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(Orthogonal, Biorthogonal, Simplex)
송홍엽
Coding and Crypto Lab.
Dept. Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Yonsei university
Coding and Crypto Lab 2/16
Content
Introduction
4ary Signals
4ary Baseband Signals and Waveforms
Mary Orthogonal Signals
Mary Biorthogonal Signals
Simplex Bound
Simplex Bound – detailed proof
Mary Simplex Signals
Coding and Crypto Lab 3/16
Introduction
Consider only those signal sets with constant energy:
Mainly consider the case where
SER Performance is critically dependent on their covariance
matrix whose (i,j)component is given by
Some already discussed examples are:
Binary Antipodal and Binary Orthogonal
etc. 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 2 = =
m
M
. , , 2 , 1 , ) (
0
2
M i dt t s E
s
T
i s
= =
í
. , , 2 , 1 , , ) ( ) (
1
0
M j i dt t s t s
E
s
T
j i
s
ij
= =
í
ì
( )
ij
ì = A


.

\

÷
÷
= A
1 1
1 1


.

\

= A
1 0
0 1
Coding and Crypto Lab 4/16
4ary signal sets
Typical covariance matrix
of a 4ary signal set looks like:
Best Choice:
all offdiagonal terms are –1 (pairwise antipodal), but
this is impossible to achieve, except for the binary case.
can you prove this ?
Several good choices are:
simplex biorthogonal orthogonal
(or, transorthogonal)





.

\

= A
1
1
1
1
f e c
f d b
e d a
c b a





.

\

= A
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
3





.

\

÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= A
1 3 / 1 3 / 1 3 / 1
3 / 1 1 3 / 1 3 / 1
3 / 1 3 / 1 1 3 / 1
3 / 1 3 / 1 3 / 1 1
1





.

\

÷
÷
÷
÷
= A
1 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
1 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
2
Coding and Crypto Lab 5/16
biorthogonal
(transorthogonal)
4ary Baseband Signals and Waveforms





.

\

÷
÷
÷
÷
= A
1 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
1 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
2





.

\

÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= A
1 3 / 1 3 / 1 3 / 1
3 / 1 1 3 / 1 3 / 1
3 / 1 3 / 1 1 3 / 1
3 / 1 3 / 1 3 / 1 1
1
simplex





.

\

= A
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
3
orthogonal
Coding and Crypto Lab 6/16
Mary Orthogonal Signals
Dimension of signal space is M.
Mary orthognal signals correspond to M unit vectors on orthognal M
dimensional signal space.
Covariance matrix consists of all 1’s on the main diagonal and
all 0’s on the offdiagonal.
Most useful construction comes from a Hadamard matrix of
size M by M.
A Hadamard matrix of size M by M exists, then M must be
1, 2, or a multiple of 4.
It is not known yet whether there is a Hadamard matrix of size
M by M for all the multiples of 4.
The smallest unknown case is 428. (conjectured to be true…i.e. it exists
but not yet unknown to us..)
Coding and Crypto Lab 7/16
Mary Biorthogonal Signals
Sometimes, it is called “transorthogonal” signals.
M must be even.
Mary biorthognal signals correspond to M unit vectors on orthognal
M/2dimensional signal space, where we select two antipodal vectors of
unit length on each axis.
Therefore, any pair not on the same axis are orthogonal, but the pair on
the same axis are antipodal.
Covariance matrix consists of all 1’s on the main diagonal and
offdiagonal terms are either 0 or –1.
Number of –1’s is exactly M/2, and the rest are all 0’s.
Most useful construction comes from a Hadamard matrix of
size M/2 by M/2, by taking it’s row vectors and all of their
complements.
Coding and Crypto Lab 8/16
Hadamard Matrix
We will discuss sometime later on Hadamard
matrices in terms of
Definition
Famous Construction
Existence Problem
etc
Coding and Crypto Lab 9/16
Simplex Bound
Is there any fundamental limit on these offdiagonal terms ?
Yes, there is. It is called “Simplex Bound,” which gives a lower bound
(over all possible signal sets) on the maximum of all offdiagonal terms.
For any constant energy Mary signal set S, we have
For any constant energy Mary signal set S,
{ } .
1
1
max min
possible
all over
÷
÷
=
=
M
ij
j i
S
ì
M
j i all
ij
÷ >
¯
=
ì
Equality == Optimum in the sense of average correlation
Coding and Crypto Lab 10/16
Simplex Bound – detail (1)
We will consider a set S of M (constant energy) vectors of
length M.
Can you find the set S so that its max is smaller than or
equal to max of all other set S’ ?
We say that such a signal set attains the minimum of max
over all S.
Can we determine such a minimum beforehand ?
Yes, we can, by the following:
ij
ì
'
ij
ì
ij
ì
Coding and Crypto Lab 11/16
Simplex Bound – detail (2)
} , ... , , {
2 1 M
S o o o =
Let S be a given signal set containing
Mcomplex vectors of unit energy.
That is, we assume that
where
M i a a a a
iM i i i i
,..., 2 , 1 ), , ... , , , (
3 2 1
= = o
M i a a a a
iM i i i i
,..., 2 , 1 all for , 1 ...  
2 2
3
2
2
2
1
2
= = + + + + = o
j i a a a a a a
M
k
j i jk ik jM iM j i ij
=  = = + + =
¯
=
, ...
1
1 1
o o ì
1
1
2
=  = =
¯
=
i i
M
k
ik ii
a o o ì
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
Coding and Crypto Lab 12/16
Simplex Bound – detail (3)
( )
1
1
0
) 1 (
1
) 1 (
1
) 1 (
1
) (
) 1 (
1
) 1 (
1
max
2
1
1
1 1
1 1 1
÷
÷ = ÷
÷
>


.

\

÷
÷
=


.

\

÷


.

\

 
.

\

÷
=


.

\

÷ 
÷
=


.

\

÷
÷
= >
¯
¯ ¯
¯¯
¯¯ ¯
=
=
= =
= = =
= =
M
M
M M
M
M M
M
M M
M
M M
M M
ave
M
i
i
M
j
j
M
i
i
M
i
M
j
j i
M
i
M
j
M
i
ii ij ij
j i
ij
j i
o
o o
o o
ì ì ì ì
Coding and Crypto Lab 13/16
Simplex Bound – detail (4)
Note that the equality holds if and only if
ij
j i
ij
j i
ave ì ì max
= =
=
0
2
1
=
¯
=
M
i
i
o and
Note that
M
M
M M ave
j i all
ij
j i
j i all
ij
÷ =
÷
÷
÷ >

.

\

=
¯ ¯
=
=
=
1
1
) 1 (
ì ì
This implies that
j i
M
ave
ij ij
j i
ij
j i
=
÷
÷
=
= =
= =
all for
1
1
max ì ì ì
This implies that
the componentwise sum of
all the vectors in S must be 0.
Coding and Crypto Lab 14/16
Mary Simplex Signals
Dimension of signal space is M1.
Mary simplex signals can be constructed from an Mary orthogonal signals.
(next pages)
Or, they can easily be constructed from a Hadamard matrix of size M by M
by removing a column consisting of all 1’s and rescaling the energy of
each signal.
Covariance matrix consists of all 1’s on the main diagonal and all
–1/(M1)’s on the offdiagonal.
It is proved that Mary simplex gives the best SER performance
over all Mary signals. It shows only a local optimum property
near very low and also very high SNR ranges.
There is a famous story of false proof that it is globally optimum in the
sense that it gives the best over all SNR range.
Coding and Crypto Lab 15/16
Mary Simplex Signals
Let be a set of M orthogonal signals,
i.e.,
Define: for each m.
Energy :
, , , 2 , 1 ), ( M m t s
m
=
n m dt t s t s
T
n m
= =
í
, 0 ) ( ) (
0
m all for constant ) ( &
T
0
2 2
= = =
í
dt t s T A E
m m
( )
'
2
0
,
2
2
0
2
0
2
'
1
1
1 2
) ( ) (
1
) ( ) (
2
) (
) (
1
) ( ) (
m m
m m m
T
l k
l k
k
k m m
T
k
k m
T
m
E E
M
ME
M
E
M
E
dt t s t s
M
t s t s
M
t s
dt t s
M
t s dt t s
A
=

.

\

÷ =
+ ÷ =


.

\

+ ÷ =

.

\

÷ =
í
¯ ¯
í
¯
í
¯
÷ =
k
k m m
t s
M
t s t s ) (
1
) ( ) (
'
Coding and Crypto Lab 16/16
Mary Simplex Signals
Correlation coefficeint for different n,m :
*
' '
0 0
0
0
' '
1
1
1
1
1 1 1
) ( ) (
1
) ( ) (
1
0
) (
1
) ( ) (
1
) (
) ( ) (
m m
m
m
m m
m
T
l
l m
T
k
k n
T
l
l n
k
k m
T
n m
E
M
E
M
M
M
E
M M
E
E
M
E
M
M
E
dt t s t s
M
dt t s t s
M
dt t s
M
t s t s
M
t s
dt t s t s
÷
÷ =
÷
· ÷ =
÷ = + ÷ ÷ =
+


.

\

· ÷


.

\

· ÷ =


.

\

÷


.

\

÷ =
í
¯
í
¯
í
¯ ¯
í
0
1
1
0
'
M
1  M
Simplex Orthoganal
'
, ,
<
÷
÷ = ¬ =
= ¬
¬
A
M
x x
E E E
j i j i
Constant Envelope Mary Signaling
송홍엽
Coding and Crypto Lab.
Dept. Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Yonsei university
Copyright @ HongYeop Song, Coding and Crypto Lab, Yonsei University 2/41
Contents
Coherent MPSK signal
Performance of MPSK (coherent)
ML detector
SER (Symbol Error Rate)
Bit Error Prob. vs. Symbol Error Prob.
BER of MPSK with Gray Coding
BPSK & QPSK have the same BER.
MFSK (orthogonal)
Vectorial View of MPSK & MFSK
SER vs BER of ortho. MFSK
Coherent detection of ortho. MFSK
Noncoherent detection of ortho. MFSK
Copyright @ HongYeop Song, Coding and Crypto Lab, Yonsei University 3/41
Coherent MPSK
Coherent MPSK signal : 2 dimensional
Let
Use these as basis functions of the 2dimensional signal space.

.

\

· + · =
= s s

.

\

÷ =
t
M
i
t
M
i
T
E
M i T t i
M
t
T
E
t s
o o
o i
e
t
e
t
t
e
sin
2
sin cos
2
cos
2
, , 2 , 1 0 ,
2
cos
2
) (
T t t
T
t
t
T
t
o
o
s s =
=
0 for sin
2
) (
and cos
2
) (
1
1
e o
e o
\

=
=
±
= ÷
í
í í
0 ) ( ) ( &
1
2
2 cos 1 2
) (
0
2 1
0 0
2
T
T
o
T
i
dt t t
dt
t
T
dt t
o o
e
o
Copyright @ HongYeop Song, Coding and Crypto Lab, Yonsei University 4/41
Coherent MPSK
) (
2
sin ) (
2
cos ) (
2 1
t
M
i
E t
M
i
E t s
i
o
t
o
t
· + · =
1 i
a
2 i
a
( ) M i a a s
i i i
, , 2 , 1 , ,
2 1
= =
PSK 16 : 2 16
PSK 8 : 2 8
QPSK or PSK 4 : 2 4
4
3
2
= =
= =
= =
M
M
M
Copyright @ HongYeop Song, Coding and Crypto Lab, Yonsei University 5/41
Coherent MPSK
binary equallylikely => M=2
m
ary equallylikely
“mbit” is called a “symbol”
(symbol rate) =
rate) (bit
1
·
m
M
R
R
m
R
b
b s
2
log
1
or = · =
Bit stream
) (
) (
) (
2
1
t s
t s
t s
M
bits m each for
) (t s
i
b
b
s
s
T
R
T
R
1
and
1
= =
( )
b b s
T M T m T · = · =
2
log
can you prove this ? Several good choices are: 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 / 3 1 / 3 1 / 3 1 1 / 3 1 / 3 1 1/ 3 1 1/ 3 1/ 3 1 / 3 1 1/ 3 1/ 3 1/ 3 1 simplex Coding and Crypto Lab biorthogonal (or. Es 0 Some already discussed examples are: Binary Antipodal and Binary Orthogonal 1 1 1 1 Coding and Crypto Lab 1 0 0 1 3/16 4ary signal sets Typical covariance matrix of a 4ary signal set looks like: Best Choice: 1 a a 1 b d c e b d 1 f c e f 1 all offdiagonal terms are –1 (pairwise antipodal). M . SER Performance is critically dependent on their covariance matrix ij whose (i.2. j 1. 8.Introduction Consider only those signal sets with constant energy: Es si (t ) 2 dt .2. but this is impossible to achieve. 32. Mainly consider the case where M 2m 2. i. except for the binary case.j)component is given by 1 Ts ij si (t ) s j (t )dt . 0 Ts i 1. 16. 4. transorthogonal) orthogonal 4/16 . . . M . etc.
It is not known yet whether there is a Hadamard matrix of size M by M for all the multiples of 4. A Hadamard matrix of size M by M exists.4ary Baseband Signals and Waveforms 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 / 3 1 / 3 1 / 3 1 1 1 / 3 1 / 3 1/ 3 1 1/ 3 1/ 3 1 1 / 3 1/ 3 1/ 3 1/ 3 1 orthogonal biorthogonal (transorthogonal) simplex Coding and Crypto Lab 5/16 Mary Orthogonal Signals Dimension of signal space is M. it exists but not yet unknown to us. Most useful construction comes from a Hadamard matrix of size M by M.) Coding and Crypto Lab 6/16 .e. (conjectured to be true…i.. 2. Covariance matrix consists of all 1’s on the main diagonal and all 0’s on the offdiagonal. or a multiple of 4. Mary orthognal signals correspond to M unit vectors on orthognal Mdimensional signal space. then M must be 1. The smallest unknown case is 428.
Most useful construction comes from a Hadamard matrix of size M/2 by M/2. M must be even.Mary Biorthogonal Signals Sometimes. Mary biorthognal signals correspond to M unit vectors on orthognal M/2dimensional signal space. Covariance matrix consists of all 1’s on the main diagonal and offdiagonal terms are either 0 or –1. and the rest are all 0’s. any pair not on the same axis are orthogonal. it is called “transorthogonal” signals. Coding and Crypto Lab 7/16 Hadamard Matrix We will discuss sometime later on Hadamard matrices in terms of Definition Famous Construction Existence Problem etc Coding and Crypto Lab 8/16 . where we select two antipodal vectors of unit length on each axis. Therefore. Number of –1’s is exactly M/2. by taking it’s row vectors and all of their complements. but the pair on the same axis are antipodal.
all i j ij M Equality == Optimum in the sense of average correlation Coding and Crypto Lab 9/16 Simplex Bound – detail (1) We will consider a set S of M (constant energy) vectors of length M.Simplex Bound Is there any fundamental limit on these offdiagonal terms ? Yes. For any constant energy Mary signal set S. Can we determine such a minimum beforehand ? Yes. we have over all possible S min max ij i j 1 . It is called “Simplex Bound. Can you find the set S so that its max ij is smaller than or equal to max ij ' of all other set S’ ? We say that such a signal set attains the minimum of max ij over all S. M 1 For any constant energy Mary signal set S. we can. by the following: Coding and Crypto Lab 10/16 .” which gives a lower bound (over all possible signal sets) on the maximum of all offdiagonal terms. there is.
... where i (ai1 .. . ai 2 .. for all i 1... .. i 1. M ij ai1a j1 .. i j ii aik 2 i i 1 k 1 Coding and Crypto Lab M M k 1 11/16 Simplex Bound – detail (3) M M M 1 ij ii max ij ave ij i j i j M ( M 1) i 1 j 1 i 1 M M 1 ( i j ) M M ( M 1) i 1 j 1 M M 1 i j M M ( M 1) i 1 j 1 M ( M 1) Coding and Crypto Lab i 1 M 2 i M 1 0 M 1 M ( M 1) M 1 12/16 .Simplex Bound – detail (2) Let S be a given signal set containing M complex vectors of unit energy. ai 3 .2. aiM a jM aik a jk i j . M 2 2 2 2 . . we assume that S {1 . That is..2. aiM 1. 2 .... M }  i 2 ai1 ai 2 ai 3 . aiM )....
There is a famous story of false proof that it is globally optimum in the sense that it gives the best over all SNR range. It shows only a local optimum property near very low and also very high SNR ranges. Mary simplex signals can be constructed from an Mary orthogonal signals. It is proved that Mary simplex gives the best SER performance over all Mary signals. (next pages) Or. Covariance matrix consists of all 1’s on the main diagonal and all –1/(M1)’s on the offdiagonal. Coding and Crypto Lab 14/16 . 1 for all i j M 1 13/16 Coding and Crypto Lab Mary Simplex Signals Dimension of signal space is M1. they can easily be constructed from a Hadamard matrix of size M by M by removing a column consisting of all 1’s and rescaling the energy of each signal.Simplex Bound – detail (4) Note that all i j ij all i j ave M ( M 1) 1 M i j ij M 1 Note that the equality holds if and only if max ij ave ij i j i j and i 1 M 2 i 0 This implies that max ij ave ij ij i j i j This implies that the componentwise sum of all the vectors in S must be 0.
e. mn 0 sm (t ) sn (t )dt 0.l Em 2 1 Em 2 MEm M M 1 ' 1 E m E m M 15/16 Coding and Crypto Lab Mary Simplex Signals Correlation coefficeint for different n. j 0 Simplex M 1 E E' M 1 0 xi' . T m 1. 2 T 0 1 s (t ) dt sm (t ) sk (t ) dt 0 M k T 2 1 2 sm (t ) sm (t ) sk (t ) 2 0 M M k ' m 2 s (t )s (t ) dt k l k . s m (t ).m : 0 sm (t ) sn (t )dt ' T ' 1 1 T 0 s m (t ) sk (t ) sn (t ) sl (t ) dt M k M l E 1 T 1 T 0 0 s n (t ) s k (t ) dt 0 sm (t ) sl (t ) dt m M M M k l E 1 1 1 Em Em m Em M M M M 1 M 1 ' ' Em Em M M 1 M 1 * Orthoganal E xi . & 0 2 Em A2T sm (t )dt constant for all m Define: Energy : ' sm (t ) sm (t ) 1 M T s (t ) k k for each m. T be a set of M orthogonal signals. j M 1 16/16 Coding and Crypto Lab .2. .Mary Simplex Signals Let i.. M .
Dept. vs. MFSK (orthogonal) Vectorial View of MPSK & MFSK SER vs BER of ortho. MFSK 2/41 Copyright @ HongYeop Song. BER of MPSK with Gray Coding BPSK & QPSK have the same BER.Constant Envelope Mary Signaling 송홍엽 Coding and Crypto Lab. Yonsei University . MFSK Noncoherent detection of ortho. MFSK Coherent detection of ortho. Coding and Crypto Lab. Electrical and Electronics Engineering Yonsei university Contents Coherent MPSK signal Performance of MPSK (coherent) ML detector SER (Symbol Error Rate) Bit Error Prob. Symbol Error Prob.
Coding and Crypto Lab.Coherent MPSK Coherent MPSK signal : 2. ai 2 i 1. Yonsei University 4/41 .2.2. M Copyright @ HongYeop Song. Coding and Crypto Lab. M Let 2 cos o t T 2 1 (t ) sin o t T 1 (t ) and for 0 t T 2 T 1 cos 2 o t T 2 dt 1 0 i (t )dt 0 T 2 & T 1 (t ) 2 (t )dt 0 0 Use these as basis functions of the 2dimensional signal space. . cos o t 0t T T M 2E 2i 2i cos o t sin sin o t cos T M M i 1. Yonsei University 3/41 Coherent MPSK si (t ) E cos 2i 2i 1 (t ) E sin 2 (t ) M M M 4 2 2 : 4PSK or QPSK M 8 23 : 8PSK M 16 2 4 : 16PSK ai1 s i ai1 . . Copyright @ HongYeop Song.dimensional si (t ) 2E 2 i . ai 2 .
Coherent MPSK Bit stream s1 (t ) s 2 (t ) s M (t ) si (t ) for each m bits binary equallylikely => M=2m ary equallylikely “mbit” is called a “symbol” 1 (symbol rate) = (bit rate) m Rb 1 or Rs Rb m log 2 M R 1 and R 1 s b Ts Tb Ts m Tb log 2 M Tb Copyright @ HongYeop Song. Yonsei University 5/41 . Coding and Crypto Lab.
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