Hardness Measurement

Methods of Measuring Hardness Brinell Hardness Test In this test a hardened steel ball is pressed into the surface of the test material using a prescribed ball. The ball and load have to be selected to suit the material being tested. The Brinell hardness test consists of indenting the test material with a 10 mm diameter hardened steel or carbide ball subjected to a load of 3000 kgf (29 430 N). For softer materials the load can be reduced to 1500 kgf (14 715 N) or 500 kgf (4 905 N ) to avoid excessive indentation. The full load is normally applied for 10 to 15 seconds for harder ferrous metals and for 30 seconds or more for other metals softer metals. The diameter of the indentation left in the test material is measured with a microscope. The Brinell hardness number is calculated by dividing the load applied by the surface area of the indentation. BHN = 2.F / (π.D .(D - √(D2-D1) D = Diameter of Ball D1 = Diameter of indentation F = applied force

Vickers Hardness Test In this test a Diamond Indenter is pressed into the surface of the material being tested. Standard loads used include 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 kgf. (49,05, 98,1 196,2 490,5 and 981 N). The load is stated in specifying the hardness number i.e HD(10) = 100. the indenter is a square based pyramid (136o included angle )to suit the material being tested The Hardness Number HD = 1.844 x Load/ Average diagonal length of indentation

Rockwell Hardness Test In this test a Hard Steel Ball or a Diamond Cone Indenter is pressed into the surface of the material being tested/ The result of the test is read directly from machine. The indenter is forced into the test material under a preliminary minor load (98N)and after equilibrium are achieved an indicating device, which follows the movements of the indenter, is set to the datum position. An additional major load is then applied with resulting increase in penetration. The conditions are then allowed to stabilise and then the additional major load is removed,leaving the minor load in place. The resulting permanent penetration esulting from the application and removal of the additional major load is used to calculate the Rockwell hardness number. HR = E - e

F1 = additional major e = permanent increase in depth of penetration due to major load , measured in units of 0.001 mm E = a constant of 100 units for diamond and ball indenters HR = Rockwell hardness number D = diameter of steel ball

Scale A

Major Load F1 E N o 100 120 Diamond cone 490.5 Indenter

Applications Sheet steel ; shallow case hardened

is applied with resulting increase in penetration .72 100 materials 30T 1/16" steel ball 264.43N) and the conditions are allowed to settle. Plastics. The permanent increase in depth of penetration. An additional major load. Plastics.72 100 materials 30N 120o Diamond cone 264.5 1/16" steel ball 1/8" steel ball 1/8" steel ball 1/4" steel ball 1/4" steel ball 1/4" steel ball 1/2" steel ball 1/2" steel ball 1/2" steel ball 1373. beryllium copper. Lead etc Soft Metals Plastics etc Soft bearing metals. which falls inside a glass tube under the force of its own weight from a fixed height. The height of the rebound travel of the hammer is measured on a graduated scale. malleable irons. Aluminium alloys. Then the indicating device that follows the movements of the indenter is set to a datum position.001 mm E = a constant of 100 units for diamond and ball indenters HR = Rockwell hardness number D = diameter of steel ball Scale Indenter Major Load (N) E Application Similar to C scale.87 100 For very soft materials 45W 1/8" steel ball 412 100 For very soft materials 15X 1/4" steel ball 117. soft materials. The harder the material. Soft bearing metals. soft materials. The shore scleroscope test does not normally mark the material under test. but for thin 15N 120o Diamond cone 117.5 882.B C D E F G H K L M P R S V 1/16" steel ball 882.72 100 For very soft materials 30X 1/4" steel ball 264. Ductile Iron (Pearlitic Cast Iron. HR = E . soft materials.9 1373.87 100 For very soft materials 45Y 1/2" steel ball 412 100 For very soft materials The Shore (Scleroscope ) Hardness Test The Scleroscope test consists of dropping a diamond tipped hammer. X.4 490. soft materials. Advantages of this method are portability and non-marking of the test surface.e e = permanent increase in depth of penetration due to major load F1.72 100 For very soft materials 30Y 1/2" steel ball 264. Plastics.87 100 For very soft materials 45X 1/4" steel ball 412 100 For very soft materials 15Y 1/2" steel ball 117. and for thin samples. The Superficial Rockwell hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond cone (N scale) or hardened steel ball indenter. which represent the average rebound from pure hardened high-carbon steel. Soft bearing metals.9 1373. Low Carbon Steel Most Widely Used -Hardened Steels. soft materials. Soft bearing metals.87 100 Same as 15T 45T 1/16" steel ball 412 100 Same as 15T 15W 1/8" steel ball 117. Plastics. measured in units of 0. Plastics.5 1373. Aluminium. The scale of the rebound is arbitrarily chosen and consists on Shore units. This technique is useful for samples with hardness gradients at the surface. onto the test specimen.5 882. Plastics.4 130 100 100 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 Copper. Plastics.87 100 Same as 15N 100 Same as 15N 45N 120o Diamond cone 412 Similar to B scale.4 490.72 100 For very soft materials 30W 1/8" steel ball 264. but for thin 15T 1/16" steel ball 117.4 120oDiamond cone 882. Superficial Rockwell Hardness Test A more surface sensitive measurement of hardness than for the regular Rockwell scales.4 490. Superficial Rockwell hardness scales are N and T for metals and W. The scale is continued higher than 100 to to allow for metals having greater hardness. soft materials. Cast irons etc Thin but hard steels. Soft thin metals Phosphor bronze. Knoop . The indenter is forced into the test material under a preliminary minor (29.9 120oDiamond cone 1373. to test small areas. divided into 100 parts. resulting from the application and removal of the additional major load is used to calculate the Rockwell Superficial hardness number. Soft bearing metals. The conditions are allowed to settle again and then the additional major load is removed.9 1/8" steel ball 882. Soft bearing metals. the higher the rebound. soft materials. Bearings alloys Annealed copper alloys . and Y for non-metallic materials and coatings. Soft bearing metals. The Shore Scleroscope measures hardness in relation to the elasticity of the material.9 1/16" steel ball 490.

Diamond is rated as the hardest and is indexed as 10. Equivalent Hardness Conversion Tables Harder Scales VPN DPH HV/10 1865 1787 1710 1633 1556 1478 1400 1323 A 92 92 91 91 90 90 89 89 ROCKWELL SCALES B 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 C 87 86 85 84 83 83 82 81 D G ROCKWELL Superficial 15N 97 96 96 96 96 95 95 95 30N 92 92 91 91 90 89 89 88 45N 87 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 BRINELL BHN BHN 500kg 3000kg SCLERO U. However. a reading of 100 results. The Shore hardness is measured with an apparatus known as a Durometer and consequently is also known as 'Durometer hardness'. Because of the resilience of rubbers and plastics. Jominy Hardenability The Jominy test involves heating a test specimen of steel 25mm diameter and 100mm long to an austenitising temperature and quenching from one end with a controlled and standardized jet of water. SCOPE MPa . abrasion.so the indentation time is sometimes reported along with the hardness number. and should not be used alone for product design specifications. talc as the softest with index number 1. The Shore A scale is used for 'softer' rubbers while the Shore D scale is used for 'harder' rubbers. and if no penetration occurs. The scale provide an empirical hardness value that doesn't relate directly to the mechanical properties of the material being tested. the hardness reading my change over time . The hardness value is determined by the penetration of the Durometer indenter foot into the sample. Shore Hardness. the hardness is measured at intervals taken form the quenched end. and vinyls. fluoropolymers. The results obtained from this test are a useful measure of relative resistance to indentation of various grades of polymers.The Knoop indenter has a polished rhombohedral shape with an included longitudinal angle of 172° 30’ and an included transverse angle of 130° 0’. using either the Shore A or Shore D scale. The test method is identified in standard ISO 868. The narrowness of the indenter makes it ideal for testing specimens with steep hardness gradients and coatings. Moh's Hardness Scale The Moh's hardness scale consists of 10 minerals arranged in order from 1 to 10. Knoop is a better choice for hardness testing of hard brittle materials. The hardness gradient along the test surface provides an indication of the material’s hardenability. Each mineral in the scale will scratch all those below it as follows: Diamond Corundum Topaz Quartz Orthoclase (Feldspar) Aptite Fluorite Calcite Gypsum Talc 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Shore (Durometer) test The hardness testing of plastics is most commonly measured by the Shore (Durometer) test. or wear. a reading of 0 is obtained. is the preferred method for rubbers/elastomers and is also commonly used for 'softer' plastics such as polyolefins. If the indenter completely penetrates the sample. This test measures the resistance of the plastic toward indentation.T.S. After quenching. the Shore Durometer hardness test does not serve well as a predictor of other properties such as strength or resistance to scratches.

SCOPE MPa Softer Scales ROCKWELL Superficial H K 15T 92 30T 80 45T 69 SCLERO U.S.1245 1160 1076 1004 940 900 865 832 800 772 746 720 697 674 653 633 613 595 577 560 544 528 513 498 484 471 458 446 434 423 412 402 392 382 372 363 354 345 336 327 318 310 302 294 286 279 272 266 260 254 248 243 238 VPN DPH HV/10 88 87 87 86 86 85 85 84 84 83 83 82 81 81 80 80 79 79 78 78 77 77 76 75 75 74 74 73 73 72 72 71 71 70 70 69 69 68 68 67 67 66 66 65 65 64 64 63 63 62 62 61 61 120 120 119 119 118 117 117 116 116 115 115 114 113 113 112 112 111 110 110 109 109 108 108 107 106 105 104 104 103 103 102 101 100 99 98 97 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 80 80 79 78 77 76 75 75 74 73 72 72 71 70 69 69 68 67 66 65 65 64 63 62 61 61 60 59 59 58 57 56 55 55 54 53 52 52 51 50 49 48 48 47 46 45 45 44 43 42 42 41 40 91 91 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 81 79 78 95 94 94 94 93 93 93 92 92 91 91 91 90 90 89 89 88 88 87 87 86 86 86 85 85 84 84 83 83 82 82 81 80 80 79 79 78 78 77 77 76 76 75 75 74 73 73 72 72 71 71 70 69 87 87 86 85 84 84 83 82 81 80 79 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 42 80 79 78 77 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 64 63 62 61 60 59 57 56 55 54 53 51 50 49 48 47 46 44 43 42 41 40 38 37 36 35 34 33 31 30 29 28 27 26 24 23 22 21 20 201 195 189 184 739 722 705 688 670 654 634 615 595 577 560 543 523 512 496 481 469 455 443 432 421 409 400 390 381 371 362 353 344 336 327 319 311 301 294 286 279 271 264 258 253 247 240 234 228 222 101 99 97 95 92 91 88 87 85 83 81 80 78 76 75 74 72 71 69 68 67 66 64 63 62 60 58 57 56 55 54 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 44 43 42 41 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 35 34 2206 2137 2069 2000 1944 1889 1834 1772 1689 1648 1607 1565 1524 1496 1462 1420 1379 1351 1317 1289 1255 1220 1193 1165 1138 1103 1076 1048 1014 993 965 945 917 889 869 855 834 814 793 772 752 ROCKWELL SCALES A B C D G ROCKWELL Superficial 15N 30N 45N BRINELL BHN BHN 500kg 3000kg SCLERO U.T.T. SCOPE MPa 738 VPN DPH A HV/10 234 60 B 97 ROCKWELL SCALES C 19 E F G 77 BRINELL BHN BHN 500kg 3000kg 181 218 34 .S.

230 226 222 217 213 208 204 200 196 192 188 184 180 176 172 168 164 160 156 152 148 144 141 139 137 135 132 130 127 125 123 120 118 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 100 99 98 97 96 95 95 94 93 92 91 90 90 89 88 88 87 87 86 86 59 59 58 58 58 57 57 56 56 56 55 54 54 53 53 52 51 51 50 50 49 49 48 47 47 46 46 45 45 44 44 43 43 42 42 42 41 41 40 40 39 39 38 38 38 37 37 36 36 35 35 35 34 34 33 33 32 32 31 31 31 30 30 29 29 28 28 28 27 96 96 95 95 94 93 92 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 100 100 99 98 98 97 96 96 95 95 94 93 93 92 91 91 90 90 89 88 88 87 87 86 85 85 84 84 83 82 82 81 80 80 79 79 78 77 77 76 76 100 99 99 98 98 97 96 96 95 95 94 94 93 92 92 91 91 90 90 89 88 88 87 87 86 86 85 85 84 83 83 82 82 81 81 80 79 79 78 78 77 77 76 75 75 76 75 74 73 73 71 70 69 68 66 64 63 61 59 58 56 54 53 51 49 48 46 44 43 41 39 38 36 35 33 31 30 28 27 25 24 22 21 19 18 16 15 13 12 10 9 7 6 4 3 100 100 99 99 99 98 100 100 100 99 98 97 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 52 51 50 49 48 92 92 92 92 91 91 91 91 90 90 90 90 89 89 89 88 88 88 87 87 87 86 86 86 85 85 85 84 84 84 83 83 83 82 82 82 81 81 81 81 80 80 80 79 79 79 78 78 78 77 77 77 76 76 76 75 75 75 74 74 74 73 73 73 72 72 72 71 71 80 80 79 79 79 78 78 77 77 76 76 75 75 74 74 73 72 72 71 70 70 69 68 68 67 66 66 65 64 64 63 62 62 61 60 60 59 58 57 57 56 55 55 54 53 53 52 51 51 50 49 49 48 47 46 46 45 44 44 43 42 42 41 40 40 39 38 38 37 68 68 67 67 66 66 65 64 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 179 177 175 171 169 167 163 162 160 157 154 151 148 145 142 140 137 135 133 130 128 126 124 122 120 118 116 114 112 110 109 107 106 104 102 101 99 98 96 95 94 92 91 90 89 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 79 78 77 76 75 74 74 73 72 71 71 70 69 68 68 214 210 208 205 203 200 195 193 190 185 180 176 172 169 165 162 159 156 153 150 147 144 141 139 137 135 132 130 127 125 123 121 119 117 116 114 112 110 108 107 106 104 102 101 99 33 33 32 31 31 30 30 29 28 27 26 26 26 25 25 25 24 24 24 731 717 703 690 683 676 662 655 641 627 607 593 579 572 558 545 538 524 517 503 .

85 85 84 84 83 83 82 82 81 81 80 80 79 79 78 78 77 77 76 76 75 75 74 74 73 73 72 72 71 71 70 VPN DPH HV/10 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 24 23 23 22 22 21 21 21 20 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 75 74 74 73 73 72 71 71 70 70 69 68 68 67 67 66 65 65 64 64 63 62 62 61 61 60 59 59 58 58 57 74 74 73 73 72 71 71 70 70 69 69 68 67 67 66 66 65 65 64 64 63 62 62 61 61 60 60 59 58 58 57 98 98 97 97 97 96 96 96 95 95 95 94 94 93 93 93 92 92 92 91 91 91 90 90 90 89 89 88 88 88 87 47 46 45 45 44 42 42 41 40 39 38 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 26 25 24 23 22 21 71 70 70 70 69 69 69 68 68 68 68 67 67 67 66 66 66 65 65 65 64 64 64 63 63 63 62 62 62 61 61 36 36 35 34 33 33 32 31 31 30 29 29 28 27 26 26 25 24 24 23 22 22 21 20 20 19 18 17 17 16 15 2 1 67 66 66 65 65 64 64 63 63 62 62 61 61 60 60 59 59 58 58 57 57 56 56 56 55 55 55 54 54 53 53 BRINELL BHN BHN 500kg 3000kg SCLERO U.S. SCOPE MPa ROCKWELL SCALES A B C E F G H K ROCKWELL Superficial 15T 30T 45T Figure comparing hardness scales .T.

. Component Hardened Track for Roller Hardened Machine slideway Surface Hardened Gear (High spc'n) Modern Rails (Used for Normal traffic) Modern Rails (High Duty) Shear Blades Carbide Dies (Drawing . Lower values are likely in more general applications.html 25/01/2010 .Table of Components showing relevant surface Hardness values Important Notes: Values below are typical of high specification components.uk/Useful_Tables/Matter/Hardness.roymech.co... Forming etc) Mild steel components Wrought iron Axe Fork/Rake Kitchen knife Stainless table knife Hammer Face Chisel File Drill Bit HSS Drill Bit Cobalt Hardness Scale 670-840 70-75 58-63 300-340 340 -420 81-85 80-92 120 102 600 700 680 550 660 600 60-61 63-65 66-67 HV HS RC HV HV RC RA HV HV HV HV HV HV HV HV RC RC RC http://www.