VLSI/FPGA Design and Test Flow with Mentor Graphics CAD Tools

Victor P. Nelson

ASIC Design Flow
Behavioral Model

Verify Function Front-End Design Verify Function Full-custom IC

Synthesis DFT/BIST & ATPG Test vectors Standard Cell IC & FPGA/CPLD DRC & LVS Verification Gate-Level Netlist

Transistor-Level Netlist

Verify Function & Timing Back-End Design Verify Timing

Physical Layout

IC Mask Data/FPGA Configuration File

Physical Design – FPGA
(same front end design)
Component-Level Netlist

Xilinx “ISE” Altera “Max Plus 2”

Map to FPGA LUTs, FFs, IOBs FPGA/PLD Technology Files

User-Specified Constraints

Place & Route

Generate Programming Data Configuration File

Generate Timing Model

Simulation Model

ASIC CAD tools available in ECE
Modeling and Simulation
Modelsim, ADVance MS/Questa, Eldo, Mach TA/ADiT Verilog-XL, NC_Verilog, Spectre

Design Synthesis (digital)
Leonardo Spectrum, Precision RTL Design Compiler (Synopsys), RTL Compiler (Cadence)

Design for Test and Automatic Test Pattern Generation
DFT Advisor, Fastscan, Flextest

Schematic Capture & Design Integration
Design Architect-IC Design Framework II (DFII) – Composer

Physical Layout
IC Station SOC Encounter, Virtuoso

Design Verification
Calibre Diva, Assura

Red – Mentor Graphics Blue – Cadence/Synopsys

Mentor Graphics Analog/Mixed-Signal IC Design Flow
Technology-specific netlist from front-end tools

Mentor Graphics CAD Tools
(select from “eda” list in user-setup on the Sun network)
ICFlow** – For custom & standard cell IC designs
IC flow tools (Design Architect-IC, IC Station, Calibre) Digital/analog/mixed simulation (Modelsim,ADVance MS,Eldo,MachTA) HDL Synthesis (Leonardo) ASIC Design Kit (ADK) - Support files for various technologies


ATPG/DFT/BIST tools (DFT Advisor, Flextest, Fastscan) Modelsim** (HDL Simulation) FPGA (FPGA Advantage, Modelsim, Leonardo) *Xilinx/ISE (Xilinx FPGA/CPLD - back end design) *QuartusII (Altera FPGA/CPLD - back end design) *Ims/6.2 (IMS chip tester) ** Installed on both Solaris and Linux servers * Vendor-Provided (Not Mentor Graphics) Tools

Mentor Graphics ASIC Design Kit (ADK)
Technology files & standard cell libraries
AMI: ami12, ami05 (1.2, 0.5 μm) TSMC: tsmc035, tsmc025, tsmc018 (0.35, 0.25, 0.18 μm)

IC flow & DFT tool support files:
VHDL/Verilog/Mixed-Signal models (Modelsim/ADVance MS) Analog (SPICE) models (Eldo/Accusim) Post-layout timing (Mach TA)

Synthesis to standard cells (LeonardoSpectrum) Design for test & ATPG (DFT Advisor, Flextest/Fastscan) Schematic capture (Design Architect-IC) IC physical design (standard cell & custom)
Floorplan, place & route (IC Station) Design rule check, layout vs schematic, parameter extraction (Calibre)

Xilinx/Altera FPGA/CPLD Design
Technology files & libraries for front-end design with Mentor Graphics tools
Schematic symbols for Design Architect Simulation models for Quicksim II, Quicksim Pro Synthesis library for Leonardo

Vendor tools for back-end design
(map, place, route, configure, timing) Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE)
Xilinx XST can synthesize the design from VHDL or Verilog (instead of Leonardo)

Altera Quartus II & Max+Plus2

Front-end design & verification
VHDL Verilog SystemC Modelsim Create Behavioral/RTL HDL Model(s) VHDL-AMS Verilog-A

Synopsys Design Compiler Leonardo Spectrum, Xilinx ISE (digital)

Simulate to Verify Functionality

ADVance MS

(analog/mixed signal)
Technology Libraries Design Constraints

Synthesize Circuit

Simulate to Verify Function/Timing Technology-Specific Netlist to Back-End Tools

VITAL Library

ADVance MS
Digital, Analog, Mixed-Signal Simulation
VHDL,Verilog, VHDL-AMS, Verilog-A, SPICE Netlists Working Library Design_1 Design_2 SPICE models


IEEE 1164 Resource Libraries

Simulation Setup

ADVance MS

Input Stimuli Mixed Signal (VHDL-AMS, Verilog-A)

Eldo, Eldo RF Analog Mach TA (SPICE) Mach PA

EZwave or Xelga View Results

ModelSim Digital (VHDL,Verilog)

ADVance MS : mixed-signal simulation
A/D converter digital analog

ADVance MS: mixed Verilog-SPICE

Verilog top (test bench)

SPICE subcircuit

Automated Synthesis with Leonardo Spectrum
VHDL/Verilog Behavioral/RTL Models

Technology Synthesis Libraries FPGA ASIC ADK AMI 0.5, 1.2 TSMC 0.35, 0.25

Leonardo Spectrum (Level 3)

Design Constraints

TechnologySpecific Netlist VHDL, Verilog, SDF, EDIF, XNF

Level 1 – FPGA Level 2 – FPGA + Timing Level 3 – ASIC + FPGA (we have Level 3 ASIC only)

Automated Synthesis with Synopsys Design Compiler
VHDL/Verilog Behavioral/RTL Models

Technology Synthesis Libraries ASIC DW Synopsys DesignWare Component Library

Design Compiler (shell) Design Vision (GUI)

Design Constraints

TechnologySpecific Netlist Verilog, SDF, DDC database, SDC constraints, REP report

Leonardo – ASIC Synthesis Flow

Synthesize generic gates & modules

Map to technology cells & optimize

Read & check HDL

Write netlist, SDF, reports

Synthesis example
1. Load technology library: 2. 3. 4. 5.

tsmc035 (ASIC), or Xilinx Spartan2 (FPGA) Load design file: modulo7.vhd Specify constraints: clock freq, delays, etc. Optimization: effort, performance vs. area Write synthesized netlist output(s): modulo7_0.vhd : VHDL netlist for ModelSim & DFT modulo7.v : Verilog netlist for import into DA-IC modulo7.sdf : For ModelSim to study timing modulo7.edf : EDIF netlist for 3rd party tools modulo7.xnf : Xilinx netlist for Xilinx ISE

Behavioral model to be synthesized
-- modulo-7 counter with asynchronous reset and synchronous load/count library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; use ieee.numeric_std.all; entity modulo7 is port( count,load,reset,clk: in std_logic; I: in unsigned(2 downto 0); -- “unsigned” form of std_logic_vector Q: out unsigned(2 downto 0)); -- defined in IEEE “numeric_std” package end modulo7; architecture Behave of modulo7 is signal Q_s: unsigned(2 downto 0); begin process (reset,clk) begin if (reset='0') then Q_s <= "000"; elsif (clk'event and (clk='1')) then if (count = '1') and (Q_s = "110") then Q_s <= "000"; elsif (count='1') then Q_s <= Q_s + 1; elsif (load='1') then Q_s <= I; end if; end if; end process; Q<=Q_s; end;

Synthesized netlist (1)
-- Definition of modulo7 -- Thu Sep 21 10:48:09 2006 -- LeonardoSpectrum Level 3, 2005a.82 -library IEEE; use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.all; entity modulo7 is port ( count : IN std_logic ; load : IN std_logic ; reset : IN std_logic ; clk : IN std_logic ; I : IN std_logic_vector (2 DOWNTO 0) ; Q : OUT std_logic_vector (2 DOWNTO 0)) ; end modulo7 ;

Synthesized netlist (2)
architecture Behave of modulo7 is signal Q_2_EXMPLR, Q_1_EXMPLR, Q_0_EXMPLR, NOT_reset, nx4, nx14, nx22, nx48, nx60, nx169, nx179, nx189, nx202, nx204, nx208, nx212, nx214, nx218, nx225, nx228, nx230: std_logic ; begin Q(2) <= Q_2_EXMPLR ; Q(1) <= Q_1_EXMPLR ; Q(0) <= Q_0_EXMPLR ; ix170 : mux21_ni port map ( Y=>nx169, A0=>nx14, A1=>Q_0_EXMPLR, S0=>nx225); ix15 : oai22 port map ( Y=>nx14, A0=>Q_0_EXMPLR, A1=>nx202, B0=>nx230, B1=>count); ix203 : nand02 port map ( Y=>nx202, A0=>count, A1=>nx204); ix205 : nand04 port map ( Y=>nx204, A0=>count, A1=>Q_2_EXMPLR, A2=>Q_1_EXMPLR, A3=>nx228); ix180 : oai32 port map ( Y=>nx179, A0=>nx208, A1=>count, A2=>load, B0=>nx212, B1=>nx225); Q_2_EXMPLR_EXMPLR : dffr port map ( Q=>Q_2_EXMPLR, QB=>nx208, D=>nx179, CLK=>clk, R=>NOT_reset);

Synthesized netlist (3)
ix211 : inv01 port map ( Y=>NOT_reset, A=>reset); ix213 : aoi22 port map ( Y=>nx212, A0=>I(2), A1=>nx214, B0=>nx22, B1=>nx4 ); ix216 : inv01 port map ( Y=>nx214, A=>count); ix219 : nand02 port map ( Y=>nx218, A0=>Q_1_EXMPLR, A1=>Q_0_EXMPLR); Q_1_EXMPLR_EXMPLR : dffr port map ( Q=>Q_1_EXMPLR, QB=>OPEN, D=>nx189, CLK=>clk, R=>NOT_reset); ix190 : mux21_ni port map ( Y=>nx189, A0=>nx60, A1=>Q_1_EXMPLR, S0=>nx225); ix61 : ao32 port map ( Y=>nx60, A0=>nx48, A1=>nx218, A2=>nx4, B0=>I(1), B1=>nx214); ix49 : or02 port map ( Y=>nx48, A0=>Q_0_EXMPLR, A1=>Q_1_EXMPLR); ix226 : nor02_2x port map ( Y=>nx225, A0=>count, A1=>load); Q_0_EXMPLR_EXMPLR : dffr port map ( Q=>Q_0_EXMPLR, QB=>nx228, D=>nx169, CLK=>clk, R=>NOT_reset); ix231 : inv01 port map ( Y=>nx230, A=>I(0)); ix5 : inv01 port map ( Y=>nx4, A=>nx202); ix23 : xor2 port map ( Y=>nx22, A0=>nx208, A1=>nx218); end Behave ;

Post-synthesis timing analysis
Leonardo can generate SDF (std. delay format) file with technologyspecific, VITAL-compliant timing parameters.
(CELLTYPE "dffr") (INSTANCE Q_0_EXMPLR_EXMPLR) (DELAY (ABSOLUTE (PORT D (::0.00) (::0.00)) (PORT CLK (::0.00) (::0.00)) (PORT R (::0.00) (::0.00)) (IOPATH CLK Q (::0.40) (::0.47)) (IOPATH R Q (::0.00) (::0.55)) (IOPATH CLK QB (::0.45) (::0.36)) (IOPATH R QB (::0.53) (::0.00)))) (TIMINGCHECK (SETUP D (posedge CLK) (0.47)) (HOLD D (posedge CLK) (-0.06))))

Post-synthesis simulation (1)
(Leonardo-generated netlist)
Verify that synthesized netlist matches behavioral model Verify timing information predicted by Leonardo Create library of simulation primitives for std cells:
>vlib adk >vcom $ADK/technology/adk.vhd >vcom $ADK/technology/adk_comp.vhd
VITAL models of ADK std cells Package of ADK component declarations

Post-synthesis simulation (2)
Edit the synthesized VHDL netlist file (modulo7_0.vhd) to include the package of component declarations:
-- Definition of modulo7 -- Thu Sep 21 10:48:09 2006 -- LeonardoSpectrum Level 3, 2005a.82 -library IEEE; use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.all; library adk; -- add these two lines use adk.adk_components.all; entity modulo7 is port (…..

Post-synthesis simulation (3)
Compile the VHDL netlist: vcom modulo7_0.vhd Simulate the model with timing: vsim modulo7 –sdftyp modulo7.sdf –do modulo7.do (modul7.do is a “force file”) Verify that the synthesized circuit produces the same results as the behavioral circuit

ASIC Physical Design (Standard Cell)
(can also do full custom layout)
Component-Level Netlist (EDDM format) Std. Cell Layouts Libraries

Floorplan Chip/Block

Mentor Graphics “IC Station”

Process Data Design Rules Place & Route Std. Cells

Generate Mask Data

Design Rule Check

Backannotate Schematic

Layout vs. Schematic Check

IC Mask Data



Mach TA/Eldo Simulation Model

Cell-Based IC

I/O pads

Cell-Based Block

Basic standard Cell layout

Source: Weste “CMOS VLSI Design”

Preparation for Layout

Use Design Architect-IC to convert Verilog netlist to Mentor Graphics EDDM netlist format
Invoke Design Architect-IC (adk_daic) On menu bar, select File > ImportVerilog
Netlist file: count4.v (theVerilog netlist) Output directory: count4 (for the EDDM netlist) Mapping file $ADK/technology/adk_map.vmp


Open the generated schematic for viewing
Click Schematic in DA-IC palette Select schematic in directory named above (see next slide) Click Update LVS in the schematic palette to create a netlist to be used later by “Calibre”


Create design viewpoints for ICstation tools
adk_dve count4 –t tsmc035 (V.P’s: layout, lvs, sdl, tsmc035)

Can also create gate/transistor schematics directly in DA-IC using components from the ADK library

DA-IC generated schematic

Create a std-cell based logic block in IC Station
Invoke: adk_ic In IC Station palette, select: Create Cell
Cell name: count4 Attach library: $ADK/technology/ic/process/tsmc035 Process: $ADK/technology/ic/process/tsmc035 Rules file: $ADK/technology/ic/process/tsmc035.rules Angle mode: 45 Cell type: block Select With connectivity EDDM schematic viewpoint: count4/layout Logic loading options: flat

Create Cell dialog box

Auto-”floorplan” the block place & route > autofp

Auto-place the std cells Autoplc > StdCel

Auto-place ports (signal connections on cell boundaries)
Autoplc > Ports

AutoRoute all nets (hand-route unrouted “overflows”)
Then: Add > Port Text to copy port names from schematic – for Calibre

16 by 8 divider circuit

Layout design rule check (DRC)
Technology-specific design rules specify minimum sizes, spacing, etc. of features to ensure reliable fabrication
Design rules file specified at startup Ex. tsmc035.rules

From main palette, select ICrules
Click Check and then OK in prompt box (can optionally select a specific area to check) Rules checked in numeric order

Layout vs. schematic check Calibre Interactive LVS
From ICstation menu: Calibre > Run LVS
In popup, Calibre location: $MGC_HOME/../Calibre Rules: $ADK/technology/ic/process/tsmc035.calibre.rules Input: count4.src.net (previously created in DA-IC) H-cells: $ADK/technology/adk.hcell (hierarchical cells) Extracted file: count4.lay.net

Compares extracted transistor-level netlist vs. netlist saved in DA-IC

Post-layout parameter extraction Calibre Interactive PEX
Extract Spice netlist, including parasitic RC
Simulate in Eldo or MachTA

ICstation menu: Calibre>Run PEX
Options similar to Calibre LVS Extraction options:
lumped C + coupling cap’s distributed RC distributed RC + coupling cap’s

Output file: count4.pex.netlist

Top level layout design flow**
1. Create a symbol for each core block (adk_daic) 2. Create a chip-level schematic from core blocks and pads

(adk_daic) 3. Generate design viewpoints (adk_dve) 4. Create a layout cell for the chip(adk_ic)
Place core logic blocks from the schematic Generate a pad frame Move/alter core blocks to simplify routing Route pads to core blocks Design rule check & fix problems
5. Generate mask data

** Refer to on-line tutorials by Yan/Xu and by Dixit/Poladia

Core logic blocks for top-level schematic
Generate a symbol for each “core” logic block
In DA-IC, open the schematic (eg. modulo7) Select: Miscellaneous > Generate Symbol Add “phy_comp” property to the symbol
Select the body of the symbol From the popup menu: Properties > Add Enter property name: phy_comp Enter property value: mod7b (layout cell name for the block created in IC Station)

Check & save

Example on next slide

Symbol with phy_comp property

Layout cell is “mod7b” for logic schematic “modulo7”

Chip-level schematic
In DA-IC, create a schematic for the chip
Instantiate core blocks
Menu pallete: Add > Instance Select and place generated symbol

Add pads from ADK Library>Std. Cells>Pads >tsmc035 : In, Out, BiDir, VDD, GND Wire pads to logic blocks and connectors Assign pin numbers, if known
Change pad instance name to PINdd (dd = 2-digit pin #)

Check & save

Create design viewpoints with adk_dve Example on next slide

Assigning PAD pin numbers
Change instance name property on pads to PINxx xx = 2-digit pin number (01 – 40 for Tiny Chip package) Place pad on chip pin 01

Default instance names

Top-level schematic for “modulo7” chip


Hierarchical connectors on “Pad” pins

Core block

Instance name = PINxx (chip pin #)

Wire block I/O pins to pad signal pins

Chip layout
Start IC Station (adk_ic) & create a new layout cell
enter cell name logic source is “layout” viewpoint of chip schematic same library, process file, rules file, and options as standard cell layout

Open the schematic
ADK Edit menu: Logic Source > Open In the schematic, select all core cells (but not pads) Place the cells: Place > Inst

Generate the pad frame
Top menu bar: ADK > Generate Padframe > tsmc035

Chip layout (2)
Move, rotate, flip core logic cells as desired to make routing easier

Autoroute all connections
Select autoroute all on P&R menu Click “options” on prompt bar, and unselect “Expand Channels” (prevents pads from being moved)

Add missing VDD/GND wires, if necessary
Autorouter might only route 1 VDD/GND wire, even if multiple VDD/GND pads Manually add others: Objects>Add>Path
VDD/GND net width = 50 VDD/GND net vias = 6x6 (copy an existing via)

Modulo-7 counter in pad frame