DOA: 13th March 2010 DOS: 11th May 2010 Submitted to: Mr.Gagandeep Singh Deptt. Of Mechanical Science Submitted by: Mr. William Anthony Rollno:RD1803B30 Regd no.:10805460 B.Tech M.Tech(Cse)


I would like to express my gratitude for the many helpful comment and suggestions .I have received over the last few days regarding the expository and critical expects of my term work and especially for those comments which bear directly or may various argument for the center thesis of term work. Most importantly I would like to thank my HOD (head of department) and my teacher Mr.Gagandeep Singh for his days of supervision. His critical commentary on my work has played a major role in both the content and presentation of our discussion and arguments. I have extend my appreciation to the several sources which provided various kinds of knowledge base support for me during this period. Last and not the least my God and my parent helped me to overcome the problem while preparing this project.



The mechanical advantage of gears was also used for ship anchor hoists and catapult pre-tensioning. . early engineers used them for hoisting heavy loads such as building materials.• HISTORY OF GEARS • INTRODUCTION TO GEARS • COMPARISION WITH OTHER DRIVE MECHANISMS • GEAR DESIGN • GEAR MANUFACTURE • TYPES OF GEARS • APPLICATION OF GEARS IN AUTOMOBILES • GEAR MODEL IN MODERN PHYSICS HISTORY OF GEARS Gears have existed since the invention of rotating machinery. Because of their force-multiplying properties.

or cogs. Two or more gears working in tandem are called a transmission and can produce a mechanical advantage through a gear ratio and thus may be considered a simple . INTRODUCTION TO GEARS A gear is a rotating machine part having cut teeth. An early gear arrangement used to power textile machinery is illustrated in the following figure. An 18th Century Application of Gears for Powering Textile Machinery The industrial revolution in Britain in the eighteenth century saw an explosion in the use of metal gearing. Gears were also used in wind and water wheel machinery for decreasing or increasing the provided rotational speed for application to pumps and other powered machines. Modern metallurgy has greatly increased the useful life of industrial and automotive gears. the most significant new gear developments are in the area of materials. and consumer electronics has driven plastic gearing to new levels of lubricant-free reliability and quiet operation. Today. A science of gear design and manufacture rapidly developed through the nineteenth century. The rotational speed of a water or horse drawn wheel was typically too slow to use. so a set of wooden gears needed to be used to increase the speed to a usable level.Early gears were made from wood with cylindrical pegs for cogs and were often lubricated with animal fat grease. which mesh with another toothed part in order to transmit torque.

however a gear can also mesh a non-rotating toothed part. In transmissions which offer multiple gear ratios. A gear is a rotating machine part having cut teeth. as in a continuously variable transmission. Geared devices can change the speed. such as bicycles and cars. or when the device does not actually contain any gears. as in a continuously variable transmission. When two gears of unequal number of teeth are combined a mechanical advantage is produced. The most common situation is for a gear to mesh with another gear. however a gear can also mesh a non-rotating toothed part. An advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent slipping. as in first gear. called a rack. The gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in a pulley. In cases where driver and follower are in close proximity gears also .machine. the term gear. or when the device does not actually contain any gears. with both the rotational speeds and the torques of the two gears differing in a simple relationship. magnitude. and direction of a power source. Two or more gears working in tandem are called a transmission and can produce a mechanical advantage through a gear ratio and thus may be considered a simple machine. The gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in a pulley. The earliest known reference to gears was circa 50 A. the term gear. The term is used to describe similar devices even when gear ratio is continuous rather than discrete. thereby producing translation instead of rotation. which mesh with another toothed part in order to transmit torque. as in first gear. In transmissions which offer multiple gear ratios. refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear. The most common situation is for a gear to mesh with another gear. refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear. thereby producing translation instead of rotation. by Hero of Alexandria. When two gears of unequal number of teeth are combined a mechanical advantage is produced. with both the rotational speeds and the torques of the two gears differing in a simple relationship. The term is used to describe similar devices even when gear ratio is continuous rather than discrete. but they can be traced back to the Greek mechanics of the Alexandrian school in the 3rd century BC and were greatly developed by the Greek polymath Archimedes (287-212 BC). magnitude. An advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent slipping. COMPARISON WITH OTHER DRIVE MECHANISMS The definite velocity ratio which results from having teeth gives gears an advantage over other drives (such as traction drives and V-belts) in precision machines such as watches that depend upon an exact velocity ratio. Geared devices can change the speed. or cogs. such as bicycles and cars. and direction of a power source. called a rack.D.

Gears were first used in various construction jobs. The automobile transmission allows selection between gears to give various mechanical advantages. Gears are the most common means of transmitting power in mechanical engineering. GEAR MANUFACTURE . water raising devices and for weapons like catapults. Gears are used in almost all mechanical devices and they do several important jobs. This is vital to ensure that even though there is enough power there is also enough torque(is a movement of force). the downside is that gears are more expensive to manufacture and their lubrication requirements may impose a higher operating cost.have an advantage over other drives in the reduced number of parts required. but most important. Nowadays gears are used on a daily basis and can be found in most people’s everyday life from clocks to cars rolling mills to marine engines. GEAR DESIGN Gears have been around for hundreds of years and are as old as almost any machinery ever invented by mankind. they provide a gear reduction.

Steel is used when there is a need for a high strength design. excellent machineability and the ease that complicated shapes can be created due to the casting method. The non metallic. These types of materials are generally used when there is a need for the reduction in noise from the gears TYPES OF GEARS . steel and bronze. rawhide. materials used are generally wood. But cast iron is mainly used because of its good wearing properties. conditions like wear and noise etc. The Metallic materials used in gear manufacture are normally available in cast iron. Gear manufacturers use metallic or non-metallic materials. compressed paper and synthetic resins like nylon.The materials that are used for gear manufacturing depend massively on the conditions that the gears will be operating under.Castings are created by pouring molten metal into a mould and once the metal as cooled it takes the shape of the mould.

Conversely. Internal gears do not cause direction reversal. • Helical . They consist of a cylinder or disk. These gears can be meshed together correctly only if they are fitted to parallel axles. and with the teeth projecting radially. and although they are not straight-sided in form. internal gears Internal gear An external gear is one with the teeth formed on the outer surface of a cylinder or cone. an internal gear is one with the teeth formed on the inner surface of a cylinder or cone. • Spur Spur gear Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear. For bevel gears. an internal gear is one with the pitch angle exceeding 90 degrees. the edge of each tooth thus is straight and aligned parallel to the axis of rotation.• External vs.

The speed is considered to be high when the pitch line velocity exceeds 25 m/s. Helical gears can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations. and a greater degree of sliding friction between the meshing teeth. but are set at an angle. each pair of teeth first make contact at a single point at one side of the gear wheel. Since the gear is curved. the use of helical gears is indicated when the application involves high speeds.Helical gears Top: parallel configuration Bottom: crossed configuration Helical gears offer a refinement over spur gears. Whereas spur gears are used for low speed applications and those situations where noise control is not a problem. The angled teeth engage more gradually than do spur gear teeth causing them to run more smoothly and quietly. which needs to be accommodated by appropriate thrust bearings. With parallel helical gears. • Double helical Double helical gears . large power transmission.[5] A disadvantage of helical gears is a resultant thrust along the axis of the gear. Spur gears make a characteristic whine at high speeds and can not take as much torque as helical gears. often addressed with additives in the lubricant. the shafts are non-parallel. this is the most common orientation. a moving curve of contact then grows gradually across the tooth face to a maximum then recedes until the teeth break contact at a single point on the opposite side. or where noise abatement is important. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation. this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. In spur gears teeth suddenly meet at a line contact across their entire width causing stress and noise. In the latter. The former refers to when the shafts are parallel to each other.

Spiral bevel gears have teeth that are both curved along their (the tooth's) length. Spiral bevel gears have the same advantages and disadvantages relative to their straight-cut cousins as helical gears do to spur gears. or they may be cut in a variety of other shapes.m. • Bevel A bevel gear is shaped like a right circular cone with most of its tip cut off. The pitch surfaces appear conical but. relative to the angling of the teeth. overcome the problem of axial thrust presented by "single" helical gears by having two sets of teeth that are set in a V shape. forming an arbitrary non-straight angle between the shafts. Straight bevel gears are generally used only at speeds below 5 m/s (1000 ft/min). The angle between the shafts can be anything except zero or 180 degrees. 1000 r. are in fact hyperboloids of revolution. When two bevel gears mesh their imaginary vertexes must occupy the same point. This cancels out the thrust since each half of the gear thrusts in the opposite direction. Double helical gears are more difficult to manufacture due to their more complicated shape. contact . Bevel gears with equal numbers of teeth and shaft axes at 90 degrees are called miter gears. to compensate for the offset shaft. analogously to the way helical gear teeth are set at an angle compared to spur gear teeth. • Hypoid Hypoid gear Hypoid gears resemble spiral bevel gears except the shaft axes do not intersect. Their shaft axes also intersect at this point. Zerol bevel gears have teeth which are curved along their length. and set at an angle. for small gears. Hypoid gears are almost always designed to operate with shafts at 90 degrees.Double helical gears. but not angled. or. Each gear in a double helical gear can be thought of as two standard mirror image helical gears stacked. The teeth of a bevel gear may be straight-cut as with spur gears. or herringbone gears.p. Depending on which side the shaft is offset to.

Also. Worm Worm gear Worm gears resemble screws. A crown gear is also sometimes meshed with an escapement such as found in mechanical clocks. but its helix angle is usually somewhat large (close to 90 degrees) and its body is usually fairly long in the axial direction. and it is these . the pinion can be designed with fewer teeth than a spiral bevel pinion. Worm gears can be considered a species of helical gear. A crown gear can only mesh accurately with another bevel gear. A worm gear is usually meshed with an ordinary looking. wheel.between hypoid gear teeth may be even smoother and more gradual than with spiral bevel gear teeth. This style of gear is most commonly found in mechanical differentials. • Crown Crown gears or contrate gears are a particular form of bevel gear whose teeth project at right angles to the plane of the wheel. which is called the gear. although crown gears are sometimes seen meshing with spur gears. diskshaped gear. with the result that gear ratios of 60:1 and higher are feasible using a single set of hypoid gears. in their orientation the teeth resemble the points on a crown. or worm wheel.

The helix angle of a worm is not usually specified. to have more than one tooth. which can be used to advantage. a worm with more than one tooth is called multiple thread or multiple start. The distinction between a worm and a helical gear is made when at least one tooth persists for a full rotation around the helix. However. if not. The usual screw nomenclature applies: a one-toothed worm is called single thread or single start. If that tooth persists for several turns around the helix. which is equal to 90 degrees minus the helix angle. the lead angle. it may or may not succeed. the worm can always drive the gear. Common applications include textile machines. it is a 'helical gear'. but what one in fact sees is the same tooth reappearing at intervals along the length of the worm. as for instance when it is desired to set the position of a mechanism by turning the worm and then have the mechanism hold that position. is given. superficially. Particularly if the lead angle is small. A worm may have as few as one tooth. the worm will appear. a non-circular gear's main objective might be ratio variations. While a regular gear is optimized to transmit torque to another engaged member with minimum noise and wear and maximum efficiency. Instead. the gear's teeth may simply lock against the worm's teeth. In a worm-and-gear set.attributes which give it its screw like qualities. it is a 'worm'. An example is the machine head found on some types of stringed instruments. • Rack and pinion . If this occurs. if the gear attempts to drive the worm. because the force component circumferential to the worm is not sufficient to overcome friction. Worm-and-gear sets that do lock are called self locking. potentiometers and continuously variable transmissions. axle displacement oscillations and more. • Non-circular Non-circular gears Non-circular gears are designed for special purposes.

Rack and pinion gearing A rack is a toothed bar or rod that can be thought of as a sector gear with an infinitely large radius of curvature. the tooth shape of an interchangeable set of gears may be specified for the rack (infinite radius). where. • Epicyclic In epicyclic gearing one or more of the gear axes moves. for instance. Racks also feature in the theory of gear geometry. the rack moves in a straight line. Torque can be converted to linear force by meshing a rack with a pinion: the pinion turns. Examples are sun and planet gearing (see below) and mechanical differentials. Such a mechanism is used in automobiles to convert the rotation of the steering wheel into the left-to-right motion of the tie rod(s). The rack and pinion gear type is employed in a rack railway. Sun and planet . and the tooth shapes for gears of particular actual radii then derived from that.

the reciprocating crank is blue. the flywheel is green and the driveshaft is grey. the planet red. • Harmonic drive A harmonic drive is a specialized proprietary gearing mechanism. . It played an important role in the Industrial Revolution. The Sun is yellow.Sun and planet gearing was a method of converting reciprocal motion into rotary motion in steam engines.

For rotating equipments in the cement industry power transmission is essential and that is provided by various open gear drives.Coal plants also most commonly use girth gears in their mining equipments. These girth gears have high strength and highly durable that they can be used in any operating environment. Gears are also used in compressors. Sprockets. trolleys and diesel locomotives that are used for coal mining. Lots of industries use gears for transmitting power or rotational force from one component to another. etc. axle for forming tunnels for locomotives. gear pumps for medical dosing applications. Heavy gearboxes are also being used in heavy machineries. Use of micro gears is really advantageous as they provide zero backlash. Medical industry uses gears in a huge way. and also in medical diagnostic machine. Other types of gears which are used in cement industries are reduction gears. There are two basic gearing principles which are: .Craggy reliable gearing . pinions. patient beds. Undoubtedly the demand for gears in industries is estimated at a whopping 125 billion dollars worldwide. long . Gears have varied application starting from textile looms to aviation industries. pinion shafts and helical gears.Worm gearing These are used in many mining machines such special cutting machines. Micro assembly uses micro gears which enable us to have miniature components built with a very compact size. cages. There are gears weighing from 15grams to 15 tons.APPLICATIONS OF GEARS IN AUTOMOBILES Gears are now used for a wide range of industrial applications.Cement plants use girth gears for crushing raw materials. They are being used in the surgical tables.

Within the world of gears. This system works by converting rotational motion originating from the steering wheel into the linear motion that eventually turns the wheels. our cars would be very loud and "jerky" in regard to the transmission of power. The list of gear applications for automobiles goes on and on. Instrumentation gears are used in creating medical automation and other light duty instruments. Wind turbines also uses gears to increase the speed of the shaft as there wouldn't be enough force to turn the shaft with more number of revolutions per minute that can drive the generator. They are used in cars. different varieties of specialized gear drives have been developed. Ring and pinion. higher efficiency and excellent repeatability. which is necessary to transfer power to the axle shafts that are connected to the rear wheels. For bringing about railway safety and railway signaling. Re-circulating ball steering uses a more complex system that involves a worm gear and ball bearings to help turn the wheels. Buchli-drive. "re-circulating ball" was the most commonly used steering technology. worm gears. spiral and bevel gears to extract the ores from the earth's surface. Without hypoid gears. They are produced with high accuracy gear cutting equipment. bevel gears and spur gears are commonly used in steel industries. Hypoid teeth are curved and allow for a gradual "meshing" of the gears that makes for much smoother and quieter operation than bevel gears with straight teeth. The use of rack & pinion gear technology has helped to greatly improve the steering performance in our cars and trucks. Sometimes simpler is better.operating life. lifters. hydraulic gears are some of the gears which are used in automotive industry which are used to control the speed. bikes. Quill Motor Drive are some such drives developed. travel wouldn’t be nearly the same as it is today. Before rack & pinion steering systems. yet better rack & pinion steering system improves control and is more responsive throughout the entire steering range. The simpler. One common automotive application is the ring and pinion gear differential within rear-wheeldrive cars and trucks. hypoid. Gears are widely used in Railway industry in different applications. including things ranging from your car’s transmission. A special type of bevel gear used for this application has hypoid teeth instead of straight teeth. Gears are used in mill heads which are used to produce pulp from a coarse substance. A bevel gear is used because it reassigns the power from the driveshaft 90 degrees. trucks and even geared cycles. Planetary gearboxes. Gears are used for loaders. the ring and pinion gears are a type of bevel gear. withstand extreme environmental conditions. excavators and all such machines that are used for construction. Without gears. Gears play a major role in automotive industry. especially at center. spiral. to its timing gears within the engine. Mining industry uses gears like helical. reduction gearboxes and pinion gearboxes. buses. Apart from there gears are have also shown their mark in the steel industries and construction machinery. .

It should be apparent that turning one wheel results in the opposite wheel turning in the opposite direction at the same rate. Automobile Differential Alone This is how the automobile differential works. the differential gears do not rotate with respect to their axes. both wheels turn at the same angular velocity. such as when it is in snow or mud. however. It only comes into play when one wheel needs to rotate differentially with respect to its counterpart.Automobile Differential Complete Schematic Without the "square" set of four gears in the middle of the above diagram which yields to the figure below. When the car is moving in a straight line. as illustrated in the following figure. One problem with an automotive differential is that if one wheel is held stationary. the counterpart wheel turns at twice its normal speed as can be seen by examining the complete scheme of automobile differential. Automobile Wheel Drive without Differential Now imagine the differential "square" alone. This can be problematic when one wheel does not have enough traction. When the car negotiates a turn. the differential allows the two wheels to rotate differentially with respect to each other. This leads to problems when the car negotiates a turn. The wheel without traction will spin without .

this is not a problem. Fortunately. but often misunderstood by the lay public. Some way of ensuring that the outer wheel is able to turn slightly faster than the inner wheel must be ensured in order to prevent binding and slippage of the tires on the road. This is the reason for a device known as a "limited slip differential" or "traction control". Driven wheels connected to the engine via the driveshaft. The outer arc so is obviously larger than the inner arc si for a given traversed angle theta. For non-driven wheels which simply rotate freely independently of other machinery. we assume that the axis of the wheel axle for the driven (rear) wheels passes through the turn circle center. Differential gear train on a turning car The gear train in an automobile differential is a common application of gears.) The outer wheel traverses an arc with radius ro and the inner wheel traverses an arc with radius ri. the lengths of the arcs traversed are so. the automobile differential solves this problem with only one transmission and one drive shaft for both driven wheels. As illustrated. This is a difficult problem since for every turning circle the differential rotation of the left and right wheels is different. (For this discussion.providing traction and the opposite wheel will stay still so that the car does not move. sn. . and si. however. The car is turning about a circle with nominal radius rn. Here we present a simplified explanation of how and why an automobile differential works. must both be turned by gearing and this gear train must allow for differential movement of the left wheel with respect to the right wheel. This is typically true only for a fairly large radius of turn.

In nineteenth century James Clerk Maxwell developed a model of electromagnetism in which magnetic field lines were rotating tubes of incompressible fluid.Gear model in modern physics Modern physics adopted the gear model in different ways. A new consideration of gear in quantum physics is regarded as a quantum gears. . Maxwell used gear wheel and called it “idle wheel” to explain the electrical current as a rotation of particles in opposite direction to that of the rotating field lines. A group of gears can serve as a model for several different systems such as an artificially constructed nanomechanical device or a group of ring molecules.

com/automotive-articles/applications-of-gears2028719.cfm • • Wikipedia.html www.efunda.articlesbase.BIBLIOGRAPHY • www.com/designstandards/gears/gears_auto_diff. the free encyclopedia .