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# Assignment 3: Pair production, Bragg’s reﬂection, De Broglie’s Hypothesis and Uncertainty principle Assignment 3: Wakelike properties of particles

1. In a diﬀraction experiment in which electrons of kinetic energy 110 eV are scattered from a crystal, a ﬁrst maximum in the intensity of the scattered electrons occurs at an angle θ = 10.7◦ . (a) What is the spacing between the crystal planes? (b) How many peaks will be there in the interference pattern? 2. Thermal neutrons incident on a sodium chloride crystal (interatomic spacing 2.81 ˚) undergo ﬁrst order diﬀraction from the principle Bragg planes at an angle A of 20◦ . What is the energy of the thermal neutrons? What is their temperature? (Use the principle of equipartition of energy treating the neutrons as point particles. The mass of a neutron is 1.67 × 10−27 kg.) 3. Calculate the kinetic energy of a proton of wavelength 0.5 fm? Use relativistic expressions. The rest mass of a proton is 1.67 × 10−27 kg. 4. A measurement establishes the position of a proton with an accuracy of ±1.00 × 10−11 m. Find the uncertainty in the proton’s position 1.00 sec later. Assume that the speed of the proton v c. Does the uncertainty increase or decrease with time?

5. An excited electron in an Na atom emits radiation at a wavelength 589 nm and returns to the ground state. If the mean time for the transition is about 20 ns, calculate the natural width of the emission line. What the “length” of the photon wavepacket? 6. Find the uncertainty in the location of a particle, in terms of its de Broglie wavelength λ, so that the uncertainty in its velocity is equal to its velocity. 7. Suppose at t = 0, a system is in a state given by the wavefunction, 1 ψ(x, 0) = √ |x| < a/2 a = 0 otherwise. If, at the same instant, the momentum of the particle is measured, what are the possible values that can be found and with what probability? One may like to use

Chapter 3 of Eisberg and Resnick; Due date: 28 September 2009

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Consider an electron with relativistic energy E = mc2 . Bragg’s reﬂection. 2m 2 (1) where ω is the frequency of the oscillator. The energy can also be expressed in terms of the relativistic momentum p and the rest mass. A harmonic oscillator has energy. You will notice that under some conditions. De Broglie’s Hypothesis and Uncertainty principle these results for the Fourier transformation between momentum and real spaces. Assume ∆p ∼ p and ∆x ∼ x. 0) e−ikx dx. E 2 = (m0 c2 )2 + (pc)2 . m being the relativistic mass. Due date: 28 September 2009 2 . Find the phase and group velocities of the electron. Special relativity tells us that no material particle can travel faster than light. Why do electron microscopes have a higher resolution than optical microscopes? 11. The momentum of a particle is precisely measured at k0 . E= p2 1 + mω 2 x2 . This means the wavepacket in momentum space is given by the delta function. Classically x = 0. 0) = A(k) = 1 2π A(k) eikx dk ψ(x. How do you resolve this paradox? 10. ψ(x. 8. What is the wavefunction in real space and how large is the position uncertainty? 9. p = 0 results in a minimum energy equal to zero. the phase velocity can exceed the speed of light. A(k) = δ(k − k0 ).Assignment 3: Pair production. Chapter 3 of Eisberg and Resnick. Now use the uncertainty principle to estimate the minimum energy.