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SUBJECT NAME: PHILOSOPHY IDEAS IN EDUCATION SUBJECT CODE: ELC 611

STUDENT NAME: SITI NOORKHAIRINA BINTI SOWTALI ID NUMBER: E 60109080002

Part A: Write a paper describing your philosophy of education. a) Issues discussed b) Discussion of the issues

Part B: Select any TWO Western philosophers (e.g. Plato and Locke) and any TWO Eastern philosophers (e,g. Confucius and al-Farabi). a) Compare and Contrast their views or opinions on the Goals or Aims of Education b) Their opinions and views on what should be taught in schools c) Your conclusions about their views on education PART A 1

The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose. students need schools that are more than test training grounds. For example. I see that both genres stressed upon moral values. Malaysia today’s educational goals are not much different from any other country around the world. writing and reading (3M) while in secondary education. a change of behavior will be acquired only when learning process take place.The realistic of Malaysia today’s educational goals. 2. learning process will not take place. process. Is Malaysia education curriculum relevant enough? 3. There are 4 main focus of my assignment regarding philosophy of education: 1. We stage the formal education into primary. Without interest or lacking of seeking for knowledge behavior. Therefore in my opinion philosophy and education will always be interrelated. students learned to apply theory knowledge into practice. PMR and SPM. They need schools that stir their imaginations and give them a chance to discover their deepest and most enduring interests. Those excellent will proceed to university in tertiary phase. the students were taught on how to write. nature and ideals of education. Aristotle. During their crucial formative years. As we know before this. Philosophy is defined as love and pursuit of wisdom by intellectual means and moral self-discipline. But. Have Malaysia government really cultivate education as main focus of its citizen? and 4. Do nowadays teachers able to mold Malaysian young generation into ‘somebody’ alone? My questions will always focusing on the ‘why’ question in order to stimulate myself to think rationally and reasonably. It can naturally be considered a branch of both philosophy and education. for example on how our understanding of the world is continually transformed via physical. It is necessary to have examination in order to distinguish who is good and who is the weak so that more academic attention will be given by the teachers to those needed. students need schools that help them decide what 2 . Confucius and Mencius regarded that education should cultivate good people while Socrates values education as a mechanism to teach children to distinguish from right and wrong. By understanding philosophy and education in combination. cognitive and transcendental experiences. secondary and tertiary. During these 3 phases all students will face 3 major examinations that are UPSR. In primary education. This can be within the context of education as a societal institution or more broadly as the process of human existential growth. emotional. Education is defined as the knowledge or skill obtained or developed by a learning process.

involved in free sex. Why all of these things happened after we had become an intellectual society? The answer is laid on the role of society itself. misused drugs and alcoholism even play prank on religion. However. They struggle because they wanted to be the best in terms of academic but not beyond that. Public officials must act in honorable and trustworthy ways if young people are to develop a sense of civic commitment. mentoring and encouragement that will help them identify their own moral. persuasive skills. It shows that our education system had applied philosophical concept of Al-Farabi and Mencius where it is government responsibility to produce intellectual society. even though the brilliant students managed to reach university level yet there is still graduates who remain jobless. a spirit of resourcefulness that enables a student to determine what is known and to go beyond it. we are too concentrating on producing intellect but forget to look on morality. Ultimately. All have been left unaddressed by the Ministry of Education because we are too busy counting the number of students who managed to get through Cambridge or Oxford and left behind more than 100 000 jobless graduates. they need schools that provide knowledge. Public figures must understand and accept their 3 . and a commitment to use whatever is learned to make a positive difference in the world. somehow I do agree that our Ministry of Education had deed prioritize education for its citizen and they work hard on it. Sadly to say. Academic learning should possess a desire to learn more. self-knowledge and problem-solving skills. Nowadays students are easily influenced by bad cultures for example vandalism. If the adults that children observed tend to be cynical and divisive in a self-serving manner. Young people always observe the adults in society for clues about what is worth pursuing and how best to pursue it. My next argument will be ‘Is Malaysia education curriculum relevant enough?’ I will dare to say that majority of the successful students who scored 10A’s 12 A’s or 17A’s for their SPM because they can ‘trigger’ what will come out for the SPM by consistently doing past years collection exercises.kind of person they wish to become. They have good result but why they remain jobless? This is because our education system are to exam-oriented training until we forgot to acquire the communication skills. an understanding of why academic learning is important. Those students from poor background are subsidized to make sure they received equal education as others. a compelling purpose to guide them through their journey in life. Even though I criticized exam oriented community. we can be sure that the children will take that as a cue for their own aspirations.

This will enable us to remove the veils of cynicism and detachment that now obstruct many students' views of what it means to be a citizen in a democratic society. doctor. in order to produce intellect society it needs to begin from home. Morality issue should also be stressed along with the academic aspect in order to produce insan kamil generation.responsibility to set positive examples for the young in our society. Community itself. we had did our job well. As the conclusion. teach to respect others in the community and stressed upon valuing the God as the highest power on the universe. Today. must take care of each other by showing the essence of caring. come to my last arguments. nurse. for these gave only life. It is not fair to burden the teacher alone to educate the child. The educated differ from the uneducated as much as the living from the dead”. it is not miracle not to notice who is our neighbor next door because we left behind the aspect of benevolence. do nowadays teachers able to mold Malaysia young generation into ‘somebody’ alone? Definitely the answer will be no. Now. Therefore. Parents should work hard in order to support the education of their child. The government had major role to revise the education system whether it is relevant to be applied in this era. those the art of living well.. Parents in the first place should be responsible to produce quality upbringing atmosphere for their child. I would like to quote the famous verse from Aristotle in his book Education “Those who educate children well are more to be honored than parents. They must answer with clarity and candor the "why" question about the goals they are trying to accomplish. Part B a) Compare and Contrast their views or opinions on the Goals or Aims of Education 4 . teacher but as long as the students could do virtue for the country. . It shows that education is important for nation. Each of us had to play the responsibility to prioritize education to produce intellect and high morality society.. Each of us who claimed ourselves as Malaysian had the responsibility to mold our young into ‘somebody’. Society always put the blame on the teacher whenever the students misbehave and did not do well in their examination. ‘Somebody’ here not merely being a lawyer.

mathematics and sciences. Somehow he had plays his role as an educator by building up the Lyceum. Mencius and Al-Farabi. While in eastern. Vietnam and Singapore.Philosopher is defined as an expert of philosophy. music. On the other hand. had adopted the western philosophy mostly the works of Plato and Aristotle and developed his own Islamic-Arabian civilization based on Al-Quran and As-Sunnah as the main sources. John Locke who was born in 1632 had a similar interest as Aristotle that is science. Aristotle was known for his work on science and logic but not much on education. In between of my research. nature. Al-Farabi who was born in 872 A. religion. chemistry and medicine.C. education. Aristotle argues that three things make men good and virtuous: Nature. John Locke. My scope would be a brief summary of their background. habit and rationality must be brought in harmony with one another. Korea. that is. Education is essential for the complete self-realization of man. had spread his educational influenced which based on his Master Confucius ideology until today in many Asia countries for example Japan.D. Mencius who was born in 372 B. But human has rationality to decide whether to be good or bad. He was famous for his writing in The Mencius which related to goodness. I will try to make a comparison between the philosophers’ views. and he was Plato’s student. their views on aims or goals of education and what were they emphasized during their time upon education curriculum. government. Even though he started with language and arts but throughout his life. There were too many names of philosopher to be mentioned here but for the purpose of this assignment. education should be directed towards the human ideal. who reduces the principles of philosophy to practice in the conduct of life. A human being is born (nature) with certain qualities but habit can change the person to be good or bad. being a gentlemen. Therefore. he did learned astronomy. According to Aristotle. John Locke had contribute towards education by developed the Theory of Knowledge in his book Essay Concerning Human Understanding as well as his ideas on education and children in Some Thoughts Concerning Education. Aristotle was born in 322 B. Humans 5 . botany. Besides philosophy. to be a happy man. who lives according to the rules of practical wisdom or one who meets or regards all vicissitudes with calmness. a university which pursue research and open to the public for learning purpose. Habit and Rationality. Al-Farabi also studied grammar. I will only focus on Aristotle. In Book VII of the Politics. One of Al-Farabi major contributions was introducing logic in Islamic education which before was such a sensitive issue.C. ritual and music. On the other hand.

I do agree with Aristotle view regarding education should emphasize for moral development and carried out not in such a stressful way. On the other hand. We destroyed student creativity as a child where one should work with peer to facilitate their knowledge and not facing the computer monitor every day. John Locke had developed Theory of knowledge which explains on how knowledge is acquired by a human being which had rejected the doctrine of innate ideas. The ultimate goal of education is freedom. the best moment of my schooling year is when I was in primary school. Today students has to carry lots of book to school and it is a burden if they travelling to school by bus where they are not usually have the chance to be seated.have a tendency to act against habit and nature when he or she is persuaded (rationality) to do so. But it is only through education that a person can be good or virtuous which will lead to happiness. Therefore. 6 . Another goal of education emphasized by Aristotle is education for leisure. But. memories. Environment will influence the upbringing of the child therefore parents will be responsible to choose the best method to mold its child for example provide personal tutor to monitor the child’s education. Students will feel tired by the time they reach school and cannot concentrate much in the class. if we keep on burden the students with homework and keep them in ‘isolated’ computer lab alone. But today teacher they are regulated to bound the students in computer lab and classes in other to finish the syllabus (content focus). imaginings and feeling. He rejected the notion of “innatism” which suggests that humans are born with innate ideas and which are universally acknowledged and he argued if innatism were true. My teacher love to bring the students to the school’s garden in other to facilitate learning through senses as well as to reduce the fatigue feeling being in a boring classroom. intelligence and a natural disposition towards virtue. leisure here it is not means not doing anything but it is the ability to know how to use one’s time usefully. humans would start as equals. Instead he suggested the concept of tabula rasa that a child is like a clean sheet of paper on which nothing has yet been written. I think my time was much better. One is born with certain natural gifts such as a healthy body. Besides that. According to John Locke. for happiness is impossible without education. associated with Plato (Aristotle’s teacher). The freedom Aristotle was talking about is achieved through contemplation or the philosophical life. If we compare with nowadays homework load as a student. the term “idea” relates to whatsoever a person understands when he or she thinks which includes sensation. the students will not enjoy study much.

Now. mental and physical capabilities of individuals were to some extent a product of nature rather than of nurture (innateness). to the extent that all within it follow the path of righteousness. But. Human had no innatism to control themselves. it has the knowledge of survival. he will grown up as virtuous and vice versa. By raising individual moral standards. It is impossible that anyone should have knowledge of something of which he is not conscious.John Locke stressed that all impressions or ideas come from experience as he said “Skills and knowledge are acquired by example and practice instead of charging of children's memories with rules and principals”. I will continue on the research of eastern philosopher that is Mencius and Al-Farabi view on education. I am not totally agrees with Locke’s opinion. again within our conscious level as we are created with precious mind. human can determined which path to be chosen. orderly and law-abiding. 7 . Human for example a baby. but never lost altogether. I do agree with Locke when he said we learned most from the environment. When we compare the ideology of Aristotle and John Locke. if the child were educated in right way. Somehow. John Locke’s statement remind me of Malay’s phrase “Anak ibarat kain putih. But. But. John Locke argued that human being is born like a piece of white clothe whereby the environment (nature) will be responsible to determine the human personalities. If human had innate ideas. On the other hand. But it is an undeniable fact that children and the unlearnt are not conscious of having innate ideas. we could see both of them had different view of human being. it shows that human does have innatism. He is most famous for his theory of human nature. They will cry if they feel hungry or they are not comfortable in order to attract his or her mother attention. ibu bapa yang bertanggungjawab mencorakkannya”. according to which all human beings share an innate goodness that either can be cultivated through education and self-discipline or squandered through neglect and negative influences. they acquired knowledge during the course of a lifetime. He argued that the differences in personalities. Mencius demonstrated that education plays a fundamental role in the development of society and of individuals alike. when he or she first born. Aristotle argued that human are naturally born to be good and nature could influenced them either to be good or bad. Thus. one would be conscious of having them. it renders society in its entirety more virtuous: the kingdom is well administered. human is such a special creature on earth as to compare with the animal as they have rationality to choose either to be bad or virtuous. which he might meant it as.

which is the highest perfection: the absolute good.Mencius emphasized on human malleability necessitated that the proper environment be created by benevolent leadership. for it is society that nurtures the individual and prepares him to be free. is a fundamental objective of education according to Al-Farabi. because “ignorance is more harmful in monarchs than it is in the common people”. but are without instruction. Morality. This emphasis is also preserved in the idiomatic Chinese phrase 孟 母 三 遷 (mèng mǔ sān qiān). and live in comfort. If he were to live outside society. He argues that “It is the way of people that if they are full of food. Theoretical and practical perfection can only be obtained within society. knowledge and practical skills by the individual. The goal of education is to lead the individual to perfection since the human being was created for this purpose. it is happiness and goodness at one and the same time. he might only learn to be a wild animal. have warm clothes. As an expression. then they come close to being animals”. The whole activity of education. From this statement it shows that any ruler should share this concern. within a particular period and a particular culture.’ It refers to the legend that Mencius' mother moved their house three times—from beside a cemetery. in al-Farabi’s view. and finally beside a school— before finding a location that she felt was suitable for his up-bringing. he/she must always show high morality attitude for example not involved in corruption. When moral behavior declines and there is doubt over behavior and opinions. as a Minister of Education. to beside a marketplace. can be summed up as the acquisition of values. and achieving this balance is one of the most important aims of education. One of the aims of education is the formation of political leaders. the idiom refers to the importance of a proper environment in raising children. which literally translated reads: ‘Mencius' mother. On the eastern community specifically the Persia education had played important social phenomena in Al-Farabi’s philosophical system. three moves. and should do everything in his/her power to make such an education available for their citizen. the absence of these common values governing people’s conduct disturbs the city. so too did it emphasize the necessity of proper education. Besides that. Therefore. government and political leader must play their role in establishing an education curriculum which balanced both learning and moral conducts. then. this perfection which he expects from education combines knowledge and virtuous behavior. So. and the goal of humanity’s existence in this world is to attain happiness. 8 . The soundness of the city is a reflection of “the good balance of morals among its people”.

b) Their opinions and views on what should be taught in schools c) Your conclusions about their views on education Now. it shows that as a human being we always seek for the best place in other to gain insight and knowledge. learner should do virtuous in order to achieve perfection and virtuous here should firstly to the God than to the society while Mencius stressed that a child should respect their parents and younger ones towards their elders. and perfection lies in its being transformed into action: ‘Whatever by its nature should be known and practiced. But nature could influence them either to choose the right or wrong pathway. 9 . They both stressed that education at first sake should focus to develop morality of individual thus the society. As AlFarabi mentioned “It is society that nurtures the individual and prepares him to be free. The concept of benevolence is widely applied in Al-Farabi education system where as a human being we earn to show our love and respect. Both of them believed in innatism as they said that human naturally born to be good. 2. The sciences have no meaning unless they can be applied in reality otherwise they are void and useless.Education according to Al-Farabi should combine learning with practical action.” Conducive environment will facilitate one’s learning and I really agree with Mencius’s mother who had intended 3 moving of their home in other to get ideal scenery for Mencius upbringing. Moreover. I will start with Aristotle. it seems that both of them had similar interest. VIII. al-Farabi had once isolated himself in order to seek for the truth in life and further his knowledge on God and the world. On the other hand. if the speculative sciences are learned without having the opportunity to apply them. its perfection lies in it actually being practiced’. The real practical sciences are those which are linked to readiness for action and absolute perfection is “what the human being achieves through knowledge and action applied together”. he might only learn to be a wild animal. Aristotle indicated that young people should be taught “such useful acquirements as are really necessary” (Politics. Thus. If he were to live outside society. I will continue my assignment on curriculum suggested by all 4 philosophers. Another interesting fact is that both Mencius and Al-Farabi are actually related to Aristotle’s ideology. According to Al-Farabi. this wisdom is marred. 1337 b 5) such as grammar. When we look back at Mencius and Al-Farabi aims on education. A civilized society will only be achieved when they are intellectually and behaviorally educate. for the purpose of knowledge is that it should be applied.

goalkeeper and players. It is a means of influencing moral character. May be. science. men become builders by building and lyre-players by playing the lyre” (Nichomachean Ethics. if the subject is taken too serious as other major subject like English or Mathematics. young people should be taught to fill their leisure time nobly. However. e. For example. In Book VIII of the Politics. Also. Besides taking physical education as mechanism to be healthy. They prefer to be hooked up in front of the computer playing games rather than making their body sweat. According to Aristotle. The purpose of physical training is not to produce champions but rather to bring pleasure. Perhaps. it also helps to built the sense of responsibility indirectly as it teach the young to be a leader. we learn by doing them. But I do not agree. music and physical training. Habit does not mean that students merely repeat what is learned but rather to actively involve. 10 . there will always be a captain. I will say that physical education should be taken serious because nowadays children are prone to poor lifestyle. one day if the students have no interest in pursuing their study to higher level. moral education. drawing. 6. He also stated that music education was of great value because it taught students listening skills as well brings them pleasure. But the training should not be too rigorous or brutal. Aristotle further suggested that teaching and learning should emphasized ‘habit’. Physical education or physical training had been stressed by Aristotle to keep the body healthy. in football game. emphasis should be on good music because certain melodies and rhythms are harmful to character. He stated that “neither the flute nor any other instrument requiring abnormal skill should be made part of the curriculum” (Politics.mathematics (especially geometry). Aristotle expressed his preference for music that was solemn. 1341 a 17). it must also help to form character. if they are lucky enough they could be one of the music professional on the eyes of the world like the pianist Marxis or Kenny G. physical training is not simply a matter for the body. Each of the members will play their role in game strategy and cooperate in order to win a game. He objected to the learning of music in which the student entertains an audience which should be left to hired musicians.g. Aristotle emphasized that music education should be introduced only if it is for the sake of improving oneself. He stated that “for things we have to learn before we can do them. VIII. I think it is very significant to learn music while in school as a mechanism to release stress. they could make full use of their ability to teach other people and earn some salary. Music could help student develop their hinder ability which before this is not noticeable.

1. For working classes. 1. for gentlemen . Education by right should be received equally by all citizens. detailed learning is only for those who would become scholars which one should know in detail what is directly useful in managing personal affairs. 1103 b 1-2). not without justice. John Locke had suggested in his curriculum that learning should be superintended by a tutor assisted by genuinely interested parents. In my opinion. but they do not know why it is.learn by practice. Locke believed that when teaching one should begin with plain. Correct their student if we think it is necessary to do so. Methods for poor . Complementing education by habit is education through reason. to arouse and then rely on desires. if the parents could afford to hire the best tutor in the world yet their child is not motivated to learn. Learning that gentlemen should possess is general. students are not passive but are actively involved in the teaching and learning process. whereas men of learning know the reason and the cause”. as long as one interested to learn further. we should always ask the ‘why’ question in order to stimulate the students to generate their ideas and reasons. II. “Men of experience know that a thing is. On the other hand. It is bad to spoon fed the students with our opinion and view because it kills student creativity and definitely they will not think out of the cave. Even. Do respect their answer even how funny it may seem. Locke idea on teaching methodology is excellent as he emphasized on 11 . 1103 b 1-2). while letting them think. In other words. simple and build on children’s existing knowledge. I think as long as we are shouldering the role of teacher. The idea of having a private tutor is good but not all people could afford to get one. In moral education “we become just by doing just acts. Locke said the best way to get men to do what is wanted is not to terrify or force them but to motivate them. temperate by doing temperate acts. then it will be a waste. I will say that Locke was such an unfair educator because he streams education on the role of the society. that they are acting for their own sakes and of their own free will. we should stimulate the students to think. poor children of both sexes between the ages of 3-14 should be compelled to attend school with "teachers". As an educator. Therefore. Education through reason is when students understand the causes of things.bring pupil to practice the activities of the gentlemanly ideal until they become habitual. Teachers should emphasize the interconnections between topics and between subjects.II. brave by doing brave acts” Nichomachean Ethics. they deserved to be given encouragement and opportunity to pursue their education.

has various tones of voice and actively involved student in two way communication. usually we will relate back to the anatomy and physiology of the heart. Again. many primary students develop stress easily and some of them even had attempted suicide because they were burden to learn tough subject at irrelevant age. s. according to the pupil. In order to make students understand better. Children should be taught to read in English at the earliest possible age as soon as they can talk. Locke and Mencius were in the same boat with the use of simple language in improving student knowledge. Mencius emphasized that each educator should know to whom they are talking to and to adapt teaching to each individual’s aptitudes. trade and gardening during h. But the learning should not be exasperating. in order to know how does heart attack happens. the student had the pre-existing knowledge on the structure of heart and they will understand better the formation of heart attack by explaining using the picture of heart. Many of them was forced by the parents to compete with each other to get the best result thus not have a chance to value their experience as a children. fencing. monotonous sound and dull power point presentation. From my own experience as a student. At the same time he/she do jokes not necessarily excessive to reduce the tension during learning session. usually we will easily will get bored if the lecturer delivered his/her presentation with full of words. While on the eastern view. This is because. He said that playing music is such a waste of time. Lay down strict criteria and encourage personal initiative. Students will only fully awake during the lecture if the lecturer able to grab the student attention by delivering the lecture with colorful pictures on the power point slides. especially animals” (Thoughts. As emphasized by Lock student should enjoy in acquiring learning process instead of suffering. It seems that. For example. Their approach is necessary to be applied in 12 . It shows that. However. setting the aims and then leaving pupils to practice and learn their lessons by themselves. I will say that I agree with his view because in Singapore. there is a difference of view between Locke and Aristotle. But he encourage dancing. “Books should contain pictures. we should relate to what the student had already learnt. 156). Locke views on playing instrument and music was contrasted with Aristotle. in Nursing. Locke was only concentrate on task that brings benefit.student understanding. He also emphasized that not to put much stress on child to learn something as it may lead to lack of interest. I think he had a good approach in order to deliver interesting learning environment. adopting a lively and flexible approach that can be varied. Learning should be fun and suggested the use of play to learn the alphabets. It is better to lose a whole year rather than have children hate learning at an early stage.

so that you are able to give detailed explanations. Mencius himself often used analogy to support his arguments and simple images to clarify obscure points. I will have to make sure my English is fluent by practicing to speak broken English first. the foundation for all other kinds of knowledge. a good lecturer should come equipped during the lecture. But. Without this ability. and this is why. it is also closely connected with language. I cannot deny the importance of mastery English as a second language because all source of information mostly found in English. instead of using Hypertension phrase I could substitute with increase blood pressure. and he will not develop properly. for example its grammar. I can deny that I admired al-Farabi because he had changed my perception on the use of language. when I come to university level. Mastery of the common language. For example. Therefore. able to answer to students question until they reach understanding and do a lot of research on teaching materials to enhance teaching delivery. so that the student can express himself as do the people who speak that language. in his opinion. and prepares the way 13 .Nursing because as an educator. I thought learning English was useless because our national language is Bahasa Melayu. Base arguments on analogy and use comparisons to explain things. speak knowledgeably and in great detail. Al-Farabi was keenly aware of the value of language since he spoke several languages himself that allowed him to compare cultures and tongues. the instrument of the sciences and their methodology. At the same time in order to make myself confidence in communication. and leads to sound reflection. Last time. illustrate the most complex concepts with common examples taken from everyday life. Likewise. he will not be able to understand others nor they him. he often used easily understandable comparisons to reply to questions or to solve problems. Mencius also stressed on saying profound things simply. It is an added value if you can speak Mandarin as the third language because when we go abroad especially to China for business purpose. the sequence of learning must begin with the language and its structure. it will be a pleasure if you can speak their language. Other language that now seems to be important too is Mandarin. After languages comes logic. I cannot use too many medical jargons during my first lecture as the students had no pre-existing knowledge yet. Furthermore. Use simple words to explain complex ideas and make sure that your own knowledge is extensive. teaching pupils what they do not know on the basis of what they do know. For Al-Farabi. language comes before rules about forming the mind. is therefore indispensable. the Arabic word for ‘logic’ (mantiq) includes both verbal expression and intellectual procedures.

vegetable. In Nursing field. and so on. dynamics and science of machines. With this. then the natural sciences whose subject is matter (animal. From Al-Farabi approached. a student can use what they know or had already learned (schema) and relate to something that are new to them for better understanding. As they developed the skills. like perspectives (optics)”. the science of perspectives. this wisdom is marred. then to the other things to which numbers and Magnitudes essentially belong. the student will gain confidence 14 . then ascends to magnitudes (measures). Al-Farabi’s explanation for beginning instruction with mathematics numbers and magnitudes do not allow for any confusion. I think he is a very systematic person which he focused on the easiest first than to the toughest task. what type of drugs necessary for injection and how to administer injection at the patient. Geometry comes after arithmetic. then to what needs some matter. music. Al-Farabi divides mathematics into seven parts: numbers (arithmetic). where to inject. since it is an important stage in the hierarchy of the theoretical sciences: “Whosoever desires to learn the theoretical art begins with numbers. and train the student’s intellect in that path. With regards to the sciences Al-Farabi argued teaching the subject have no meaning unless they can be applied in practical reality otherwise they are void and useless. AlFarabi considers that arithmetic comes first. etc. scientific astronomy (contrasted with astrology). By using this way. For a beginner.). for it depends on demonstrations “giving us certain knowledge and banishing all uncertainty”. astronomy. Then comes mathematics. and arithmetic is one of the basic tools. Moreover. and perfect order reigns. from the immaterial and the immeasurable. Then there is perspectives. It just like an English phrase “Practice makes perfect”. geometry. if the speculative sciences are learned without having the opportunity to apply them. The study of optics. mineral. They are an example of precision and clarity. we teach the student apply the concept of injection at the dummies. The student must proceed in stages to different levels of mathematics. The real practical sciences “are those which are linked to readiness for action” and absolute perfection is “what the human being achieves through knowledge and action applied together”. dynamics and last of all mechanics. which the Muslim philosophers call ‘the teachings’ (ta’alim).for it. we will let the student to administer injection to real patient but under close supervision. music. we teach student what is injection. astronomy and the natural sciences in general requires mathematics. Geometry has two methods: that of analysis and that of structure.

He differs from Plato in that he gives a fundamental place to sensory perception. in Arabic. then jurisprudence (fiqh). jurisprudence and academic theology. The link between the natural sciences and theology is. Knowledge originates with the senses. one who is well-regarded”. logic. in his opinion. Al-Farabi also speaks about ‘primary science’ and ‘primary principals’. For he would not be acceptable to those under his command nor would they respect him. Al-Farabi drew attention to Aristotle’s opinion in The Book of Demonstrations when he said: “Whosoever loses a sensory perception loses knowledge”. theology. ruler or philosopher who should be responsible. In short. Al-Farabi’s curriculum is confined to a group of sciences. In short. just as the whole is greater than the part. He describes the senses as “the paths whence the human soul gains knowledge”. Following the exact sciences comes theology. civics (political science). Knowledge thus begins with the senses. and only then make them compulsory”. Issuing laws for society does not simply mean “that citizens should be obedient and diligent. Al-Farabi believed that the human has certain inborn aptitudes. since whatever the soul understands contains an element of imagination. the human soul. No normal human being lacks it. then the human sciences (political science in particular). the ‘teachings’ (mathematics).and experienced on understanding the differences in administering the injection to real human and dummies. Therefore al-Farabi considers that the one who prescribes the laws must be bound by them himself before expecting others to conform to them: “The one who sets the laws must first follow them. And since the lawgiver is also the ruler. which he calls ‘nature’. graded as follows: science of language. al-Farabi agrees with Plato and the ‘Twelver Shica’ that it is the priest. One function of the imagination is to preserve the 15 . and which he could not have acquired”. then becomes an intellectual conception by way of imagination. even though it has a metaphysical aspect. indicates one whose example is followed. if they did not see him observing his own laws. the law has an educational function since it leads to the inculcation of virtues when the leaders conform to it themselves and are seen as role models for the general public. law (qanun) and academic theology (kalam). natural science. Concerning the realization of these aims and the supervision of education and teaching. “in other words the power which the human being possesses at the moment of birth. but also that they should have praiseworthy morals and acceptable behavior”. which he considers to be among the natural sciences. al-Farabi concludes that the law has an educational function: “The meaning of imam.

Some of his views. Human can only come to the stage of self-actualization if they practice philosophy. Students who learned by force will lost their interest towards education. dealing with what today we would call general psychology and educational psychology should be the subject of an interesting study. in the end. I believe that we become a wiser person when we get older as our knowledge had increased. sociology and anthropology in order to built intellectuality. Besides that. It works hand in hand with lots of field for example psychology. As mention by all the four philosophers. simple language and emphasized on practice but do not attempt to force student. we gain it through education and practice morality in life. As the conclusion philosophy and education cannot stand alone. we as an educator should teach our students in simple method. Harassment and unfairness could lead to demoralization. 16 . We should always encourage practicing good behavior in our young generation and treat them equally. In order to live in philosophical value. we learn from observation on human behavior and sometimes role-modelling them. to acquire knowledge. education should focus on developing morality of the society. become intellectual possessions. At the same time society also play an important function to keep an eye on each other.sensory images which. Therefore. This is because throughout our life.