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SWOT analizom, kao marketinškim oruđem, daje se kritički pregled prednosti i nedostataka te mogućnosti i ograničenja Bola kao jedinstvene

turističke destinacije. Uobičajeno se temelji na podacima analize stanja, mišljenjima istraživača koja su stekli obilaskom terena te informacijama dobivenim na panel diskusiji sa stručnjacima iz lokalne zajednice koji su predstavljali različita područja gospodarstva, a zajednički sudjeluju u stvaranju i oblikovanju turističkog razvoja destinacije Bol. SWOT matrica je temelj za donošenje strateških smjernica razvoja turizma. Identificiranje prednosti svakako je osnova za pozicioniranje i marketinški nastup destinacije, a nedostaci omogućuju definiranje projekata unapređenja turističkog proizvoda i upućuju na ona područja na kojima treba hitno djelovati, a u cilju postizanja bolje tržišne pozicije.
PREDNOSTI NEDOSTACI Prirodna baština

Plaže Čisto more Lijep krajobraz Prepoznatljivost Zlatnog rata Klimatski uvjeti Kulturna baština Kvalitetni hotelski smještaj Tradicija razvoja turizma Gostoljubivost Dostupnost - zračna luka Prepoznatljivost gospodarskih aktivnosti – kamen, vinogradarstvo, maslinarstvo Nedostaci Neodgovarajuće upravljanje prostorom Zasićenost prostora; neplanska gradnja Lokalna prometna infrastruktura Nedovoljno raznovrsna turistička ponuda neaktivni proizvod nedostatak zabavnih, kulturnih i trgovačkih sadržaja neiskorišteni resursi otoka Nedovoljna suradnja javnog i privatnog sektora Izrazito kratka sezona Nedovoljna razina kvalitete privatnog smještaja Nepostojanje destinacijskog meMOGUĆNOSTI OGRANIČENJA Potencijal turističkih resursa otoka Brača Produženje sezone i povećanje prosječne potrošnje gostiju Širenje plažnog prostora destinacije Proboj prema novim tržišnim segmentima Razvoj kongresnog, „wellness“ i eko-proizvoda Mogućnosti za kupovinu Gastronomija Ogranicenja Neriješen status „Bijele kuće“ Relativna izdvojenost – otočna destinacija Ljudski faktor

Razvoj konkurencije Neiskorištennadžmenta

SWOT analiza

Prednosti: Veličina hotela, siroka lepeza usluga, malobrojna konkurencija u regionu, rast poslovnih prihoda Slabosti: Nepotpuna iskorisćenost kapaciteta, nizak free float, većinski vlasnik nema tradiciju bavljenja hotelijerstvom Potencijali: Organizovanje seminara, povezivanje sa inostranim tur operaterima Pretnje: Smanjenje broja turista usled finansijske krize, rast konkurencije Izvor :

U prošlosti se najčešće, rezultat hotelskog poslovanja merio stepenom popunjenosti kapaciteta. Nešto kasnije, u obzir se uzimao i indikator ADR (Average Daily Rate) – prosečno ostvarena dnevna cena sobe. Nakon toga, sa pojavom Revenue Management pristupa, kao najznačajniji indikator posmatra se REVPAR (Revenue Per Available Room) – prihod po raspoloživoj sobi. U današnje vreme, ključna reč je GOPPAR! U čemu je prednost ovog indikatora ključnih performansi poslovanja u odnosu na REVPAR?

Najpre, razjasnimo definicije oba navedena indikatora: REVPAR = (Rooms) Revenue / (per) Available Rooms, ili, REVPAR = ADR (average daily rate) x Occupancy % i, GOPPAR = GOP (gross operating profit) / (per) Available Rooms Osnovna razlika između ova dva indikatora je što GOPPAR uključuje i operativne troškove poslovanja. Konkretno, REVPAR podrazumeva isključivo odnos ukupnih prihoda (od prodaje soba) i ukupnog broja raspoloživih soba, pa se prilikom upoređivanja poslovanja više hotela, vrlo lako može steći pogrešan zaključak. Primer: Pred nama je zadatak da uporedimo uspešnost poslovanja dva hotela A i B koji raspolažu sa po 100 soba. Ukupan broj raspoloživih soba u oba hotela je 100 x 365(dana) = 36.500. Hotel A ima godišnju popunjenost od 65% (23.725 prodatih soba) a Hotel B, popunjenost od 50% (18.250 prodatih soba). ADR u Hotelu A je 100 EUR a u Hotelu B je 125 EUR. Ukupan prihod od prodaje soba (Rooms Revenue) u Hotelu A iznosi 2.372.500 EUR a u Hotelu B - 2.281.250 EUR. Izračunajmo sada REVPAR za oba hotela: REVPAR Hotel A = 2.372.500 EUR / 36.500 = 65 EUR REVPAR Hotel B = 2.281.250 EUR / 36.500 = 62,5 EUR Posmatrano na osnovu REVPAR indikatora, Hotel A je uspešnije poslovao jer je ostvario prihod po raspoloživoj sobi veći za 2,5 EUR u odnosu na Hotel B. Međutim, pretpostavimo da ukupni godišnji fiksni troškovi u oba hotela iznose po 800.000 EUR. Takođe, neka varijabilni trošak za svaku prodatu sobu u oba hotela iznosi 30 EUR po sobi. Ukupni varijabilni troškovi za navedene hotele iznose: Hotel A – 23.725 (prodatih soba) x 30 EUR = 711.750 EUR Hotel B – 18.250 (prodatih soba) x 30 EUR = 547.500 EUR U tom slučaju GOP (Gross Operating Profit) za navedene hotele iznosi: GOP (Hotel A) = 2.372.500 EUR (Ukupni prihodi) - 800.000 EUR (fiksni troškovi) 711.750 EUR (varijabilni troškovi) = 860.750 EUR GOP (Hotel B) = 2.281.250 EUR (Ukupni prihodi) - 800.000 EUR (fiksni troškovi) 547.500 EUR (varijabilni troškovi) = 933.750 EUR Konačno, možemo izračunati GOPPAR za oba hotela: GOPPAR (Hotel A) = 860.750 EUR (GOP) / 36.500 = 23,6 EUR GOPPAR (Hotel B) = 933.750 EUR (GOP) / 36.500 = 25,6 EUR Iz priloženog se jednostavno može zaključiti da je profit po raspoloživoj sobi u poslovanju Hotela B veći nego profit koji ostvaruje Hotel A. Ako se osvrnemo na početak teksta, jasno je da isključivo prema ostvarenom profitu treba meriti performanse poslovanja. Isto tako zaključujemo da je prosto posmatranje popunjenosti i ukupnog prihoda, nedovoljno za realnu ocenu rezultata poslovanja hotela. Izrada biznis plana nije svojstvena samo sektoru hotelijerstva već i drugim privrednim granama i predstavlja prvi konkretan korak ka realizaciji projekata ili pak mogući

demanti prvobitne ideje. Početna tačka za izradu biznis plana može biti odabir adekvatne lokacije, postojanje iste ili samo ideja o određenom pozicioniranju hotela. Kroz biznis plan mogu se pružiti kompletne informacije budućem klijentu, investitoru ili kreditoru/poslovnoj banci o planiranom vidu, obimu i rezultatima budućeg poslovanja. Preporuka je da biznis plan izradi konsultantska kuća specijalizovana za sektor hotelijerstva. Izrada biznis plana podrazumeva detaljnu analizu različitih elemenata, od geografskih, prirodnih, istorijskih, socijalnih, demografskih do ekonomskih, turističkih i svih drugih karakteristika jednog grada, područja, države. Biznis plan podrazumeva i analizu svih segmenata koji se odnose na turističku ponudu, infrastrukturu, kao i projekciju posećenosti, privredni i turistički razvoj i potencijale, kretanje ponude i cenu konkurencije, dakle sve one informacije koje mogu direktno ili indirektno uticati na poslovanje, poziciju, izgradnju i funkcionisanje predmetnog hotela. Upravo zbog tih razloga svaki biznis plan ima makro i mikro analizu: opšta i privredna kretanja u zemlji, standard stanovništva, perspektive, glavne karakteristike grada ili područja (snaga,potencijal). Ukratko, biznis plan podrazumeva kompletnu i detaljnu analizu tržišta. Za biznis plan veoma su važna dva elementa. Prvi je analiza konkurencije, koja se takođe sprovodi na mikro i makro nivou. Tako bi na konkretnom primeru, makro nivo predstavljao grad Beograd, a mikro nivo Novi Beograd. Drugi element je analiza potencijalne klijentele koja će biti zainteresovana za usluge budućeg hotela. Jedan od važnih delova biznis plana jesu podaci o zemljištu: veličina, lokacija, kapacitet izgradivog prostora... Svi pomenuti elementi, konačno, određuju tip hotela koji će biti izgrađen. Kada smo došli do ideje koji tip hotela želimo i možemo da izgradimo, počinje ključna faza u izradi biznis plana, a to je finansijska analiza. Finansijska analiza Finansijska analiza počinje detaljnom analizom tržišta, koja bi trebalo da sadrži što više elemenata, kako postojećih tako i onih za koje se očekuje da će u budućnosti doprineti poslovanju hotela. Primera radi, za jedan hotel na Novom Beogradu, činjenica da će u neposrednoj blizini biti izgrađeni drugi sadržaji (sportski, poslovni, zabavni) i te kako ima veliki značaj i utiče na dugoročnu validnost biznis plana. Celokupna infrastruktura, povezanost sa ključnim tačkama u gradu (centar, aerodrom, itd.), takođe ima veliki uticaj na poslovanje hotela. U ovoj fazi može da bude realizovan i poseban investicioni dokument, Investment memorandum, koji je koncizniji od biznis plana. Uobičajeno je da se finansijska analiza radi na period do pet godina zbog prirode razvoja hotelskog poslovanja. Iako postoje neki zahtevi da se finansijska analiza radi na period duži od pet godina, konsultantske kuće to nerado čine, pošto je teško predvideti sve faktore koji mogu uticati na poslovanje hotela. U finansijskoj analizi projektuje se, pre svega, promet, pojedinačno za svaki profitni segment poslovanja hotela. To znači da se pravi kalkulacija kako će poslovati

određeni hotelski resori i koliki će promet biti ostvaren u segmentu soba, F&B (Food&Beverage), wellness i spa sektoru... Finansijska analiza, dalje, sadrži projekcije personalnih troškova, projekcije energetskih, robnih i opštih troškova, kao i projekciju GOP-a (gross operating profit). GOP ukazuje na mogućnosti hotela za obim finansiranja, što se zatim analizira u relaciji svih troškova i modusa finansiranja. Optimum GOP zavisi od vrste hotela, finansiranja i drugog, ali u hotelskoj praksi GOP od 30 i više procenata ukazuje na visoku profitabilnost hotela. Biznis plan pokazuje i moguću sumu neophodnu za izgradnju hotela, pružajući odgovor na pitanje da li je odluka o izgradnji željenog tipa hotela isplativa, ili su potrebne određene korekcije (promena kategorije – npr. na economy class– ili neke druge promene koje bi mogle da dovedu u pozitivnu relaciju investiciju i realne mogućnosti budućeg hotela. Ukoliko je nemoguće pronaći adekvatnu isplativu relaciju, projekat je neodrživ. Banke Biznis plan je u današnje vreme postao neophodan element svake investicije, pogotovo velikih, poput izgradnje hotela. Pored toga što definiše ideju i pruža detaljnu analizu svih relevantnih elemenata, biznis plan je neophodan i da bi se pronašli investitori, to jest sredstva za njegovu realizaciju. Internacionalne banke, kao glavni izvori sredstava, zahtevaju detaljan, stručan i argumentovan biznis plan. To je jedan od glavnih dokumenata na osnovu kojih se izlazi pred investitora. Pri tom se traži jasna projekcija i finansijska konstrukcija, i to na mesečnom nivou. Biznis plan daje ključ i odgovor na pitanje da li se studija za izgradnju hotela poklapa sa realizacijom poslovanja. Agencije i konsultantske kuće Svaki posao treba prepustiti profesionalcima, a kada je biznis plan u pitanju, izradu treba prepustiti konsultantskim kućama specijalizovanim za hotele ili drugim domaćim i inostranim konsultantskim kućama. U slučaju izrade validnog biznis plana, njihova pomoć je neophodna i višestruko isplativa. Ono po čemu se konsultantske kuće razlikuju, jeste sam način rada i podrške koju pružaju svojim klijentima. Nije dovoljno izraditi biznis plan, bez dalje podrške prilikom pregovora sa bankama, gde su od ključne važnosti stručna objašnjenja i odgovori na mnogobrojna pitanja. Dalji elementi izvršene finansijske analize su idejna rešenja (nakon toga sledi projekat) sa lokacijom, spoljnim izgledom, osnovnim faktima (lična karta hotela). Bitan element biznis plana jeste SWOT analiza (prednosti i mane projekta: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats). Nadamo se da smo uspeli da vam približimo važnost izrade kvalitetnog biznis plana. Biznis plan potvrđuje ili demantuje vašu početnu ideju o izgradnji određenog tipa hotela. Dobar biznis plan prvi je temelj vaše buduće investicije. Ukoliko imate stručan biznis plan, sve naredne faze – idejni projekti, banke, pregovori sa brendovima – imaju veće šanse za uspeh. Biznis plan čine sve informacije koje mogu direktno ili indirektno uticati na poslovanje, poziciju, izgradnju i funkcionisanje hotela. Many hotels are working on their marketing budgets right now. I have received multiple requests for advice on budgeting this week, and wanted to put together this

practical, straightforward guide. We will examine the biggest factors to consider when planning your Internet marketing budget, 11 major categories hotels should budget for, and finally 3 basic hotel budgeting approaches. This advice comes from my own real-world experience as the marketing manager or consultant for dozens of leading organizations around the world — and also as the owner of three companies. When your own company’s money is on the line, you tend to take a very pragmatic approach to marketing, and that’s what I intend to do in this article. Factors to consider while planning your hotel marketing budget Many industry professionals recommend you start with the industry average marketing budget. I disagree. Every business success I’ve been involved with has been contrarian. If you spend your resources like everyone else, you’ll get average results. Breakthrough campaigns often require unusual approaches. You decide what works for you. Be aware of industry standards, but don’t feel bound by them. It can be helpful to know the average prices hotels are paying for individual marketing tactics — if only for a point of reference. Start with an internet marketing plan for the year. Sounds simple, but true. If you don’t know how you want to spend your money, calculating the amount will be extremely difficult! Some tactics to include are explained below. A good budget will take into mind past results your company experienced — but will also realize that things change. What worked five years ago may not work over the next five years. Remember your primary business objective. Do you want more overall sales, to build your brand, or consolidate your profits? Each requires a different approach, which we’ll cover later. Know your marketing priorities. Separate the “musts” from the “wants.” So many things can happen along the way that cause you to deviate from a plan made months ago. Having priorities ensures the essential gets done. Identify which marketing strategies you don’t need to implement. There are a seemingly unlimited number of marketing tactics you could try, so identifying the nonessential helps you focus and cut costs. Every hotel doesn’t need to do every tactic out there. Be aware of trends, and budget appropriately. Some organizations on annual budget cycles approve money for trends way too late — and missed the boat. Make sure the resources that you’re dedicating to a tactic or strategy will be valid 1, 2, 5 years from now. You don’t want to outdate yourself. I personally recommend most hotels abandon all traditional marketing and advertising in favor of any Internet focused strategy: 75% of budget for web-based communications, 25% for PR. You can discount this advice as someone who has

worked in web marketing his entire career, but the numbers don’t lie. In the campaigns that I’ve been involved in, we have achieved phenomenal return on investment… and received media coverage an organization our size shouldn’t normally be entitled to. Separate your marketing costs into two categories. Initial development costs include research and strategy development, website design, content creation, marketing systems set up. Ongoing expenses and maintenance include e-mail marketing, pay per click advertising, search visibility improvement, website maintenance and development, consulting fees, and analytics and tracking analysis. Ensure that you are sufficiently capitalized. Many marketing tactics will take several months to show results, and often the best results are obtained by sticking with your marketing plan month after month — for the next 12 months. You may have to adjust your marketing plan to enable this, but make sure your budget is sufficient to accommodate consistent execution. Be aware that your most important marketing investments may not even be under the traditional ‘marketing’ budget category. For example, introducing a fabulous collection of guest amenities can cause your guests to promote your hotel for you. At the end of the day, your guest experience is the marketing. Money you spend to create an amazing guest experience at your hotel has some of best ROI. Finally, think of your marketing program as an investment. If you are promoting properly, every dollar that you spend on marketing will come back to you many times over. Good hotel marketing budgets are never an expense, and it’s important we remember this.

11 most important hotel marketing budget categories Staffing expenses. Whether it’s a content writer or social media marketing assistant, a major shift in marketing strategy usually requires a shift in HR priorities. These salaries can be a big expense. But it’s important to remember that good employees are always free: they earn your company more money than you pay them in salary. Training fees. I personally spend a large portion of my money to train and educate my employees. This includes everything from paying them read articles and important books to registration fees for workshops and seminars. Your people are one of your most important resources, and an investment into making them more effective marketing professionals will always pay off. Consulting fees. There will always be times when you cannot do everything in-house. If you have a short-term assignment, it can make sense to bring in outside expertise to help. Look at your Internet marketing plan and budget for this type of help appropriately. Website optimization. The vast majority of hotels have at least a halfway decent website up. The big challenge is making sure it runs well: turning browsers into

bookings. This is website optimization, making sure your website sells well and is easy to find in search engines. It’s an ongoing process, but your biggest investment will be at the start — having a professional analyze and make the changes. Search visibility improvement. Earning top rankings in search engine results is important for bringing new visitors to your website. It needs to be an ongoing part of your Internet marketing campaign: both to improve position and to keep up with competitors that are doing the same thing. Top budgeting priorities for hotels include adjusting the website for important keywords, and building links through various tactics. Pay-per-click advertising. This is one of the only advertising methods I recommend most hotels budget for. The flexibility and return on investment can be impressive. You’ll need to budget for campaign management, and the actual clicks that you purchase from search engines. This can cost several thousand each month, but the return on investment is typically much better than other advertising options. Online reputation management. I tend to talk a lot about this on this blog, and you are probably aware, this falls into two major categories: monitoring your Web presence, and proactively encouraging positive content. Monitoring expenses include software and/0r someone to scour the web for data. Reputation building requires the development of a savvy outreach program. E-mail communications. E-mail software is usually a relatively small expense, so your investment in e-mail marketing will be in people. Specifically, two types of people: the content writers and the marketing specialists. E-mail is a writing-intensive medium, so you need to allow someone to spend the time to develop this content. The marketing expertise is important to make sure your communications are effective — reaching the right people and generating the right response. Content development. This includes all of the information you publish on and off the web. It includes blogs, websites, articles, and more. Many hospitality companies hire outside freelance journalists to help them with this. The good news is that much of it can be re-purposed for other formats. Media production. Producing high-quality photos and videos of your hotel is more or less a one-time expense, but very important for future marketing efforts. You can reuse great photography and videos in many ways, online and off. Press relations & media outreach. This category includes outbound communications such as press releases and media kits, the development of content that interests the media, and relationship building with journalists and media outlets. Even for midsized properties this can be a full-time job — but the return can be excellent. When your hotel gets positive coverage in the media, you get credibility and increased awareness that you cannot buy. This is the reason I spend a full 25% of my marketing budgets on media relations. This figure is typically higher if you are a new business. 3 marketing budgeting approaches I’ve observed The ‘increase overall sales’ hotel budget. This strategy is often used by companies

that are brand-new and want to get the word out. In this case, the budgeting focus is on tactics that bring in immediate new sales now. As long as the campaign is profitable, there is less focus on low cost marketing, and more priority on high volume. Advertising and media relations take priority over content-based tactics. The ‘build our brand’ hotel budget. This strategy is used for hotels that want to establish a great reputation and word-of-mouth. The budget will reflects this with low cost, but labor-intensive content marketing tactics. You either need to have a great team of people in house, or hire an outside agency to develop this. The great thing? Once the campaign is developed, your ongoing cost is usually quite low. The ’save our profits’ hotel budget. Several older, established hotels I’ve worked with seem to be on marketing cruise control. They already have an outstanding reputation among their target audience, and they’re not in a big hurry to try new things. This can be one of the cheapest strategies, but also the least likely to increase sales.The big challenge here is to make sure their online presence matches their great off-line presence. Hotels using this strategy may invest in guest relationship management tactics such as e-mail. The spending priority is more on people that can manage this, and less on new technology. The hotel marketing budget approach I recommend As mentioned earlier, companies I own or manage have obtained excellent results through a hybrid online communications and media outreach system. But every hotel and organization is different. You need to take into consideration factors I described earlier, along with your hotel’s unique priorities, and put together a budget to meets your needs.

I am writing down these “top 10” mistakes in a hope that this list might help some developers and owners. As we are hotel consultants, we sincerely believe that a consultant must be the most honest, transparent, straight-forward and therefore most trustworthy person close to the owners and investors. A consultant’s intention should NEVER be to keep hotel owners and investors ‘in the dark’! A true consultant must educate advice and provide samples of good and bad practices. A hotel consultant must also be a good teacher – not a lecturer! We must guide and use all channels of communication to pass on knowledge to others. We choose to write articles in a hope that it helps and inspires others. Mistake No 1 - Vision and Mission. Honestly, it is hard to understand that so many hotels and resorts open their doors without a proper written vision and mission statement. OR, the vision and mission is most of the times not clear at all, or only clear in the mind of the owners. On top of that, nobody communicates the vision and mission to managers and employees. How the employees will know what is expected and understand the ‘big picture’? As mentioned in one of our earlier articles, this silly mistake ensures that the business

ends up following the habits of senior managers and owners and not the organizational vision and mission. Mistake No 2 - Sales and Marketing? – No need now! “I have many friends and they are well connected. I and my relatives are well known people who are VIP. We will all ensure that we will have many guests using the hotel and our facilities!” Yes, don’t be shocked! - The above sayings are what I did hear from several hotel owners. Those VIP hotel guests did come, yes, but they never paid their bills as they almost always expected to be invited since they are good friend of the owners. The result of non-existing Sales and Marketing is very costly. Mistake No 3 - Hiring of Departmental Managers. Surprisingly, some new hotels and resorts do hire their Hotel Manager and Department Head Team just weeks before the opening and strongly believe that this will be fine. After all, they are manager, expensive and should be able to get it right in a few days…… some owners think! To my knowledge and from my experience, this is mostly done to save some hotel pre-opening costs as the needed money has been already lost during the construction process because of bad planning and ongoing adjustments to drawings and the building. At one occasion I have seen that the whole management team for a 150 room hotel here in Thailand to be hired just 2 weeks before the opening. The owner kindly fired the team after 2 months as in his opinion, the team was not able to implement proper systems and service standards fast enough. Some of the best employees did resign as well, as the pressure working without a proper pre-opening was too much. I say it again, if you don’t work professionally, your most capable employees will leave you first! Mistake No 4 - Purchasing. The purchasing process for equipment, utensils and amenities is all done by the owner without any hotel manager and departmental manager comments, input and specifications. Once the manager and departmental leaders joined the hotel for the opening, there was no budget left for any additional purchases, as most of what owners choose are to serve their own preference and style, but not functional or practical to the workers and guest use. So, the hotel or resort did end up with equipment and utensils which are not always usable, have wrong specifications, over-specs or under-specs. Again, the owners or senior managers never stopped wondering why professional people left the company and why the quality of products and service are not up to any standard! Mistake No 5 - Employee Restaurant and Facilities Strangely, employees, employee facilities and welfare seem to be the least and least important thing on owners and developers minds. I know one hotel where the owner had even meetings with the employees, right after the opening, lecturing them how good the hotel will be, explaining how professional and generous the owners are as they did buy only the best qualities and products for the guests. He said he is not stingy and use only the best and most comfortable furniture, amenities, cars, etc. The owner also asked staff to work harder and be more committed to have a good hotel forgetting that all employees worked 2 months without a day off! The employees listen and wondered what he is talking about while sitting on a dusty concrete floor inside a badly ventilated and non-air conditioned concrete shell of room, eating from a Styrofoam food box with plastic cutlery and

without any proper uniforms and only one rest-room for 100 employees. I am sure I don’t have to write down here what those employees did think and even say to each other about this owner after the meeting was over. Mistake No 6 - Training So far I found only 3 independent hotel owners and investors who actually provided proper facilities and time to have proper staff orientations and training for employees before opening the business. Although EVERY single hotel developer said in the beginning that they fully agree and fully understand that training is very important and that they fully understand that people need to be trained before opening the hotel, the fact is that only the true professional owners did what they say. Most of the time, employees did not go through any orientation program or basic training. And then, on the first day of operation the managers and owners complain the staff directly that they know nothing about the hotel, that they don’t follow hotel systems, that they don’t provide good service etc. Mistake No 7 - Human Resource In my humble opinion, any hotel that opening / running their property without a proper HR person, HR manual and HR systems are operationally committing suicide!!! I have seen businesses where the majority of staff has been hired without having a written employee benefit list, written rules and regulations, written basic systems etc. Employees have been verbally promised different benefits by different managers etc. The result was simply a disaster! And then, once the management started to implement some standardized benefits for each level of employees and some standard rules and regulations, the Human Resource nightmares become did become reality as many employees complained that they only joined this particular hotel because of benefits verbally promised by managers. Not everyone promised the same….. Mistake No 8 - Back of the House Design Seldom is this area given good attention. In most cases, back-of –house areas have been assigned based on vacant areas. I wonder so much why proper storage, proper offices with strategic locations, proper restrooms, proper walkways etc. are almost never important to developers and owners. It is hard, and sometimes almost impossible to explain how the hospitality industry could make money from providing a good and smooth service and for this, within a rough back-of-house workflow. It is not only the waiter and the front office staff who provide a service! EVERYONE in the hotel provides a service and ALL Departments and employees work somehow interconnected. Mistake No 9 - Back of the House areas Why some people believe that that staff dormitories not need proper restrooms, showers and a common room? Why some people believe that employees don’t need proper food and variety of food? Why some people believe that employees will not have cars and bikes which need to be parked somewhere? Why some people believe that a proper Training Room is a waste of space? Why some people believe that employees don’t need comfort? Mistake No 10 - Good managers and staff are easy to find!!!!! Those are some nice actual sentences from owners and developers to think about: Spa Therapist not need training, just hire some sexy girls and let them massage the guests.

My gardener at my home can make up Bed’s; please consider him as Housekeeping Manager. Don’t worry about Accouting and Purchasing; I have someone who works for me since 10 years and he is very good with figures. Right now he controls all my drivers in the transportation company. I found a good Human Resource Manager for our 5-star hotel. She is the wife of the local police Chief. Nobody will dare to complain. My Son will be the General Manager; he just graduated and is very knowledgeable! Just go to the local market, there are 100 of local people who would be happy to work at our hotel even below minimum wage! Mistake No 11 - Hotel Opening Support from owners or developers other companies. Yes, many business owners forgot to focus on some if not all of the above mentioned points and now they are very nervous and scared about the operation of the hotel. So, they ask some family members and employees from other owned businesses which are most of the time not from the hospitality and service industry, to come and help to do the following: - Sales and Marketing, - Purchasing, - Finance Department, - Human Resources, “I, my family and staff from the factory only like to help! You should not complaint, be happy about it!” I am sure you noticed that I did end up with a “TOP 11” and not “TOP 10” list! Who cares! J As a matter of fact, it should be a “TOP 100” list as there are so many areas and subjects to discuss about. Објавио Hotel Menadžment у 11.27 0 коментара Ознаке: Hotel plan, izgradnja hotela, menadžment hotela, pre-opening, trening osoblja

Hotelska organizacija, pre svega, zavisi od veličine objekta i njegovih karakteristika. Podsetićemo se da hotele delimo na male, srednje i velike, u skladu sa brojem raspoloživih soba. Mali hoteli imaju od osam do deset soba, srednji do 200, a veliki hoteli više od 200 soba. Danas postoje i hoteli sa više od 1.000 soba, takoreći giganti, ali i oni se tretiraju kao veliki. U skladu s tim, organizaciona šema određenog hotela zavisiće prvenstveno od njegove veličine, a zatim i od prodajnih mesta, odnosno outleta na osnovu kojih hotel posluje: broja restorana, barova, veličine konferencijskog prostora, specifičnosti dodatnog prostora poput sajamskih

hala, kongresnih dvorana itd. To su elementi koji uslovljavaju internu organizaciju hotela, pri čemu se oni, u zavisnosti od veličine, odnosno usluga, mogu razlikovati jedni od drugih. Međutim, u svakom hotelu postoje univerzalni organizacioni segmenti. To su odeljen ja poput Room Division, Administration & Generally i Repair&Maintenance. Ta odeljenja možemo videti u svakom hotelu bio on mali, srednji ili veliki. Sobe su osnovni proizvod hotela, odeljenje administracije bavi se finansijama, knjigovodstvom, nabavkom itd., a tehnička služba sitnim popravkama, održavanjem tehničkih sistema i uopšte celog hotela. To su odeljenja koja ćete uvek i svuda sresti jer bez njih hotel ne može da funkcioniše. Ona su organizovana u skladu sa veličinom hotela, a broj zaposlenih prilagođen je obimu posla. U zavisnosti od veličine hotela, pomenuta odeljenja granaju se u mnogo manjih segmenata koji poštuju specifičnosti sopstvene organizacije. Hotel koji svrstavamo u kategoriju velikih hotela ima pet ključnih segmenata ili sektora koji se kasnije granaju u svoje podsektore. To su Rooms Division, Food&Beverage, Administration&General, Repair&Maintenance i Sales&Marketing. Iz tih sektora kasnije se grana cela paleta odeljenja. To znači da u jednom velikom hotelu imate visoki menadžment koji se sastoji od pet ljudi koji vode sektore i veći broj šefova odeljenja (Heads of Department) koji rukovode pojedinačnim poslovima. Organizaciona šema, kao i podela dužnosti po odeljenjima i sektorima, uređuje se nekim uvreženim pravilima koja su se iskristalisala

u praksi i definisana su prirodom samog posla. Međutim, koliko god odeljenja i ljudi koji u njima rade bili specijalizovani, odeljenja i sektori u velikoj meri zavise jedni od drugih i saradnja među njima mora biti konstantna. Raspodela posla utvrđena je prirodom samog poslovanja, a određene procedure i pojedinačne obaveze mogu se definisati i internim aktom, takozvanim opisom posla (job description), počevši od direktora sektora pa do stjuarda. Za svakodnevno besprekorno funkcionisanje velikog hotelskog sistema neophodna je dobro razrađena interna komunikacija koja se odvija na nekoliko različitih nivoa i načina (pismeno ili usmeno). Najčešći oblik interne komunikacije jeste jutarnji sastanak (morning briefing) koji se održava svakog jutra, posle takozvanog jutarnjeg naleta, tj. doručka i odjave gostiju koji napuštaju hotel. Takav jutarnji sastanak traje od 15 do 30 minuta i na njemu se sumiraju rezultati proteklog dana i daje pregled zbivanja za taj dan. Postoji i nedeljni sastanak svih šefova odeljenja koji traje od 60 do 90 minuta i obuhvata konkretne teme, pogotovo onda kad se razmatraju pitanja koja se tiču nekoliko odeljenja, zajedničkih odgovornosti, velikih manifestacija itd. Na nedeljnom nivou održavaju se i sastanci sektora i odeljenja na kojima se organizuje njihov interni rad. Ti sastanci uvek se svode na rekapitulaciju proteklog perioda i na pripremu onoga što predstoji. Postoje i veliki sastanci koji se održavaju jednom ili dva puta godišnje (general staff meeting) i na kojima se okuplja kompletan personal. Koncepcija tih sastanaka direktno zavisi od budžeta koji je predviđen za njihovu realizaciju, ali su uglavnom

usmereni na rekapitulaciju rezultata, predstavljanje novih planova, pripremu reorganizacije ili novih etapa u poslovanju. Ti sastanci mogu biti veoma raznoliki, u zavisnosti od samih kompanija. S obzirom na složenu organizaciju jednog velikog hotela, broj zaposlenih predstavlja strateško pitanje. S vremenom su uspostavljeni relativno čvrsti standardi, pa se broj zaposlenih bazira na već utvrđenim koeficijentima. To znači da postoje neki svetski parametri koji se vezuju za kvalitet usluga i kategoriju hotela (odnosno za broj zvezdica koji hotel ima). Garni hoteli (hoteli koji nude samo prenoćište, bez doručka) imaju koeficijent 0,25, poslovni hoteli (tri ili četiri zvezdice) od 0,6 do 0,75, a hoteli sa pet zvezdica od 0,75 do 1,2, što opet zavisi od veličine hotela, usluga koje nudi itd. Koeficijenti predstavljaju broj zaposlenih po sobi. Treba imati na umu da je tu reč o ljudima stalno zaposlenim u hotelu, ali da svaki hotel neke usluge iznajmljuje (outsourcing), tj. angažuje ljude sa strane koji nisu na njegovom platnom spisku. Danas se outsourcing primenjuje mnogo više nego ranije. Ta praksa uvedena je pre dve decenije sa outsourcingom sobarica, usluga pranja i peglanja, obezbeđenja, wellness&spa, poslastičarnice i pekare. Pre dve decenije, jedan hotel imao je sve to u sopstvenoj režiji. Danas se ti elementi retko sreću u hotelskom direktnom poslovanju, a angažuju se spolja, što je uticalo na koeficijent. Logično je da je u prošlosti koeficijent bio znatno veći. Postavlja se pitanje koji je sektor najkomplikovaniji za rukovođenje

i gde vrebaju zamke u post opening fazi rada hotela. Treba reći da je u radu hotela nepravda da Rooms Division zapošljava manje radnika, a pravi daleko veću profitabilnost, ima vrlo jednostavan spektar robe, odnosno proizvoda koje troši u svom radu (sapuni, šamponi, papir...). S druge strane imamo izuzetno personalno zahtevan sektor Food&Beverage, za čije je funkcionisanje potrebna vrlo ozbiljna kalkulacija robe koja je izuzetno šarolika (a la carte, različiti banketi, dekoracije...). Zato je oduvek u F&B-u postojao veći izazov i bilo je teže praviti profit nego u Rooms Divisionu. Pri tom ne smemo da zaboravimo da se zasebno vodi profitabilnost svakog sektora. Međutim, neretko je potrebna njihova tesna međusobna saradnja, jer ukoliko se organizuje veliki banket ili seminar za mnogo ljudi, onda se podrazumeva da su u organizaciju uključeni i F&B i sobe. Tada nudite veliki paket, pa jedan sektor ne može da bude profitabilan bez onog drugog. U ovom broju predstavili smo grubi pregled organizacione postavke hotela, a u sledećim ćemo objasniti funkcionisanje i organizaciju pojedinačnih sektora i odeljenja kako bismo pokazali koliko je kompleksan rad jednog hotela i koliko su specifične obaveze pojedinih odeljenja, koja su u svom radu suštinski isprepletana i vrlo zavisna jedna od drugih.

U prošlosti se najčešće, rezultat hotelskog poslovanja merio stepenom popunjenosti kapaciteta.

Nešto kasnije, u obzir se uzimao i indikator ADR (Average Daily Rate) – prosečno ostvarena dnevna cena sobe. Nakon toga, sa pojavom Revenue Management pristupa, kao najznačajniji indikator posmatra se REVPAR (Revenue Per Available Room) – prihod po raspoloživoj sobi. U današnje vreme, ključna reč je GOPPAR! U čemu je prednost ovog indikatora ključnih performansi poslovanja u odnosu na REVPAR? Najpre, razjasnimo definicije oba navedena indikatora: REVPAR = (Rooms) Revenue / (per) Available Rooms, ili, REVPAR = ADR (average daily rate) x Occupancy % i, GOPPAR = GOP (gross operating profit) / (per) Available Rooms Osnovna razlika između ova dva indikatora je što GOPPAR uključuje i operativne troškove poslovanja. Konkretno, REVPAR podrazumeva isključivo odnos ukupnih prihoda (od prodaje soba) i ukupnog broja raspoloživih soba, pa se prilikom upoređivanja poslovanja više hotela, vrlo lako može steći pogrešan zaključak. Primer: Pred nama je zadatak da uporedimo uspešnost poslovanja dva hotela A i B koji raspolažu sa po 100 soba. Ukupan broj raspoloživih soba u oba hotela je 100 x 365(dana) = 36.500. Hotel A ima godišnju popunjenost od 65% (23.725 prodatih soba) a Hotel B, popunjenost od 50% (18.250 prodatih soba). ADR u Hotelu A je 100 EUR a u Hotelu B je 125 EUR. Ukupan prihod od prodaje soba (Rooms Revenue) u Hotelu A iznosi 2.372.500 EUR a u Hotelu B - 2.281.250 EUR. Izračunajmo sada REVPAR za oba hotela: REVPAR Hotel A = 2.372.500 EUR / 36.500 = 65 EUR REVPAR Hotel B = 2.281.250 EUR / 36.500 = 62,5 EUR Posmatrano na osnovu REVPAR indikatora, Hotel A je uspešnije poslovao jer je ostvario prihod po raspoloživoj sobi veći za 2,5 EUR u odnosu na Hotel B. Međutim, pretpostavimo da ukupni godišnji fiksni troškovi u oba hotela iznose po 800.000 EUR. Takođe, neka varijabilni trošak za svaku prodatu sobu u oba hotela iznosi 30 EUR po sobi. Ukupni varijabilni troškovi za navedene hotele iznose: Hotel A – 23.725 (prodatih soba) x 30 EUR = 711.750 EUR Hotel B – 18.250 (prodatih soba) x 30 EUR = 547.500 EUR U tom slučaju GOP (Gross Operating Profit) za navedene hotele iznosi: GOP (Hotel A) = 2.372.500 EUR (Ukupni prihodi) - 800.000 EUR (fiksni troškovi) 711.750 EUR (varijabilni troškovi) = 860.750 EUR GOP (Hotel B) = 2.281.250 EUR (Ukupni prihodi) - 800.000 EUR (fiksni troškovi) 547.500 EUR (varijabilni troškovi) = 933.750 EUR Konačno, možemo izračunati GOPPAR za oba hotela: GOPPAR (Hotel A) = 860.750 EUR (GOP) / 36.500 = 23,6 EUR GOPPAR (Hotel B) = 933.750 EUR (GOP) / 36.500 = 25,6 EUR Iz priloženog se jednostavno može zaključiti da je profit po raspoloživoj sobi u poslovanju Hotela B veći nego profit koji ostvaruje Hotel A. Ako se osvrnemo na početak teksta, jasno je da isključivo prema ostvarenom profitu treba meriti performanse poslovanja. Isto tako zaključujemo da je prosto posmatranje

popunjenosti i ukupnog prihoda, nedovoljno za realnu ocenu rezultata poslovanja hotela.