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Department Of Mechanical Engineering College Of Engineering, Thiruvananthapuram-16. November, 2008
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, TRIVANDRUM-16.
CERTIFICATE Certified that this report entitled Performance evaluation of a vegetable oil fuelled compression ignition engine is the paper presented by Derrick Vijayan 27206 on 06-10-2008 in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of technology in Mechanical Engineering of the University of Kerala.
Unnikrishnan.M Lecturer. A.Naseema Beevi Sr.Lecturer, Dr.B.Anil Head Dept of Mechanical Engineering
I would like to express my sincere gratitude and heartful indebtedness to my seminar staff members Asst.professor. T.M Mohan, Sr.Lr. A. Naseema Beevi and Lr. Unnikrishnan,M, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Trivandrum for their valuable guidance and encouragement in pursuing this seminar.
I am also thankful to Dr.B.Anil, Head of mechanical department, Prof..P.Vincent, senior staff advisor, Mechanical department and Mr .M.R.Rajkumar, staff advisor for their kind cooperation.
Finally, I would like to thank my Mummy who had a hard time waking me up whenever I sleep without any regard to the deadline of this work. Special thanks to all my friends, without whose endless support I could never have completed this work.
Fuel crisis because of dramatic increase in vehicular population and environmental concerns have renewed interest of scientific community to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oils can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops, and oil bearing biomass materials. Non-edible vegetable oils such as linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil, etc. are potentially effective diesel substitute. Vegetable oils have high-energy content. This study was carried out to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil and linseed oil methyl ester (LOME), in a stationary single cylinder, four stroke diesel engine and compare it with mineral diesel. The linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil and LOME were blended with diesel in different proportions. Baseline data for diesel fuel was collected. Engine tests were performed using all these blends of linseed, mahua, rice bran, and LOME. Straight vegetable oils posed operational and durability problems when subjected to longterm usage in CI engine. These problems are attributed to high viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character of vegetable oils. However, these problems were not observed for LOME blends. Hence, process of trans-esterification is found to be an effective method of reducing vegetable oil viscosity and eliminating operational and durability problems. Economic analysis was also done in this study and it is found that use of vegetable oil and its derivative as diesel fuel substitutes has almost similar cost as that of mineral diesel.
CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Vegetable oils in India 3. Treatment of vegetable oils 4. Economic analysis 5. Experimental setup 6. Results and discussion 7. Conclusion 8. References
Energy demand is increasing due to ever increasing number of vehicles employing internal combustion engines. Also, world is presently confronted with the twin crisis of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. Fossil fuels are limited resources; hence, search for renewable fuels is becoming more and more prominent for ensuring energy security and environmental protection. For the developing countries of the world, fuels of bio-origin can provide a feasible solution to the crisis. When Rudolf Diesel invented the diesel engine more than a century ago; he demonstrated the principle of compression ignition engine by employing peanut oil as fuel and suggested that vegetable oils would be the future fuel for diesel engines. However, petroleum was discovered later, which replaced vegetable oils as engine fuel due to its abundant supply. Thus, it is highly desired in present context to direct the research towards renewable fuels of bio-origin, which are environment friendly, provide improved performance, while being used as diesel substitute and must not be harmful to human health.
2. VEGETABLE OILS IN INDIA
India is producing a host of non-edible oils such as linseed, castor, mahua, rice bran, karanji (Pongamia glabra), neem (Azadirachta indica), palash (Butea monosperma), kusum (Schlelchera trijuga), etc. Some of these oils produced even now are not being properly utilized, and it has been estimated that some other plant-based and forestderived oils have a much higher production potential . Vegetable oils have comparable heat content, cetane number, heat of vaporization, and stoichiometric air/fuel ratio with mineral diesel. Heat values decrease with increasing un- saturation as a result of fewer hydrogen atoms in their molecular structure.
2.1 STRUCTURE OF VEGETABLE OIL
The structure of typical vegetable oil molecule is given below: O ║ CH2 –O--C—R1 │ O │ ║ CH -O—C—R2 │ O │ ║ CH2-O—C—R3 Here R1, R2 and R3 represent straight chain alkyl groups. Free fatty acids are also found in vegetable oils. The large molecular sizes of the triglycerides results in the oils having higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel. Proportion and location of double bonds affects cetane number of vegetable oils .
2.2 PROBLEMS OF VEGETABLE OILS
Problems associated with vegetable oils during engine tests can be classified into two broad groups, namely, operational and durability problems. Operational problems are related to starting ability, ignition, combustion and performance. Durability problems are related to deposit formation, carbonization of injector tip ring sticking and lubricating oil dilution. It has been observed that the straight vegetable oils when used for long hours tend to choke the fuel filter because of high viscosity and insoluble present in the straight vegetable oils. The high viscosity, polyunsaturated character, and extremely low volatility of vegetable oils are responsible for the operational and durability problems associated with its utilization as fuels in diesel engines. High viscosity of vegetable oils causes poor fuel atomization, large droplet size and thus high spray jet penetration. The jet tends to be a solid stream instead of a spray of small droplets. As a result, the fuel is not distributed or mixed with the air required for burning in the combustion chamber. This results in poor combustion accompanied by loss of power and economy.
3. TREATMENT OF VEGETABLE OILS
Blending, cracking/pyrolysis, emulsification or transesterification of vegetable oils may overcome these problems. Heating and blending of vegetable oils reduce the viscosity and improve volatility of vegetable oils but its molecular structure remains unchanged
hence polyunsaturated character remains. Blending of vegetable oils with diesel, however, reduces the viscosity drastically (depending on level of blending) and the fuelhandling system of engine can handle the vegetable oil-diesel blends without any problems. On the basis of experimental investigations, it is found that converting vegetable oils into simple esters is an effective way to overcome all the problems associated with the vegetable oils. Most of the conventional production methods for biodiesel use basic or acidic catalyst. A reaction time of 45 min to 1 h and reaction temperature of55–65 C are required for completion of reaction and formation of respective esters 1–10.Biodiesel consists of alkyl ester of fatty acids produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils. The use of biodiesel in diesel engines requires no hardware modifications. In addition, biodiesel is a superior fuel than diesel because of lower sulfur content, higher .ash point and lower aromatic content. Biodiesel fuelled engine emits fewer pollutants. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or as a blend with diesel. It can also be used as a diesel fuel additive to improve its properties. Even a low percent blend, such as 2% biodiesel will provide sufficient lubricity for low sulfur diesel 11. Saka and Kusdiana 2 prepared biodiesel using rapeseed oil and supercritical methanol to investigate the possibility of converting the triglycerides of the rapeseed oil to rapeseed oil methyl esters (ROME). Murayama et al. 3 evaluated waste vegetable oils as a feedstock for biodiesel production. This research was focused on the engine performance and emission characteristics of esterified vegetable oil, when used in a diesel engine. When blends of biodiesel and diesel are used in diesel engines, a significant reduction in hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter (PM) are observed but NOx emissions are found to have increased. In general, engine performance and power remains unchanged 1,4–7,12. Akasaka et al. 4 found that under partial load conditions, soybean methyl ester (SME) addition increases PM emissions. Observed significant improvement in engine performance and emission characteristics for the biodieselfuelled engine compared to diesel- fuelled engine. Thermal efficiency of the engine improved, brake specific energy consumption reduced and a considerable reduction in the exhaust smoke opacity was observed. Prasad et al. 13used non-edible oils such as Pongamia and Jatrophaoils in low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine. Esterification, preheating and increase in injection pressure have been tried
for utilization of vegetable oils in diesel engines. The emission of smoke and NOx has been found to increase.
Undoubtedly, transesterification is well-accepted and best method of utilizing vegetable oils in CI engine without any long-term operational and durability problems. However, this adds to the cost of production because of the chemical process involved. In rural and remote areas of developing countries, where grid power is not available, vegetable oils can play a vital role in decentralized power generation for irrigation and electrification purposes. In these remote areas, different types of vegetable oils are available locally but it may not be possible to chemically process them due to logistics problems. Hence, using blended vegetable oils is an attractive alternative. Keeping these facts in mind, a set of engine experiments were conducted using different typical oils available in rural areas on a type of engine, which is very frequently used for agricultural, irrigation and electricity generation purposes. The engine performance is also compared with the transesterified fuel.
The formation of methyl esters by Transesterification of vegetable oils requires 3 moles of alcohol stoichiometrically. However, transesterification is an equilibrium reaction in which excess alcohol is required to drive the reaction close to completion. The vegetable oil was chemically reacted with an alcohol in presence of a catalyst to produce vegetable oil esters. Glycerol was produced as a by-product of transesterification reaction. The chemical reaction of the transesterification process is shown below: O ║ CH2 —O—C—R1 │ O │ ║ CH—O—C—R2 + 3 R4OH │ O │ ║ CH2—O—C—R3 Triglyceride + Alcohol O ║ R4–O—C—R1
CH2 — OH │ │ CH — OH + │ │ CH2—OH Glycerol
R4–O—C—R2 ║ O R4–O—C—R3 ║ O + Esters
The mixture was stirred continuously and then allowed to settle under gravity in a separating funnel. Two distinct layers form after gravity settling for 24 h. The upper layer was of ester and lower layer was of glycerol. The lower layer was separated out. The separated ester was mixed with some warm water (around 10% volume of ester) to remove the catalyst present in ester and allowed to settle under gravity for another 24 h. The catalyst gets dissolved in water, which was separated. Moisture was removed from this purified ester using silica gel crystals. The ester was then blended with mineral diesel in various concentrations for preparing biodiesel blends to be used in CI engine for conducting various engine tests. The process of transesterification brings about a drastic change in the density of linseed oil and the linseed oil methyl ester (LOME) has almost similar density as that of mineral diesel.
4. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
The cost of making biodiesel from linseed oil is shown in Table 1. However cost of different vegetable oils keeps Fluctuating since the markets are small. The costs of different fuels assumed in this study are given in Table 2. For diesel, cost was taken as the 2007 fuel price in India. The cost of vegetable oils is slightly higher than diesel because of the fragmented nature of vegetable oil market. There are several middle-men involved which increase the cost of vegetable oils. The cost of diesel is relatively lower because of the cross-subsidy offered by administered price mechanism of the government. If same subsidy is given to vegetable oils to be used as substitute fuel then it can be seen from Table 2 that its cost comes near to that of mineral diesel. Table 2 also shows that cost of vegetable oils per kilogram is lower than diesel but calorific value of vegetable oil is also lower than diesel hence cost per unit of energy produced is almost same for the vegetable oils and diesel. Therefore, use of vegetable oil or biodiesel in diesel engine costs almost same as mineral diesel. If the vegetable oil crop cultivation program is implemented under a cooperative structure, the use of vegetable oils to partially substitute mineral diesel will also make economic sense. Various researchers have also shown that use of vegetable oils and their derivatives is economical and comparable to mineral diesel.
Table1. Cost of biodiesel produced from linseed oil Biodiesel from linseed oil Cost (Rs/l) Linseed oil (98% yield of 38.75 Methanol 4.05 Reagents 0.85 Electricity 0.20 Purification 0.35 Labor 1.20 Sub 45.4 Revenue from by-product (glycerol) 4.35 Total (cost less revenue) 41.05 Cost in USD/l 0.933 Table.2 Cost if different CI engine oils Diesel Linseed oil bran oil LOME Cost (USD/l) 0.787 0.866 0.844 0.933 Cost after subsidy(USD/l) 0.787 0.735 0.713 0.802 Density (kg/l) 0.842 0.8945 0.9040 Cost (USD/kg) 0.935 0.822 0.789 Calorific value (MJ/kg) 45.343 39.75 38.863 Cost (USD/MJ) 0.0206 0.0207 0.0203 Mahua oil 0.977 0.846 0.9163 0.923 39.5 0.0234
0.874 0.918 40.37 0.0227
Table.3 Fuel properties Specific Calorific Carbon Ash Pour Flash Water Kinematic Gravity Value Residue Content Point Point Content Viscosity MJkg % % ▫C ▫C % cst at40▫C Mahua oil 0.9040 38.863 0.4215 0.021 15 238 Trace 37.18 Linseed oil 0.8645 39.75 0.4222 0.034 -5 108 Trace 16.23 Rice bran 0.9163 39.5 – – – – Trace 44.52 Diesel 0.842 45.343 0.0337 0.006 <_5 47 Trace 2.44
Table.4 Engine specifications Manufacturer Engine type Bore/stroke(mm) Displacement volume Rated speed (rpm) Rated power (kW) Nozzle pressure (bar) Inlet valve opens/inlet valve closes Exhaust valve opens/exhaust valve
Kirloskar, India Single cylinder, four stroke, water cooled, diesel engine 87.5/110 0.662 1500 4 200 4.51 BTDC/35.51 ABDC 35.51 BBDC/4.51 ATDC
5. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
The present study was carried out to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil and LOME in a stationary single cylinder four-stroke diesel engine and compare it with baseline data of diesel fuel. Specific gravity of different fuels was measured using a precision hydrometer. Kinematic viscosity was measured using kinematic viscometer (Setavis, UK). Calorific value and .ash point were measured using bomb calorimeter and pensky marten’sclosed cup .ash point apparatus respectively. Karl fischer titrator was used to measure water content. Carbon residue was measured using Conradson carbon residue tester. To measure ash content, 10 g sample of fuel was taken in a crucible and heated at 600 1C for 2 h. Ash formed after heating and combustion was weighed to determine ash content of the fuel. Cloud and pour point apparatus was used to measure pour point of different fuels. Fuel properties of these oils and diesel are compared in Table 3. The linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil and LOME were blended with diesel in different proportions. Considering the specific features of diesel engine, a typical engine that is widely used in agricultural sector, was selected for present investigation. Technicalspecifications of the engine are given in Table 4. The engine was coupled to an electrical generator (Fig. 1). The major pollutants in the exhaust of a diesel engine are smoke and oxides of nitrogen. AVL 437 smoke meter was used to measure the smoke density of the exhaust from diesel engine. It works on the light extinction principle. Light from a source is passed through a standard tube containing the exhaust gas sample from the engine. A photovoltaic device measures intensity of transmitted light at its other end. The engine was operated on diesel first and then on vegetable oils and LOME blends. The different fuel blends and mineral diesel were subjected to performance and emission
tests on the engine. The performance data were then analyzed from the graphs recording thermal efficiency, brake-specific energy consumption, and smoke density for all fuels. The optimum condition was found out from the graphs based on maximum thermal efficiency and smoke density considerations. The brake-specific fuel consumption is not a very reliable parameter to compare different fuels, as the calorific values and the densities are different. Hence, brake-specific energy consumption (BSEC) is a more reliable parameter for comparison. Based on thermal efficiency, BSEC, and smoke density, all the curves were compared to base-line diesel curve in order to optimize blend concentration.
Fig.1 Experimental setup
6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Different blends of linseed oil (10, 20, 30, and 50%, v/v), mahua oil (10, 20, and 30%, v/v), rice bran oil (10, 20, and 30%, v/v) and LOME (10, 20, 30, 50, and 100%, v/v) with mineral diesel were prepared. Engine experiments were conducted at a constant speed of 1500 rpm at different loads.
6.1 PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS FOR LINSEED OIL
All linseed oil blends showed almost similar thermal efficiency at lower loads (as shown in Fig. 2). Fifty percent linseed oil blend is found more efficient than other blends with maximum thermal efficiency. BSEC is also almost similar for all blends (as shown in Fig.
3). BSEC is also found lowest for 50% linseed oil blend. However, in Fig. 4, smoke density is higher for 50% blend compared to all other linseed oil blends
Fig.2 Thermal efficiency of diesel and different blends of Linseed oil
Fig.3 BSEC of diesel and different blends of Linseed oil
Fig.4 Smoke content of diesel and different blends of Linseed oil
6.2PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS FOR MAHUA OIL BLENDS
Fig.5 shows that all blends have almost similar thermal efficiency. Compared to all blends, 30% mahua oil blend is found to be most thermally efficient. Fig. 6 shows that 30% mahua oil blend shows marginally better BSEC than other blends. However, it can be observed that BSEC is better at lower loads and it isnear to BSEC for diesel at higher
loads. Fig. 7 shows that smoke density is higher for mahua blends compared to diesel at lower loads. Smoke density increased with proportion of mahua oil in diesel.
Fig.5 Thermal efficiency of diesel and different blends of mahua oil
Fig.6 BSEC of diesel and different blends of mahua oil
Fig.7 Smoke content of diesel and different blends of Mahua oil
6.3PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS FOR RICE BRAN OIL BLENDS
The characteristics curves for rice bran oil blends are shown in Figs. 8–10. Fig. 8 shows almost similar thermal efficiency for all rice bran oil blends. Similarly, in Fig. 9, 20% rice bran oil blend showed minimum BSEC than other blends. In Fig. 10, 20% rice bran
oil showed an improved performance as far as smoke density is concerned. Smoke density first decreases with addition of rice bran oil in diesel and then increases with further addition of rice bran oil in diesel.
Fig.8 Thermal efficiency of diesel and different blends of mahua oil
Fig.9 BSEC of diesel and different blends of mahua oil
Fig.10Smoke content of diesel and different blends of Mahua oil
6.4PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS FOR LOME BLENDS
The trend of the thermal efficiency curve (Fig. 11) generally improved by mixing biodiesel in mineral diesel. The thermal efficiency of the engine is found to improve by increasing concentration of biodiesel in the blend. Twenty percent biodiesel blend showed maximum thermal efficiency. However, thermal efficiency decreased with further addition of biodiesel to mineral diesel. An important observation is that all biodiesel blends have thermal efficiency higher than mineral diesel. The possible reason for improved thermal efficiency may be more complete combustion, and additional lubricity of biodiesel 18. The molecule of biodiesel has some oxygen that takes part in combustion and results in complete combustion. In Fig. 12, BSEC also shows similar trends. It decreased with increasing concentration of biodiesel in mineral diesel. BSEC is found minimum for 20% biodiesel acknowledge blend. However, BSFC is slightly higher for biodiesel blends than mineral diesel. The reason for higher BSFC is lower calorific value of biodiesel compared to mineral diesel. It can be observed in Fig. 13 that smoke density for biodiesel blends is generally lower than that of diesel. Twenty percent LOME showed improved smoke emission performance than other blends. However, at lower loads, 100% LOME showed slightly higher smoke density than other blends. At higher loads, all blends of LOME showed better emission performance than that of diesel. The reason for lower smoke density for biodiesel blend may be better and complete combustion of fuel due to oxygen atom present in the molecule of biodiesel itself.
Fig.11 Thermal efficiency of diesel and different blends of LOME
Fig.12 BSEC of diesel and different blends of LOME
Fig.13 Smoke content of diesel and different blends of LOME
The prospects for large-scale vegetable oil- based fuel production are very attractive for developing countries like India. In the present investigation, a host of blends of different vegetable oils, ester with mineral diesel oil were prepared and tested on a single-cylinder constant speed diesel engine for its performance and emission. The performance and emission parameter for different fuel blends were found to be very close to diesel. Smoke density and BSFC were slightly higher for vegetable oil blends compared to diesel. However, BSEC for all oil blends was found to be lower than diesel. Vegetable oil blends showed performance characteristics close to diesel. Therefore, vegetable oil blends can be used in compression ignition engines in rural areas for agriculture, irrigation and electricity generation. Economic analysis was also conducted to find out cost of biodiesel after transesterification .Comparative study of cost for different vegetable oils, biodiesel and mineral diesel shows that cost per unit energy produced is almost similar for all fuels. Modified maintenance schedule may be adopted to control carbon deposits formed during long-term usage of vegetable oil blends. Esterification is a process, which changes molecular structure of the vegetable oil molecules thus reduces viscosity and
unsaturation. A diesel engine can perform satisfactorily on biodiesel blends without any engine hardware modifications. Twenty percent LOME blend was found to be the optimum concentration, which improved the thermal efficiency of the engine reduced the smoke density and BSEC. Using primary ester of vegetable oil also eliminates the durability problems associated with the vegetable oil thus making it a safe and suitable fuel for long-term usage in CI engine.
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