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College of Engineering Mech. Eng. Dept

Waleed Kh. Al-Ashtari
Modern Automatic Control 2006 - 2007

Root-Locus Analysis
INTRODUCTION: The basic characteristic of the transient response of a closed loop system is closely related to the location of the closed loop poles. If the system has a variable loop gain, then the location of the closed loop poles depends on the value of the loop gain chosen. It is important, therefore, that the designer know how the closed loop poles move in the s-plane as the loop gain is varied. The closed loop poles are the roots of the characteristic equation. A simple method for finding the roots of the characteristic equation has been developed by W. R. Evans and used extensively in control engineering. This method, called the root-locus method, is one which the roots of the characteristic equation are plotted for all values of a system parameter. The roots corresponding to particular value of this parameter can then be located on the resulting graph. Note that the parameter is usually the gain but any other variable of the open loop transfer function may be used. Unless otherwise stated, we shall assume that the gain of the open loop transfer function is the parameter to be varied through all values, from zero to infinity. ROOT-LOCUS PLOTS Ex.(6-1): Consider the system shown in Fig.(6-1). Sketch the root-locus plot and then determine the value of K such that the damping ratio ζ of a pair of dominant complex conjugate closed loop poles is 0.5.

Fig.(6-1) Sol:
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the angle condition becomes G ( s) H ( s) = K s ( s +1)( s +2) =− s − s + − s +2 =±8 1 10  ( 2k + ). s + 2 =0 2 . Al-Ashtari Modern Automatic Control 2006 . )  Magnitude condition G ( s) H ( s) = K =1 s ( s +1)( s +2) A typical procedure for sketching the root-locus plot is as follows: •There are no finite zeros of G(s)H(s) (on graph represented by ) (The number of zeros is 0) •The finite poles of G(s)H(s) are (s = 0. then s =180  . s +1 = s + 2 = 0   − s − s +1 − s + 2 = −180 The angle condition is satisfied Therefore. The test point on the negative real axis between 0 and -1. 1 ( k =0. Eng.2007 For this system G(s) = K . s = -1. • The test point on the negative real axis between -1 and -2.. s ( s + 1)( s + 2) H (s) = 1  Angle Conditions For the given system. 2. Determine the root locus on the real axis. The test point are selected at real positive real axis s = s +1 = s + 2 =0  • This shows that the angle condition can not be satisfied. then s = s +1 =180  . the portion of the negative real axis between 0 and -1 a portion of a root locus. s = -2) (on graph represented by x) (The number of poles is 3) 1. • Thus. Dept Waleed Kh. 3. College of Engineering Mech. There is no root locus on the positive real axis. 1.

∞ a portion of a root locus. 2. then − s − s +1 − s + 2 = −540  The angle condition is satisfied Therefore. and 180  All the asymptotes intersect on the real axis at (substituting the values without Now. Eng.(6-2) 3 . 1. the portion of the negative real axis between -1 and -2 is not a part of a root locus. So.Therefore. ± 180  ( 2k + 1) . 3. and the angles of asymptotes are there signs)  ( p + p 2 +  + p n ) − ( z1 + z 2 +  + z m )  σ = − 1  n−m    ( 0 + 1 + 2) − ( 0)  σ = −  = −1 3−0   60  .. •The test point on the negative real axis between -2 and − s = s +1 = s +2 = 8 10  ∞ . there are three asymptotes. Determine the asymptotes of the root loci. College of Engineering Mech.2007 The angle condition is not satisfied. the portion of the negative real axis between -2 and − 2. Al-Ashtari Modern Automatic Control 2006 . collect the obtained information and sketch Fig. − 60  . Dept − s − s +1 − s + 2 = −360  Waleed Kh. ) Where n number of finite poles of G(s)H(s) And m number of finite zeros of G(s)H(s) Since the angle repeats itself as k is varied. n −m The number of distinct asymptotes is n – m Angle of Asymptotes = ( k = 0.

5774 Since the breakaway is must be located between 0 and -1. for a negative feedback control system we have 1 + G ( s) H ( s) = 0 The characteristic equation for the given system is K +1 = 0 s ( s +1)( s + 2) or so And s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + K = 0 K = −( s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s ) dK = −(3s 2 + 6 s + 2) = 0 ds Find the roots of the obtained equation as s = -0.4226 and s = -1. Eng. College of Engineering Mech.points The characteristic equation of the system is obtained by putting the denominator of the closed loop transfer function equal to zero.2007 Fig. Al-Ashtari Modern Automatic Control 2006 . Substitute the s = -0.5774 is not actual a breakaway point.4226 in the characteristic equation we get K = 0.4226.. so s = -0.3849 4 . Dept Waleed Kh.(6-2) 3. and s = -1. Determine the breakaway and the break-in .

Eng.(6-3) As shown in Fig. equation Determine the points where the root loci cross the imaginary axis This points is found by using Routh’s stability criterion. Al-Ashtari Modern Automatic Control 2006 . that is 3s 2 + K = 3s 2 + 6 = 0 s =±j 2 The frequencies at the crossing points on the imaginary axis are thus ω = ± gain value corresponding to the crossing point is K = 6. The Chose a test pint in the broad neighborhood of the jω axis and the origin.. 5. any point on the root loci must satisfy the angle condition θ1 + θ 2 + θ 3 = 180  Continue this process and locate a sufficient number of points satisfy this condition 5 . Fig. from the characteristic s3 s2 s1 s0 1 3 6−K 3 K 2 K The value of K that makes the equation obtained from the Yield s2 s1 terms in the first column equal zero is K = 6. 2. Dept Waleed Kh. The crossing points on the imaginary axis can then be found by solving the auxiliary row.(6-3).2007 4. College of Engineering Mech.

Al-Ashtari Modern Automatic Control 2006 . the third pole as found at s = -2. based on the information obtained in the foregoing steps. 5 lie on lines passing through the origin and with the negative real axis as shown in Fig. Dept Waleed Kh. Draw the root loci.5 The closed loop poles with ζ making angles (6-4).(6-4) After we have drawn the root loci.3337 + j 0.3337 − j 0.3 3 + j 0. The values of K that yields such poles is found from the magnitude condition as follow K = s ( s +1)( s +2) s = 0. College of Engineering Mech. Eng.5 = ±60  . r2 = −0.5780 = 0.5780..(6-4) Fig. ± cos ζ = ± cos 0. as shown in Fig.5 0 − 37 78 = 1.3326 6 . now we will solve the question objective Determine the complex conjugate closed loop poles such that the damping ratio is 0.2007 6.0383 Using this value of K. The poles are r1 = −0.

(6-2): Draw the complete root locus for the system shown in Fig.7 Sol: For this system G ( s) = K ( s + 2) s + 2s + 3 2 . As shown in Fig. Al-Ashtari Modern Automatic Control 2006 .5780 )r3 = 1. s = −1 − j 2 A typical procedure for sketching the root-locus plot is as follows: •There are one zero for G(s)H(s) (on graph represented by ) •There are two poles of G(s)H(s) (on graph represented by x) 1. Determine the root locus on the real axis. College of Engineering Mech. Thus the net effect of the complex conjugate poles is zero on the real axis 7 ..5780 )( −0.(6-6). the sum of the angular contributions of the complex conjugate poles is 360  . Dept Waleed Kh.(6-5). H (s) = 1 It is seen that G(s) has a pair of complex conjugate poles at s = −1 + j 2 .(6-5) And find the value of K at which the complex conjugate closed loop poles have the damping ratio of 0.3337 + j 0.3326 Ex. Eng.3337 − j 0. Where K ≥ 0 Fig.0383 found at r3 = -2.2007 ( r1 )( r2 )( r3 ) = K (−0. • For any test point s on the real axis.

Eng.2007 • The location of the root locus on the real axis is determined from the open loop zero on the negative real axis.(sum of the angles of vectors to a complex pole from other poles) + (sum of the angles of vectors to a complex The angle of departure is then θ 1 = 180  − 90  + 55  = 145 8 .. Al-Ashtari Modern Automatic Control 2006 . and the angle coincides with the negative real axis.(6-7) θ1 = 180  − θ 2 + φ1 180  . Determine the asymptotes of the root loci. College of Engineering Mech.(6-6) 2.2 −∞ is a part of root locus. there is one asymptote. Dept Waleed Kh. ) Since the angle repeats itself as k is varied. A section that between . 3. 2. 1. Determine angle of departure from the complex conjugate open loop poles Angle of departure from a complex pole = zero in question from poles) Referring to Fig. Fig. So. The number of distinct asymptotes is n – m Angle of Asymptotes = ± 180  ( 2k + 1) . 3. n −m ( k = 0.

s = −0.2680 is not on the root locus.. Since the point s = −0. Dept Waleed Kh. Hence this point is an actual break in point. Determine the break-in point The system characteristic equation is s 2 + 2 s + 3 + K ( s + 2) = 0 or K =− s 2 + 2s + 3 s+2  (2 s + 2)( s + 2) − ( s 2 + 2 s + 3)  dK = − =0 ds ( s + 2) 2     This gives s 2 + 4s + 1 = 0 The roots of this equation s = −3. Eng. Al-Ashtari Modern Automatic Control 2006 . it can not be a break in point 9 .7320 is on the root locus.7320 . And the corresponding K value is 5. the angle of departure from the pole at s = − p 2 is 145  4.4641.2680 Notice that point s = −3.2007 Fig.(6-7) Since the root locus is symmetric about the real axis. College of Engineering Mech.

34 Typical Pole-Zero Configurations and Corresponding Root Loci. College of Engineering Mech. and computing the value of K from the magnitude condition as follow K = ( s +1 − j 2 )( s +1 + j s +2 2) s = .7 1 =1.67 + j1. To determine the accurate root loci. Eng. Al-Ashtari Modern Automatic Control 2006 . we show several open loop pole zero configurations and their corresponding root loci in Table (6-1).(6-8) . The pattern of the root loci depends only on the relative separation of the open loop poles and zeros. Fig. Sketch a root locus plot.7 can be found by locating the roots as shown in Fig. Dept Waleed Kh.2007 5.(6-8) shows a complete root locus plot for the given system.. 10 .(6-8) The value of K at which the complex conjugate closed loop poles have the damping ratio of 0. several points must be found by trail and error between the break in point and the complex open loop poles. Fig. In summarize. based on the information obtained in the forgoing steps.

Al-Ashtari Modern Automatic Control 2006 . Eng. (the gain K is assumed to be positive) 11 ..2007 Table (6-1) Ex.(6-9a). Dept Waleed Kh. College of Engineering Mech.(6-3): Sketch the root loci for the system shown in Fig.

2.634 . they are accrual breakaway or break in points. Locate the open loop poles and zeros on the complex plane.2007 Figs. At point s = −0.(6-9) Sol: 1. College of Engineering Mech. Al-Ashtari Modern Automatic Control 2006 . The characteristic equation for the system is 1+ K ( s + 2)( s + 3) =0 s ( s + 1) s ( s + 1) ( s + 2)( s + 3) Or K =− The breakaway and break in points are determined from (2s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 3) − s ( s + 1)( 2 s + 5) dK =− =0 ds [ ( s + 2)( s + 3)] 2 The roots are s = −0.634 . the value of K is 12 .. This means there are no asymptotes in the complex region of the s plane 3. Therefore. and between -2 and -3. Determine the breakaway and break in points. Dept Waleed Kh. Eng. The number of the open loop poles and that of finite zeros are the same. s = −2.366 Notice that both points are on root loci. Root loci exist on the negative real axis between 0 and -1.

(6-10a).366 )( 0. Note that the system is stable for any value of K since the entire root loci lay in the left half s plane Ex. Al-Ashtari Modern Automatic Control 2006 . 4. It can be found that the root loci involve a circle with center at -1. it is a break in point. College of Engineering Mech.366 ) = 0. at s = −2..366 )( −1.634 lies between two poles. A root locus branch exists on the real axis between the origin and -∞. Eng.(69b).366 ) =14 ( −0. The root locus plot for this system is shown in Fig.5 that pass through the breakaway and break in points.366 )( 2. K =− ( −2. and because point s = −2. Determine a sufficient number of points that satisfy the angle condition.634 ) Because point s = −0. 13 .0718 (1.(6-10) Sol: • • The open loop poles are located at s = 0.366 lies between two zeros.634 )( 0. s = −3 + j 4.(6-4): sketch the root loci of the control system shown in Fig.366 ) Similarly. it is a breakaway point.2007 K =− ( −0. Figs.366 . and s = −3 − j 4. Dept Waleed Kh.

Hence. or ω = 0. The angle of departure from the complex pole in the upper half s plane is θ = 180  − 126 .87  − 90  Or • θ = −36 .0817 the angle condition is not satisfied. Eng.0817 . − 60  . s = −2 ± j 2. they are neither breakaway nor break in points. Al-Ashtari Modern Automatic Control 2006 . K = 150 .. from the characteristic K = −s ( s 2 + 6 s + 25 ) equation for this system we have dK = −(3s 2 + 12 s + 25) = 0 ds Which yields Notice that at points • s = −2 + j 2. Dept Waleed Kh. and s = −2 − j 2.87  The points where root locus branches cross the imaginary axis may be s = jω found by substituting into the characteristic equation and solving the equation for ω and K as follows noting that the characteristic equation is s 3 + 6 s 2 + 25s + K = 0 We have ( jω) 3 + 6( jω) 2 + 25 ( jω) + K = (−6ω 2 + K ) + jω( 25 − ω 2 ) = 0 Which yields ω = ±5. K =0 PROBLEMS 1) Sketch the root loci for the system shown in Fig.2007 • There are three asymptotes for the root loci Angle of Asymptotes = ± 180  ( 2k + 1) = 60  . 180  3 • The asymptotes are intersect at 0 + 3 + 3 σ = −  = −2 3   • We check the breakaway and break in points.(6-11a) 14 . College of Engineering Mech.0817 .

.(6-12a) Figs. Al-Ashtari Modern Automatic Control 2006 . H ( s) = 1 3) Plot the root loci for the closed loop control system with G(s) = K ( s + 4) ( s + 1) 2 . Dept Waleed Kh.(6-12) 2) Plot the root loci for the closed loop control system with G(s) = K ( s + 1) s2 . Eng.(6-11) 1) Sketch the root loci for the system shown in Fig.2007 Figs. H (s) = 1 15 . College of Engineering Mech.

Eng. H (s) = 1 7) Plot the root loci for the closed loop control system with G(s) = K ( s + 9) s ( s 2 + 4 s + 11) .2007 6) Plot the root loci for the closed loop control system with G (s) = K s ( s + 1)( s 2 + 4 s + 5) . Dept Waleed Kh. Al-Ashtari Modern Automatic Control 2006 . H (s) = 1 16 .. College of Engineering Mech.