AIPGEE - 1 Explanations MASTER KEY (Errata – Marked red in color)
Q 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 A
4 4 2 3 1 4 4 1


2 3 1 4 1 1 3 2 2 3 1 4 3 4 2 4 1 1 3 2 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 4 4 4 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 1


Q 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

A 1 3 2 4 2 1 3 1 4 2 4 2 2 3 2 2 4 3 1 3 1 3 4 (1 & 3) 4 1 1 4 2 2 4 1 1 1 4 1 3 2 3 3 1 1 4 1 3 1 4 3 2 2 3

Reference SAT-8 SAT-8 SAT-8 SAT-8 SAT-8 SAT-8 SAT-9 SAT-9 SAT-9 SAT-9 SAT-9 SAT-9 SAT-9 SAT-10 SAT-10 SAT-10 SAT-10 SAT-10 SAT-10 SAT-10 SAT-11 SAT-11 SAT-11 SAT-11 SAT-11 SAT-11 SAT-11 SAT-12 SAT-12 SAT-12 SAT-12 SAT-12 SAT-12 SAT-12 SAT-13 SAT-13 SAT-13 SAT-13 SAT-13 SAT-13 SAT-13 SAT-14 SAT-14 SAT-14 SAT-14 SAT-14 SAT-14 SAT-14 SAT-15 SAT-15

Q 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150

A 1 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 3 1 4 3 1 3 2 3 4 4 4 2 1 3 4 1 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 2 4 3 4 3 2 1 4 2

Reference SAT-15 SAT-15 SAT-15 SAT-15 SAT-15 SAT-16 SAT-16 SAT-16 SAT-16 SAT-16 SAT-16 SAT-16 SAT-17 SAT-17 SAT-17 SAT-17 SAT-17 SAT-17 SAT-17 SAT-18 SAT-18 SAT-18 SAT-18 SAT-18 SAT-18 SAT-18 SAT-19 SAT-19 SAT-19 SAT-19 SAT-19 SAT-19 SAT-19 SAT-20 SAT-20 SAT-20 SAT-20 SAT-20 SAT-20 SAT-20 SAT-21 SAT-21 SAT-21 SAT-21 SAT-21 SAT-21 SAT-21 SAT-22 SAT-22 SAT-22

Q 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200

A 1 2 1 1 1 4 2 3 4 4 4 3 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 1 3 3 4 3 3 2 3 4 3 4 2 1 3 3 4 2 3 3 1 2 1 4 4 2 2 4 2 2 3

Reference SAT-22 SAT-22 SAT-22 SAT-22 SAT-23 SAT-23 SAT-23 SAT-23 SAT-23 SAT-23 SAT-23 SAT-24 SAT-24 SAT-24 SAT-24 SAT-24 SAT-24 SAT-24 SAT-25 SAT-25 SAT-25 SAT-25 SAT-25 SAT-25 SAT-25 SAT-26 SAT-26 SAT-26 SAT-26 SAT-26 SAT-26 SAT-26 SAT-27 SAT-27 SAT-27 SAT-27 SAT-27 SAT-27 SAT-27 SAT-28 SAT-28 SAT-28 SAT-28 SAT-28 SAT-28 SAT-29 SAT-29 SAT-29 SAT-29 SAT-29 Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM)

AIPGEE - 1 Explanations
Ans.1 Piloerection is not important in human beings. It means hairs ‘standing on end’. Sympathetic stimulation causes the arrector pilli muscles attached to the hair follicles to contract which brings the hairs to an upright stance. This is not important in human beings but in lower animals, upright protections of hairs allows them to entrap a thick layers of ‘insulator air’ next to the skin, so that transfer of heat to the surroundings is greatly depressed’. Temperature increasing mechanisms (when the body is too Temperature decreasing mechanisma (when the body is cold) too hot) - vasoconstriction of skin blood vessels (stimulation of - Vasodilatation of skin blood vessels.(inhibition of posterior hypothalamic sympathetic centers) posterior hypothalamic sympathetic centers) - Increase in thermogenesis (heat production). - Decrease in thermogenesis (heat production)-inhibition - Enhanced shivering, thyroxine secretion, Sympathetic of shivering, inhibition of chemicakl thermogenesis. - Sweating: (heat loss)- evaporative heat loss. excitation of heat production - Piloerection: (conserve heat) not important in human beings, important in lower animals. Ans.2 Massage and the application of liniments to painful area relieves pain due to inhibition of pain pathway in the dorsal horn gate by stimulation of large diameter touch pressure afferent fibers. Touch and pressure is carried by Aβ sensory fibers and pain is carried by Aδand C type fibers. The diameter of Aβ > Aδ > C. Many people have learned from practical experience that touching or shaking an injured area decrease the pain of injury. The laminiscal fibers carrying tactile senses give collaterals to pain carrying afferent nerve fibers. When leminiscal fibers are stimulated by tactile sensation they cause presynaptic inihibitionQ on the primary pain carrying afferent and pain is inhibited. Ans.3 Hypothalamic regulation of the apetite for food depends primarily on the interaction of two areas: a lateral ‘feeding center’ in the bed nucleus of the medial forebrain bundle at its junction with the pallidohypothalamic fibers, and a medial ‘satiety center’ in the ventromedial nucleus. Stimulation of the feeding center evokes eating behavior in conscious animals, and its destruction causes severe, fatal anorexia in otherwise healthy animals. Stimulation of the ventromedial nucleus causes cessation of eating, whereas lesions in this region cause hyperphagia and, if the food supply I abundant, the syndrome of hypothalamic obesity. Ans.4 Compliance of lung is a measure of stretchability of lungs and hence its total capacity. It is the change in lung volume per unit change in air way pressure (V/P). Lung Compliance is increased in – emphysema Lung compliance decreased in- Deformities of thorax eg- kyphosis, scoliosis. - Paralysis of respiratory muscles. - Pleural effusion. - Abnormal thorax eg- pneumothorax, hydrothorax, hemothorax. - Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. - Interstitial lung disease. - Pulmonary congestion. Ans.5 Deoxygenated hemoglobin binds more H+ than oxyhemoglobin does and forms carbamino compounds more readily, binding of oxygen to hemoglobin reduces its affinity for carbon dioxide (Haldane effect). Consequently, venous blood carries more carbon dioxide than arterial blood, carbon dioxide uptake is facilitated in the tissues, and CO2 release is facilitated in the lungs. About 11%of the CO2 added to the blood in the systemic capillaries is carried to the lungs as carbamino CO2. Ans.6 The overall blood flow in circulation of adult at rest is about 5 liter/ minute which equals to cardiac output because it is the amount of blood pumped by heart per unit time. So Blood pressure = Cardiac output X peripheral resistance or blood flow (Q) X resistance ® Venous return = MSFP-RAP/RVR Where, MSFP = Mean systemic filling pressure RAP = Right atrial pressure RVR = Resistance to venous return. Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM)

AIPGEE - 1 Explanations
Ans.8 Sources of digestive enzymes- Salivary gland- alpha amylase - Lingual glands- lipase - Stomach- Pepsinogen and lipase - Cytoplasm of mucosal cells- peptidase - Intestinal mucosaEnteropeptidase, Aminopeptidase, Carboxypeptidase, Endopeptidase, Dipeptidase, Maltase, Lactase, Sucrase, alpha dextrinase, trehalase, nuclease. Exocrine pancreas- Trypsin, Chymotrypsin, elastase, pancreatic lipase, bile salt acid lipase, colipase, cholestery ester hydrolase Pancreatic alpha amylase, carboxy peptidase A and B, Phospholipase A2, Ribonuclease, Deoxyribonuclease.

Ans.9 Pancreatic juice is essentially alkaline with a pH as high as 8.0 to 8.3 Intestinal juice pH Saliva 6.0 to 7.0 Gastric juice 1.0 to 3.5 Pancretic juice 8.0 to 8.3 Bile 7.8 Ans.11 Negatively charged large molecules are filtered less easily than positively charged molecules of equal molecular size, and even neutral molecule are filtered much more easily than negatively charged molecules of same size. This is because, the negative charges of basement membrane and podocytes restrict and repel large negatively charged and attract positively charged molecules. This explains, only 0.2% filterability of negatively charged albumin with an effective diameter of ~ 7 nm. Inulin (a polymer of fructose) that is freely filtered, neither reabsorbed nor secreted in tubules, and creatinine (that is freely filtered, secreted and reabsorbed in some amount) are used to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Ans.12 The sertoli cells secrete androgen bonding protein (ABP), inhibin, and MIS i.e. Mullerian inhibiting substance. Sertoli cells have receptors for FSH and testosterone. After combining with FSH, sertoli cells stimulate the first half of spermatogenesis. Subsequently testosterone- sertoli cells binding causes development of last half of spermatogenesis. Ans.13 Oxytocin causes contraction of the myoepithelial cells lining the duct walls, with consequent ejection of the milk through the nipple. The reflex release of oxytocin initiated by touching the nipples and areolas (milk ejection reflex). Suckling not only evokes reflex oxytocin release and milk ejection; it also maintains and augments the secretion of milk because of the stimulation of prolactin secretion produced by suckling. Oxytocin also cause contraction of smooth muscles of the uterus. Ans.14 The sequence of cell cycle isG0 phase- Quiscent cells are in G0 phase or resting phase. G1 phase (12 hrs)-presynthetic phase. S phase(6 to 8 hrs)- DNA synthesis phase. G2 phase (4 to 5 hrs)- (premitotic phase) cytoplasmic enlargement; preparation for cell division; DNA repair can occur. M phase- Mitotic phase. Ans.15 Chemical mediators of Inflammation 1. Preformed mediator in secretory granules : Histamine : Serotonin : Lysosomal enzyme 2. Newly synthesized : Prostaglandin leukotrienes, platelet activating factors : Activated oxygen species : Nitric oxide : Cytokines * Tumor necrosis factor – α * Interleukin – 1 Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM)

tibias. MCH.targeteducare. LTD4 and LTE4 have common actions by causing smooth muscle contraction and thereby induce vasoconstriction. 2. Classic RS cell is a large cell which has characteristically a bilobed nucleus appearing as mirror image to each other but occasionally the nucleus may be multilobed. Ans. Ans. chemical and physical agents. Ans. additional cellular and architectural features of the biopsy must be given due consideration for making the histologic diagnosis. and humeri are most commonly affected. The nuclear changes include condensation of nuclear chromatin (pyknosis) which may either undergo dissolution (karyolysis) or fragmentation into many granular clumps (karyorrhexis).21 A particular form of gas embolism. It is invariably accompanied by inflammatory reaction Necrosis can be caused by various agents such as hypoxia. The cytoplasm appears homogeneous and intensely eosinophillic. It is most often found on the lower lip as a result of trauma. MCHC Reduced Chronic disorders Low normal to reduced Thalassemia Very low Sideroblastic anemia Very low (except MCV raised in www.18 In chronic venous congestion liver. microbial agents and immunological injury. LTD. It is characteristically found in nodular sclerosis variety of HD. This appearance is called nutmeg liver. 1. C5a is chemotatic for leucocytes. Ans. Firstly.Coagulation / fibrinolysis system : .22 The diagnosis of Hodgkin’s disease rests on identification of RS cells. occurs when individual are exposed to sudden changes in atmospheric pressure. which is due to artefactuals shrinkage of the cell cytoplasm. Two essential changes bring about irreversible cell injuries in necrosis. Ans. One is characterized by tuberculosis leprosy with effective cell mediated immunity. Other pattern is lepromatous leprosy characterized by defective immunity. there is centrilobular coagulative necrosis with haemorrhage accompanied by periportal fatty change. the centre of liver lobule is tan brown with surrounding zones of uncongested liver.20 Leprosy has two different patterns of disease. though uncommonly similar cells can occur in infectious mononucleosis and other forms of lymphomas. the heads of the femurs. symmetric skin thickening and nodules and presence of large collections of lipid laden macrophages (Virchows lepra cells) filled with aggregates of acid fast bacilli (globi) at lesional site. called ‘decompression sickness’. Microscopically. Factor XII activation 4.cell digestion by lytic enzymes and denaturation of proteins.19 Necrosis is defined as focal death along with degradation of tissue by hydrolytic enzymes liberated by cells.23 Laboratory diagnosis of hypochromic anemias Test Iron deficiency 1. unstable leukotriene A4 (LTA4) is formed which is acted upon by enzymes to form LTB4 (chemotactic for phagocytic cells and stimulates phagocytic cell adherence) while LTC4. Complement activation : .1 Explanations 3. Occasionally.MCV.Kinin system (bradykinin) : . Lacunar type RS cell is smaller and in addition to above features has a pericellular space or lacuna in which it lies. bronchoconstriction and increased vascular permeability. A more chronic form of decompression sickness is called ‘Cassion disease’.com info@targeteducare. it may show vacuolation or dystrophic calcification. where persistence of gas emboli in the bones leads to multiple foci of ischemic necrosis.17 Mucus cyst of the mouth is a retention type of cyst resulting from blockage or rupture of salivary gland duct. Therefore. Ans. Ans.16 Leukotrienes (LT) or slow-reacting substances of anaphylaxis (SRS-As) are so named as they were first isolated from leucocytes.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. These processes are morphologically identified by characteristic cytoplasmic and nuclear changes in necrotic cell. Granulomas are absent from lesional site. AIPGEE . These lesions are infections and may lead to leonine Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) .C3a Anaphylatoxin C5a C3b C5b-9 (membrane attack complex) Ans. asymmetric peripheral nerve involvement and presence of well defined granulomas at lesional site.

TIBC Raised Reduced Normal Normal 4.TARGET EDUCARE PVT.Antibodies to histones. IX and X.27 Gaucher’s disease results from mutation in the gene that encodes glucosylceramidase.Iron in normoblasts Absent Absent Present Ring sideroblast 7. There are five Autosomal recessive variants of Gaucher disease resulting from distinct allelic mutations. hairy cells are also positive for CD11.29 Characters Thickness Variety of amino acids Aromatic and sulphur containing amino acids Lipids Teichoic acid Gram positive Thicker Few Absent Absent or scant Present Gram negative Thinner Several Present Present Absent www. It is the most important intestinal infection of man.1 Explanations acquired type) 2.26 SLE is a multisystem autoimmune disease of protean manifestations.Hb elctrophoresis Normal Normal Abnormal Normal In megaloblastic anemiaThere is rise in serum unconjugated bilirubin and LDH as a result of ineffective erythropoiesis causing marrow cell break down. .Antibodies to non histone proteins bound to RNA. Serum iron Reduced Reduced Normal Raised 3.28 Hairy cell leukemia (HCL).25 Amoebiasis is caused by Entamoeba histolytica.Antibodies to nuclear antigens (The most sensitive test). In addition to B cell markers. These leukemic hairy cells have characteristically positive cytochemical staining for tartarate resistant acid phosphatase. the most common type of amoebic infection begins as a small area of necrosis of mucosa which may ulcerate. The serum iron and ferritin may be normal or elevated. classically including anti nuclear antibodies (ANAs). The lesions of amoebiasis include amoebic liver abscess and spread to other sites. peripheral blood and spleen. Ans. Marrow iron stores Absent Present Present Present 6. AIPGEE . Ans. Ans. This leads to an accumulation of glucosylceramide in the mononuclear phagocytic cells and their transformation into so called Gaucher cells. The margin of the ulcer shows inflammatory response consisting of admixture of polymorphonuclear as well as mononuclear cells. ANAs are directed against several nuclear antigens. Such chronic amoebic ulcers are described as flask shaped or bottle mouth shaped ulcers due to their shape. Ans. and a cystic form seen in formed stools but not in the tissues. the synthesis of these factors depends on vitamin info@targeteducare. The controversy on the origin of the hairy cells whether these cells represents neoplastic T cells. Ans. These ulcerative lesions may enlarge. named for its lytic action on tissues.Antibodies to dsDNA (The most specific test). develop undermining of margins of the ulcer due to lytic action of the trophozoite and have necrotic bed. . The parasite occurs in 2 forms: a trophozoite form which is active adult form seen in the tissues and diarrhoeal stools. Vitamin K deficiency occurs in liver disorder as well as in obstructive jaundice or fat malabsorption of any kind. . VII. Amoebic Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . is settled with the mononuclear analysis of these cells which assigns them B cell origin expressing CD19. Common to all is variably deficient activity of a glucosylceramidase that normally cleaves the glucose residue from ceramide. CD20 and CD22 antigen. Serum ferritin Reduced Raised Normal Raised (complete saturation) 5. Ans. CD25 and CD103.targeteducare. is an unusual and uncommon form of chronic leukemia in which there is presence of abnormal mononuclear cells with hairy cytoplasmia projections in the bone marrow.24 Prothrombin time depends on factor II. LTD. Immunologically the disease is associated within enormous array of autoantibodies. B cells or monocytes.

30 The milk is heated at either 63 degree C for 30 minutes (the holder method) or 72 degree C for 15 to 20 seconds (the flash process) followed by cooling quickly to 13 degree C or lower. Bordet (1895) extended these observations and established that immune bacteriolysis and hemolysis required two factors. Ans. Ans. while complex haptens can precipitate with specific antibodies. Ans. hepatosplenomegaly. brucellae and salmonellae are destroyed. gastrointestinal and B cell functions but not phagocytic Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . Treatment with vitamin B12 has been reported to restore hematopoietic. diminished immunoglobulin levels and impaired phagocytosis. which was called alexine. By these processes all non sporing pathogens such as mycobacteria. www. This term has been replaced by the present name complement which was coined by Ehrlich.42 HBV is a 42 nm DNA virus with an outer envelop and an inner core. The cells are bounded by a soft trilaminar unit membrane containing sterols. Ans. emaciation. The associated immunological defects are depleted plasma cells. They lack even cell wall precursors like muramic acid or diaminopimelic acid.36 Pfieffer (1894) discovered that cholera vibrios were lysed when injected intraperitoneally into specifically immunized guinea pigs (bacteriolysis in vivo or pfieffer’s phenomenon). diarrhoea. lymphoid atrophy and anemia. terminating fatally. 27 nm in diameter. Ans.41 Congenital or vertical transmission is quite common from carrier mothers. Coxiella burnetti is relatively heat resistant and may survive the holder method. They can inhibit precipitation of specific antibodies by the corresponding antigens or complex hapten. AIPGEE . positive sense RNA copies.33 Phagocytic cells are the mononuclear macrophages (of blood and tissue) and the polymorphonuclear microphages. because this factor complemented the action of antibody. enclosing the viral genome and a DNA polymerase.1 Explanations Ans.the heat stable antibody and a heat labile factor. LTD.37 The antibody formed in the primary response is predominantly IgM and in the secondary response IgG. Ans. The syndrome has been called runt disease.31 Chemical disinfectants which can be safely applied to skin or mucus membrane and are used to prevent infection by inhibiting the growth of bacteria are called antiseptics.targeteducare. Haptens may be complex or simple. composed of two identical single stranded.32 Mycoplasmas are a group of bacteria that are devoid of cell walls and so are highly pleomorphic. they can pass through bacterial filters and have often been mistaken for viruses.34 Haptens are substances which are incapable of inducing antibody formation by themselves but can react specifically with info@targeteducare. The early antibody is more specific but less avid then the late antibody. The risk to babies is high if the mother is HBsAg positive (10 to 90%) and low if negative (5 to 15%). with no fixed shape or size. Ans. simple haptens are non precipitating. Ans.40 AIDS in the developing countries differs from the disease in the western countries clinically too. The primary function of macrophages is phagocytosis. Because of their plasticity.TARGET EDUCARE PVT.39 In HIV the genome is diploid.38 Transcobalamin II deficiency is inherited as autosomal recessive patients show metabolic effects of vitamin B12 deficiency including megaloblastic anemia and intestinal villous atrophy. the major manifestation is pronounced wasting so that it has been called the ‘slim disease’ Ans. Ans. In association with viral RNA is the reverse transcriptase enzyme. Ans. Ans. which is a characteristic feature of retroviruses.35 The major clinical features of the GVH reaction in animals are retardation of growth. In Africa.

46 Heart – Ppnl decreases heart rate. 2) Sulfonylureas (specially chlorpropamide). bladder info@targeteducare. phenytoin (and many other drugs) metabolism. Sotalol. Heart .). force of contraction (at relatively higher doses) and cardiac output (c. AIPGEE . Esmolol.i. Bisoprolol.Atropinic drugs are absolutely contraindicated in individuals with a narrow iridocorneal angle may precipitate acute congestive glaucoma. Heart. Nico + + + ± + + + Selective action on Non selective Cvs g. Its abuse liability is very high. However. certain cephalosporins (cefoperazone. hypnotics. cefamandole) and metronidazole: individuals on these drugs have experienced bizarre. but decrease it by causing vagal stimulation.Aminophylline is a methylxanthine. LTD. bladder Amongst given options carbactol has maximum nicotinic action. c) With additional a blocking property Labetalol. It has both nicotinic as well as muscarinic actions.i.t. antidepressants. 5) Aspirin causes more gastric bleeding when taken with alcohol.43 Choline ester Acetylcholine Methacholine Carbachol Bethanechol • • Properties of choline esters. moxalactam. – Cardioselective (β1) Metoprolol. They tend to increase heart rate by direct action.1 Explanations Ans. Ans.48 • Tolerance is exhibited to most actions of morphine except for miosis and constipation.. marked rise in intraocular tension is rare in patients with wide prostatic hypertrophy – urinary retention can occur.The most prominent effect of atropine is to cause tachycardia.CVS Methylxanthines directly stimulate the heart and increase force of myocardial contractions. Ans. 3) Acute alcohol ingestion inhibits.t. Acebutolol.targeteducare. while chronic intake induces tolbutamide. opioide marked CNS depression with motor impairment can occur: Chances ofaccidents increase. . antihistaminics.47 Interactions 1) Alcohol synergises with tranquilizers. www. 4) Insulin and sulfonylureas. Atenololε. Hydrolysis by Ach E BuChE ++ + + Actions Musc. Carvedilol. Ans. . b) With intrinsic sympathomimetic activity Pindolol.45 Classification – Nonselective (β1 and β2) a) Without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity Propranololε . Cholinomimetic drugs With Muscarinic actions a) Acetylcholine b) Methacholine c) Carbactol d) Bethanectol e) Pilocarpine f) Muscarine g) Arecholine With Nicotinic actions a) Acetylcholine b) Carbachol c) Arecholine Ans.Adr increases heart rate by increasing the slope of slow diastolic depolarization of cells in the SA node..TARGET EDUCARE PVT. Celiprolol. 6) Alcoholics are more prone to paracetamol toxicity due to enhanced generation of its toxic metabolite. Betaxolol. All other drugs have muscarinic Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . Timololε. Ans.o.44 Contraindications . alcohol enhances hypoglycaemia acutely. someshat disulfiram like reactions when thy consume alcohol. It has site specific depressant and stimulant action in CNS. • Morphine produces pronounce psychological and physical dependence. • Morphine is a centrally acting analgesic.

B. Nedocromil. Choline theophyllinate. Bronchodilators A. it to a patient share the desire that it should possess a selective action. LTD. II. B. can cause exacerbation of asthma. Methylxanthines: Theophylline (anhydrous)ε. • “the pharmacologist who produces a new drug and the doctor who gives. Terbutaline. • Organophosphates have cholinergic action. Ans.52 • Chloroquine is a safe antimalarial drug for pregnant women. Flunisolide. • Safe drugs for pregnant women : Chloroquine Spiramycin Methyldopa www. • Study of drug effect is Pharmacodynamics Dose of drug administered Drug concentration in systemic circulation DISTRIBUTION Drug in tissues of distribution Pharmacokinetics ELIMINATION Drug concentration at site of action Drug metabolized or excreted Pharmacologic effect Clinical response Pharmacodynamics >Toxicity Remember • Pharmacodynamics (D) • Pharmacokinetics Efficacy → → Drug does to body Body does to drug.50 • Pharmacokinetics is the quantitative study of drug movement in. Aminophyllineε. Ipratropium bromide. Ans. Corticosteroids A. Inhalational: Beclomethasone dipropionateε. Anticholinergics: Atropine methonitrate. Theophylline ethanolate of piperazine.targeteducare. III. Fluticasone propionate. C. Salbutamolε. IV. through and out of the body. Sympathomimetics: Adrenaline. Tiotropium bromide.49 I. Ketotifen. Ephedrine.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. Leukotriene antagonists Montelukast. Isoprenaline. Ans. Systemic: Hydrocortisone.1 Explanations Ans. AIPGEE . Hydroxyethyl theophylline.51 • Specificity refers to the ability of a drug to bind specific receptor and produce a selective action so that side effects do not occur. info@targeteducare. Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . • High specificity decreases the side effects. Prednisolone and others. Mast cell stabilizers Sodium cromoglycate. Salmeterol. Budesonide. Formoterol. so that additional and unwanted adverse effects do not complication the management of the patient” So side effects of drugs which arise due to interaction of the drug to molecules other than the target can be minimized by making the drug more specific.

Tobramycin is not an antitibercular aminoglycoside. Drugs for MRSA → Vancomycin (DOC) TMP-SMX Minocyclin Ans. CNS – Dizziness. rifampin. 3. anorexia (most common). PAS. ofloxacin. pyrazinamide. 2.Actinomycin – D (Dactinomycin) . pruritis.Mithramycin (plicamycin) . Kanamycin. Thiacetazone. Mitoxantrane binds to DNA to produce strand breakage and inhibits both DNA & RNA synthesis. Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . Cartilage damage in weight bearing joints → Contraindicated in children. 5. info@targeteducare. insomnia. Phototoxicity by lomefloxacin (maximum). ciprofloxacin. Gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin can prolong QT interval (Torsades de pointes). amikacin. 4. cycloserine. capreomycin. headache. Doxo-and daunorubicin inhibit Topoisomerase I & II.Doxorubicin -Mitoxantrone . Vomiting.57 Causes of iron deficiency anemia Ciprofloxacin Linezolid Levofloxacin Quinopristin /dalfopristin Daptomycin Oritavaccin Tigecyclin Isoniazid. Adverse effects 1. ethionamide. tremor. Azithromycin.1 Explanations Hydralazine Labetalol Prazosin Zidovudine Heparin Clonidine Note Propylthiouracil is not safe during pregnancy but it is the DOC for thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy. antibiotics obtained from micro-organisms and have prominent antitumour activity. 6.53 The anticancer antibiotics are : . ethambutol. Skin/hypersensitivity – Rash. Bad taste.aureus but not MRSA”. streptomycin. • Mechanism of action: They intercalated between DNA strands and interfere with its template function.54 • Amongst the given optins pefloxacin causes phototoxicity. rifabutin. Note – Following FQs have been withdrawn from the market because of their rare but potentially fatal side effects (Goodman & Gilman 11th/e 1119) • Temafloxacin → Immune hemolytic anemia • Grepafloxacin → Cardiotoxicity • Trovafloxacin → Hepatotoxicity • Clinafloxacin → Phototoxicity Ans. anxiety. GI distrurbance – Nausea.Mitomycin C . sparfloxacin and pefloxacin. Bleomycin cause DNA breakage and free radical formation. Ans. seizures → due to GABA antagonistic action. 7. Mitomycin acts like alkylating agents.56 • Antitubercular drugs First line → Second line → • Ans. Tendonitis and tendon rupture. MRSA is resistant to all β-lactam antibiotics because resistanec develops due to alteration in transpeptidase (penicillin binding protein) on which all β-lactam antibiotics act.Bleomvcins • These anticancer. urticaria.55 “The carbapenem imipenem has excellent activity against methicillin-sensitive S. LTD. clarithromycin.Daunorubicin (Rubidomycin) . AIPGEE . Ans.targeteducare. Actinomycin ‘D’ inhibits DNA dependent RNA synthesis.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. Diet Malabsorption www.

General Anaesthesis is contraindicated in patients with Hemophilia’ Ans.Pregnancy and lactation .Gastric resection and bypass . hematobium Trichuris Achlorhydria Chronic. • A given mutation usually occurs within only one racial group and within a given racial group.Zollinger Ellison SyndromeQ . hemorrhagic. Those with a compatible sibling donor should proceed to transplantation as soon as possible.Celiac disease (= nontropical sprue) .1 Explanations Blood Loss Gastrointestinal bleeding Hemorrhoid Angiodysplasia of the colon Hereditary. teleangiectasia Syndrome (Oster-Weber-Rendu Syndrome) Peptic ulcer Nonsteroidal.61 Pernicious aneia is characterized by autoimmune destruction of parietal cells leading to hypochondria (↓ acid production).59 ‘Bone marrow transplantation is the best therapy for the young patient with a fully histocompatible sibling info@targeteducare. Ans. anti-inflammatory drugs Oral anticoagulation Hiatal hernia Meckel diverticulum Diverticulosis of the colon Intestinal polyps Carcinoma Inflammatory bowel disease Hookworm: Nector Americanus.TARGET EDUCARE Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . LTD. Ancylostoma duodenale Shistosoma: S Mansoni.MEN .Primary Hyperparathyroidism .58 The most common mutation in beta thalassemia involves the intervening sequence 1 (IVS-1) or the intron-1 Mutations in Beta Thalassemia • Most types of Beta thalassemia are caused by point mutations affecting one of few bases.’ The curative treatment for young (< 20 year-old) patients with severe idiopathic aplastic anemia is allogenic bone marrow transplantation if there is an available donor. five or six specific mutations usually accounts for more than 90% of cases of Beta-thalassemia. • The most common site of mutations in Beta thalassemia is the intervening sequence 1 (IVS-1) or Intron 1. S. It is not associated with peptic ulcer disease. atrophic gastritis .Intestinal bypass operations . Ans. nocturnal hemoglobinuria Erythrocyte fragmentation in prosthetic heart valves Factitious anemia Intravenous and intra arterial drug abuse Hemodialysis Nosocomial blood loss due to frequent venisection The indices of the patient in question suggest a diagnosis of Microcytic Hypochromic anemia.Vagotomy .Tropical sprue Increased iron requirements . The single best cause for his anemia is a Hookworm infection which causes an iron deficiency anemia due to persistant gastrointestinal blood loss.Growth • - • • • • - • • • Menstruation Frequent blood donations Erythrocyturia: bladder neoplasm Hemoglobinuria Paroxysmal. Ans.60 ‘In dentistry Surgery. Aetiological Factors in peptic ulceration Primary Aetiological Factors (selected) • Endocrinal Disorders .Cushing’s syndrome • CirrhosisQ • Chronic Renal Failure www.targeteducare. AIPGEE .

These have no known adverse effects on glucose or lipid metabolism and minimize the development of diabetic nephropathy by reducing renal vascular resistance and renal perfusion pressure. • Immunoglobulin with minimum serum conc. It occurs mainly in liver (up to 6%) and muscle. Nevertheless they are the single best answer to exclude amongst the options provided here. Ans. for hypersensitive pneumonitis • Immunoglobulin mediating the prausnitz Kustner reaction • Homocytotropism is seen in which Ig IgG & IgM (IgM > IgG)Q IgAQ & IgDQ IgGQ IgEQ IgEQ IgMQ IgGQ IgMQ IgAQ & IgGQ IgMQ IgEQ IgG & IgAQ IgGQ IgEQ IgEQ Ans.64 The enzyme enolase requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ as a cofactor and it is inhibited by fluoride. That’s why for blood glucose estimation in the laboratory. • Immunoglobulin that in heat labile • Immunoglobulin in primary immune response • Immunoglobulin in secondary immune response • Immunoglobulin with maximum molecular weight • Immunoglobulin present in milk • Immunoglobulin with maximum sedimentation coefficient • Immunoglobulin with shortest ½ life • Immunoglobulin in seromucinois glands • Immunoglobulin resp. corresponding to starch in plants. However.1 Explanations Primary Aetiological Factors (selected) • H.66 www. What puzzles the situation: In Diabetic patient with hypertension multiple agents are usually neede to achieve good blood pressure control. so that the blood glucose is correctly estimated.62 Hydrochlorthiazide is not a preferred agent for the treatment of hypertension in diabetics as it causes unfavourable alteration in glucose and lipid profile of the patient. While ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers will form an essential component of the regimen. Ans. because of its greater mass. The average diabetic patient will require at least three medications to achieve appropriate control. pylori infection • NSAID’s and other drugs eg.targeteducare.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. ‘Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia have been reported with the used of diuretics as antihypertensives’ – KDT Antihypertensive drugs in diabetics: ‘ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers are the first line agents for management of hypertension in diabetics’ – Harrison 16th / 1479 Lisinopril & Trandalopvil are examples of ACE inhibitors while Losartan is an angiotensin receptor blocking agent. it is a branched polymer of alpha D-glucose. Thus diuretics though not preferred agents for treatment of hypertension in diabetics. Ans. fluoride is added to the blood to prevent glycolysis by the cells. Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) .65 Glycogen is the major storage carbohydrate in animals. muscle contains about three to four times as much glycogen as does liver. may well be used as conjunctive agents and are a possible treatment modality. AIPGEE . where it rarely exceeds 1%. Thiazide diuretics may also be used as an additional agent.63 IgM and IgG fix complement via the classical pathway Frequently asked questions on immunoglobulins: • Immunoglobulin to fix complements via classical pathway • Immunoglobulin to fix complements via alternative pathway • Immunoglobulin with maximum serum conc. Muscle glycogen is a readily available source for glycolysis within the muscle info@targeteducare. Steroids • Stree – Head injury / Burns • Bile Reflus • Smoking / Alcohol use • Genetic Factors • • • Chronic Pulmonary Disease Chronic Paracreatic Disease Alpha l Antitrypsin deficiency Ans.

approximately 85% of heme synthesis occurs in erythroid precursor cells in the bone marrow and the majority of the remainder in hepatocytes. This difference in the concentration is essential for the cell survival which is maintained by Na+-K+ pump. Animals obtain B12 either by eating info@targeteducare. including leukemia. and if not treated may rarely lead to death (4th D). In uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Finally. fatty infiltration is sufficiently severe to cause visible pallor (fatty appearance) and enlargement of the liver with possible liver dysfunction. Ans.72 Na+ is the principal extracellular cation and K+ is the intracellular cation.C 2. diarrhoea. The disease also progresses in that order dermatitis. It is the major source of NH3 in kidney. the term “hexose-6” indicates that the alcohol phosphorylated is that of carbon six of a hexose. Ans. besides cholesterol.targeteducare.73 Aminopterin and amethopterin (also called as methotrexate) are structural analogues of folic acid.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. the rank order of susceptibility of teeth to caries was listed as follows: • Mandibular first and second molars • Maxillary first and second molars • Mandibular second bicuspids.7.74 The symptoms of pellagra are commonly referred to as three D’s. This results in the blockage of cell proliferation.76 The enzyme commonly called “hexokinase” is designated “ATP: D-hexose-6-phosphotransferses E. Maryland. Ans.71 Ingestion of water is mainly controlled by the thirst center locate in the hypothalamus.69 Heme biosynthesis occurs in most mammalian cells with the exception of mature erythrocytes. The ability to secrete VLDL may also be impaired.68 Glutamate rapidly undergoes oxidative deamination. Ans. This enzyme is unique in that it can utilize either NAD+ or NADP+ as coenzyme. subclass 1 (alcohol is the Phosphoryl acceptor).70 The main examples of defense proteins are snake venoms and immunoglobulins. They competitively inhibit dihydrofolate reductase and block the formation o THF. Vitamin B12 is synthesized only by microorganisms (anaerobic bacteria). LTD. subclass 7 (transfer of a Phosphoryl group).75 Vitamin B12 is also known as anti pernicious anemia vitamin. Cholesterol (50%) is converted to bile acids. serves as a precursor for the synthesis of steroid Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . Ans. It is a unique vitamin. Ans. Ans.77 Immunoglobulins are the tumor markers for multiple myeloma. catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) to liberate ammonia. Ans. Ans. derived from other animals or from the intestinal bacterial synthesis. and ketosis in cattle. Aminopterin and methotrexate are successfully used in the treatment of many cancers.1.78 Caries Susceptibility of different teeth: In the pioneering studies of dental caries in Hagerstown. It was the last vitamin to be discovered. maxillary first and second bicuspids. This identifies hexokinase as a member of class-2 (transferases).67 Fatty liver occurs during starvation and the feeding of high fat diets. twin lamb disease. The latter two are the fecal sterols. thymine nucleotides and hence DNA is impaired. Plants cannot synthesize. dementia.1”. hence B12 is never found in plant foods. Ans. maxillary central and lateral incisors • Maxillary canines and mandibular first bicuspids www. The biosynthesis of purines. AIPGEE . carried out in 1937. synthesized by only microorganisms and not by animals and plants. However. which do not contain mitochondria. Ans.1 Explanations The steroid nucleus (ring structure) of the cholesterol cannot be degraded to CO2 and H2O. Ans. vitamin D. excreted in feces. coprostanol and cholesatnol.

LTD. “A clean tooth never decays”. Full Mouth Indices: These indices measure the entire periodontium or dentition. thus reflecting the amount of bacterial substrate and indicating an acid environment within the oral cavity.83 DEWAR TEST: Principle: This test is similar to the Fosdick Calcium Dissolution test.81 YOUNG’S CLASSIFICATION OF ENAMEL FLUOROSIS A classification for enamel fluorosis was developed by YOUNG. the final pH after 4 hours is measured instead of the amount of calcium dissolved. J. The only difference is that in Dewar Test. 2.80 CLASSIFICATION OF INDICES: I. or greater than 2 mm in diameter. or greater than. For example: Russel’s periodontal index. These methods are classified broadly according to Greene J. Coloured (brown) or white areas or lines associated with pits or hypoplastic areas. Symptom Index: The indices measuring gingival/sulcular bleeding is the best Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) .TARGET EDUCARE PVT. become the slogan of the oral hygiene compaign of the following two decodes. they are classified as: 1. Cumulative Index: Index that measures all the evidence of a condition. Reversible: Index that measures conditions that can be changed. This procedure is not commonly used as it has not been adequately tested for clinical correlation. Ans. indices are classified as: 1. III. mandibular canines Ans. Hence. For example: DMF index for dental caries Ans. no one procedure can be described as the best. IV. Disease Index: The decay component of the DMFT index is the best example. Horizontal white lines irrespective of there being any white non-linear areas.79 Another idea introduced the turn of the century by the well known dental histologist. LEON WILLIAMS. Based upon the extent to which areas of oral cavity are measured. For example: Russel’s periodontal Index 2. Depending on the individual cases. ‘Young’ classified enamel fluorosis as follows: Classification Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Type F Criteria White areas less than 2 mm in diameter. Simple Index: Index that measures the presence or absence of a condition.82 Lactobacillus Test: Application: • Lactobacillus levels are highly influenced by the intake of dietary carbohydrates.84 TOOTH BRUSHING TECHNIQUES: A number of tooth brushing techniques have achieved acceptance by the Dental Profession. 2 mm in diameter. Sulcular Bleeding Index II. A. 2.1 Explanations • Mandibular central and lateral incisors. Based on the special categories as: 1. irrespective of there being any white areas Coloured (brown) areas of. For Example: DMFT index for measuring dental info@targeteducare. Each technique has been designed to achieve a definite goal. the techniques of tooth brushing may have to be altered to achieve the maximum beneficial effect. 3. or greater than 2 mm in diameter.. irrespective of there being white areas.C (1966) AS: www. Based on the certain general categories. M. Coloured (brown) areas of. White areas of. Simplified Indices: These indices measure only a representative sample of dental apparatus. For example: Community Periodontal Index. 2. Based upon the direction in which their scores fluctuate. AIPGEE . in 1973. past and present. Ans. Ans. Irreversible: Index that measures conditions that will not change. they are classified as: 1. Ans. Treatment Index: The filled component of the DMFT index is the best example. For example: Oral Hygiene Indexsimplified.targeteducare.

one male and one female health worker should be available for every 5. regional and medical college hospitals.86 Evaluation of a Screening Test: a. school teachers. e. It recommended immediate action for : (1) Creation of bands of para-professional and semi-professional health workers from within the community itself (e.targeteducare. postmasters. Ans.g. smooth X-linked dominant Screening test results www.TARGET EDUCARE PVT.85 In recent info@targeteducare. pitted autosomal dominant IB Hypoplastic.1 Explanations The Roll technique: The Vibratory technique: The Circular technique: The Vertical technique: The Horizontal technique: The Physiological technique: Modified Stillman / Rolling Stroke Stillman.000 population. Also. The group submitted its report in April 1975. Ans. gram sevaks) to provide simple. local autosomal dominant IC Hypoplastic. district. (2) Establishment of 2 cadres of health workers. The committee felt that by the end of the sixth Plan. promotive. 1975 The Government of India in the Ministry of Health and Family planning had in November 1974 set up a ‘Group on Medical Education and Support Manpower’ popularly known as the Shrivastav Committee: (1) To devise a suitable curriculum for training a cadre of health assistants so that they can serve as a link between the qualified medical practitioners and the multipurpose workers.92 Classification of amelogenesis imperfect according to Witkop (1989) Type I Hypoplastic IA Hypoplastic. Sensitivity (true positive) = a/ (a + c) X 100 Specificity (true negative) = d/ (b+ d) X 100 Predictive value of a positive test = a/ (a + b) X 100 Predictive value of a negative test = d/ (c + d) X 100 Percentage of false negatives = c/ (a + c) X 100 Percentage of false positives = b/ (b + d) X 100 Ans. there should be one male and female health assistant for 2 male and 2 female health workers respectively. autosomal dominant IE Hypoplastic. d. thus forming an effective team to deliver health care. preventive and curative health services needed by the community.91 Shrivastav committee. there has been a steady increase in mental disorders. Alzheimer’s disease described as the “silent epidemic” of the century is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. b. namely – multipurpose health workers and health assistants between the community level workers and doctors at the PHC: (3) Development of a ‘Referral Services Complex’ by establishing proper linkages between the PHC and higher level referral and service centres. Charters & Bass method Fones method Leonard’s method “Scrub-Brush” method Smiths method. and not at the PHC. pitted autosomal recessive ID Hypoplastic. and Diagnosis Total Diseased Not Diseased Positive a (True Positive) b (False Positive) a+b Negative c (False Negative) d (True Negative) c+d Total a+c b+d a+ b+c+d (4) Establishment of a Medical and Health Education Commission for planning and implementing the reforms needed in health and medical education on the lines of the University Grants Commission. c. smooth. AIPGEE . family welfare and nutritional services to the people (2) To suggest steps for improving the existing medical educational processes as to provide due emphasis on the problems particularly relevant to national requirements. Ans. (3) To make any other suggestions to realize the above objectives and matters incidental thereto. viz taluka/ Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . The health assistants should be located at the subcentre. f. LTD.

multinucleated giant cells and intranuclear inclusions. alteration in hair distribution. Microdontia is a common finding as is enamel www. Ans. the red cells exhibiting a poikilocytosis and anisocytosis. cosinophilic in reaction and brittle in nature. Ans. Ans.6 and 9. More advanced lesions (plaque stage) are nodular and show increased numbers of small capillaries or dilated vascular channels interspersed with proliferating sheets of sarcomatous or atypical spindle cells. and sometimes showing faint trabeculae. but in some instances appear as ‘target’ cells with a condensation of coloring matter in the center of the Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . often found in great numbers in the epithelium of apical periodontal or residual cysts. autosomal dominant Hypocalcified Autosomal dominant Autosomal recessive Hypomaturation-hypoplastic with taurodontism Hypomaturation-hypoplastic with taurodontism. rough autosomal dominant Enamel agenesis. It can cause bilateral white striations.98 It is characterized by a rapidly acquired adiposity about the upper portion of the body. particularly in larger lesions. and Giemsa stain.96 Scrapings obtained from the base of the lesions are stained with Wright’s. Ans. a tendency to become round-shouldered and develop a ‘buffalo hump’ at the base of the neck. since they evidence fracture in some cases. autosomal recessive Hypomaturation Hypomaturation. AIPGEE . according to a review by Allison. a dusky plethoric appearance with formation of purple striae.94 Kaposi’s sarcoma has a similar histopathologic appearance in all of its clinical subtypes. that appear amorphous in info@targeteducare. vascular hypertension. The involvement of the oral mucous membrane is so frequent and accompanies or precedes the appearance of lesions on the skin and genital mucous membrane.targeteducare. Ans.5 per cent of cysts. or plaques on the buccal mucosa. The etiology. LTD. muscular weakness. Erythema.TARGET EDUCARE PVT.1 Explanations IF IG Type II IIA IIB IIC Type III IIIA IIIB Type IV IVA IVB Hypoplastic. These cells are extremely pale. tongue. producing a radiolucent area with either a relatively smooth or a ragged border. pathogenesis.100 Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common mucocutaneous disease. papules. The early lesion (patch stage) is characterized by a proliferation of small veins and capillaries around one or more preexisting dilated vessels. limited amounts of keratin are present. and gingivae. In addition. and in rare instances. and significance of these structures are unknown. Ans. Their frequency of occurrence in cyst linings ranges between 2. X-linked recessive Snow-capped teeth. In the nodular stage. and blisters may or may not be present.93 Central giant cell granuloma is essentially a destructive lesion.95 Hyaline body or Rushton body. mooning of the face. Occasionally. and albuminuria.101 Papillomas of the lips have been a striking feature in a number of these patients as well as papillomas of the buccal mucosa of gingival.5-1 per cent of the world’s population. The presence of typical ‘safety-pin’ cells and of nor-moblasts or nucleated red blood cells in the circulating blood is also a characteristic feature. shape or structure. all the histologic features are more prominent than plaque stage. the lumen may contain a great deal of cholesterol. The condition can affect either the skin or mucosa or both. Pap stain demonstrates balloon cells. generally associated with the lining epithelium. These hyaline bodies are tiny linear or arc-shaped bodies. often with large numbers of extravasated erythrocytes and abundant hemosiderin deposition. the teeth are commonly defective in size. autosomal dominant Ans. It was first described by Wilson in 1869 and is thought to affect 0. glycosuria not controlled by insulin. autosomal dominant Hypoplastic-hypomaturation with taurodontism.99 The pronounced anemia is of a hypochromic microcytic type. Though cytological procedures give a quick results but it will not differentiate between HSV and VZV more than that identification of giant cells requires experience. erosions. pigmented autosomal recessive Hypomaturation. Ans. Definite loculations are often present.

When these crystals are struck by photons they fluoresce. and epididymis or testis is the most frequent extramaxillary sites. There is no apparent sex predilection.1 Explanations hypoplasia. and variably sized radiopaque structures in the region of the joint. irregularly shaped. Patients may complain about mild pain on biting or chewing on solid food. b.25 mm thick. and inflammation of the apical periodontal ligament. It is seen on a small area of film as localized variations in density. It is about 0. they normally appear on the cheeks. Types of phosphor used in dental screens are: www. Thus. and irregularity of the condylar head. Cleft lips/cleft palate has also been described in several cases. at times producing a butterflyshaped lesion that may resemble lupus erythematosus. In some cases. the skull. Ans. there may be an associated osteogenic reaction. that is. Phosphor layer: This layer consists of light sensitive phosphor crystals suspended in a plastic material. the tooth feels slightly elongated in its socket and may actually be so. The base is the supporting component of the screen. Other features include irregularity of the joint space. magnesium oxide or titanium dioxide) between the base and the luminescent layer. LTD. • Radiographic noise: It is the appearance of uneven density of a uniformly exposed radiographic film. Ans. widened joint space. edema.e. Screens: Use of screens require less mAs in order to obtain a density change. Base: Made of either a stiff sheet of cardboard or polyester plastic material (like the one used for the base of the radiographic film). These consist of rounded. The sensitivity is due to hyperemia.109 Composition a. and percussion may produce a dull sound instead of a normal metallic sound because of the presence of granulation tissue around the root info@targeteducare. Ans. The speed of the screens increases as the crystal size increases but the overall image quality may be degraded.102 The involved tooth is usually nonvital and may be slightly tender to percussion.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. It serves to redirect to the film a large fraction of the emitted visible light which is moving away from the film and which would therefore otherwise be lost. Ans. mandible. Ans. eyelids.103 When lesions occur on the face. it increases the sensitivity but some degree of unsharpness is created because of divergence of light reflected back to the Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) .targeteducare.106 Years Concepts 1895 Discovery of X-rays Persons associated with W. Grids: The use of grids require more mAs in order to obtain a density change. Roentgen Ans. because the binding energy of ‘K’ shell electron is approximately 70 kVp.108 Type of film: • Film speed: High speed films require less mAs in order to obtain a density change. and bridge of the nose. they may become edematous and shut. Amount of filtration used: Reduction in the amount of added filtration used will increase the number of photons reaching the film and hence increase the density. The tumor also can occur at other locations.107 Characteristic radiation accounts for a very small part of X-rays produced in the dental X-ray machine and occurs only at 70 kVp and above. • Film latitude: It is measured as a range of exposures that can be recorded as distinguishable densities on a film. Fog: Film fog may result in an undesirable form of darkening of the film. Even a single X-ray photon absorbed in an intensifying screen generates many light photons leading to increased film exposure. Ans. AIPGEE . c. Details of the disease have been discussed by Gorlin and his associates. If the eyelids are involved.104 In some instances. High urinary levels of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) often are found in patients with melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy. they emit visible light photons that expose the X-ray film. brain. thereby resembling angioedema. Reflecting layer: This is a thin layer of white material (i.105 Radiographically. The primary cause is radiographic mottle. Ans. C. which exhibits a “sun ray” radiographic pattern that can be mistaken for osteosarcoma. the most common feature is the presence of loose bodies in the joint.

The term ‘rare earth’ is used because it is difficult and expensive to separate these elements from earth and from each other and not because these elements are rare. Rare earth screens (Kodak Lanex Regular and Medium screens) are designed for use with green sensitive films. helps reduce such errors 10. from use of bending of the film right angle exposure and flat surface of the film Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) .com info@targeteducare. The long axis of the object and the film planes should be parallel 5. Conventional screens (Kodak X-Omatic Regular screens) are used with blue sensitive films. ii. Distorted image of the teeth due to oblique exposure and 3. and immunoblot techniques have made identification of the characteristic pattern of cytokeratins possible in each epithelial type. which fluoresce in the green portion of the spectrum. Coat: This layer protects the phosphor layer from mechanical insult such as abrasion. thus similar buccal and lingual parts 5. Sharp details of the image obtained 2.111 Summary of Comparison between Short cone and Long cone Technique Short cone Long cone 1. Alveolar crest seen in true relationship to the teeth spaces 5. scratching. because any debris. 11. and thus less exposure is required when these rare earth screens are used. that fluoresces in the blue portion of the spectrum. Less vertical angulation. They are numbered in a sequence contrary to their molecular weight. Crystalline Calcium Tungstate. Easier technique to maneuver and requires less space 7.targeteducare. (Given by Mason and Lincoln) Ans. Cone cutting is a common error especially. More effective when the palate is shallow. Ans.113 Immunohistochemistry.1 Explanations i. in the maxillary third molar area 11. Curved film due to incorrect finger pressure Ans. In a similar situation apices of the teeth may be cut off adult size teeth but underdeveloped jaws 9. d. The PID.112 Typical radiographic description of various oral lesions as seen on the radiograph Egg shell appearance Ameloblastoma Multilocular cyst Ans. Increased chances of elongation of shortening of the image 2. Shadows of the alveolar bone tend to fill the interproximal 4. Rare earth intensifying screens using terbium activated gadolinium oxysulphide and thelium activated lanthanum oxybromide. 6. This is not possible in the long cone technique 9. The focal spot (source of radiation) should be as small as possible 2. Use of film holding device prevents such an error. and more tooth area underneath restorations is revealed. Image of the teeth nearly anatomically accurate. In rare cases when the teeth are longer than film. Image obtained is of the same size and shape as the object 3. LTD. the entire tooth may be seen.110 The basic principles of projection geometry (shadow casting) are: 1. The keratin proteins are composed of different polypeptide subunits characterized by their isoelectric points and molecular weights. The X-ray beam should strike the object and the film planes at right angles 6. etc. spots which are opaque to visible light or scratches will result in light (under exposed) spots on the resultant radiograph. Less vertical angulation in the maxillary molar region avoids teeth the shadow of the zygomatic arch and the teeth apices and maxillary sinus are better seen 7.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. children with 8. More vertical angulation of the teeth appear closed to each other in the radiograph. Rare earth intensifying screens are four times more efficient than calcium screens and are considered faster. The object-film distance should be as small as possible 4. it is important to keep the intensifying screens clean. The newer rare earth screens have phosphors that emit green light. The focal spot-object distance should e as long as possible 3. Needs a larger working space 8. There should be no movement of the tube. Superimposition of the shadow of the zygomatic arch on the 6. www. AIPGEE . film or patient during exposure. gel electrophoresis. Diffusion and distortion of the image 1. by over angulating the vertical angulation 10.

which occurs 2 to 3 weeks after the beginning of plaque accumulation.123 Phases of Periodontal Therapy Surgical phase (Phase II Therapy) Periodontal therapy. and Streptococcus intermedius have been found to be elevated in patients who do not respond to treatment.targeteducare.119 Prominent periodontal pathogen such as P. the conjunctiva. P. abrasion. Ans. Ans. gingivalis is able to inhibit the production of IL-8 by epithelial cells. a nearly mature microbiota is established in the gut of the newborn. www.127 Lymphatic Drainage of the Face The face has three lymphatic territories: (a) The upper territory. The forms of wasting are erosion. the lateral part of the cheek and the parotid info@targeteducare.122 Exostoses are outgrowths of bone of varied size and shape.117 The initial biologic processes and bone remodeling needed to complete the first remodeling cycle of bone around an implant require an estimated 4 months in humans. Ans. including the greater part of the forehead. Ans. E.120 The chronic gingivitis. substance characterized by the formation of smooth. It is also known as reverse bevel incision. a proinflammatory chemokine that provides a signal for the recruitment of neutrophils (PMNs) to local site (see later discussion).115 The transition from gram-positive to gram-negative microorganisms observed in the structural development of dental plaque is paralleled by a physiologic transition in the developing plaque. including placement of implants Endodontic therapy Ans. drains into the preauricular parotid nodes. P. and the blood flow becomes Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) .1 Explanations Ans.125 Internal bevel incision is the initial incision in the reflection of periodontal flap. can also cause cementum burns.114 Within 2 weeks.118 Neutropenia is a blood disorder that results in low levels of circulating neutrophils. which may provide the microorganism with an advantage in evading PMN-mediated killing.126 It can lead to bone necrosis if electrode touches the bone. AIPGEE .121 Wasting Disease of the Teeth Wasting is defined as any gradual loss of tooth. polished surfaces. Ans. Ans. and abfraction. corrodens. LTD. gingivalis. micros.116 Many periodontal pathogens stimulate the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8). without regard to the possible mechanism of this loss. the blood vessels become engorged and congested. Ans. Ans. Ans. nucleatum.124 The maintenance phase of periodontal treatment starts immediately after the completion of Phase I therapy. An individual with an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of less than 1500 cells per microliter is considered to beneutropenic. Ans. venous return is impaired. forsythia. F. Palatal exostoses have been found in 40% of human skulls. the lateral halves of the eyelids. the entire human microbial flora is formed by a complex collection of approximately 10 microorganisms consisting of more than 400 different types of bacteria.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. After weaning (>2 years). Ans. attrition. T. Ans.

Ans. Ans. including a strip over the median part of the forehead. The motor or parasympathetic fibres pass from the lingual nerve to the ganglion through the posterior root. Postganglionic fibres for the sublingual and anterior lingual glands re-enter the lingual nerve through the anterior root and travel to the gland thought the distal part of the lingual nerve. the upper lip. Ans. The insertion of this muscle is broad. Within the mandibular canal the artery gives branches to the mandible and to the roots of the each tooth attached to the bone. but it is partly covered at the cervical third in young adults by soft tissue of the mouth known as the gingiva or gingival Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . These are preganglionic fibres that arise in the superior salovatory nucleus and pass through the facial nerve. AIPGEE . drains into the submental nodes. and supply vasomotor fibres to the submandibular and sublingual glands. (e) The orbicularis oculi. LTD. 3. it is related to the lingual nerve. but functionally. extending from the region of the second molar on the lateral surface of the mandible to the posterior lateral surface of the ramus. The inferior alveolar artery runs downwards and forwards medial to the ramus of the mandible to reach the mandibular foramen. Before entering the mandibular canal the artery gives off a lingual branch to the tongue. The bone of the tooth socket is called the albeolus (plural.TARGET EDUCARE info@targeteducare. Apart from the meninges it supplies structures in the infratemporal fossa. Sensory fibres reach ganglion through the lingual nerve. the medial part of the cheek.targeteducare. the tympanic membrane and the temporomandibular joint. Conenctios and Branches 1. 2. so that each tooth is held in its position relative to the others in the dental arch. Ans. or gums. The accessory meningeal artery enters the cranial cavity through the foramen ovale. The anterior tympanic branch supplies the middle ear including the medial surface of the tympanic membrane. and a mylohyoid branch that descends in the mylohyoid groove (on the medial aspect of the mandible) and runs forwards above the mylohyoid muscle. the external nose. 3. (b) The auricularis superior. (c) The lower territory.129 Branches of First Part of the Maxillary Artery 1. all of the enamel and often some cervical cementum may not be covered by the gingiva. The crown portion is never covered by bone tissue after fully erupted. The fusiform ganglion lies on the hyoglossus muscle just above the deep part of the submandibular salivary gland.1 Explanations (b) The middle territory.131 The root portion of the tooth is firmly fixed in the bony process of the jaw. alveoli). suspended from the lingual nerve by two roots.128 The temporal branches cross the zygomatic arch and supply: (a) The auricularis anterior. (d) The frontalis. That portion of the jaw serving as support for the tooth is called the alveolar process. It contains postganglionic fibres arising in the superior cervical ganglion. Topographically.130 Submandibular Ganglion This is a parasympathetic peripheral ganglion. including the central part of the lower lip and the chin. In some persons. It is a relay station for secretomotor fibres to the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. The fibres relay in the ganglion: Postganglionic fibres for the submandibular gland reach the gland through five or six branches from the ganglion. They pass through submandibular ganglion without relay. the chorda tympani and the lingual nerve to reach the ganglion. (c) The intrinsic muscles on the lateral side of the ear. The www. 2. drains into the submandibular nodes. The sympathetic fibres are derived from the plexus aroud the facial artery. it is connected to the chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve.132 Masseter Muscle The masseter muscle extends from the zygomatic arch to the ramus and body of the mandible. Passing through this foramen the artery enters the mandibular canal (within the body of the mandible) in which it runs downwards and then forwards. It also gives off a mental branch that passes through the mental foramen to supply the chin. and the greater part of the lower jaw. Ans. the lateral part of the lower lip. the medial halves of the eyelids. (f) The corrugator supercilii. 4. The deep auricular artery supplies the external acoustic meatus.

when ketamine is used in anaesthetic doses (1-2 mg/kg IV or 8 to 10 mg/kg IM). urine or stools. High speed. Pulp collagen fibers do not contribute to dentin matrix production.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. For smear and culture in suspected cases of tuberculosis. Severe hypoxia. stained and studied. is enhanced by increasing alveolar concentration of L. particularly. the sample is sent in normal saline. The masseter muscle is active during forceful jaw closing and may assist in protrusion of the mandible. It has a very high margin of safety.133 Fibers The collagen fibers in the pulp exhibit typical cross striations at 64 nm (640 Å) and range in length from 10 to 100 nm or more. do not become relaxed under the effect of ketamine. Their significance is unknown.targeteducare. This test may not be significant at Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) .A. c. It is a nonbarbiturate hypnotic. Burs should be always used along with copious saline irrigation to avoid thermal trauma to the bone. Ans. The platysma is activated during firm clenching in some individuals and. They may appear scattered throughout the coronal or radicular pulp. Since the intraoral muscles. In very young pulp fine fibers ranging in diameter from 10 to 12 nm (100 to 120 Å) have been observed. which is the function of the odontoblast.136 A deep level of G. amnesia and intense analgesia. It may be an antagonist to the posterior temporalis and a synergist for the lateral pterygoid muscle. It has good tissue compatibility (no irritation of veins). A smear is prepared. The superficial part of the masseter muscle is separated distinctly only from the deeper layer of the muscle at the posterior upper part of the muscle. Either of these burs can be used for bone removal or for sectioning of a tooth.135 Two Ways of Bone Removal a.137 Ketamine is a phencyclidine derivative.138 Apnoea may be due to the following: a.134 • Bacterial Culture and Antibiotic Sensitivity tests Cultures can be obtained from the throat. These are termed diffuse or bundle collagen depending on their appearance. Type III collagen is also present. Ans. It produces sedation. After root completion the pulp matures and bundles of collagen fibers increase in number. The zygomaticomandibular muscle (deep masseter muscle) inserts at the coronoid process and originates on the inner surface of the zygomatic arch. The masseter muscle is innervated by the fifth nerve (masseter nerve). 703 fissure bur is used. • FNAC Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology uses a fine needle (23-26G) to aspirate the contents of the lesion. The center of the lower third of the masseter muscle is about 2 to 3 cm from the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. d. draining pus.A. which contracts during clenching in some individuals. Respiratory obstruction. Fiber bundles are most prevalent in the root canals. The masseter muscle is covered partly and to a variable degree with the parotid gland tissue. Cultures from the oral cavity can be obtained either by gathering exudative material or by aspiration with a needle and syringe or by use of a info@targeteducare. Breath holding in light anaesthesia. those of the tongue. A transport medium must be used when the sample cannot be inoculated immediately onto a primary culture medium. the airway remains unobstructed. Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of an anesthetic agent is to produce lack of reflex response to skin incision in 50% of patients. and their presence may relate to environmental trauma. Bundles of these fibers appear throughout the pulp. or they may appear in bundles. These fine fibers are called fibrillin. A throat or pus culture is obtained by collecting the sample on an autoclaved swab stick. Volatile anesthetic agents are rapidly removed from the body via lungs and little evidence of metabolism can be demonstrated following short exposure. AIPGEE . The main type of collagen fiber in the pulp is type I. www. The risorius is affected by emotion and is active in facial expression. is sometimes active in facial expression. The addition of sedative premedication increases the incidence of aspiration especially. This unique characteristic is ideal for dentistry. Ans. Bur technique round bur or a straight no. Ans.1 Explanations masseter muscle is covered partly by the platysma muscle and by the risorius muscle. b. spuntum. having some insertion in the orbicular muscle (orbicularis oris). LTD. Chisel and mallet technique. Ans. Deep anaesthesia. especially near the apical region. which produces dissociative type of anaesthesia. Ans. high toque handpiece and but technique b.

Maintenance of oral hygiene. at the inferior border of the mandible. the superficial fascia. iv.139 The hypertonic saline or sclerosing solution is used for TMJ subluxation is paracapsular. Grave cardiovascular depression requiring resuscitation. Surgical drain should be secured by suturing to the margins of the incision. Important landmarks-the corner of the mouth and the eyeglobe must be visible. Mini bone plates c. Obviates the need for immobilization of the mandible. Patient is prepared and draped in routine surgical manner.142 Submandibular incision is use to access the mandibular ramus. investing layer of deep fascia. then only it will drain sublingual space. the puncture into the sinus cavity should be made through the middle meatus in children. Ans. Compression plates d.Following aseptic technique and adequate local anaesthesia. www. Ans.143 Advantages of Rigid Fixation: i. can cause significant autonomic nervous system overactivity. • Rubber tubing placed in the lingual vestibule and the flap is held in position at the vestibular depth. the fracture must be reduced independently with the teeth in occlusion before the free ends of the wire are lightened and twisted. Useful in mentally challenged. Soft diet can be taken. Ans.Bilateral submandibular incisions and if required a midline submental incision 1 cm below the inferior border of mandible are sufficient to drain the involved spaces. Head of the patient is turned sideways. Ideally the incision is placed in a relaxed skin tension line (the Langer’s lines) Ans. anxiety and occasionally pain in the patients presenting for outpatient dental anaesthesia. Rigid or stable fixation. an incision is info@targeteducare. platysma. which divides skin. Ans. . Reconstruction plates Whereas. vi.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. A through and through drain is placed to relieve the intense pressure of the oedematous tissues on the airway. But this can be modified in various ways depending on the Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . The floor of maxillary sinus is about 1. The antral puncture or intranasal antrostomy. physically handicapped patients. Maintenance of airway in multiple fractures. Fainting-fear.targeteducare. Sublingual space can be separately drained by intraoral approach if required and if oral opening permits it.25 cm below the floor of the nose. after which a length of 26 gauge stainless steel wire is passed through the holes and across the fracture. After this initial preparation. by sutures passed through the skin extraorally. f. geniohyoid and finally mylohyoid muscles. in the inferior meatus then becomes a point of dependent drainage for maxillary sinus. vii. Ans. The types of Rigid Fixation includesa.141 Whenever antral puncture is to be carried out. In principle. Transosseous Wiring (Intraosseous Wiring) is a direct wiring across the fracture line is an age old and effective method of fixation of jaw bone fractures. ii. . AIPGEE . Transosseous wiring can be done through intraoral or extraoral approach. v. Simple noncompression bone plates b. • Mylohyoid muscle and superficial fibres of genioglossus muscles are pushed inferiorly. it is essential to divide deep fascia and the mylohyoid muscle. The single strand wire fixation in this horizontal manner is the simplest form of fixation with intraosseous wiring. iii. • Mylohyoid ridge is reduced / removed along with the reduction of genial tubercle. holes are drilled in the bony fragments on either side of the fracture line.1 Explanations e. The twisted ends are cut short and tucked into the nearest drill hole. The incision is marked 2 cm below the inferior border of the mandible to avoid damage to the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve.140 .144 Caldwell’s Technique • Entire lingual mucoperiosteal flap is reflected from molar to molar region. angle and posterior body. Early return to home and work.To be effective. LTD. and in the inferior meatus in adults.

LTD. . the total extraction space should not be utilized. They may be sensitive to percussion or hypermobile. the covering bone becomes thin and exhibits springiness due to fluctuation. or displaced. Ans. The commonly used additional reference points are: • Distal marginal ridge of the first premolar. in case of large cysts. It the path of insertion and displacement of the denture are parallel to one another it simply means that there is no retentive undercut present along the path of insertion. . Hence it is important to maintain a single path of insertion that does not coincide with the path of displacement. • Short span class III and IV are tooth supported partial dentures. so that the entire premolar space can be utilized for set back of the anterior segment. The equal amount of space should be created between the crowns as well as roots of the teeth adjacent to the osteotomy sites. In the maxilla.147 Mandibular nerve is the nerve of first (mandibular) branchial arch. It may involve deciduous or the permanent dentition. tympanic membrane and TM joint. The first ach gibes rise to the following: • Precursor of mandible (Meckel’s cartilage) • Spine of sphenoid • Sphenomandibular ligament • Muscles of mastication. It is the largest branch of trigeminal nerve. as the cyst increases in size. An intraoral sinus tract may be identified with discharging pus or brownish fluid. • Class I and class II. Ans. buccal and palatal or only palatal expansion due to the lateral incisor or a palatal root will be noted. • Incisal edge of lateral incisor. Ans. • Path of displacement is any path of movement of the clasp without resistance. without jeopardizing the periodontal status of the adjacent teeth. Ans. The mucosa overlying the cysts expansion. and two big chewing muscles and two in floor of mouth.150 After tripoding the primary info@targeteducare. It is motor supply to the muscles derived from first branchial arch: • Temporalis and masseter • Medial and lateral pterygoid • Mylohyoid and anterior belly of digastrics • Tensor tympani and tensor palati. they are made divergent. external ear. Periapical X-rays of the planned osteotomy region should be taken and if roots are convergent. Slowly enlarging swellings are often complained of. Radicular cysts at times attain a large size.145 The cyst itself is frequently symptomless and may be discovered. three additional reference points are marked on the cast using the same procedure described to mark the first three tripod marks. At least 3 to 4 mm space should be left for making the segmental osteotomy cuts. long span class III and IV partial dentures are tooth-tissue supported prostheses. AIPGEE . • Lingual cusp tip of the first premolar on the opposite side (opposite to the side where the other two points were marked. is at first of normal colour.148 • Class I arches are most common and class IV is least common. Hence.targeteducare. Temporary paraesthesia or anaesthesia of the regional nerve distribution may be evident as with other cysts when infection is present. Initially. Judicious inter-proximal stripping can be carried out wherever possible. then it may become conspicuous because then it may become conspicuous because of the presence of dilated blood vessels and finally it will take on a profound dark bluish tingue. the enlargement is bony hard. www.Some of its distal branches also convey parasympathic secretomotor fibres to salivary glands and taste fibers from anterior portion of tongue. In the mandible. as with the other cysts. Ans. fractured or with heavy restorations or a failed root canal. in the presence of suppuration.Note the four groups of two-two tensors. there will be no height of contour obstructing the movement of the retentive arm along any path of displacement. It also supplies the meninges of cranial vault.149 • The retentive undercut will be present only in relation to a given path of Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . side of the cheek and temple. The retentive undercut is absent in conditions where the direction of dislodgement of the clasp arm is similar to the direction along which the clasp arm was inserted. Pathologic fracture may be the form of presentation in the mandible. the oral cavity and its contents.1 Explanations Ans. lingual expansion is very rare.146 Whenever premolar extractions are carried out for relieving the crowding. discoloured. It transmits sensory fibres from the skin over the mandible. when the cyst is infected.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. when periapical radiographs are taken of teeth with nonvital pulps. two pterygoids. The involved tooth / teeth will be found to be nonvital. as with other large cysts. Pain may be a significant chief complaint.

the buccal cusps of the upper and lower teeth do not contact each other. support should be taken from both central and lateral incisor. • Clinical procedure – Impression is made with irreversible hydrocolloid.153 Anthropometric cephalic index .151 • Surgical Splints are used to protect post-operative surgical sites in the oral cavity to improve the healing.targeteducare.The transverse circumference of the head is measured using a measuring tape at the level of the forehead. This type of occlusion involves the use of a large upper palatal cusp against a wide lower central fossa.160 The major Advantages of Fixed Fixed Partial Dentures include: • Easy to fabricate • Economical design • Strong • Easy to maintain www. Ans.0 mm away from the finish line to preserve the periodontal health. It has attachments of the following muscles. Levator anguli oris . They are most commonly used on the maxillary arch and the lingual side of mandibular ridge where tori and exostoses are most likely to occur. They are fabricated like a cap and are usually indicated for extensively damaged teeth.159 Features • Chamfer finish line: Their functions • Marginal integrity and Periodontal preservation Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . where a cantilever FPD is planned. loss of alveolar crest and pocket formation. These muscles influence the position of the buccal frenum hence it needs greater (wider and relatively shallower) clearance on the buccal flange of the denture.152 The Buccal Frenum separates the labial and buccal vestibule.1 Explanations Ans. Ans. Ans.158 Replacement of a Single Missing Canine – In cases of a single missing canine. Ans.154 Lingualized Occlusion – was first proposed by Alfred Gysi in 1927. Ans. AIPGEE . • The finish line should be at least 3 mm away from the alveolar crest to preserve the periodontium. Sears called this formula as the anthropometric cephalic index. Ans. The width of the upper central incisor can be derived from this measurement.Pulls the frenum in the backward direction. Width of the upper central incisor = Circumference of the head 13 Ans.156 • If the distance between the finish line and the alveolar crest (combined width of epithelial and connective tissue attachments) is less than 2.157 Full Veneer Crowns – These retainers cover all the five surfaces of the abutment.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. advantages of Less conservative of tooth structure shoulder bevel Indications Facial margins ceramic crowns of metal- Ans.Pulls the fernum in a forward direction Buccinators . Clough reported that 67% of the patients preferred lingualized occlusion due to its superior chewing efficiency. They are most retentive and ideal retainers because their design can resist masticatory forces in all directions. the restoration may lead to gingival inflammation. In this scheme. A crown lengthening procedure should be done to move the alveolar crest to a location about 3. LTD.0 mm.155 Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Margin Designs Advantages Disadvantages Slopped Bulk of material.Attaches beneath the frenum Orbicularis oris .com info@targeteducare.

Cobalt Chromium Molybdenum alloy) and Non-metalic implants (Ceramics. the dark zone may be formed by deposition of ions into an area previously containing only large pores. Adding this small amount of palladium enhances the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. whereas another product contains less than 1% palladium. Ans.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. forms. When their ends are thickened.162 Contact angle of Porcelien is less.165 Most modern bonding agents bond best to a moist tooth.166 Odontoblastic processes sometimes cross DEJ into enamel. Disadvantages • Since the connectors are rigid. These smaller air-filled or vapor-filled pores make the region opaque. coupling agent and the initiator accelerator system. the viscosity of which is reduced to a useful clinical level by the addition of a diluents monomer. There is some speculation that the dark zone is not really a stage in the sequence of the breakdown of enamel. 5% tin is replaced by 5 % indium.167 The deepest zone is known as the dark zone because it does not transmit polarized light. Ans. Ans. The organic polymer matrix in most commercial composites today is either an aromatic or urethane diacrylate oligomer. Ans. Oligomers are viscous liquids. • Difficult to cement on multiple abutments • Contraindicated for pier abutments. AIPGEE .com Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) .168 Linear Coefficients of Thermal Expansion Biomaterials/ structures Aluminous dental porcelain Alumina In-Ceram Cp-litanium LCTE (ppm/0C) 4 6.164 A resin composite is composed of four major components: organic polymer matrix.1 Explanations • Robust design provides maximum retention and strength • Helps to splint mobile abutments • Can be used for long bridges along with periodontally weak abutments. inorganic filler particles. which is a solid solution of sliver and tin. This light blockage is caused by the presence of many tiny pores too small to absorb quinoline. rather. Titanium alloy. The total pore volume is 2% to 4 % . they may serve as pain receptors. • Requires excessive tooth preparation to achieve a single path of placement. Ans. These are called enamel spindles. If dentin is overdried. it is best to rehydrate it by applying a moist cotton pellet for 15 seconds before applying the primer of the bonding agent.163 If the concentration of tin is less than 26%. In one product. the implants can be classified into Metallic implants (Titanium. LTD. Ans. Ans. info@targeteducare. • A fixed partial denture constructed over these abutments will produce rotational forces around the pier (2) abutment. unwanted stress and lever forces are directly transferred to the abutment producing considerable damage.161 Depending on the Materials Used. the beta (β) phase. Caries is an episodic disease with alternating phases of demineralization and remineralization. The replacement of silver by an equal amount of copper produces a copper tin compound(Cu3Sn). hence better wetting. Carbon).5-8 8-10 8-9 www.targeteducare.

6. Type III : Peeling-off metal at blade edges. AIPGEE . 5.Has got the name from its manufacturing company. Type VI : Full fracture Ans.targeteducare.171 K – File (Kerr manufacturing company) . Type II : Stretching or straightening of twist contour.173 Local Contraindications- www.169 It can be differentiated from primary dentin by the sharp bending of the tubules producing a line of demarcation. Ans.1 Explanations Traditional dental cements Tooth structure Stainless steel PFM ceramics PRM alloys Gold foil Gold casting alloys Co-cr alloys Hybrid glass-ionomers Dental amalgam Packable composites Anterior and flowable composites Composite cements PMMA direct-filling resins Dental wax 8-10 9-11 11 14 14 14-15 16-18 18-20 20-25 25 28-35 35-50 40 72-83 260-600 Ans. 4. Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . . Type IV : Partial clockwise twist. Type I : Bent instrument 2.TARGET EDUCARE PVT.Manufactured from stainless steel square blank. 3. LTD. Type V : Cracking along axis.170 • Chronic Periradicular diseases with areas of rarefaction Chronic alveolar abscess Granuloma Cyst • Chronic Periradicular disease with area of condensation Condensing osteitis info@targeteducare.172 Sotokawa’s classification of instrument damage is: 1.

curved root a tortuous canal. i. treatment is indicated after the acute symptoms are controlled.Carving is for shaping.e. . Obstructed root canal of a pulpless tooth with a radiolucent area. The cause commonly attributed is trauma to minor salivary glands with the mucus/fluid spreading into adjacent tissue which gets covered by a fibrous lining. The ‘Second Window of Infectivity’ is present in permanent dentition between 6-12 years of age.179 The Mucocele is an extravasation type of cyst (or can also be a retention cyst). (Klock and Kroske (1977).1 Explanations 1. 6. and designated the time period as ‘window of infectivity’. Accidental or pathologic perforations of the root surface.175 • High temperature Injection Moulded Method • Thermoplasticized GP is heated to 700C – 1600C depending on the method or material used. He noted the initial acquisition mutans S. a calcified or partially calcified canal a malformed tooth or a broken instrument.174 Carve . i.177 • Caufield (1993) monitored oral cavity levels from birth up to 5 years. 5.176 • The alveolar arches of an infant are called gumpads. Ans. when a foreign body such as a fragment of gutta-percha or of root canal filling material. 10. 3. 8.Reamers are best for carving. Ans.Gingival groove is the groove separating the gumpad from the palate. info@targeteducare. • Krass et al (1967). . The groove between the deciduous canine and first molar segments are prominent and called the lateral sulci. As the teeth (primary teeth) erupt into the oral cavity they provide a virgin habitat which enables MS to colonize the oral cavity avoiding competition with other indigenous bacteria. .Instrument should not be pressed apically but simply touches the dentin and shape on withdraw. • Each gumpad is divided into ten segments by transverse grooves.178 Facial injuries prevalence in physical child abuse Site Percentage Scalp 79 59 Neck Forehead 52 Cheek 49 Lower jaw 48 45 Upper lip Ans.targeteducare.Lateral sulcus is a deepened groove separating the canine and deciduous first molar segments. Ans. Root Fractures : Vertical fractures have a poor prognosis. In cases of treatment. . incomplete development of root apex and death of the pulp. LTD.Dental groove is originates in the incisive papilla region and extends backwards to touch the gingival groove in the canine region and then laterally to end in the molar region. When there is persistent excessive periapical exudates that cannot be controlled prior to filling the root canal or when negative cultures cannot be obtained.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . secondary dentin. 4. • The upper gumpad is horseshoe shaped and shows: . lies in the periapical tissues of radiolucent teeth. When on acute infection in a preciously treated and filled pulpless tooth has occurred. which are firm and pink structures with a definite from.e. Massive internal or external resorption. 2. Edrman et al (1975) reported that at 2-6 yr of age the child is less susceptible to acquiring MS. 9. 7. Thus in the window period in deciduous teeth the MS is established by 7-31 months of age and may have difficulty in establishing later because it would need to compete with other indigenous bacteria. Bizarre anatomy. Credence is given to this www. 90% of teenagers have MS colonization while others found only 3% of adults (mothers). a pulpstone that cannot be removed or by passed. Insufficient periodontal support. AIPGEE . Destruction of the periapical tissues involving more than 1/3rd of the length of the root.

It is similar structurally to mepivacaine and bupivacaine but is unique in that ropivacaine is prepared as an isomer rather than a racemic mixture. Midline shift potential due to unilateral canine loss 4. 72% nickel 14% chromium 6-10% Fe info@targeteducare. Ropivacaine has demonstrated decreased cardiotoxicity relative to bupivacaine.TARGET EDUCARE PVT.181 Composition • Stainless steel crowns (18/8).35% manganese and 0. www. Crowded arches accompanied with extreme proclination 5.180 Indication for Serial Extraction 1. 3. Class I with anterior crowding (space discrepancy 10 mm or more) 2. LTD. similar to bupivacaine and etidocaine induration of activity. 4.2% silicon. Mostly these crowns are used in the posterior teeth which have undergone pulp therapy. Ropivacaine has a greater margin of safety between convulsive and lethal doses than does bupivacaine and also a lower dysrhythmogenic potential than bupivacaine. 5.182 • Plane I: Moderate Sedation and Analgesia Achieved with concentration of 5-25% N2O (95-75%) • Plane II: Dissociation Sedation and Analgesia Concentration of 25-45% • Pane III: Total Anesthesia (Analgesia) Achieved with 45-65% concentrations • Pane IV: Many develop beyond 65-85% Light anesthesia – contact with patient lost. 4 and 5 • Nickel-base crowns are Inconel 600 type of alloy. Ans. Plain puncturing of the lesion is associated with a recurrence and thus enucleation of the lesion along with removal of the adjacent minor salivary glands is the treatment of choice. Rocky mountain and Unitek.Austentic type of alloy is used e.04% carbon 0. The commonly used sizes are 3. Anomalies such as ankylosis. Contraindications 1.g. 17-19% chromium 10-13% nickel 67% iron and 4% minor elements. Lack of developmental spacing 7. 2. ectopic eruption.targeteducare. The austentic types provide the best corrosion resistance of all the stainless steel.184 Cleft lip: Various theories have been suggested to explain the development of the usual cleft lip: • Failure of fusion between median nasal process and maxillary process (Dursy-His hypothesis). Ans. Accompanying deep or open bites without correction. 3. Abnormal primary canine root resorption 6. Ans.183 Ropivacaine is a long-acting amide anesthetic. Where extensive caries of permanent first molars requires their removal. These crowns are available in various sizes to suit the morphology of the tooth being restored. III of dental/ skeletal origin. Mild to moderate crowding (about 8 mm or less). Ans.1 Explanations theory by the fact that they most frequently occur on the lower lip area. AIPGEE . Severe class II. Lingual eruption of the lateral incisors. Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . Cleft lip and palate cases. Congenital absence of teeth providing space. Ans.

West S.188 Orofacial features that help in diagnosis of syndromes Special Features Syndromes Mental retardation Down S. thin cortices and generalized osteoporosis.187 HIV is sensitive to heat for 20 minutes but autoclaving at 1210C for 15 minutes at 1 atmospheric pressure or dry heating of instruments up to 1700C kills this virus. Before immersion of innate objects on chemical disinfectant remove gross contamination on the instruments like dried blood because disinfectant will not penetrate into these. The common disinfectants that are used are: • 0. Lennox-Gastaut S. Rupture of cyst formed at the site of fusion. Ataxia . leading to expansion of the marrow cavity.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. Athetosis . 50% ethanol. Ans.Involved muscles unable to contract completely . Prader Willi S. Disinfectants for innate objects: Chemical disinfectants must not be used for needles and syringes.Involvement of cerebral cortex 2. LTD. Ans. Shanken Baby S. Angelman S. protrusion of the middlethird of the face.Approximately in 15% of cases . Spasticity . Veau and Stark). Landau-Kleffner S Learning disability Kanner’s S (autism). overnight soaking of 1% sodium hypochlorite may be done. Rubinstein –Taybi S Cerebral palsy Lesch-Nyhan S.1 Explanations • • Failure of mesodermal migration between the two layered epithelial membrane which results due to fusion between the two processes. Sturge-Weber S Epilepsy Ohtahara S. extreme tightness of the upper lip. • Chipmunk facies with an enlargement of the maxilla and spacing of the teeth. increased overjet. Asperger’s S Deafness Usher S. Mixed Ans. The virus can be inactivated by heating lyophilized factor at 680C for 72 hours. Waaderburg S Blindness Usher S. • Radiographic changes: ‘chicken wire’ appearance of the alveolar bone. Fragile-X S. Stevens-Johnson S www.186 Oral changes • Hyperplasia of the marrow. Ans. • Ocular hypertelorism. 0.Involvement of cerebellum 4. liquid plasma at 600C for 10 hrs.2% sodium hypochlorite • Calcium hypochlorite • 6% hydrogen peroxide for more than 30 minutes • 2% glutaraldehyde and 6% hydrogen peroxide combination • Sodium Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . This eventually leads to a breakdown and cleft formation (Fleischmann. Alternatively. Dravet’s S.Involvement of basal ganglia 3.185 Classification based on neuromuscular involvement1. • Pain and swelling of the parotid glands and atrophic candidiasis. AIPGEE . William’s S. 35% isopropanol. hair-on-end appearance of the skull. Disinfectants for living tissues are: • Povidine • 2% propranol • Ethanol • HIV is completely inactivated by treatment for 10 minutes at room temperature with 10% household bleach. • Large medullary cavities. delayed pneumatisation of the sinuses. Pendred S. epicanthal folds and browning of the skin.targeteducare.5% paraformaldehyde or 3% hydrogen info@targeteducare. At room temperature it can survive for about 7 days.Approximately seen in 70% of cases . Gloves may be autoclaved or disinfected by immersing them in boiling water for 20 minutes.

Pentachlorophenol Ans. so that the lip closure could be carried out at approximately 10 weeks. so that the period of active treatment is a few weeks at most. Ans. the segments can be repositioned surprisingly quickly and easily. In modern classification the subdivision label rarely is useful because it does not describe the real problem. clinical tests to determine whether the patient can breathe freely through both nostrils nearly always show that one is at least partially Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) .195 In infants. or as a “velocity” curve. The cycles alternate between the two nostrils: when one is clear.191 Dental ages 13. A passive palate.Zinc oxide 56.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. the etiology of Class II or Class III problems must be abnormal stresses on the jaws. The first was that skeletal growth could be influenced readily by external pressures. If pre-surgical movement of maxillary segments is indicated. similar to an orthodontic retainer.192 Simple clinical tests for mouth breathing can also be misleading.6% . The internal architecture of the head of the femur is the classic example. Angle came to believe that skeletal structures were so adaptable that just rubber bands connecting the upper to the lower teeth could overcome improper jaw relationships. The asymmetric molar relationship reflects either an asymmetry within one or both the dental arches (typically due to loss of space when one primary second molar was lost prematurely). stimulating growth where it was needed. it should be apparent on the radiographs. which is called a “distance” curve. and the roots of all other permanent teeth should be complete. the other is usually somewhat obstructed. is then used for a few months after lip closure.targeteducare. Angle called this a Class II subdivision right or left.196 • CAT performs well:  Mild-moderate crowding with IPR or expansion  Posterior dental expansion  Close mild-moderate spacing  Absolute intrusion (r or z teeth only)  Lower incisor extraction for severe crowding  Tip molar distally • CAT does not perform well:  Dental expansion or blocked-out teeth  Extrusion of incisors* www. but different patterns of pressure associated with treatment could change growth so as to overcome the problem. This led Angle to two key concepts.1 Explanations Ans. One partially obstructed nostril should not be interpreted as a problem with normal nasal breathing.Barium sulfate 1.194 In the early 1900s the German physiologist Wolff demonstrated that bone trabeculae were arranged in response to the stress lines on the bone. For this reason.Iodoform 40.Calcium hydroxide 1. These must be distinguished and should already have been addressed in the first or second steps in the classification procedure. Ans. if a third molar is going to form. Ans. AIPGEE .193 Occasionally the molar occlusion is Class II on one side.190 Measurement data can be presented graphically in a number of different ways. Ans.189 • Endoflas contain: . Changes in the rate of growth are much more easily seen in the velocity curve than the distance curve. and frequently. LTD. it is possible to clarify growth changes by carrying the method of display. but the condylar process of the mandible shows the same effect of “Wolff’s law of bone”. this typically would be done beginning at 3 to 6 weeks of age.63% . The highly vascular nasal mucosa undergoes cycles of engorgement with blood and shrinkage. If bone remodeled when stressed. showing not the total length but the increment added each info@targeteducare. Growth data can be presented by plotting the size attained s function of age.Eugenol .07% . or a haw discrepancy of the jaw or dentition.5% . Ans. depending on which was the Class II side. By dental age 15. Ans. 14 and 15 are characterized by the extent of completion of the roots permanent teeth. and Class I on the other.

Often it will. Those diagnosed after overbite is established require appliance therapy for correction.1 Explanations       High canines Severe rotations (particularly of round teeth) Leveling by relative intrusion Molar uprighting (any teeth with large undercuts) Translation of molars* Closure of premolar extraction spaces Ans. but also to have full-time retainer wear in the maxilla for at least 6 months. This rotates the occlusal plane in the direction that favors correction of a class III molar relationship. in severe cases.198 • Class III functional appliance for excessive mandibular growth make no pretense of restraining mandibulat growth. www. to allow time for remodeling of gingival tissues. The appliance should have multiple clasps for retention. The first concern is adequate space for tooth movement. with one important exception: if the maxilla was expanded transversely it is critically important not only to maintain the expansion during the finishing orthodontics. or opening space for tooth movement.197 Dental anterior crossbites typically develop as the permanent incisors erupt. introducing an element of dental camouflage for the skeletal discrepancy. They are designed to rotate the mandible down and back and to guide the eruption of the teeth so that the upper posterior teeth erupt down and forward while eruption of lower teeth is restrained. equally ineffective).com Helpline: 93 2233 6677 (Working days 11 AM to 6 PM) . which usually requires bilateral disking. the treatment effects are very similar. extraction of the adjacent primary teeth.200 For other adult patients. These appliance also tip the mandibular incisors lingually and the maxillary incisors facially. the best method for tipping maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth out of crossbite is a removable appliance using finger springs for facial movement of maxillary incisors or (less frequently) an active labial bow for lingual movement of mandibular incisors.targeteducare. • Although the theory of the functional appliance is quite different from that of the chin cup. but a labial bow is usually contraindicated because it can interfere with facial movement of the incisors and would add little or no retention. and in those with skeletal disproportions initially. continued part-time until completion of growth. stability of the result is questionable In a young child. Continued on a part-time basis for at least l2 months. AIPGEE . retention is needed for all patients who had fixed orthodontic appliances to correct intra-arch irregularities. The only difference from a functional appliance for a maxillary deficiency patient is the absence of lip pads. except that the retainers not only can but should be removed while eating (unless periodontal bone loss or other special circumstances require permanent splinting).199 In summary. and the two approaches are approximately equally effective (or. If teeth are tipped when bodily movement is required. it should not be removed during the first postsurgical year. The diagnostic evaluation should determine whether tipping will provide appropriate correction. Ans. if significant growth remains. because the problem arose as eruption paths were deflected. Ans. For practical purposes this means that nearly all patients treated in the early permanent dentition will require retention of incisor alignment at least until their late teens.TARGET EDUCARE PVT. If a transpalatal lingual arch was placed following surgery. Two maxillary anterior teeth can be moved facially with one 22 mil double helical cantilever info@targeteducare. It should be: Essentially full-time for the first 3 to 4 months. LTD. Ans. part-time use of a functional appliance or extraoral force probably will be needed.