,

Any ingress of water shall be only in a quantity not impairing the operation of the meter, and its dielectric strength (insulating strength),

5.3 Tests of Climatic Influences

After each of the climatic tests, the meter shall show no damage or change of the information and shall operate correctly.

5.3.1 Dry Heat Test

The test shall be carried out according to IS 9000 Part 111/ Secl &3), under the following conditions:

• meter in non-operating condition;

temperature duration of the test

5.3.2 Cold Test

The test shall be carried out according to IS : 9000 (Part 11/ Secl to 4), under the following conditions:

• meter in non-operating condition;

temperature duration of the test

AI!erna!ing Current, Stalic Electricai Energy Meters lor Active. Reactive and Apparent Energy 41

5.3.3 Damp Heat Cyclic Test

The test shall be carried out according to IS :9000 (Part V!Sec1 & 2 ), under the following conditions:

• vOltage and auxiliary circuits energized with reference voltage;

• without any current in the current circuits;

• variant 1;

• upper temperature: +40" C ± 2"'C

• no special precautions to be taken regarding the removal of surface moisture;

• duration of the test: 6 cycles.

24 hours after the end 01' this test the meter shall be subjected to the following tests:

(a) an insulation resistance test according to 5.4.6.4.

(b) a functional test. The meter shall show no damage or change of information and shall operate correctly.

The damp heat test also serves as a corrosion test. The result is judged visually. No trace of corrosion likely to affect the functional properties of the meter shall be apparent.

5.4 Tests of Electrical ReqUirements 5.4.1 Test of Power Consumption

The power consumption in the VOltage and current circuit shall be determinod at reference values of the lntluence quantities given in 5.6.1 by any suitable method. The overall precision shall be better than 5 %.

5.4.1.1 Test of Power Consumption of Voltage Circuit For requirements, see 4.4.1.1

5.4.1.2 Test of Power Consumption of Current Circuit For requirements, see 4.4.1.2

5.4.2 Tests of Influence of Supply Voltage

5.4.2.1 Tests of the Effect of Voltage Dips and Short Interruptions The tests shall be carried out under the following conditions:

voltage and auxiliary circuits energized with reference voltage without any current in the current circuits

(a) voltage interruptions of t1V= 100%

interruption time: 1 s;

number of interruptions: 3;

42

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

restoring time between interruptions: 50 ms. See also Appendix E, Figure E.I

(b) voltage interruptions ot t::. V := 100%

interruption time: 20 ms;

number of interruptions: 1 See also Appendix D, Figure E.2

(c) voltago dips of IlV = 50%

dip time: 1 min:

number of dips: 1, See also Appendix D, Figure E.3

These voltage dips and short interruptions shall not produce a change in the register of more than X unit and the output shall not produce a signal equivalent to more than X unit. For Iorrnula for X refer. 4.4.2.2

5.4.3 Test of Influence of Short-time Overcurrents

Short time over currents shall not damage the meter. The meter shall perform correctly when back to its initial working condition and the variation of error shall not exceed the values shown in Table 11. For polyphase meters the test can be performed phase by phase.

After the application of the short-time overcurrent with the voltage maintained at the terminals, the meter shall be allowed to return to the initial temperature with the voltage circuit(s) energized (about 1 hr.}, See 4.4.3 for requirements.

5.4.4 Test of Influence of Self-Heating The test shall be carried out as follows:

• After the vo:tage circuits have been energized at reference voltage for at least 1 hour without any current in the current circuits, the maximum current shall be applied 10 the current circuits. The moter error shall be measured at Cos 0::: 1 for active meters and Sin 0 ::: 1 inductive for reactive meters immediately after tho current is applied and then at intervals short enough to allow a correct drawing to be made of the curve of error variation as a function of time. The tr st shall be carried out for at least 1 hr., and in any event until the variation of error during 20 min does not exceed 0.05% for class 0.2, 0.1 OJ,, for class 0.5, & 0.2% for class 1.0.

• Tho same test shall then be carried out at Cos 0 = 0.5 inductive for active energy meters and Sin0 :::; 0.5 inductive for reactive energy meters.

• The variation of error, measured as specified, shall not excoed the values given in Table 12 (see also 4.4.4).

• For kVArh meter tho test is to be carried out at Sin 0 ::0 1 and Sin 0 =0.5 inductive.

AJlemaling Current, Stalic Elecfrical Energy Mofe(s for Activo, ReactiVe and Apparen1 Energy 43

5.4.5 Test of Influence of Heating

With each current circuit 01 the meter carrying maximum current and with each voltage circuit (and with, those auxiliary voltage circuits which are energized for periods of longer duration than their thermal time constants) carrying 1.15 times 1he reference voltage, the temperature rise of the external surface shall not exceed 20 K, with an ambient temperature of 25° C to 45°C.

During the test, the duration of which shall be 2 hrs., the meter shall not be exposed to draught or direct solar radiation, After the test, the meter shall show no damage and shall comply with the dielectric strength tests of 5.4.6.4

5.4.6 Test of Insulation Properties 5.4.6.1 General Test Conditions

The tests shall be carried out only on a complete meter, with its cover (except when indicated hereafter) and terminal cover, the terminal screws being screwed down to the maximum applicable conductor fitted in the terminals. Test procedure in accordance with IS: 2071 (Parts 1,2 & 3), High Voltage Test Techniques.

The impulse voltage tests shall be carried outfirst and the AC voltage tests afterwards.

During type tests, the dielectric strength tests are considered to be valid only lor the terminal arrangement of the meter which has undergone the tests.

When the terminal arrangements tiifier, ail the dielectric strength tests shall be carried out for each arrangement.

• For the purpose of these tests, the term "earth" has the following meaning:

(aj When the meter case is made of metal, the "earth" is the case itself, placed on a tlat conducting surface.

(b) When the meter case or only a part of it is made ot insulating material, the "earth" is a conductive foil wrapped around the meter and connected to tho flat conducting surface on which the meter base is placed. Where the terminal cover makes it possible, the conductive foil shall approach tho terminals and the holes for the conductors within a distance of not more than 20 mm.

During the impulse and the AC VOltage tests, the circuits which are not under test are connected to the earth as indicated hereafter. A flashover (capacitance discharge) is not necessarily a criterion of failure as this may occur in a pOSition does not damage the meter provided the requirements of AC voltage test and Insulation resistance test in this clause are met and the meter operates correctly.

In this subclause, the expression "all the terminals" means the whole set of terminals of the current circuits, voltage circutts and, it any, auxiliary circuits having a referenco voltage over 40 V.

These tests shall be made in normal conditions of use. During the test, the quality of the insulation shall not be impaired by dust or abnormal humidity.

44 M<wuai on Standardi~alion of AC Stetic Electrical Energy Meters

Unless otherwise specified, the normal conditions for insulation tests are:

• ambient temperature: 15 deg. C to 45 deg. C

• relative humidity: 45 % to 75 %.

• atmospheric pressure: 86 kPa to 106 KPa

5.4.6.2 Impulse Voltage Test

Impulse voltage tests are intended to determine the capability of the meter to withstand, without damage short time overvoltages of high values.

Nolo." The aim of the test in 5.4.6.2.1 is essentially to ensure, on the one hand, the Quality of insulation of the voltage windings between turns or between layers and, on the other hand. the insulation between different circuits of the meter which in normal service are connected to conductors of differcnt phases of the network and betwcen which overvoltage may occur.

The test in 5.4.6.2.2 is intended to provide overall verification of the behaviour of the insulation of all the electrical circuits in the meter relative to earth. This insulation represents as essential safety factor for personnel in the event of overvoltage on the network. The waveform and the generator characteristics shall be in accordance with IEC 62052-11, c1. 7.3.2 and its peak value shall be 6 kV. For each test, the impulse voltage is applied ten times with one polarity and then repeated with the other polarity. The minimum time between the impulses shall be 3s.

5.4.6.2.1 TESTS OF INSULATiON FOR CIRCUITS AND OF INSUL.ATlON BETWEEN THE

CiRCUITS

The test shall be made independently on each circuit (or assembly of circuits) which are insulated from the other circuits of the meter in normal use. The terminals of the circuits, which are not subjected to impulse voltage shall be connected to earth.

Thus, when in normal use the voltage and the current circuits of a measuring element are connected together, the test shall be made on the whole. The other end of the voltage circuit shall be connected to earth and the impulse voltage shan be applied between the terminal of the current circuit and earth. When several voltage circuits of a meter have a common point, this point shall be connected to earth and the impulse voltage successively applied between each of the free ends of the connections (or the current circuit connected to it) and earth.

When in normal use, the voltage and the current circuit, of the same measuring element are separated and appropriately insulated (for example, each circuit connected to a measuring transformer), the test shalf be made separately on each circuit.

During the test of a currenl circuit, the terminals of the other circuits shall be connocted to earth and the impulse voltage shall be applied between one of the terminals of the current circuit and earth. During the test of a voltage circuit, the terminals of the other circuits and one of the terminals of the voltage circuit under test shall bc connected to earth, and the impulse voltage shall be applied between the other terminal of the voltage circuit and earth.

A!!emafing Current, Sialic Electrical Energy Meters for Active, Reactive and Apparent Energy 45

The auxiliary circuits intended to be connected either directly 10 the mains or 10 the same voltage transformers as the meter circuits and with a reference voltage over 40 V, shan be subjected to the impulse voltage test in the same conditions as those already given for voltage circuits, The other auxiliary circuits shall not be tested.

5.4.6.2.2 IMPULSE VOL TAGE TEST OF ELECTRIC CiRCUITS RELATIVE TO EARTH

All the terminals of the electric circuits of the meter, including those 01 the auxiliary circuits with a reference voltage over 40 V, shall be connected together. The auxi!iary circuits with a reference voltage below or equal to 40 V shan be connected to earth. The impulse vortage shall be applied between all the electric circuits and earth. The impulse voltage tests are carried out first and the ac voltage tests afterwards. During these tests, no flashover, disruptive discharge or puncture shan occur.

After these tests, the meters shan be tested for percentage error and there snail be 1"10 change in the percentage error of the meter exceeding the uncertainty 01 measu rement.

5.4.6.3 AC Voltage Test

The test shall be carried out in accordance with Table 21. The test voltage shall be substantially sinusoidal, having a frequency between 45 Hz and 65 Hz, and applied lor 1 min. The power source shall be capable of supplying at least 500 VA.

During the tests relative to earth, the auxiliary circuits with reference voltaqe eqlJal to or below 40 V shall be connected to earth.

"Table 21 AC voltage tests

TTeSf-vOitaQe'(_m~s -Points Of itP!liic;ilionofihe teStvoJt<lge-- - - - --- -. - -- .... . .. - .- -

I (i)Tests to be carrIed out with the case closed the cover and terffiTnal cOverS\ll--'-

I place

2. kV ,-'(a) between, on the one hand, all the current and voltage circUits as wellasthe--

I auxiliary circuits whose reference voltage is over 40 V, connected together,

\ and, 01"1 the otller hand, eart'n:

(b)betweel"l circuits not intended to be connected together in s.ervice---~-

I-~-----+__'_cc'__: . ...,...,,~_..,..-__,c__-~~---~----,-'''----_,._-.-.--.-----

(ii) Additional tests for insulating encased met~rs. of protective class II.

(lor test in item a) 14DV

~? a visual inspection for compliance with the conditions of 4.2.2.5.7. -_

(c) between, on the one hand, a!! conductive parts inside the meter connected --

together and on the other hand, all conductive parts outside the meter case

(tor test in item c) tt1at are acceSSible with the test finger, connected together.

1. The rest in item (a) of part (ii) is to be carried out with the case closed, and the cover and terminal covers in place,

(a)between on the one t1and, a" the current and voltage circults as well as the auxiliary circuits whose re1erence voltage is over 40 V, connected together, and, on the otner nand, earth:

4kV

I 12.

L._._~ ---'~ __ .~ ~~ __ • . _

The test in item (c) of part (ii) is not necessary if tt1e test in item (b) loaves no douot.

46

Manu;;!.1 on Standard/zaUo/] of AC SIalic Electrical Energy Maiers

5.4.6.4 Insuration Resistance Test

The insulation resistance test shall be carried out in accordance with Table 22. The voltage shall be applied for a minimum of one minute or more for the pointer of 1he insulation tester to have come practically to rest.

Table 22 Insulation Resistance Test (Clause 5.4.6.-1)

Test Voltage

Insulation

500 + 50 V de

Points of Applicable of Test VoJlage (a)Belwccnffame--and current cl'rcuils:vollage ----circllits, and \Foltage circuit';, \1 any, all

cO_!l_!}9cted toge~her _ __ __ __ _ __

(b) Between each current circuit (or voltage circuit) and, each and every other circuit

5 M Ohms

Resistance. Minimum

50 M Ohms

5.5 Tests for Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) 5.5.1 General Test Conditions

For all these tests the meter shall be in its normal working position with the cover and torminal covers in place. All parts intended to be earthen shall be earthen. Tests shall be carried out with meter in anyone mode (active or reactive).

After these tests, the meter shall show no damage and operate correctly.

5.5.2 Test of Immunity to Electrostatic Discharges

Tho test shall be carried out according to lEC:61 000-4-2, under the following conditions:

• Tested as table top equipment.

• Meter in operating condition.

voltage and auxiliary circuits energized with reference voltage without any current in the current circuits (open circurt)

• Contact discharge:

Test voltage: 8 kV;

Number of discharges: 10 positive 10 negative.

If contact discharge is not applicable because no metallic parts are outside, then apply air discharge with 15 kV test voltage shall be applied.

The application of the electromagnetic RF field discharge shall not produce a chanqo in the register of more than X unit and the output shall not produce a Signa' equivalent to more than X unit. For formula for X, refer 4.4.2.2

During the test, a temporary degradation or loss of function or performance il: acceptable _

Alternating Curro nt, Static Elec!ricaJ Energy Meters tor Active, Reactive and Appnron: Energy 47

5.5.3 Fast Transient Burst Test

The test shaH be carried out according to lEG 61000A-4, under the following ool"\<litions:

T esled as table top equipment. Meter (n operating condition.

voltage and auxiliary circuits energised with reference voltage.

With basic ( rated current lb / In in current circuits at Cos ¢ I Sin Ijl == 1 for active} reactive energy meters respectively.

• Cable length between coupling device and EUT : 1 m

• The test voltage shall be applied in common mode (fine to earth) in turn to : the vol1age circuit;

the current circuits, if separated from voltage circuit;

auxiliary circuits if separated hom voltage circuit in normal operation.

Test voltage on current and voltage circuits: 4 kV

• Test voltage on auxiliary circuits with a reference voltage above 40 V.: 2 kV Duration of test: 60 s at each potanty.

Note' file accuracy may be determined by registration method or any other suitable means. During me fesl, a temporary dogradation or loss of function or performance is accoplablo, Novonnotoss; tho vanation of % error shall be within the limits as specified in Table 17.

5.5.4 Test of Immunity to Electromagnetic RF Fields

The test shall be carried out according to lEG 61000-4-3, under the foHowing conditions:

• Tested as table top equipment

• Cable length exposed to the field: 1 m

• Frequency band 80 MHz to 2000 MHz

• Carrier Modulated with 80"10 AM at 1 kHz sine wave (a) Test with current

• Meter in operating condition:

. voltage and auxiliary circuits energized with reference voltage . . basic current Ib and power factor unity.

- un-modulated test field strength: 10 Vim.

During the test behaviour of the equipment shan not be perturbed and the ~ariaticn of error shall be with in limit as specified in Table 17.

,18 Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

(b) Test without any current:

• Meter in non-operating condition:

voltage and auxiliary circuits energised with reference voltage:

without any current in current circuit and current terminals shall be open circuit.

• uri-modulated test field strength: 30 Vim.

The application of the electromagnetic RF field shall not produce a chanqa in the register Of more than X unit and the output shall not produce a signal equivalent to more than X unit. For formula for X refer. 4.4.2.2

During the test, a temporary degradation or loss of function or performance is acceptable.

5.5.5 Test of Immunity to Conducted Disturbances

The test shall be carried out according to IEC 61000-4-6, under the totlowinq conditions:

• Tested as table top equipment.

• Meter in operating condition.

voltage and auxiliary circuits energised with reference voltage.

basic I rated current Ib I In and Cos <I> I Sin tjJ == 1 for active I reactive i energy meters respectively.

• frequency range 150 kHz to 80 MHz.

• voltage levels 10 Vim

During the test, behaviour of the equipment shall not be perturbed and the variation of error shall be within limit as specified in Table 17.

5-5.6 Damped Oscillatory Waves Immunity Test

The test shall be carried out according to IEC 62052-11 :2003 read in conjunction: with IE C 61 000-4-12 : 1995, un de r th e following conditions: .

• only for transformer operated meters;

• tested as table top equipment;

• meter in operating condition:

\/oltage and auxiliary circuits energized with reference VOltage;

with rated current In and Coso I Sino = 1 for active I reactive energy meters respectively.

• test voltage on voltage circuits and auxiliary circuits with a reference voltage >4DV:

Alternating Current, Static Electrical €nergy Meters for Activo, Reactive and IIppClrellt Energy 49

common mode differential mode Test frequencies:

100 kHz, repetition rate

2,5 kV 1,0 kV

40Hz

1 MHz, repetition rate 400 Hz

• Test duration: 60 s (15 cycles wi1:h 2 s off, for each frequency)

During the test the behaviour of the equipment shall not be perturbed and the variation in error shall be within the limits as specified in Table 17.

5.5,7 Surge Immunity Test

The test shall be carried out according to lEe 61000-4-5, under the following conditions:

• Meter in operating condition;

voltaqe and auxiliary circuits energised with reference voltage;

without any current in current circuit and current terminals shall be open circuit;

Cable length between surge generator and meter: 1 m

• Tested in differential mode (line to hne)

• Phase angle: pulses \0 be applied at 60'" and 2400 relative to zero crossing of AC supply.

• Test voltage on current and voltage circuits (main lines) : 4 kV; generator source impedance: 2 Q

• Test voltage on auxiliary circuits with a reference voltage over 40 V~ 1 kV; generator source impedance: 42 U

• Number of tests: 5 positive and 5 negative Repetition rate: maximum 1/min

The application of the surge immunity test voltage shall not produce a chanqo in the register of more than x units and the test output shall not be produce a sign,,\ equivalent to more than x units. For formula for X: see 4.4.2.2.

During the test, a temporary degradation or loss of function performance is acceptable.

5.5.8 Radio Interference Suppression

The test shall be carried out according to CISPR 22, under the following conditions

• for class B equipmen1;

50 Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

• tested as table-top equipment;

• for connection to the voltaqe circuits, an unshielded cable length of 1 m to

each connector shall be used;

• meter in operating condition

• voltage and auxiliary circuits energised with reference voltage;

• with a current between 0.1 Ib and 0.2 Ib' alternatively between 0.1 In and 0.2 In (drawn by linear load and connected by unshielded cable length of 1m)-

The test results shall comply with the requirements given in CISPR 22.

5.£ Tests of Accuracy Requirements

For requirements regarding meter testing laboratories refer IS: 12346. The:: relationship among various standards illustrating the definitions and the traceabilin. link is schematically reproduced in Appendix L. :

5.6.1 General Test Conditions

To test the accuracy requirements as fixed under 4.6, the following test condrtions; shall be maintained: '

(a) the meter shall be tested in its case with the cover in position; all partst

intended to be earthed shall be earthed

(b) before any test is made, the circuits shall have been energized for a time sufficient to reach thermal stability but not less than 1 hour.

(c) In addition, for polyphase meter;

the phase sequence shall be as marked on the diagram of connections: ! the voltages and currents shall be substantially balanced (see Table 23);'

(d) For determining error characteristics with variation of current (type test), tests! shall be conducted from the lowest current to the highest current, and thenrepeated from tho highest current to the lowest current. Average shall be taken far each current value.

Table 23 Voltage and currant balance

- POI~-Phase ~~;~- ----,,--'.,-,--.---'---,--- -1= 1:.lass-ofmeter "9f Each-()f Ihe--voliagdsbetwecn-line-andneulral()r between any-two iiries I --~-~;- --- O'~1:-0.~ ~,

?~a\\ ~ot dilief tro~ the 2o\FCra9_c co!!espon~~g vOhage by more than ~' Q ,0 ;';

Each of the currents in the conductor:> shall not differ from the average ~ .

CU rrcnt by f!lore than 0 1 % I:

The phase displacemen-ts at" -eadl -of thesecurrents from -'he - ,- -- - ---------t

corresponding nne-to-neutral voltage, Irrespective of the power factor, 2" 2" I;

sh~!!__!l__£)_t dl!!er frolT1_EtO_h other hy more t~ ~___ _ L ~I,

Alternating Current, Static Electrical Energy Metors for Active, Reactive and Apparent Efwrgy 51

(d) The reference conditions shall be as specified in Table 24.

Table 24 Reference conditions

Wave-form MagneiiCinductionOt-I external origin at the l!efarenc:~reguen~_

~.~.--~. ~- .. - -.~- -- -- ~,.-.~

Permissible tolerances for

+2"C -\- 2"C

~p[)ratlJre or il"l it's absence 27 "C _ _

Voltage (2) R€lerence Vottage 1:1.0% t_ 1 0 %

-_--- -- ---- ~- _---

+0.5% + 0.3 %

- ----- -Distortion t-;ctor- - - -----

--Ie-,:~:~:~% _ f~;:::; ~

Frequency

(1) It the tests are made at a temperature other than the reference temperature, including permissible tolerances, the results shall be corrected by applying the appropriate temperature coefficient of the meter.

(2) The reference conditions for voltage applied to both the measuring circuits and auxiliary supply(ies).

(3) The reference conditions for trequencies applied to both the measuring circuits and the auxiliary supply (ies) (ii not DC).

(4) This magnetic induction is that at the place of test without the presence of the meter and its connections.

5.6.2 Test of Effect due to Influence QUantities

It shall be veri1ied that the influence quantity requirements as fixed under 4.6.3 and 4.6A are satisfied on the same sample meter. Some of these tests, specially for continuous (DC) and alternating (AC) magnetic inouction, may be carried out by 1he manufacturer as part of a quality assurance programme.

Tests for variation caused by influence quantities should bo periormed independently with all other influence quantities at their reference conditions {see Table 24).

The effect on the meter due to magnetic induction of external origin as obtained by the method detailed below shall be determined.

5.6.2.1 The continuous (DC) "stray" magnetic induction of 67rnTi 5% shall be obtained at a distance of 5 mm from the surface of the pole of the electromagnet according to Appendix- F. energised with a DC current. The magnetic field shall be applied successively to all the surfaces of the meter. The value of the magneto motive force to be applied shall be generally 1000 ampere-turns. However, considering the non-linearity of magnetisation of the core, the ampere-turns might require slight adjustment to achieve the desired output.

52

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electric.-Ji Enorgy Meiers

5.6.2.2 The alternating (a.c) "stray" magnetic induction of 0.5 mT ± 5% shall be obtained by placing the meter at various orientation in the centre of a circular coil of square section (0.0.: 400 rnrn, 1.0.: 320 mm, Depth: 45 mm, 14.0 ampere turns), produced by a current of the frequency as that of the voltage applied to the meter and under the most unfavourable conditions of phase and direction.

5.6.2.3 The continuous (DC) "abnormal" magnetic induction of 0.27 Tesla ±5% shall be obtained at a distance of 5 mm from the surface of the pole of the electromagnet according to Appendix-F, energised with a.DC current The magnetic field shall be applied successively to all the surfaces of the meter. The value of the magneto motive force to be applied shall be generally 17500 ampere-turns. However, considering the non-linearity of the magnetisation of the core, the ampere-turns might require slight adjustment to achieve the desired output.

In the event of logging of presence of abnormal magnetic induction with date & time the positive variation of error may be beyond the limit of 4% but not exceeding a value(e) as given in Note 3.2 under Table 17, corresponding to nominal registration of the meter at reference voltage, 150% maximum current and Cose f Sin\\! ;::01, for active / reactive energy meters respectively.

5.6.2.4 The alternating (AC) "abnormal" magnetic induction of 10 milli Testa shall be obtained by placing the meter at various orientations in the centre of a circular coil as specified in 5.6.2.2. but with 2800 ampere-turns .produced by a current of the same frequency as that of the voltage applied to the meter and under the most unfavourable conditions of phase and direction.

In the event of logging of presence of abnormal magnetic induction with date & time the positive variation of error may be beyond the limit of 4% but not exceeding a value (e) as given in Note 3.2 under Table 17, corresponding to nominal registration of the meter at reference voltage, 150% maximum current and coso I sin$ ",,1, for active I reactive energy meters respectively.

5.6.2.5 The "abnormal" AC magnetic induction emanating from a circular air-cored coil (D.D 200mm. 1.0. 38mm. Depth: 50mm. 14 SWG. 20000 ampere-turns) producing 0.2 Tesla ± 5% in the central region of its either surface. shan be applied successively to all the surfaces of the meter and under the most unfavourable conditions of phase and direction to determine any abnormality under its influence. For application tor inter utility grid metering, thls requirement may be omitted.

In the event of logging of presence of abnormal magnetic induction with date and time, the positive variation of error may be beyond the urnit 01 4% but not exceeding a value (e) as given in Note 3.2 under Table 17, corresponding to nominal registration of the meter at reference voltage, 150% maximum current and coso f siM co:1, for active I reactive energy meters respectively.

N%' During tho testis). no abnormality like movement of digits (for electromechanical wgisler) flickering! swi~ching on- off of display .sbnormal hoaling and percopliblo chango of error should

Al!emating Current, Static Electrical Energy Meters lor Activo, Reactive and Apparent Energy 53

occur After the test(s),there should not be any permanent change of error exceeding half the sccurecy class index at lmex, Cos</! / Sin¢ = 1 and 0 5 inductive and at 5% Ibl In, cos« I Sin¢! .0 I, for active I reactive energy meters respectively.

5.6.3 Test of Influence for Ambient Temperature Variation

It shall be verified that the requirements for influence due to variation of ambient temperature as fixed under 4.6.5 are satisfied.

5.6.4 Test of No~/oad Condition

Fer this test the current circuit must be open circuit and a voltage of 70"/0 and 120% of the marked voltage shall be applied to the voltage circuits.

The minimum test period shall be 20 times of the nominal run period 01 starting current. The maximum test period shall be limited to 100 minutes.

During this test the test output device of the meter shall not emit more than one pulse (see 4.6.9.2)

5.6.5 Test of Starting Condition

It shall be verified that the starting requirements as fixed under 4.6.5.3 are satisfied.

5.S.6 Test of Meter Constant

It shall be verified that the relation between the test output and the indication on the display complies with the marking on the name-plate (see 4.6.10)

Notes:

1. This test is applicable only {Of meters giving test out-put in the form of pulses and not in the form of high resolution display.

2. The type test shall be carried out by ensuring that the motet registem at least energy Fmin, given by:

Lx lOx 100

Emin =---~~-

e

where:

L = Least count of the bes«: energy register, e = Limit of % error at the test point.

The energy registered shall not differ by more than e/10 % from the energy indicated by the test output pulses.

3. However, for meters having test output in the form of high resolution display, a dial lost for at least half an hour Shall be carried out at Ib, Cos ()/ Sin 8 =0 0.866 inductive for active I reactive energy meters respectively, using the actual display readings.

54

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

5.6.7 Interpretation of Test Results

During type tests certain test results may fall outside the limits indicated in Tables 15 and 16, owing to uncertainties of measurements and other parameters capable of influencing the measurements. However, if by one displacement of the zero line para\\e\ to itse\t by no more than the limits indicated in Table 25. an tne test results are brought within the limits indicated in Tables 15 and 16. the meter type shall be considered acceptable.

Table 25 Interpretation of test results

~-- .. ' ... __ -.-_. __ ---- __ -- .. ----'-.=F_ .. _-.- ... -._ .. _- --- ~

Ctass of meter

_ .. _----"_.- -_.- ---"_ ._-.-

1 0.5 0_2

~~_i~~!bl~ disp_I~~~_r~en!~t-theze~o_~i~~ (~_._ . ·_-o~--·I- __ ~.2----± __ --0.1_=---

5.6.8 Limits of Error Test

The test on limits of error shall be carried out as per clause no. 4.6.3.

5.6.9 Repeatability of Error Test

It shall be verified that the requirements under Clause 4.6.2 are satisfied.

6. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS

Some special requirements are needed to be provided in a static multifunctional multiparameter (e.g. three-vectors) energy meter to cater to the needs of specific applications. Some such requirement are furnished hero. However, the required additional facilities in the meter are to be agreed between the supplier and the user. The features included in this clause are more as a guideline than as a stipulation.

6.1 Quantities to be Measured and Displayed

(a) The meter shall be capable of measuring and displaying the following electrical quantities within specified accuracy limits for polyphase balanced or unbalanced loads:

Active energy, Reactive energy, Apparent energy, Maximum demand (kVAlkW), Cumulative maximum demand (kVAlkW). Rising demand with elapsed time. count for number of MD resets, real time, date and segment check disp\ay.

Instantaneous parameters, such as phasewise voltages. currents, power factors; overall kVA, kW, kVAr, power factor; frequency and the healthiness of the RTe battery may also be displayed either in the meter or through a meter reading instrument. Scroll lock facility shall be provided so as to get display of anyone of the parameters continuously

(b) Meters for Import export metering suitable for grid metering, interface points metering shau have 10\\owing Qarameten,

Altema/lng Current. StatiC Electrical Energy Meters for Active. Reactivo and Apparent Energy 55

(i) kW (!mport, Export}

(il) kVAr inductive (while kW Import, Export)

(iii) kVAr capacitive (while kW Import, Export) (iv) kVAh (!mport, Export)

(e) Interface meters suitable for ABT (Availability Based Tariff) shall also display following parameters:

(i) Average frequency of previous 1S-minute block

(ii) Average voltage

(iii) Net active energy in previous 15-minute block

(iv) Reactive energy high reading (voltage above 103%)

(v) Reactive energy [ow reading {voltage below 97%}

ABT meter normally provides data for unscheduled interchange and Var interchange charges, for external processing through software tools.

6.2 MO Reset

The meter should have any of the following MD resetting options:

(a) Automatic reset at the end of a certain predefined period (say, end of the month).

(b) Rese"ing through a CMRIJ remote cornmunicanon capable of communicating with the meter.

(e) Manual resetting arrangement with sealing facility.

6.3 Maximum Demand Integration Period (DIP)

DIP can be set at either 30 minutes or 15 minutes at the manufacturer's works. The adjustment option shall be available with the meter only through authenticated transaction. Meter shall be capable to log such transaction with date and time stamping.

DIP may commence either at the time of resetting tho maximum demand or at the fixed time intervals of the real time. Anyone of these options shall be provided on mutual agreement.

The rising value at current demand with the elapsed time should be held in the memory in the event 01 interruption or switching off of supply, and it should not fall to zero on such instances,

6.4 Communication Capability

The meter should have facilities for data transfer J remote metering with proper security via an optically isolated communication port using serial communication. Whenever reqUired "for summation or time synchronization purposes, required outputsfinputs. should be provided.

56

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

It shall be possible to reconfigure the meters for TOO Tariff, DIP, billing date, event log etc. through proper authentication process via the communication port.

Meter may have additional communication port for online monitoring, data transfer, remote communication.

6.5 Time of Day (TOO) Metering

Based on the requirement, minimum of four different registers for storing TOO consumption and maximum demand should be available. It should be possible to change the time period for the TOO recording through a CMRI/remote communication using a proper security system. Meter shall be capable to log such changes with date and time stamping. The main control for this change shall be available in the base computer system.

6.6 Measurement of Harmonic Energy I Phase Current

(a) The meter shall be capable of measuring total energy at reference frequency.

Fundamental energy at reference frequency or the harmonic energy may also be provided. This requirement will be specified on agreement between tl1e manufacturer and the purchaser

(b) For meters employing digital multiplication techniques, the capacity of measuring harmonic power/energy depends on the sampling rate for digitizing voltage / current waveforms, which determines the order of harmonics for total power / energy measurements. This requirement should be agreed by the manufacturer and the purchaser.

6.7 Tamper and Fraud Monitoring

The meter shall have the following special features to monitor/detect tamper and fraud against meter:

(a) The meter should be capable of recording occurrence of a missing potential and its restoration with date and time of first such occurrences and last restoration along with total number of such occurrence during the above period for all phases. Missing potential is the event when the voltage across the voltage circuit of the meter is below a pre-defined threshold value while the current through the current circuit is greater than a pre-defined threshold value. The threshold values of voltage and current shall be mutually agreed between the manufacturer and purchaser.

(b) The meter should detect CT polarity reversal and record the same with date and time of first such occurrence and last restoration alongwith total number of such occurrences during the above period for all the phases.

(c) The meter shall record power ON time since the last reset. The meter shall also be able to detect and log power ON/OFF events.

A/lemating Current, Static Electrical Energy Meters for Active, Reactive and Apparont Energy 57

(d) The meter for H.T. applications shall indicate load unbalance over and above 25% between the phases for loads above 10%. The persistence time for such occurrence should be minimum three minutes.

(e) Meier should be capable of logging presence of abnormal magnetic field with date and time when the magnetic field is above a 1hreshold value which is agreed between manufacturer and purchaser.

(I) The meter shall be able to detect and log invalid phase configuration of the voltage when the voltage angles are not within the specified range. The range for invalid configuration shall be mutually agreed between manufacturer and purchaser.

(g) Meter should be capable of logging current by-pass and / or open condition.

When the load current is flowing in the circuit and current through measurement circuit is by-passed or made open by some means so less current is measured, it should be detected and Jogged in the memory as an event with date and time. CT saturation may also be logged as current by pass.

Notes :

t. Values other than above can be mutually agreed upon between the purchasers and suppliers.

2, It should be possible to retrieve these data through a communication port on to a handheld meier reading device or directly 10 iii Pc. It should be possible to download these data into a PC arid get complete details. Nocessery software (or Ihis purpose shall be provided.

3. Tile meier shalf be able to log snapshots of individual phase wise voneaos, currents and power factors along with each tamper event (except power ON/OFF events). The numbor of temper events to be logged for each type of tamper shilll be mutually agreed between the supplier and purchaser.

4. It shall be possible to configure specific tamper event recording in separate compartments. T/10 number of compartments required shall be mutually agreed between the supplier and purchaser.

6.8 Monitor'ing of System Abnormalities

a) Meters, suitable for energy audit purpose, Distribution transformer metering. should also be capable of recording high voltage, low voltage events; under load, overload events.

)) Meter should be able to detect and log missing voltage, missing current, load imbalance etc.

(c) The threshold values for above shall be mutually agreed between manufacturer and purchaser.

6.9 Load Profiling Capability

(a) The me1er should be capable of storing load profiles in it's non-volatile memory as specified below for the specific logging intervals:

(i) kW or kVA demand import/export

(ii) kVAr import: For bulk consumer and energy audit

58 Manual on Standardization of AC Static E:/eclrical Energy Meters

(iii) kVAr export: For bulk consumer and energy audit

(iv) Phasewise kW, kVAr at peak kVA: For energy audit or special purposes like Distribution Transformer metering

(v) Phase wise voltages: For energy audit or special purposes

(b) For import export metering following data can be logged

(i) kW (Import, Export)

(ii) kVAr inductive (while kW Import, Export}

(iii) kVAr capacitive (while kW Import, Export)

(iv) kVAh (Import, Export)

(c) For interface meters, suitable for ABT (Availability Based Tariff), following data shall be stored in its Non Volatile Memory (NVM):

(i} Average frequency for each successive 15~minule block

{ii) Net active energy transmittal during each successive 15~minute block with forward and reverse indication

(iii) Cumulative active energy transmittal at each mid-nlqru

(iv] Cumulative reactive energy transmittal when average voltage is above 103%, in separate register at each mid-night

(v) Cumulative reactive energy transmittal when average voltage is below 97% in separate register at each mid-night

(vi) Date and lime blocks of failure of VT supply on any phase, which shall be indicated as a star mark in the load profile at BCS (Base Computer Software)

6.10 Self Diagnostic Feature

The meter shall have indications for unsatisfactOly/non-functioning of the fo)Jowing:

(I) Time and Calendar

(ii) Real Time Clock (RTC)

(iii) RTC Battery

(iv) Non-Volatile Memory

6.11 The display for active, reactive and apparent energy should have facility for high resolution display (minimum of four digits after decimal) to facilitate testing with desired accuracy within reasonable time. Alternative!y meter reading instrument should have this facility of reading the high resolution register of the meter for testing purposes.

6.12 In the absence of power supply facility for display and/or meter reading should be available.

Altemating Current. Static Electrical Energy Meters for Active. Reactive and Apparont EnCff/Y 59

6.13 Meter may be provided with an auto display scrolling facility, in addition to push button mode, 10r essential parameters to be mutually agreed between the purchaser and the supplier.

6.14 While installing the meter, it should be possible to check the correctness of CT, VT connections to the meter and their polarity from the functioning of the meter for different voltage injections. For this purpose, a suitable software for field diagnosiS of the meter connections with the help of the meter and meter reading instrument should be supplied

6.15 In view of varying nature of requirement of various utilities regarding registration of reactive and apparent energy at leading power factors, there should be flexibility to meet these needs satisfactorily. For example, reactive energy at leading power factor may be considered as zero or may be stored in a separate register. Similarly apparent energy at leading power factor may be computed irrespective of the sign of the reactive energy or equated to the active energy when the reactive energy is considered as zero

6.16 Time Accuracy

In the case 01 meters provided with real time clock, facility for adjustment of real time should be provided through meter reading instrument with proper security.

The uncertainty of setting initial time shall not be more than +/-30 seconds from Indian Standard Time as maintained by NPL New Delhi.

The maximum drift permissible in the real time clock shall be as follows:

-t- 2 min/year for class 0.2 meters, +/- 5 min/year for class 0.5 meters, +/- 7 min/year for class 1.0 meters.

6.17 AII1he registers and other parameters will be updated every second. 6.18 Application of Current and Voltage Transformer Ratios

It is preferable for the meters to have facilities for making the registration, taking into account CT and VT ratios

6.19 Historical Data Recording

Meter shall be capable of recording in its Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) historical data consisting of billing energy, demand, TOO registers. Minimum of six such data sets shall be stored and it should be possible to retrieve these data through communication port on to common meter reading instrument (CMRI) or directly to PC uSing a suitable software.

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Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical EnerflY Motors

APPENDlX- A (Informative)

GUIDELINES FOR COMBINED kWh, kVArh AND kVAh MEASUREMENTS

A-1 Although it is possible to achieve class 0.2 accuracy in some versions of static kVArh Meters, it is of general opinion that accuracy attainable for kVArh measurement is one level inferior to that in the case of kWh measurements with similar design of measuring elements. Therefore, it is suggested that in a combined three parameter (three vector type) meter, the following may be the accuracy class of kVArh element vis-a-vis the kWh element.

Table A-1

A-2 kVAh Measurements

Generally two different measurement techniques are adopted for YAh measurement, namely vector-sum (root-sum-square) and arithmetic-sum principles. Of course, other measurement I summation principles are also available.

Vector-sum volt-ampere is the root-sum-square of active power and reactive power in a 3-phase balanced or unbalanced circuit.

Arithmetic-sum volt-ampere is the arithmetical sum of the three products of line current and associated phase voltages in a three-phase balanced or unbalanced circuit.

In case of electro-mechanical meters. kVAh as measured by above principles and integrated, are generally different. However, for static three parameter meters having high speed microprocessor adopting kVArh computation at very high rates, the vector-sum value of kVArh tends to the arithmetic-sum value in limiting case of zero unbalance and distortion. Therefore, it is suggested to consider that wherever, kVAh has appeared in this specification, it is the same as the vector-sum value. Thereby, it becomes easier to check the kVAh accuracy by determining errors of kWh and kVArh meters only in terms of kWh and kVArh measurement standards under laboratory reference conditions (4.6.3, Tables 15 & 16).

In addition, the computation error of vector-sum is to be verified at a displacement angle common within the ranges Cos 0 :;0 0.5 inductive to 1.0 and Sin 0 ~ 0.5 inductive to 1.0 inductive (Cos 0 =- 0.866 inductive to 0.00 inductive). The suggested power factor is 0.5 inductive or 0.866 inductive. It is determined by comparing the indicated kVAh with the theoretical computed kVAh as obtained from kWh and kVArh reference meters. The allowable error limit is the root-square-sum of

Manual on Standardization of AC Stafic Electrical Energy Meters

61

kWh and KVArh error limits. In case of three parameter meter, it becomes convenient to compute this kVAh from the kWh and kVArh readings of the meter itself.

A-3 Stand alone kVAh Measurement

Stand alone kVAh measurement is not covered in this Technical Report. However, for sing\e- phase kVAh measurement, besides active and reactive energy method as stated above, time-power (apparent) method may be adopted.

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Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meiers

APPENDIX- B (Informative)

CONSIDERATIONS FOR RATED OPERATING CONDITIONS

B-1 The contents of this Appendix are informative, unless required by relevant regulations for functional verifications and testing of meters in-service. The following considerations apply:

Table 6-1 Accuracy test points and limits 01 errors fat meters in-service under near reference conditions

Value of current for A licable ·1-- . Load- - I· - -Percerii:age error hmits~

Test direct connected Cos $I fPP t [in case of for meters of

or me er .

No. and transformer 5in $ t e j polyphase __ __class Index _

.. __ ollerate~~eter~___ _ -Slng~:- and ~ters) - W------- 0.5 --f 0,2 --

0_0110/0.02/0 1 I h Balanced I ±1.5 +1.0 +04

sin~Tc-a:~ctt-_- --t"--- -----~l ~*~£a;~ 1" ~alanco~:1 +_ 1.0 _ ± O.S __ __;__I J.O:__

0.5 01 hase . Balanced j: 1.2 + 0,6 + 0_3

. __ .. -_. __ ----- ___QQ!YP------------- __ - __ . _

___ POIYPhaSe_E~~~I:" _l!1-=-__ ± 0,6 _/ ± 0_._3

1 Single I

;':~=di p"'~' _l-±l-S, ±_o~~_~ __

_ _. . __ .___ _?~se ~~Iance~ ~~_ +O:~~_O_:__

"The meter shall be supplied with three-phase symmetrical voltaqe. The current shall be applied 10 any of the phases.

L"_Th:h~::e~ir~~~~~~()s~~~~e;h:~t~ i~~~::tjhaSe Symmelri~al voltage. The current Sh_all be"apPliC~ to a

The values of Table 8-1 are taken tram Tables 15 and 16, Percentage error limits at reference conditions.

Table 8-2 Maximum Permissible Errors for in-service meters under rated operating conditions

---.--_. '-r' ---. --.'-

Maximum Maximum

Composite Permissible Error

Error (Percent (Percent ±)

:t:} ,f( E2 + U' )

1.0

Manual on Standardization of AC Ststic Electrical Energy MeIers

63

To ensure that the requirements 01' Table 8, Maximum permissible error (MPE) in-service, are also met, the actual percentage error limits to be used for verification in-service, shall be established using the method described below.

For each test point, the values of variation of percentage error due to temperature, voltage and frequency variation, established during type testing, shall be subtracted from the mpe using the formula:

e ,,,I, u, cos ~) ;= rMi;j:;T-~{);),: (T-:t~~~ If! ~ b~yi') U ,},--;;;;;;J ~b~,,)!,f ~(-~ ~)-

where:

is the value of calculated limit of percentage error under reference conditions; is the value of maximum permissible error taken from Table 8-2 for the given test point;

O;,,/Jf, f. ens tp) MPE

is the value of the variation of percentage error due to variation of temperature, established during type testing;

is the value of the variation of percentage error due to variation of voltage, established during type testing;

is the value of the variation of percentage error due to variation of

frequency, established during type testing,

The actual limit of percentage error to be applied for each test point, shall be the smaller of the value shown in Table A, and the value calculated as described above.

An eventual correction of the percentage error limits, due to uncertainty of the measurement of percentage error as described in 4.6.1, also applies if required.

During manufacturing, the values of the variation of percentage error due to temperature, voltage and frequency variation shall be established in adequate intervals to ensure that they are essentlalJy same as established during type testing.

8-3 Example

A meter 01 class index 0.5, manufactured for the temperature range ot 5 °C to 45°C is tested at 25 "c. The columns of Tab!e 8-3 show the following:

• Column 1: the number of test, as identified in Table B-1;

• Column 2: the values of the mpe, taken from Table B-2;

Column 3: the values due to temperature variation, established during the type test (in this example, maximum allowable variation has been considered);

64

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

• Column 4: the values due to voltage variation, established during the type
test (in this example, maximum allowable variation has been
considered);
• Column 5: the values of frequency variation, established during the type
test (in this example, maximum allowable variation has been
considered);
• Column 6: the calculated values of percentage error limits:
• Column 7: the reference values of percentage error limits taken from Table
B-1.
Table 8-3 Example for determining the percentage error limits to be applied --
Test MPE a~.cT,l , cos cp) a~(u,/,coscp) o~(f ,I, cos 'P) emlc(/,cos'P) e(/,oo
No,
.. _--
1 ± 1.3 +0.36 +0.04 +0.04 ±0.9 ±1.
2 ± 1.0 +0.36 +0.04 +0.04 _t 0.7 ±O.
3 ± 1.0 +0.36 +0.04 +0.04 to.7 ±O.
-_._ -"
4 ±_ 1.0 +0.36 +0.04 +0.04 ±0.7 ±_O.
- .. - I
5 :~ 1.0 +0.36 +0.04 +0.04 ±0.7 ±O.
~--- _L
L) + 1.0 +0.36 +0.04 +0.04 +0.7 ± O .
. ---~-- .. _.-._--_ ... . _,"._- . ~ ... scp) o

5 _

~

If all the values of e(l, cos tj.l) are smaller than the values calculated from the MPE taking into account the values of variation of percentage error due to temperature {in the range of use), voltage and frequency variations, establishe during type testing, the values of Table B-1 shall be used. Otherwise, calculate values of percentage error limit provided in Table 8-3 will be used.

Notes .- The above considerations may be used for

• compliance testing (Ref.- IS 15707.- 2006) of in-service meters,

in-service comp/ianeo ot new meters, on the basis of sampling inspection outlined in Appendix-C.

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy MeterS

£5

APPENDIX~ C (Normative)

, ACCEPTANCE INSPECTION

A consignment of new meters may be inspected for acceptance in premises of manufacturer, purchaser or a third-party testing laboratory. Different schemes may be adopted depending on number of meters and acceptance quality level (AQL). Inspection may be carried out 100% OJ on the basis of sound statistical sampling plans. Specified acceptance tests shall be carried out on meters provided with manufacturer's distinctive seals.

C.1 LOT

In any consignment, all the meters of the same type and rating manufactured by the same factory during the same period shall be grouped together to constitute a lot

C.1.1 Sample shall be tested trom each lot for ascertaining the conformity of the meters to the raqu i rements of acceptance tests specified in 5.1.3 , Table 20.

C.2 SCALE OF SAMPLING

C.2.1 The meters shall be selected at random from the lot (according to meter serial numbers used in conjunction with standard random number Table), depending upon the size 01 the lot and the desired AQL. It IS recommended to refer to Tables 1 and 3A of Indian S1andard 2500 (Part 1) : 2000 (Identical to ISO 2859 - 1:1999), on double sampling plan for normal inspection. An extract is reproduced for reference at the end. Figures for normal inspection, level II, are generally applicable.

C.3 NUMBER OF TESTS AND CRITERIA FOR ACCEPTANCE

C.3.1 Tests for No load Condition I Starting Condition I Limits of Error

A sample of meters selected accordingly wi\l be tested for the above tests. For limits of error, minimum six metrological points as given in Appendix-B. shau be selected and one point will be considered as one characteristic test. Also, error limits will need correction for uncertainty of measurement, if required, as given in 4.6.1.

Any meter failing in anyone ot these tests shall be considered as a nonconformity. 11 the number of non-conforming meters found in the sample, is less than or equal to Ac, acceptance number, the lot shall be considered to be conforming to these tests. If the number of non-conforming meters is greater than or equal to Ac, the lot shall be considered as not conforming to these tests. 11 the number of nonconforming meters is between Ac and Re, the rejection number, a further sample of meters will be taken and SUbjected to these tests. If the number of non-conforming meters in two samples combined is less than Ac of the second sample, the lot shall be considered as conforming to these tests, otherwise rejected.

Note: The acceptance number refers to items in the sample. If there are several characteristies inspected, it may happen that some items in the sample exhibit several non-conformities. As long as the number of non-conforming items is less than the acceptance number, the lot is acceptable. If non-conformities exhibit themselves on differont items, so that the number 01 nonconforming items exceeds the acceptance number, then the lot is not acceptable.

66

Manual on StandardiLation of AC Sistic Electrjcal Energy Meters

C.3.2 Tests for Insulation Resistance! AC Voltage! Meter Constant

From the sample of meters which have been drawn according to C-3.1 and those that have passed au tests of C-3.1, a sample of at least 13 meters sha)) be tested, all of which shall pass for conformity to these tests (Ac = 0). If anyone of the meters fails in any of these tests, the whole lot shall be declared not conforming to the requirements of these tests.

C.3.3 Tests for Repeatability of Error) Power Consumption

Above tests shall be carried out on five samples selected from the meters passed in C.3.1. If any of the meter fails in any of these tests the whole lot shall be declared not conforming to the requirement of these tests.

C.3.4 The lot shall be considered as conforming to this specification, if provisions of C.3.1, C.3.2 and C.3.3 are satisfied. Any non-conforming meter in C.3.1 shall be replaced.

Table C-1 Double sampJing plans for normal,tightened and reduced inspection, AQL '" 1.0

_"_._.' --~--. "-r--'- '--.-.---' ----.
4> .... QI"D",=, QI <I> r:: "Dr:: Reduced inspection
.!'! Ql f; .~ /--- <II
Lot sizes for lilt:: Ql N s;; Ql - 0 Ql 0
Q. Ujlllr;: 111·- E:_ ~ t: .~ 41
inspection <!:IE <11m.:!! ~~ Eg Cl u ;;iiGl
liQl E :::1- ... QI I;I..QI
levels E"U <II Q.E~ eO. o 0. .1;0. E N "3 e·!'!
rn :::I E :z <II ~<II <11- E III <II
01 0 ~g:e u:g .E 1--.5 11)'" :::lUI
II) 1.1 Ul r-2-------
'----_ Ac Re AcT~~ h_ Re
II <l- Ac
._.
281 j" 32 32 0 2
2nd 32 64 1 2 {j
'--- "- - r----- ---'- 1--'-- ,-
SOl 281 1" 50 50 0 3 0 2 20 20 0 2
to to J 2"" SO 100 3 4 1 2 20 40 1 2
1200 500
1201 501 to 1" 80 80 1 3 0 3 32 32 0 3
10 1200 K 2nd 80 160 4 5 3 4 32 64 3 4
3200
---- .-.~ -- f- 1---- f---- - r-----' r----
3201 1201 1" 125 125 2 5 1 3 50 50 1 3
10 to L 2"" 125 250 6 7 4 5 50 100 4 5
10000 3200
-_ .. - -- . __ .. ~'-"- ,,-_. ~.- ..--~ .. - .- --- ... __ ... -----
Noles: The values are faken from Tables 1, 3-A, 3-8 and 3-C of IS 2500-1/ ISO 2859-1. If agreed by the responsible authority, higher lot sizes may be appfied. The corresponding test sampling plans carl be scioctca from the JabJes referenced.

Sampling plans below code letter H are not available.

The sample sizes are tho same for normal and tightened inspection.

• Ac ~ Acceptance number

• Re z: Hejection number

ij Sampling plan (Jot available. Use the first samp/jng plan below Ihe arrow.

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

67

APPENDIX - D (Normative)

TEST CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS FOR DC, EVEN HARMONICS, ODD HARMONICS AND SUB .. HARMONICS

D.l : (DC and even harmonics)

Standard ... J.~i.!li
0 ro meter 0 ~llo')



- 0 0
-
v source EUT Balandng
impedance
- Q 0
-

'S t 2 ~
Ru RB
I
source 1 1
-
- - Fig. 0.1 Halt-wave rectification (d.c, and even harmonics)

Notes:

I. The balancing impedance shall be equal to the impedance for the equipment under test (EUT) to

ensure the measurement accuracy.

2. The balancing impedance could most conveniently be a meter of the same type as the EUT.

3. The rcctitler diodes shall be of the same type.

4. To improve the balancing condition, an additional resistor Ru can be introduced in both paths. Its value should be approximately 10-time the value of the EUT.

68

Manual on StandardizaUon of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

\ I,

I i i

," I

, '. II' _

t'

I i

I i

"i I

I

I

I

.') '. L -llli J.LJ~..LL1Lll .... Il1.L..LIJ Il.Wlll LUU LI.1L.u I J.1L.J...~ J L I....L.L J Ll.LU.J LI UJ.~'l.LIU L dl..l.J ~.LJ 1111.1 i...UJll.J...LL.I,_l

_- 0' . .[;0 "_ :';'__'l C.~",7 10 l..10 ·!·3.:·~') "H.).IS" :"'''0_00

C % l_ ,,'

[lC: 5(j H! 2nd

f

.:- '

N ~o i;I/~~ :r

o

In

.9

c

;¥ :!.(J ~.~, ..

o

,_,

if)

.~

~

t: 2D % _ it\

.J:.:. U e (~

\

\

- _\

Fig. 0.2 Hai1 wave rectified waveform

,'\na'j'Sis of !lurl1'onics up to 20th

'--~---_------,-~-~~----,,-----

Jl_[J_[J___-=-, ----CJ--_ ,=- __ --=, ,_=>----_,

-ttl 1 nh iWi 'Db 12!1l /4th loj, lEW, ;::0!h

H<lnnr)lli(

Fig. 0.3 Informative distribution of haH wave harmonic content (DC and even harmonics, the Fourier analysis is not complete)

Manual on Sfandardization of AC SIalic Elfic/rical Enorgy Meters

69

0.2: (odd harmonics and interharmonics)

Phase fired control (odd harmonics)

-\~It~;1"""'"

w,)vb-IOfin

generator .....

_____ J

i .h ••• =.>

i

-- J...... -, ..... j

'. ~.'-"

:- -- .. -~ .. --!

. _ (~I~Il;-

l v;aV0-;,~[1n

qenN,ltor

~~--

N------------._------------------------------------------~

Note : The reference meter shall measure the lotal active energy (fUndamental + harmonics) in the presence of harmonics

Fig. D4 Test circuit diagram lor mixing 01 odd harmonics or sub-harmonics (informativo)

r in:;J '-it '~, ~-,~ i\n~ 15 r.<'S'

'1 ,:\!_.- - _._. __ - -- ,,_. __ . - - ._-- -' _. -'.- - ._----- .-

'~. '\

'0 _..::.: ~_ . __ . . __ . _1 ~ _~~ ~ ~~~~ _

"

--<

f; ~j -

,,_ ~i

--

g

o -rl:.~

............. _ .... "" ',. '_ - -~., .-'

,1 _

Rise bW' or ledding eo!!" 0,2 rns t. 0.'1 IlrS hnng rorns r., t; ms -?rod 15 111S f 1 !lie,

..: ~. J _j Lu UJ III Lli.lLl U.!,..LU U\ 11.~.1_:dll\...ll.u..! tu cu l.LJ 1lJ Ul.1 Ll Ll.l J.i1l L I.U I j r iu llLU r 11 J LJ I J.L Li..J '.J J .I.J

'J,G(_) ~1.::U b_U \iHIij 1~>,,~,:>' 1(,6; 21:'.['U

Perlo(1 r·n-::;

Fig. 0.5 Phase 1ired wave iorm

70

Manual on Sfandardiza,(/oll of AC Sialic ElectriCal En0rgy Metors

Fig. 0.6 Informative: distriiJution of harmonic content of phase fired waveform (odd harmonics. the Fourier <lrJalysis is no) complete)

0.3: (sub-harmonics and interharmonics)

0.3.1 Burst control (sub-harmonlcs)

Test circuit diagram, see Fjgure 0.4 .

r-. r.

\ .

-, ,

'.:,

............ _,"( /.

.I

.. L,:

_f

_ J. il _",. I.~ .. ;. 1".: :'.'. ";1·._: .• _lI.!~.''':':.:':'':LI ._, ,,~,_,:, .. ,_: ....::.{· . ..J;:,~:IL:_!.. _:_ .. ....!:.~I._.:..I.,_ OJ., 1:1.'-" .... _, /'; r-

r'·.<·~ ~1 .I~~ ·r:·.!": ~~I_':,D ::~!).;.\ .<J.G j~I.,\~, :'.'~~ I.! ;·;.l .I~.I Ii,.';

j ll\1JVJ m~~

Fig 0.7 Burst tired wavelorm

() .,

l

__ 1 __ -

Manual on Standardization of AC Static ElcctricaJ Enorgy Moters

__ 0 __ fL __ [J _

_J 1___ []

rL __ .. _ r .,.

Sf ,", tl2,'~ nt,~;

Fri:>qwc,rlGY Hz

Fig D.S lntormauve distribution of sub-harmonics and intarharmonics (the Fourier af1a!ysis is f10t complete}

71

72

Manual on Standardization of AC Stalic Electrical Energy Meters

APPENDIX~ E (Normative)

VOLTAGE WAVE FROM THE TESTS OF INFLUENCE OF SUPPLY VOLTAGE

()

~ 50~ ~ms
.... ~
I
I I
I .... is 1s 1s
L Fig. El Voltage Interruption of 61.1=100 perCl:ml. 1 s

!
I .
i
°1 I
~!I~ 20ms
! ! ..

Fig. [2 Voltage Interruption 0161.1=100 percent, 20 rns

74

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Enor:_qy Moters

APPENDIX - F (Normative)

TEST CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR THE TEST OF ABNORMAL VOLTAGE CONDITION (IMMUNITY TO EARTH FAULT)

EUT

METER TEST

Fig. F·1 Circuit to slmulate'earth fault condition in phase 1 Voltage at the meter under test

(]

NORMAL

v

u

v

EARTH FAULT

Fig. F-2

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy MDlers

75

APPENDIX- G (Normative)

TEST CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR FAST TRANSIENT BURST TEST (Clause 5.5.3)

Legend

1. Current circuits

2. Voltage circuits

3. Auxiliary circuits with a reference voltage over 40 V

4. Auxiliary circuits with a reference voltage below 40 V

Fig. G-1 Test sot-up for the fast transient burst test: Voltage circuits

l-r:"'" "",,"0'.," ,. "".

F~----i-······~· --+---

"'" t~- .... --+---'r

Legend

1. Current circuit

2. Voltage circuits

3. Auxiliary circuits with a reference voltage over 40 V

4. Auxiliary Ciicuits with a reterence voltage below 40 v

Fig. G-2 Test set-up for the fast transient burst test: Current circuits

76

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

APPENOIX- H (Normative)

ELECTROMAGNET FOR TESTING THE ENFLUENCE OF EXTERNALLY PRODUCED DC MAGNETIC FIELDS (Clause 5.6.2.1 & 5.6.2.3)

(All dimensions in millimetre)

'ilt

: I :

J7 -{--

_1._ )

: I

) : I . I

! : I I

) : I : I .

- -"-- '-1' -:- -.;--"--. - ---

: I . I ; I I .

I : I

~ ! . j 2

- ---.--,----.-- 'lMAX:

I ! ~ I i I

I i I

- .-_. '-;. -f--,L "--'_ -',

I I !

I I I

I I 1

'.

,~!'~

~ I
I
I I I
130 ~.\- .. I '-~'1
(MAXi '-"- "T" l·~ -._"'-
: ! :
t
I
l
I
~.- no -..
(MtIX) Fig, H-1

Meter under 1c S\

Core Lainiuutious (\.0 w/kg)

Bobbin

(ell Wire SOOt) Turn' 0.7 J 0/D-40mm'

M<inual on Standardiza{io/1 of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

77

~:

78

Manual on Stand<udizalion o{ IlC Static Electrical Energy Meters

Abbreviation

51. No. A

NPL

CPRI (Banqalore)

c

CPRI(Bhopal)

D ERTL(N}

ERDA I SMLI

-,_ J _

G YMPL,

H

J

ERTl{EAST)

K

MPSI:'

I

l 1 , __

DETAilS OF LABORATORIES

---'-Add~e~s-icm;tactdetafts------1 centre forCalibffitiOn-a'-~crT estfng--:-Or-:-i{S Krishnan Marg, New Deihl -110012, INDIA Phona : 011-2574261 0-12-Extn: 2489,2589

E-mail: cfcl@mail.nplindia.em<;l.in

Tel.Fax: 011-25746043 _

Prof.SIr c_v. Raman Road, Post Box No: -S066, Sada Shiva Nagar (P.O,), B<lngalore, India

Pin ;- 560080

Central Power Research -I;~ijtuto,-- SWlkhgear TeSling ,& Development Stalion GO\lindpura, Bhopal - 462 023, India

_ ,__ __ __ __ __ _ _PllO_!!_e_: !J1JO)?§_~ ~5!!_6~B?_, F_9-x_07??,~258771'4, _

S- Block, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase -II,

New Delhi - 110020 Phone: 011 - 263B6219

Namll of Laboratory

National Physical laboratory, Test and Calibration Service

Central Power

Research Institute

Bal!_9_alo~ _

Central Power

Research Institute

(Bhopal)

Electronics Regional T est laboratory (N)

frJ_f0' _Q~!biL _

EleclricaJ Research and

Developmenl Association

-Secure Meters Cimiteii-

185t"(0£1 an(itaiibratTon-Labo·rat-orY~ R!fCO .. - .. ~- ._- - Bhamashah Industrial Area, Kaladwas - 313003

T 81: ~ +91-294-265030110 306,

Fax: ++91-294-26$0310

e-mail: smHab@securcmefcrs.com

- PostS;;: ~i1; -169,~ PiOi~ ;W:<373375,-RlICO,

Bhamashah Industrial Area, Kaladwas, Udaipur - Rajasthan Tel: 0294-2650127, 2650128

Teletax: 0294-2650129

._. ----:oo- __ ---:-l--:--.Email: yadav_measurements@ymliabs.com

ETDC(Chennai) Electronics Test and VSl Estate. Thiruvanrniyur. Chcnnal - 600 041,

De\lelopment Centm India

1:gJ~91 (44) 2492819~ _

MeIer Testing laboratory Naranpura Zonal Oftice Premises Sola Road, Ahmedabad. GUjarat, mdla. Pin - 380013

Yadav Measurements

Private limited

Torrent Power limited

Electronics Regional

Test laboratory (East)

MPS Electrical Test laboratory (Mysore)

Block- ON. Sector - V, Salt Lako City, Kolkata - 700 091,

Phone: 033 2367 3662! 6577 r 7543, Fax: 033 2367 9472

- MPSElectfiCar Test laboratory :t.ars-;;ri-& ToUbro - limited, KIAOB Induslrial Area. Hebbal-Hootagalli, Mysoro-57(J018

Phone 0821-2405422, 2405379; Fax 0821-2402172

Email: mp~e@rnyw.ltindia_com _

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Enorgy Motets

79

APPENDIX -J (Normative)

RECOMMENDED METHODS OF CONNECTION OF CURRENT! VOLTAGE CIRCUIT CONDUCTORS TO METER TERMINALS (Clause 4.2.2.3)

J~O The current conductors/potential circuit-conductors of a meter shall be connected to its respective terminals inside the meter base adopting any 01 the following recommended methods so as to ensure satisfactory. durable and adequate contact surfaces between the conductors and the terminals.

J-1 The ends of current circuit lead/potential circuit lead wound from round section wire or flat strip shall be formed into loops. Each complete loop shall be accommodated between a flat section of the top end of a current/potential terminal arld a flat rectangular or circular washer plate having central hole, the three being pressed together by a screw having sufficiently large head to cover the loop. The current/potential terminal shall have thread for fixing of the screw. The washer ptato shall be at good conducting material and shall have spring action.

J-2 Current circuit leads haVing rectangular section conductors of sufficient width shall have flattened ends. Each end shall be accommodated between a flat section of the top end of a current terminal and a flat rectangular or circular washer plate, the three being pressed together by a screw having sufficiently large head to cover the flattened end of the current circuit lead coil. The washer plate shall have holes for clear passage of the screw and the current terminal shall have thread for fixing of the screw, The washer plate shall be 01 good conducting material and shall have spring action. In order to ensure proper gripping of the screw head, the central hole of the washer plate and the corresponding part of the screw head may be counter sunk.

J-3 In cases where methods J-1 or J-2 cannot be satisfactory adopted, specially where a number of rectanqular section conductors or strips or wires have been used, the ends of current c1rcuit loads shall be terminated into elongated soldnring-cumcrimping sockets having machined flat bottom ends which shall then be connected to meter current terminals by adopting rnetnod J-2. The soldering socket shall be of HlO same material as that of the current terminal.

80

Manual on StandardiL:ation of AC Sialic Electrical Energy Meters

APPENDIX - K Normative

METROLOGICAL STABILITY

K-l This Appendix deals with evaluation of stability of metrological characteristics of electricity meters as a first step towards maintaining durability that may comprise of documented measures of durability protection f enhancement under specified conditions of installation and use, data based experience 01 durability deviations, and identification I development of test procedures for durability characteristics.

The objective of this appendix is also to initiate experimentation by meter manufacturers and laboratories so that adequate data may be generated in due course, weak designs may be weeded out and perhaps a durability grading may develop based on different index of stress (test conditioning) and strain (error-shiH etc)

The test procedure consists of initial measurements, operational conditioning at maximum operating temperature, recovery and final measurements.

The result of this test performed on five test specimens, gives a reasonable level of confidence that the meter type tested IS free from serious defects and desigr errors that may prevent it from maintaining its specified accuracy for the period a use estimated by the manufacturer.

Note: Results of this test on their own do not give any conclusion that can be drawn for the length, period dl.1ring which lhe stability of tho metrological characteristics will be maintained I.1nd~ norma/use conditions.

K-2 INITIAL MEASUREMENTS

Accuracy of the meters under test shall be measured under the accuracy test conditions specified in 4.6.3 at the follOWing test points:

• value of voltage: V,cfmonco;

• value of current for direct connected meters: 0.05 lb, Ib and I max;

• value of current for transformer operated meters: 0.02 1", I" and Imax;

• value of power factor 10r meters for active energy: cos * "" 1 and cos ~ 0: 0.5 inductive;

• value of power factor for meters for reactive energy; sin <p ec 1 and sin 0/ = 0.5 inductive. Operation 01 the meters sha!! also be verified.

K-3 CONDITIONING

The meters under test shall be exposed to elevated temperature according to lEe 60068-2-2, under the following conditions:

• test ad: dry heat for heat-dissipating specimen with gradual change of temperature;

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

81

• method A or B as appropriate;

• meters in operating conditions;

• value of voltage: 1.1 Vreference ± 0.05 Vreterence;

• value of current Imax :t 0.05 Imax:

• value of power factor:

• for meters for active energy cos ~ = 1 +0, -0.05 inductive;

• for meters for reactive energy sin <\l =; 1 +0, -0.05 inductivde:

• if the meters measure both active and reactive energy, then the value o~ the power factor shall be cos <\I =; 0.866 ± 0.05 inductive;

• temperature: the upper limit of the operating temperature range specified by the manufacturer ± 2°C;

• testing with no forced air circulation is the preferred method. Forced air circulation may, however, be used when it is difficult or impossible to meet the conditions specified for testing without air circulation. For details, see IEC 60068~2-2;

• duration of the test: 1 000 h.

The cables to be used for connecting the meters inside the test chamber shall have lengths at 1 m each and cross-sections to ensure that the current density is between 3.2 Afmm2 and 4 Afmm2. (However, the cables shall not have crosssections of less than 1.5 rnrn" each)

A reference meter of the same type, subjected to the same operating conditions but operated at room temperature shall also be connected. The register of this reference meter and the registers of the meters under test shall be read betore applying the load.

Voltages and currents shall be switched at the ambient temperature of the laboratory before raising the temperature of the test chamber. Test duration starts when the test temperature is reached. After the test duration expires, voltages and currents shall be switched off and then temperature shall be decreased. The registers of the reference meter and the meters under test shall be read after the condition in g.

K-4 RECOVERY

After conditioning, the meters under test shall be subjected to the recovery process, that is minimum 3 hours of storage at the reference conditions without energizing.

K-S FINAL MEASUREMENTS AND TEST APPROVAL CRITERIA

The accuracy of the meters under test shall be determined again at accuracy test conditions like that specified for the initial measurements. It is recommended to use same test equipment.

82

Manual on Standardization of AC Stalic Electrical Energy Meters

The percentage errors of each meter having been subjected to the conditioning shall not exceed the limits specified at reference conditions in 4.6.3.

The change of percentage error and the difference between the register advancement during the test of each meter and that of the reference meter shall not exceed the values specified in Table K-1.

Table K-l Maximum change

# ro be corrected with the applicable variation in percentage error due to temperature variation.

The meters shall operate as designed and shall be free of any visible damage. The test is passed, if all the meters under test meet the requirements.

Manual on Standardization of /Ie Static Electrical Energy Motets

83

APPENDIX- L (111 formative)

POWERI ENERGY -

TRUE VALUE AND TRACEABILITY

1 1 1 1 1 I

r - -, 1

''''1 '....---.

1 ~ 1 1

I] , 1

1 t1 1 .,,

1 -;;; ,: ...... 1----;.,

1 5 1 1

1 'bh 1 I

I~ I~I+-, I

1 § 1 1

1 '.g 1 1

Z 1 1

1 1 1

L_..... 1

1 1 1 I

,..----

1

1 1
I I
'" 1
E
i= , 1
I I
I .-----,

0:

1 I 1

I L

I I .--
1 I 1 1

o ~ I , 1 I '<-<
""", '"' 0
;! b 2· 1 I ..
I , ~ [Jl '" '"' '"'
o ~ ...... J .g~ '" c-,
~ 0 e I 8u-)~ I <ii ~
.... 01 :-
~~ " I . ,r "O~> I ;1 ~ to
"'- to: '-.::1 .c::l '" " "
.~. ti E 1 ~u;:i e B~
~~ 0 1 , 1 " ....
'-' I u ..
"0 > , I 'i3 ~
""M ,
~ " I 01 '"
, I ...... c.
---_ , o:l L __ -- T ..
I ,S
_----- E
B
;;
0
1:1
E
0. ~ "t1~
'" ,. -5.~ e 1!J!1 ..-...
<:r~ 0- o.~ ,. ~
,,~ ,,,", '" g "5 ,S.o
""~ ~ § ~ ~ ~
" . - <:! E ..... OJ
'f~ ""'"' 1l ~ -\:i'S tUgs--g
ilJ v..~.;o:l
..d ...." C ~ c.:E~"
~ "" u '"
"
~ 84

Manual on Standardization of AC Static E/ecJrica/ Energy Meters

APPENOIX-M (Informative)

PREPAYMENT PROCESSES AND FUNCTIONS FOR ACTIVE ENERGY

M~1 The functions of a payment meter are to increment the credit register for active energy as the result of the payments made to the electricity supplier, to decrement the available credit in accordance with the metered consumption and to continuously calculate the balance of available credit to the consumer by the meter accounting process. When the available credit register has been decremented to a predetermined value that is related to the payment mode in use, a switch is used to interrupt the supply to the consumer's load. However, additional features may be present in the payment meter, which prevent or delay the opening of the switch, or limit further consumption to a low load level. Such features may include the provision of an emergency credit facility, the possibility of operation in a fixed-payment mode, and the inhibiting of interruptions for certain times of day or night. Features to permit disconnection of supply on detection of tamper may be supported.

In return for the payment and depending on the particular type of system, the consumer may be issued with a single-use token for the equivalent value, or a reusable token carrier may be credited with that value, or the token may be transmitted directly to the meter via a communications network (virtual token). "Oneway" and "two-way" data transfer systems may be used, and the tokens may be: physical device such as smart cards, or other electronic devices, or magnetic cards; virtual tokens transferred by as remote communications system; or numeric tokens where sequences of digits are entered via keypad on the meter.

M-l.1 Basic Payment Meter Processes

Payment meters are specified in terms of the definitions for processes, functions, data elements and interfaces indicated herein. This will cater for all possible variants of single or multi-part installations. Payment meters shall conform to the minimum functional requirements below.

I

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Metors

85

For ease of reference a functional block diagram of a single part payment meter installa1ion is given in Fig. M 1 indicatlng the core functions and the support functions}.

Suppl,. interf3ce

Token Carrier ::) Meter Inten·dce

~f~~~

Re cord ill;) fun ctio 115

Security functions

'-- .J

~-----------------------------------------/

r~

-o;',,,,r; ! Cdr riel \._~,,~J

r

r

,

r

I t4-+ ,

I

I

I

I

IJS021 in:8if]ce

Fig. M 1 Functional block diagram 01 a single-part payment meter installation

86

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Moters

it~,

.. ~ tj .

i _ ~

: C; .2

i J '<; _/ I

I

I

I

I

\ i

'-..-rj

\ ,: -

. _) -, ) \ I

'-1'" ---~ ..... --- -r/

I I I

I I I

I , ,

, , I .;
2 I
I .. '
I I I 3 ... ;
5 -, I I
__'I I
13 : I 4 \
, l -{
, I
i I I
, ,
, I , I
, I i I
, ( I

Fig. M 2Paymenl meter core junctions and application process

It must be noted that a particular component in a payment meter may embody one or marc of these functions and conversely a particular function may be deployed in a combination of components. There is therefore no specific rule to describe the relationship between a function and an object, which may be: one to one, one to many or many to onc.

Functions arc linked together by processes in order to achieve a particular result. A macro process may be comprised of smaller processes or a mix 01 smaller processes and functions.

t-rorn this perspective the diagram in Fig. M 2 depicts the core functions and essentially indicates the core processes that are active in a payment meter. The following gives more details:

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electrical Energy Meters

87

The Charge function and the Credit function are shown in Fig_ M 2 as being separated for the sake of clarity, whereas they are actually sub-class functions of the Accounting function.

With reference to Fig. M 21he generic payment meter application process thus employs the generic processes 1 to 10 as follows:

1 Calculation of token credit; any credit that is transferred to the payment meter by means of a
Token Carri€r.
Example: pre-paid token purchased at vending machine;
._--
2 Calculation of time-based credit; time information to regulate the scheduled release of tirna-
based credit.
Example: SOCial credit grant of free basic electricity to the value of 50 kWh per month;
3 Calculation 01 consumption-based cr€dit; consllftlption inlorm2l'iion to reg\jlalc the scheduled
release of consumption-based credit. Example: free basic electricity grant, but only if average
monthly consumption is below 300 kWh;
4 Transacting of total credit; total sum of time-based. consumption-based and token credits to be
added to the available credit at any particular instance of time. Example: purchased tokan plus
social credit grant portion;
5 Calculation of lime-based charges; time information to regulate lha scheduled rell'!aS€ cI time-
based charges and tariff rates. Example: monthly standing charge;
6 Calculation of consumption-based charges; COf1.sumptiof1 inlormatiof1 to regulate i.he schedUled
release of consumption-based auxiliary Charges and to calculate charges lor actual
consumption. Example: tax on KWh consumed;
7 Transacting 01 total charges; total sum of time-based and consumption-based charges to be
deducted from Ihe available credit at any particular instance of time. Example: consumption
plus tax plus standing charge;
8 RegUlating the supply of electrical energy in accordance with available credit; available credit
intormation, according to which the supply to the consumer is interrupted or restored. Example:
disconnect on expiry of available crcdit;
9 Regulating the supply of electrical energy in accordance with time-based constraints; time
information to regulate the SCheduled constraints that are placed on the interruption or
restoration 01 supply 10 th€ consumer.
Example: non-disconnect at night during winter;
10 Regulating the supply of electrical energy in accordance with consumption-based constraints;
consumption information to regulato the scheduled constraints that are placed on the
interruption or restoration of supply to the consumer. Example: non-disconnection while below
lifeline .£.owor limit; M-l.2 Basic Prepayment Functions

This Appendix covers some basic functions of prepayment watt-hour meters. For additional features, options and other payment modes, the requirements are more diverse and reference may be made to IEC 62055-31 for an outline of the approaches as given in A-2 and A-3 thereof (including any sub-clauses). The core tunctionalities are covered in A-1.2 and their testing includes the sequence of operations and checks in A-l.3 of the said lEG standard.

BB Manual on Standardization of AC Static Floctrical Energy Meters

M~ 1.3 Core Functionalities M~1.3.1 Token Acceptance

The payment meter should handle valid and invalid tokens in accordance with the following requirements:

• The acceptance of a valid token should always result in the exact amount of credit on the token carrier being transferred to the appropriate register(s) in the payment meter, and the available credit value in the meter should be incremented by exactly this amount.

• Acceptance of th(! token should be mdlcated on the payment meter and should also a/ways result in token cancellation so that this token is then invalid and cannot be accepted again. However, reusable token carriers may then be loaded with a new purchase of token credit and become valid again.

• Where prevailing conditions prevent the acceptance of a valid token, it should be rejected as an invalid token, or ignored and left unchanged. A valid token that has previously been rejected or ignored should be capable of being accepted when prevailing conditions subsequently aHow.

Refer also to A~1.3, A-1.4, and A-1.5 of lEe 62055-31 for verification of token acceptance.

M~ 1.3.2 Token Rejection

The payment meter should handle valid and invalid tokens in accordance with the following requirements:

• Under normal conditions, any invalid token should be rejected or ignored by the payment meter, and should not result in any change to information in the accounting registers in the meter. Rejection or ignoring should not lead to any token cancellation or to any change of information on the token carrier, that is the token should remain valid for use in its intended application or with the correct meter.

• The payment meter should always reject or ignore an invalid token under any prevailing conditions; there should be no prevaiting conditions within the limit range of operation under which an invalid token can be accepted.

• Where prevailing conditions prevent the acceptance or rejection of a token, it shOUld be ignored and both the token and the meter's accounting register(s) should be left unchanged.

Manual on Standardization of AC Static Electn'cal Enorgy Meters

89

M-1.3.3 Meter Accounting Process

The meter accounting process is handled in the payment meter itself. In general, in the prepayment mode, the metered kWh consumption leads to a proportionate decrementing of the available credit value. Time-based charges such as standing charges also decrement the available credit value where applicable. All such decrementing can reduce the available credn through zero to negative values unless further token credit is bought and loaded. When the available credit faUs to zero, the load switch is opened automatically. Switching on of the load switch is only enabled when token credit is again loaded and the available credit becomes positive. Testing these other functions validates the meter accounting process.

The load switch interrupt / restore conditions may be different where there is additional functionality such as emergency credit, or token credit partially allocated for repayment of emergency credit debt; they will also be different tor alternative payment modes (refer to lEG 62055-31, cl A.2 and its sub-clauses).

M-1.3.4 Collection of Consumption-based Charges

Where application-specific non-interruption periods or emergency credit facilities are incorporated in a payment meter, they should be disabled before carrying out the following test

• The consumption-based charge fUr'!ction should be tested for a sufficient amount of active energy consumption to ensure correct deductions from the available credit. Where the payment meter operates in monetary units, an appropriate price per kWh should be set. Where the payment meter includes time-based charging functions, they should be disabled for this test Sufficient available credit should be provided and noted, and then maximum load should be applied to the payment meter for the necessary period of time. The advance of the cumulative kWh register should correspond to the deduction of available credit that has then taker'! place.

Where the payment meter operates in monetary units, the test should be repeated with a representative range of settings of price per kWh, including the maximum setting. Where the payment meter includes multi-rate kWh registers, these tests should be repeated for each rate of the kWh registers.

M-1.3.S Collection of Standing Charges

Where the payment meter incorporates a standing charge collection facility the following should apply:

.. The available credit value should be decremented at the correct rate set for the time-based charges. The implementations of such charge deductions from available credit will vary between dif1erent payment meter types (for example

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deductions being made per hour or per day); appropriate choices of testing periods should be made.

• Where the payment meter includes any other time-based charging functions, then they should be disabled Jar this test, and the meter load should be zero. An appropriate standing charge should then be set to permit verification of accurate deduction from available credit over a suitable test period. The choice of settings will be dependent upon the specific implementation of the standing charge facility in the payment meter.

• The above test should then be repeated at maximum meter load and, where the payment meter operates in monetary units, an appropriate price per kWh should be set. The total deduction from available credit over the test period should then be correct in respect of both standing charge and kWh register advance. Where the payment meter includes multirate kWh registers these tests should be repeated for each rate of the kWh registers.

M·1.3.6 Interruption and Restoration of the Load

The meter should normally interrupt the load when the available credit has been consumed.

The meter should be able to decrement the available credit value past zero, into negative values, including where for application-specific reasons the load IS not interrupted when the available credit has been consumed.

Once the load is interrupted by such meter accounting process action, the load switch should only be operable to restore the load after a further appropriate manual intervention, for example by pressing a push-button or by manually presenting a further credit token. This should be true for any conditions of the meter accounting process and available credit, and for any supply voltage or temperature within the limit ranges of operation.

M-1.3.7 Effect of Power Outages

In the event of a power system outage interrupting the power supply to the payment meter, there should be no malfunction in the operation of the meter accounting process. All registers should retain their values prior to the power outage. For test purposes, any time-based charging functions should be inhibited. Refer to A-1.3 of lEG 62055-31 for testing.

M-1.4 Prepayment Mode - Token Handling and Data Integrity Requirements

M~ 1.4.1 Interruption to Taken Acceptance

Where a token carrier acceptor is fitted to a payment meter, a token carrier wiH be inserted into the token carrier acceptor and normally the data transfer process will be completed before token carrier withdrawal takes place. Where the token carrier

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can be withdrawn from the acceptor before the data transfer process is completed, then tho meter should be designed such that data on the token carrier should not be corrupted or lost and any data transferred to the payment meter should not be actioned until the token transaction is subsequently completed. Data corruption on the token carrier is permitted if the payment meter is able, from the information available, to reconstruct the appropriate data on the next insertion of the token carrier into the token carrier acceptor.

M-1.4.2 Rejection of Duplicate Tokens

Where payment system operation is based on meter-specific tokens for single use, the payment meter should ensure that no customer token intended for single use may be actioned more than once, including where token acceptance has been inte rrupted,

M-1.4.3 Rejection of Valid Tokens when Available Creditis Saturated

Where a valid token presented to the payment meter would result in the amount of available credit exceeding the maximum amount possible in the meter, then the token should be rejected. The token should not be erased or invalidated; presentation of a virtual token should result in an appropriate message being returned from the meter. It should be possible for the token to be presented and accepted at a later time when conditions then allow.

M-l .4.4 Secure Storage of Credit

The payment meter should be designed such that the amount of credit stored in the meter cannot be changed other than by legitimate means, for example with a valid token or message.

M-1.4.5 Tariff Security

Where the payment meter requires changes to tariff information held within it at any time, it should be designed such that the tariff information stored in the meter cannot be changed other than by legitimate means, for example with a valid token or message.

M-2 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS

The general requirements for operation of payment meter functionality over the temperature ranges and voltage ranges are given in 4.3.1 and 4.4.2.1 and their subclauses.

When testing payment meters under Clauses 4 and 5 (including any subclauses) a record of all relevant readings and status shall be made before and after each test or sequence of tests. The beginning and end readings shall then be

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roconciled with the testing procedure and duration to confirm the integrity of the meter accounting process. M-2.1 gives further details of these requirements.

M-2.1 Robustness of Meter Accounting Process

Although acceptable error limits are defined tor accuracy of energy measurement under nominal and influence conditions for electricity meters, there is not an equivalent acceptable error in the calculation of available credit on payment meters. In addition, the seltings and current operating modes of the meter shall not change spontaneously as a result of tesUng. Therefore, when testing a payment meter under 4 and 5 (including any sub-clauses), a record shall be made prior to each test or sequence of tests of all relevant registers, settings, status, and active modes, including:

• readings of all energy registers;

• readings of all energy-based rate settings (where monetary-based credit is

used);

• readings of all credit and debt values;

• the modes that are active.

and where the meter includes a timekeeping function:

• readings of all time-based charge or credit settings (where used);

• meter time/date; and

• offset of meter time from the time on the reference clock.

During each test, the amount of any token credit loaded into the meter shall be recorded.

At the end of each test or sequence of tests, these readings shall be recorded again. Further recordings may also be made when any settings are changed as part of the tests.

Unless specifically stated otherwise, a test or sequence of tests is passed only if the following conditions are also met:

• energy measurement is within the error limits specified for that test;

• the meter's timekeeping accuracy is within acceptable limits for the

timekeoping mode and the nature of the test;

• there are no changes in any energy-based rate setting;

• there are no chanqes in any time-based charge or credit setting;

• any changes in credit and debt values are exactly accounted for by: