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CSS Tutorial

CSS Tutorial
Save a lot of work with CSS! In our CSS tutorial you will learn how to use CSS to control the style and layout of multiple Web pages all at once. Start learning CSS now!

CSS Examples
Learn by 70 examples! With our editor, you can edit CSS, and click on a test button to view the result. Try-It-Yourself!

CSS Reference
At W3Schools you will find a complete CSS2 reference, listing properties, units of measurements, colors, and more. CSS2 Reference

CSS Quiz Test
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Introduction to CSS
What You Should Already Know
Before you continue you should have some basic understanding of the following:

HTML / XHTML

If you want to study this subject first, find the tutorials on our Home page.

What is CSS?
• • • • • • •

CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets Styles define how to display HTML elements Styles are normally stored in Style Sheets Styles were added to HTML 4.0 to solve a problem External Style Sheets can save you a lot of work External Style Sheets are stored in CSS files Multiple style definitions will cascade into one

CSS Demo
With CSS, your HTML documents can be displayed using different output styles: See how it works

Styles Solve a Common Problem
HTML tags were originally designed to define the content of a document. They were supposed to say "This is a header", "This is a paragraph", "This is a table", by using tags like <h1>, <p>, <table>, and so on. The layout of the document was supposed to be taken care of by the browser, without using any formatting tags. As the two major browsers - Netscape and Internet Explorer - continued to add new HTML tags and attributes (like the <font> tag and the color attribute) to the original HTML specification, it became more and more difficult to create Web sites where the content of HTML documents was clearly separated from the document's presentation layout.

To solve this problem, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) - the non profit, standard setting consortium, responsible for standardizing HTML - created STYLES in addition to HTML 4.0. All major browsers support Cascading Style Sheets.

Style Sheets Can Save a Lot of Work
Styles sheets define HOW HTML elements are to be displayed, just like the font tag and the color attribute in HTML 3.2. Styles are normally saved in external .css files. External style sheets enable you to change the appearance and layout of all the pages in your Web, just by editing one single CSS document! CSS is a breakthrough in Web design because it allows developers to control the style and layout of multiple Web pages all at once. As a Web developer you can define a style for each HTML element and apply it to as many Web pages as you want. To make a global change, simply change the style, and all elements in the Web are updated automatically.

Multiple Styles Will Cascade Into One
Style sheets allow style information to be specified in many ways. Styles can be specified inside a single HTML element, inside the <head> element of an HTML page, or in an external CSS file. Even multiple external style sheets can be referenced inside a single HTML document.

Cascading Order
What style will be used when there is more than one style specified for an HTML element? Generally speaking we can say that all the styles will "cascade" into a new "virtual" style sheet by the following rules, where number four has the highest priority: 1. 2. 3. 4. Browser default External style sheet Internal style sheet (inside the <head> tag) Inline style (inside an HTML element)

So, an inline style (inside an HTML element) has the highest priority, which means that it will override a style declared inside the <head> tag, in an external style sheet, or in a browser (a default value).

CSS Syntax
Syntax
The CSS syntax is made up of three parts: a selector, a property and a value:
selector {property: value}

The selector is normally the HTML element/tag you wish to define, the property is the attribute you wish to change, and each property can take a value. The property and value are separated by a colon, and surrounded by curly braces:
body {color: black}

Note: If the value is multiple words, put quotes around the value:
p {font-family: "sans serif"}

Note: If you wish to specify more than one property, you must separate each property with a semicolon. The example below shows how to define a center aligned paragraph, with a red text color:
p {text-align:center;color:red}

To make the style definitions more readable, you can describe one property on each line, like this:
p { text-align: center; color: black; font-family: arial }

h5.h4. the syntax is: <p class="center bold"> This is a paragraph. Say that you would like to have two types of paragraphs in your document: one rightaligned paragraph. All header elements will be displayed in green text color: h1.h2. </p> The paragraph above will be styled by the class "center" AND the class "bold". In the example below we have grouped all the header elements. Here is how you can do it with styles: p. </p> <p class="center"> This paragraph will be center-aligned.Grouping You can group selectors. In the example below. You can also omit the tag name in the selector to define a style that will be used by all HTML elements that have a certain class. </p> Note: To apply more than one class per given element.center {text-align: center} .right {text-align: right} p. and one center-aligned paragraph.h6 { color: green } The class Selector With the class selector you can define different styles for the same type of HTML element.h3. Separate each selector with a comma. all HTML elements with class="center" will be center-aligned: .center {text-align: center} You have to use the class attribute in your HTML document: <p class="right"> This paragraph will be right-aligned.

The style rule below will match the element that has an id attribute with a value of "green": #green {color: green} The style rule below will match the p element that has an id with a value of "para1": p#para1 { text-align: center. color: red } Do NOT start an ID name with a number! It will not work in Mozilla/Firefox. This means that both elements will follow the rules in the ". Add Styles to Elements with Particular Attributes You can also apply styles to HTML elements with particular attributes. </p> Do NOT start a class name with a number! It will not work in Mozilla/Firefox. The id selector is defined as a #. CSS Comments .center" selector: <h1 class="center"> This heading will be center-aligned </h1> <p class="center"> This paragraph will also be center-aligned. The style rule below will match all input elements that have a type attribute with a value of "text": input[type="text"] {background-color: blue} The id Selector You can also define styles for HTML elements with the id selector.In the code below both the h1 element and the p element have class="center".

and ends with "*/".. Examples • • Look at Example 1 Look at Example 2 How to Insert a Style Sheet When a browser reads a style sheet. you can change the look of an entire Web site by changing one file.Comments are used to explain your code. A comment will be ignored by browsers. A CSS comment begins with "/*". With an external style sheet. it will format the document according to it. like this: /* This is a comment */ p { text-align: center. and may help you when you edit the source code at a later date. font-family: arial } CSS How To. Each .. There are three ways of inserting a style sheet: External Style Sheet An external style sheet is ideal when the style is applied to many pages. /* This is another comment */ color: black.

Internal Style Sheet An internal style sheet should be used when a single document has a unique style. and format the document according to it. An external style sheet can be written in any text editor. like this: <head> <style type="text/css"> hr {color: sienna} p {margin-left: 20px} body {background-image: url("images/back40. The <link> tag goes inside the head section: <head> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="mystyle.css.gif")} </style> </head> The browser will now read the style definitions.page must link to the style sheet using the <link> tag.css extension. This means that an old browser that does not support styles. but the content of the <style> tag will be displayed on the page. It is possible to prevent an old browser from displaying the content by hiding it in the HTML comment element: <head> <style type="text/css"> <!-hr {color: sienna} p {margin-left: 20px} . Your style sheet should be saved with a .css" /> </head> The browser will read the style definitions from the file mystyle.gif")} Do NOT leave spaces between the property value and the units! If you use "margin-left: 20 px" instead of "margin-left: 20px" it will only work properly in IE6 but it will not work in Mozilla/Firefox or Netscape. You define internal styles in the head section by using the <style> tag. and format the document according to it. Note: A browser normally ignores unknown tags. The file should not contain any html tags. An example of a style sheet file is shown below: hr {color: sienna} p {margin-left: 20px} body {background-image: url("images/back40. will ignore the <style> tag.

font-size: 8pt } And an internal style sheet has these properties for the h3 selector: h3 { text-align: right. such as when a style is to be applied to a single occurrence of an element. text-align: left. Use this method sparingly. .body {background-image: url("images/back40. For example. text-align: right. The style attribute can contain any CSS property. margin-left: 20px"> This is a paragraph </p> Multiple Style Sheets If some properties have been set for the same selector in different style sheets.gif")} --> </style> </head> Inline Styles An inline style loses many of the advantages of style sheets by mixing content with presentation. the values will be inherited from the more specific style sheet. font-size: 20pt } If the page with the internal style sheet also links to the external style sheet the properties for h3 will be: color: red. To use inline styles you use the style attribute in the relevant tag. The example shows how to change the color and the left margin of a paragraph: <p style="color: sienna. an external style sheet has these properties for the h3 selector: h3 { color: red.

Examples Set the background color This example demonstrates how to set the background color for an element.font-size: 20pt The color is inherited from the external style sheet and the text-alignment and the fontsize is replaced by the internal style sheet. CSS Background The CSS background properties define the background effects of an element. How to repeat a background image only vertically This example demonstrates how to repeat a background image only vertically. How to repeat a background image This example demonstrates how to repeat a background image. How to position a background image using % This example demonstrates how to position an image on the page using percent. Set an image as the background This example demonstrates how to set an image as the background. How to display a background image only one time This example demonstrates how to display a background image only one time How to place the background image This example demonstrates how to place the image on the page. . How to repeat a background image only horizontally This example demonstrates how to repeat a background image only horizontally.

set an image as the background. repeat a background image vertically or horizontally. W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property is defined (CSS1 or CSS2). CSS Background Properties The CSS background properties allow you to control the background color of an element. How to set a fixed background image This example demonstrates how to set a fixed background image. and position an image on a page. N: Netscape. Property background Description A shorthand property for setting all background properties in one declaration Values IE F N W3C 1 6 1 background-color 4 background-image background-repeat backgroundattachment background-position scroll fixed 4 backgroundattachment Sets whether a background image is fixed or scrolls with the rest of the page 1 6 1 background-color Sets the background color color-rgb of an element color-hex color-name transparent Sets an image as the background url(URL) none top left top center 4 1 4 1 background-image 4 4 1 4 1 1 6 1 background-position Sets the starting position of a background image .How to position a background image using pixels This example demonstrates how to position an image on the page using pixels. The image will not scroll with the rest of the page. F: Firefox. All the background properties in one declaration This example demonstrates how to use the shorthand property for setting all of the background properties in one declaration. Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer.

Set the background-color of the text This example demonstrates how to set the background-color of a part of the text. Specify the space between characters This example demonstrates how to increase or decrease the space between characters.top right center left center center center right bottom left bottom center bottom right x% y% xpos ypos background-repeat Sets if/how a background repeat image will be repeated repeat-x repeat-y no-repeat 4 1 4 1 CSS Text The CSS text properties define the appearance of text. . Specify the space between lines This example demonstrates how to specify the space between the lines in a paragraph. Examples Set the color of the text This example demonstrates how to set the color of the text.

Indent text This example demonstrates how to indent the first line of a paragraph. increase or decrease the space between characters in a text. Control the letters in a text This example demonstrates how to control the letters in a text. W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property is defined (CSS1 or CSS2). indent the first line in a text. It is possible to change the color of a text. N: Netscape. Decorate the text This example demonstrates how to add decoration to text. Disable text wrapping inside an element This example demonstrates how to disable text wrapping inside an element. Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer. decorate a text.Align the text This example demonstrates how to align the text. Increase the white space between words This example demonstrates how to increase the white space between words in a paragraph. align a text. Property color direction line-height Description Sets the color of a text Sets the text direction Values color ltr rtl IE F N W3C 3 6 4 1 4 1 1 6 2 1 4 1 Sets the distance between normal lines number length % Increase or decrease the normal letter-spacing 4 1 6 1 . and more. Set the text direction of an element This example demonstrates how to change the text direction of an element. CSS Text Properties The CSS text properties allow you to control the appearance of text. F: Firefox.

space between characters length text-align Aligns the text in an element left right center justify none underline overline line-through blink length % none color length Controls the letters in an element none capitalize uppercase lowercase normal embed bidi-override Sets how white space inside an element is handled Increase or decrease the space between words normal pre nowrap normal length 4 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 text-decoration Adds decoration to text 4 1 4 1 text-indent text-shadow Indents the first line of text in an element 4 1 4 1 text-transform unicode-bidi 5 2 white-space 5 1 4 1 word-spacing 6 1 6 1 CSS Font .

Note: In CSS1 fonts are identified by a font name. Set the boldness of the font This example demonstrates how to set the boldness of a font. Set the size of the font using font-size-adjust This example demonstrates how to set the size of a font using font-size-adjust.The CSS font properties define the font in text. Set the variant of the font This example demonstrates how to set the variant of a font. Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer. and the style of a text. If a browser does not support the specified font. Set a paragraph font using the "caption" value This example demonstrates how to set a paragraph font using the "caption" value. boldness. Set the size of the font This example demonstrates how to set the size of a font. W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property is defined (CSS1 or CSS2). Examples Set the font of a text This example demonstrates how to set a font of a text. it will use a default font. All the font properties in one declaration This example demonstrates how to use the shorthand property for setting all of the font properties in one declaration. CSS Font Properties The CSS font properties allow you to change the font family. F: Firefox. N: Netscape. size. Set the style of the font This example demonstrates how to set the style of a font. .

Property font Description A shorthand property for setting all of the properties for a font in one declaration Values font-style font-variant font-weight font-size/line-height font-family caption icon menu message-box small-caption status-bar IE F N W3C 4 1 4 1 font-family A prioritized list of font family-name family names and/or generic-family generic family names for an element Sets the size of a font xx-small x-small small medium large x-large xx-large smaller larger length % 3 1 4 1 font-size 3 1 4 1 font-size-adjust Specifies an aspect value none for an element that will number preserve the x-height of the first-choice font Condenses or expands the normal current font-family wider narrower ultra-condensed extra-condensed condensed semi-condensed semi-expanded expanded extra-expanded ultra-expanded Sets the style of the font normal - - - 2 font-stretch - - - 2 font-style 4 1 4 1 .

Set different borders on each side This example demonstrates how to set different borders on each side of the element. All the top border properties in one declaration This example demonstrates a shorthand property for setting all of the properties for the top border in one declaration. Examples All the border properties in one declaration This example demonstrates a shorthand property for setting all of the properties for the four borders in one declaration.normal caps font or a normal font small-caps Sets the weight of a font normal bold bolder lighter 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 4 4 1 6 1 1 4 1 CSS Border The CSS border properties define the borders around an element. . can have from one to three values.italic oblique font-variant font-weight Displays text in a small.

It can have from one to four colors. Set the width of the left border This example demonstrates how to set the width of the left border. Set the width of the top border This example demonstrates how to set the width of the top border. All the width of the border properties in one declaration This example demonstrates a shorthand property for setting the width of the four borders in one declaration. Set the width of the bottom border This example demonstrates how to set the width of the bottom border. can have from one to four values. All the left border properties in one declaration This example demonstrates a shorthand property for setting all of the properties for the left border in one declaration. Set the style of the four borders This example demonstrates how to set the style of the four borders. Set the style of the left border This example demonstrates how to set the style of the left border. Set the style of the right border This example demonstrates how to set the style of the right border. Set the style of the top border This example demonstrates how to set the style of the top border. All the right border properties in one declaration This example demonstrates a shorthand property for setting all of the properties for the right border in one declaration. Set the style of the bottom border This example demonstrates how to set the style of the bottom border. Set the width of the right border This example demonstrates how to set the width of the right border. .All the bottom border properties in one declaration This example demonstrates a shorthand property for setting all of the properties for the bottom border in one declaration. Set the color of the four borders This example demonstrates how to set the color of the four borders.

Set the color of the left border This example demonstrates how to set the color of the left border. but with the CSS border properties we can create borders with nice effects. Set the color of the bottom border This example demonstrates how to set the color of the bottom border. CSS Border Properties The CSS border properties allow you to specify the style and color of an element's border. F: Firefox. N: Netscape. and it can be applied to any element.Set the color of the top border This example demonstrates how to set the color of the top border. In HTML we use tables to create borders around a text. Property border Description Values IE F N W3C 4 1 4 1 A shorthand property for border-width setting all of the border-style properties for the four border-color borders in one declaration border-bottom A shorthand property for border-bottom-width 4 setting all of the border-style properties for the bottom border-color border in one declaration border-color border-style thin medium thick length color 4 4 4 1 6 1 border-bottom-color Sets the color of the bottom border border-bottom-style Sets the style of the bottom border 1 6 2 1 6 2 1 4 1 border-bottom-width Sets the width of the bottom border border-color Sets the color of the four 4 1 6 1 . W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property is defined (CSS1 or CSS2). Set the color of the right border This example demonstrates how to set the color of the right border. Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer.

can have from one to four styles none hidden dotted dashed solid double groove ridge inset outset 4 1 6 1 border-right-color border-right-style border-right-width 4 4 4 1 6 2 1 6 2 1 4 1 border-style 4 1 6 1 border-top A shorthand property for border-top-width setting all of the border-style properties for the top border-color border in one declaration 4 1 6 1 .borders. can have from one to four colors border-left A shorthand property for border-left-width setting all of the border-style properties for the left border-color border in one declaration Sets the color of the left border Sets the style of the left border Sets the width of the left border border-color border-style thin medium thick length 4 1 6 1 border-left-color border-left-style border-left-width 4 4 4 1 6 2 1 6 2 1 4 1 border-right A shorthand property for border-right-width setting all of the border-style properties for the right border-color border in one declaration Sets the color of the right border-color border Sets the style of the right border-style border Sets the width of the right thin border medium thick length Sets the style of the four borders.

outside the border edge. Examples Draw a line around an element (outline) (does not work in IE) This example demonstrates how to draw a line around an element. Set the width of an outline (does not work in IE) This example demonstrates how to set the width of an outline.border-top-color border-top-style border-top-width Sets the color of the top border Sets the style of the top border Sets the width of the top border border-color border-style thin medium thick length thin medium thick length 4 4 4 1 6 2 1 6 2 1 4 1 border-width A shorthand property for setting the width of the four borders in one declaration. can have from one to four values 4 1 4 1 CSS Outlines The CSS outline properties is used to draw a line around an element. Set the color of an outline (does not work in IE) This example demonstrates how to set the color of an outline. outside the border edge. Set the style of an outline (does not work in IE) This example demonstrates how to set the style of an outline. .

Property outline Description Values IE F N W3C 2 A shorthand property for outline-color setting all the outline outline-style properties in one outline-width declaration Sets the color of the color outline around an element invert Sets the style of the none outline around an element dotted dashed solid double groove ridge inset outset Sets the width of the thin outline around an element medium thick length 1. You can specify the style.5 1.5 - outline-color outline-style - 1. N: Netscape. Note: Outlines do not take up space. color.5 - 2 .CSS Outline Properties An outline is a line that is drawn around elements. and they do not have to be rectangular. outside the border edge. W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property is defined (CSS1 or CSS2). The CSS outline properties sets the outlines around elements. Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer.5 - 2 2 outline-width - 1. to make the element "stand out". F: Firefox. and width of the outline.

A shorthand margin property can also be used to change all of the margins at once. Set the left margin of a text using a percent value This example demonstrates how to set the left margin of a text using a percent value. right. The top. bottom. Set the bottom margin of a text using a cm value This example demonstrates how to set the bottom margin of a text using a cm value. Set the top margin of a text using a cm value This example demonstrates how to set the top margin of a text using a cm value. Set the left margin of a text using a cm value This example demonstrates how to set the left margin of a text using a cm value. CSS Margin Properties The CSS margin properties define the space around elements. Set the right margin of a text using a percent value This example demonstrates how to set the right margin of a text using a percent value. . Set the bottom margin of a text using a percent value This example demonstrates how to set the bottom margin of a text using a percent value. and left margin can be changed independently using separate properties. Set the top margin of a text using a percent value This example demonstrates how to set the top margin of a text using a percent value. Examples All the margin properties in one declaration This example demonstrates how to set a shorthand property for setting all of the margin properties in one declaration. It is possible to use negative values to overlap content. Set the right margin of a text using a cm value This example demonstrates how to set the right margin of a text using a cm value.CSS Margin The CSS margin properties define the space around elements.

Property margin Description A shorthand property for setting the margin properties in one declaration Values margin-top margin-right margin-bottom margin-left IE F N W3C 4 1 4 1 margin-bottom Sets the bottom margin of auto an element length % Sets the left margin of an auto element length % Sets the right margin of an element auto length % 4 1 4 1 margin-left 3 1 4 1 margin-right 3 1 4 1 margin-top Sets the top margin of an auto element length % 3 1 4 1 CSS Padding The CSS padding properties define the space between the element border and the element content. so if one wants to adjust the margin for an entire page and have it display correctly in Opera. N: Netscape. the body padding must be set as well! Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer.Note: Netscape and IE give the body tag a default margin of 8px. F: Firefox. Opera applies a default padding of 8px. . Opera does not! Instead. W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property is defined (CSS1 or CSS2).

Set the top padding using a cm value This example demonstrates how to set the top padding of a table cell using a cm value. N: Netscape. Set the right padding using a percent value This example demonstrates how to set the right padding of a table cell using a percent value. right. can have from one to four values. Set the top padding using a percent value This example demonstrates how to set the top padding of a table cell using a percent value. Set the bottom padding using a cm value This example demonstrates how to set the bottom padding of a table cell using a cm value. CSS Padding Properties The CSS padding properties define the space between the element border and the element content. Negative values are not allowed. and left padding can be changed independently using separate properties. Set the right padding using a cm value This example demonstrates how to set the right padding of a table cell using a cm value. bottom. Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer. The top. F: Firefox. A shorthand padding property is also created to control multiple sides at once. Set the left padding using a cm value This example demonstrates how to set the left padding of a table cell using a cm value.Examples All the padding properties in one declaration This example demonstrates a shorthand property for setting all of the padding properties in one declaration. Set the left padding using a percent value This example demonstrates how to set the left padding of a table cell using a percent value. . Set the bottom padding using a percent value This example demonstrates how to set the bottom padding of a table cell using a percent value.

or set an image as the list-item marker. Examples The different list-item markers in unordered lists This example demonstrates the different list-item markers in CSS. . Property padding Description A shorthand property for setting all of the padding properties in one declaration Sets the bottom padding of an element Values padding-top padding-right padding-bottom padding-left length % IE F N W3C 4 1 4 1 padding-bottom padding-left padding-right padding-top 4 4 4 4 1 4 1 1 4 1 1 4 1 1 4 1 Sets the left padding of an length element % Sets the right padding of an element length % Sets the top padding of an length element % CSS List The CSS list properties allow you to place the list-item marker.W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property is defined (CSS1 or CSS2). change between different list-item markers. The different list-item markers in ordered lists This example demonstrates the different list-item markers in CSS.

Place the list-item marker This example demonstrates where to place the list-item marker. Property list-style Description Values IE F N W3C 4 1 6 1 A shorthand property for list-style-type setting all of the list-style-position properties for a list in one list-style-image declaration Sets an image as the listitem marker Sets where the list-item marker is placed in the list Sets the type of the listitem marker none url inside outside list-style-image list-style-position 4 4 1 6 1 1 6 1 list-style-type none 4 disc circle square decimal decimal-leading-zero lower-roman upper-roman lower-alpha 1 4 1 . N: Netscape. Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer. change between different list-item markers.All the list style types This example demonstrates all the different list-item markers in CSS. All list properties in one declaration This example demonstrates a shorthand property for setting all of the properties for a list in one declaration. Set an image as the list-item marker This example demonstrates how to set an image as the list-item marker. F: Firefox. W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property is defined (CSS1 or CSS2). or set an image as the list-item marker. CSS List Properties The CSS list properties allow you to place the list-item marker.

Collapse a table border This example demonstrates whether the table borders are collapsed into a single border or detached as in standard HTML. Show empty cells in a table This example demonstrates whether or not to show empty cells in a table. Examples Set the layout of a table This example demonstrates how to set the layout of a table. Set the space between table borders This example demonstrates how to set the distance between cell borders. .upper-alpha lower-greek lower-latin upper-latin hebrew armenian georgian cjk-ideographic hiragana katakana hiragana-iroha katakana-iroha marker-offset auto length 1 7 2 CSS Table The CSS table properties allow you to set the layout of a table.

M: Mac IE only. F: Firefox. N: Netscape. Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer. W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property is defined (CSS1 or CSS2). Property border-collapse Description Values IE F N W3C 5 1 7 2 Sets whether the table collapse borders are collapsed into separate a single border or detached as in standard HTML Sets the distance that separates cell borders (only for the "separated borders" model) Sets the position of the table caption length length border-spacing 5M 1 6 2 caption-side top bottom left right show hide 5M 1 6 2 empty-cells Sets whether or not to show empty cells in a table (only for the "separated borders" model) 5M 1 6 2 table-layout Sets the algorithm used to auto display the table cells. CSS Table Properties The CSS table properties allow you to set the layout of a table. fixed rows.Set the position of the table caption This example demonstrates how to position the table caption. and columns 5 1 6 2 .

Examples Set the height of an image using a pixel value This example demonstrates how to set the height of an element using a pixel value.CSS Dimension The CSS dimension properties allow you to control the height and width of an element. It also allows you to increase the space between two lines. Set the width of an element using a pixel value This example demonstrates how to set the width of an element using a pixel value. Set the height of an image using percent This example demonstrates how to set the height of an element using a percent value. Set the width of an element using percent This example demonstrates how to set the width of an element using a percent value. Set the maximum height of an element This example demonstrates how to set the maximum height of an element. .

It also allows you to increase the space between two lines. Property height Description Sets the height of an Values auto IE F N W3C 4 1 6 1 .Set the maximum width of an element using a pixel value This example demonstrates how to set the maximum width of an element using a pixel value. CSS Dimension Properties The CSS dimension properties allow you to control the height and width of an element. F: Firefox. Set the minimum height of an element This example demonstrates how to set the minimum height of an element. Specify the space between lines using a pixel value This example demonstrates how to specify the space between the lines in a paragraph using a pixel value. N: Netscape. W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property is defined (CSS1 or CSS2). Set the minimum width of an element using percent This example demonstrates how to set the minimum width of an element using a percent value. Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer. Specify the space between lines using a number value This example demonstrates how to specify the space between the lines in a paragraph using a number value. Set the maximum width of an element using percent This example demonstrates how to set the maximum width of an element using a percent value. Specify the space between lines using a percent value This example demonstrates how to specify the space between the lines in a paragraph using a percent value. Set the minimum width of an element using a pixel value This example demonstrates how to set the minimum width of an element using a pixel value.

. This example demonstrates how to display an element as an inline element.element line-height length % 4 1 4 1 Sets the distance between normal lines number length % Sets the maximum height none of an element length % Sets the maximum width none of an element length % Sets the minimum height length of an element % Sets the minimum width of an element Sets the width of an element length % auto % length max-height - 1 6 2 max-width - 1 6 2 min-height min-width width 4 1 6 2 1 6 2 1 4 1 CSS Classification The CSS classification properties allow you to specify how and where to display an element. Examples How to display an element as an inline element.

Creating a homepage without tables Use float to create a homepage with a header. Clear the sides of an element This example demonstrates how clear the sides of other floating elements. Position:relative This example demonstrates how to position an element relative to its normal position. An image with a caption that floats to the right Let an image with a caption float to the right. footer. Position:absolute This example demonstrates how to position an element using an absolute value. Creating a horizontal menu Use float with a list of hyperlinks to create a horizontal menu. left content and main content. Add border and margins to the image. Change the cursor This example demonstrates how to change the cursor. A simple use of the float property Let an image float to the right in a paragraph.How to display an element as a block element This example demonstrates how to display an element as a block element. Let the first letter of a paragraph float to the left Let the first letter of a paragraph float to the left and style the letter. How to make an element invisible This example demonstrates how to make an element invisible. Do you want the element to show or not? How to make a table element collapse This example demonstrates how to make a table element collapse. CSS Classification Properties The CSS classification properties allow you to control how to display an element. set where an image will appear in another element. position an element relative to its normal . An image with border and margins that floats to the right in a paragraph Let an image float to the right in a paragraph.

and how to control the visibility of an element. N: Netscape.position. F: Firefox. Property clear Description Sets the sides of an element where other floating elements are not allowed Specifies the type of cursor to be displayed Values left right both none url auto crosshair default pointer move e-resize ne-resize nw-resize n-resize se-resize sw-resize s-resize w-resize text wait help IE F N W3C 4 1 4 1 cursor 4 1 6 2 display Sets how/if an element is none displayed inline block list-item run-in compact marker table inline-table table-row-group table-header-group table-footer-group table-row table-column-group 4 1 4 1 . Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer. position an element using an absolute value. W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property is defined (CSS1 or CSS2).

The element is clipped into this shape. Examples Position:relative This example demonstrates how to position an element relative to its normal position. relative. Position:fixed This example demonstrates how to position an element with relative to the browser window. Set the shape of an element This example demonstrates how to set the shape of an element. . Position:absolute This example demonstrates how to position an element using an absolute value. absolute or relative fixed position absolute fixed Sets if an element should visible be visible or invisible hidden collapse 4 1 4 1 position 4 1 4 2 visibility 4 1 6 2 CSS Positioning The CSS positioning properties allows you to position an element. and displayed.table-column table-cell table-caption float Sets where an image or a left text will appear in another right element none Places an element in a static static.

Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer. Z-index The elements in the example above have now changed their Z-index. Set the left edge of an image using a percent value This example demonstrates how to set the left edge of an element using a percent value. Z-index Z-index can be used to place an element "behind" another element. F: Firefox. Set the top edge of an image using a pixel value This example demonstrates how to set the top edge of an element using a pixel value. place an element behind another. and to specify what should happen when an element's content is too big to fit in a specified area. N: Netscape. CSS Positioning Properties The CSS positioning properties allow you to specify the left.How to show overflow in an element using scroll This example demonstrates how to set the overflow property to create a scroll bar when an element's content is too big to fit in a specified area. Property bottom Description Sets how far the bottom edge of an element is above/below the bottom edge of the parent Values auto % length IE F N W3C 5 1 6 2 . W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property is defined (CSS1 or CSS2). How to set the browser to automatically handle overflow This example demonstrates how to set the browser to automatically handle overflow. and bottom position of an element. How to hide overflow in an element This example demonstrates how to set the overflow property to hide the content if it is too big to fit in a specified area. right. Vertical alignment of an image This example demonstrates how to set the vertical align of an image in a text. top. It also allows you to set the shape of an element.

and displayed shape auto 4 1 6 2 left Sets how far the left edge auto of an element is to the % right/left of the left edge length of the parent element Sets what happens if the content of an element overflow its area visible hidden scroll auto 4 1 4 2 overflow 4 1 6 2 position Places an element in a static static. relative. absolute or relative fixed position absolute fixed Sets how far the right edge of an element is to the left/right of the right edge of the parent element auto % length 4 1 4 2 right 5 1 6 2 top Sets how far the top edge auto of an element is % above/below the top edge length of the parent element Sets the vertical alignment of an element baseline sub super top text-top middle bottom text-bottom length % 4 1 4 2 vertical-align 4 1 4 1 z-index Sets the stack order of an auto element number 4 1 6 2 . The element is clipped into this shape.element clip Sets the shape of an element.

(for IE <!DOCTYPE> must be declared) :first-child . Hyperlink 2 This example demonstrates how to add other styles to hyperlinks. (for IE <!DOCTYPE> must be declared) :first-child . Examples Hyperlink This example demonstrates how to add different colors to a hyperlink in a document. (for IE <!DOCTYPE> must be declared) :lang (does not work in IE) This example demonstrates the use of the :lang pseudo-class. Syntax The syntax of pseudo-classes: selector:pseudo-class {property: value} .change first child <p> This example sets any <p> element that is the first child of any element to bold. Hyperlink: use of :focus (does not work in IE) This example demonstrates how to use the :focus pseudo-class on a hyperlink.change all <em> elements in first child <p> This example sets any <em> elements in first child <p> elements to bold.change first child <em> in all <p> elements This example sets the first <em> element in all <p> elements to bold.CSS Pseudo-classes CSS pseudo-classes are used to add special effects to some selectors. :first-child .

CSS classes can also be used with pseudo-classes: selector. Note: For :first-child to work in IE. it will be displayed in red.The :first-child Pseudo-class The :first-child pseudo-class matches a specified element that is the first child of another element.class:pseudo-class {property: value} Anchor Pseudo-classes A link that is active.asp">CSS Syntax</a> If the link in the example above has been visited. unvisited. A <!DOCTYPE> must be declared. visited. Match the first <p> element In the following example. Pseudo-classes and CSS Classes Pseudo-classes can be combined with CSS classes: a. CSS2 .red:visited {color: #FF0000} <a class="red" href="css_syntax. the selector matches any <p> element that is the first child of any element: . or when you mouse over a link can all be displayed in different ways in a CSS-supporting browser: a:link {color: #FF0000} /* unvisited link */ a:visited {color: #00FF00} /* visited link */ a:hover {color: #FF00FF} /* mouse over link */ a:active {color: #0000FF} /* selected link */ Note: a:hover MUST come after a:link and a:visited in the CSS definition in order to be effective!! Note: a:active MUST come after a:hover in the CSS definition in order to be effective!! Note: Pseudo-class names are not case-sensitive.

the selector matches any <em> elements in <p> elements that are the first child of another element: <html> <head> <style type="text/css"> p:first-child em { font-weight:bold . I am a <em>strong</em> man.</p> </body> </html> Try it yourself! Match the first <em> element in all <p> elements In the following example.<html> <head> <style type="text/css"> p:first-child { font-weight:bold } </style> </head> <body> <p>I am a <em>strong</em> man. the selector matches any <em> element that is the first child of a <p> element: <html> <head> <style type="text/css"> p > em:first-child { font-weight:bold } </style> </head> <body> <p>I am a <em>strong</em> man. I am a <em>strong</em> man. I am a <em>strong</em> man. I am a <em>strong</em> man.</p> <p>I am a <em>strong</em> man.</p> <p>I am a <em>strong</em> man.</p> </body> </html> Try it yourself! Match all <em> elements in all first child <p> elements In the following example.

</p> </body> </html> Pseudo-classes Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer. W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property is defined (CSS1 or CSS2).</p> </body> </html> Try it yourself! CSS2 .The :lang Pseudo-class The :lang pseudo-class allows you to define special rules for different languages. the :lang class defines the type of quotation marks for q elements with a lang attribute with a value of "no": <html> <head> <style type="text/css"> q:lang(no) { quotes: "~" "~" } </style> </head> <body> <p>Some text <q lang="no">A quote in a paragraph</q> Some text.} </style> </head> <body> <p>I am a <em>strong</em> man.5 8 2 1 7 1 .</p> <p>I am a <em>strong</em> man. I am a <em>strong</em> man. In the example below. F: Firefox. I am a <em>strong</em> man. Pseudo-class :active :focus :hover Purpose Adds special style to an activated element Adds special style to an element while the element has focus Adds special style to an element when you IE F 4 4 1 N W3C 8 1 1. N: Netscape.

Make the first letter and first line special This example demonstrates how to add a special effect to the first letter and the first line of a text. Use :before to insert some content before the content of an element (Does not work in IE) This example demonstrates how to use the :before pseudo-element to insert an image before an element. Make the first line special This example demonstrates how to add a special effect to the first line of a text. .mouse over it :link :visited :first-child :lang Adds special style to an unvisited link Adds special style to a visited link Adds special style to an element that is the first child of some other element 3 3 7 1 1 1 1 4 1 4 1 7 2 8 2 Allows the author to specify a language to use in a specified element CSS Pseudo-elements CSS pseudo-elements are used to add special effects to some selectors. Examples Make the first letter special This example demonstrates how to add a special effect to the first letter of a text. Use :after to insert some content after the content of an element (Does not work in IE) This example demonstrates how to use the :after pseudo-element to insert an image after an element.

Syntax The syntax of pseudo-elements: selector:pseudo-element {property: value} CSS classes can also be used with pseudo-elements: selector. Note: The "first-line" pseudo-element can only be used with block-level elements. Note: The following properties apply to the "first-line" pseudo-element: • • • • • • • • • • font properties color properties background properties word-spacing letter-spacing text-decoration vertical-align text-transform line-height clear . Where the browser breaks the line depends on the size of the browser window.class:pseudo-element {property: value} The :first-line Pseudo-element The "first-line" pseudo-element is used to add special styles to the first line of the text in a selector: p:first-line {color:#0000ff.font-variant:small-caps} <p>Some text that ends up on two or more lines</p> The output could be something like this: Some text that ends up on two or more lines In the example above the browser displays the first line formatted according to the "firstline" pseudo element.

Note: The "first-letter" pseudo-element can only be used with block-level elements. Note: The following properties apply to the "first-letter" pseudo..font-size:xx-large} <p>The first words of an article. Multiple Pseudo-elements Several pseudo-elements can be combined: .The :first-letter Pseudo-element The "first-letter" pseudo-element is used to add special style to the first letter of the text in a selector: p:first-letter {color:#ff0000.</p> The output could be something like this: The first words of an article....article:first-letter {color:#ff0000} <p class="article">A paragraph in an article</p> The example above will make the first letter of all paragraphs with class="article" red.element: • • • • • • • • • • • • font properties color properties background properties margin properties padding properties border properties text-decoration vertical-align (only if "float" is "none") text-transform line-height float clear Pseudo-elements and CSS Classes Pseudo-elements can be combined with CSS classes: p.

The style below will play a sound before each occurrence of an <h1> element: h1:before { content: url(beep.font-size:xx-large} p:first-line {color:#0000ff} <p>The first words of an article.wav) } CSS2 .The :after Pseudo-element The ":after" pseudo-element can be used to insert some content after the content of an element. In the example above the first letter of the paragraph will be red with a font size of 24pt...The :before Pseudo-element The ":before" pseudo-element can be used to insert some content before the content of an element..wav) } Pseudo-elements . CSS2 .</p> The output could be something like this: The first words of an article. The style below will play a sound after each occurrence of an <h1> element: h1:after { content: url(beep.. The rest of the first line would be blue while the rest of the paragraph would be the default color.p:first-letter {color:#ff0000.

text-align: center. width: auto. N: Netscape.Browser support: IE: Internet Explorer. float: left. height: auto.img { margin: 2px. border: 1px solid #0000ff. Image Gallery The following image gallery is created with CSS: Image gallery The source code looks like this: <html> <head> <style type="text/css"> div. F: Firefox.5 8 2 1. .5 8 2 CSS Image Gallery CSS can be used to create an image gallery. W3C: The number in the "W3C" column indicates in which CSS recommendation the property is defined (CSS1 or CSS2). Pseudo-element :first-letter :first-line :before :after Purpose Adds special style to the first letter of a text Adds special style to the first line of a text Inserts some content before the content of an element Inserts some content after the content of an element IE F 5 5 1 1 N W3C 8 1 8 1 1.

htm"> <img src="klematis3_small.jpg" alt="Klematis" width="110" height="90" /> </a> <div class="desc">Add a description of the image here</div> </div> <div class="img"> <a target="_blank" href="klematis2_big. width: 120px.htm"> <img src="klematis2_small. margin: 2px.jpg" alt="Klematis" width="110" height="90" /> </a> <div class="desc">Add a description of the image here</div> </div> <div class="img"> <a target="_blank" href="klematis3_big.img img { display: inline. } div.htm"> <img src="klematis4_small. border: 1px solid #ffffff. font-weight: normal. } div.jpg" alt="Klematis" width="110" height="90" /> </a> <div class="desc">Add a description of the image here</div> </div> <div class="img"> <a target="_blank" href="klematis4_big. } </style> </head> <body> <div class="img"> <a target="_blank" href="klematis_big.htm"> <img src="klematis_small.desc { text-align: center. margin: 3px.jpg" alt="Klematis" width="110" height="90" /> </a> <div class="desc">Add a description of the image here</div> </div> </body> </html> .} div.img a:hover img { border: 1px solid #0000ff.