The University of Manchester School of Mechanical, Aerospace & Civil Engineering Modelling & Simulation 3 - (3rd Year) Semester 1 – Dr M A Sheikh Dr M Cotton

Lectures Schedule & Venue Please consult your timetable Assessment Written Examination (2 hrs): 80% Examination Paper Format: Two Sections A & B: Section A (Dr Sheikh) – 2 Qs; Section B (Dr Cotton) – 2 Qs Attempt THREE Qs. Computational Laboratory Exercises 1. FE Modelling of a Structural Design Problem (Dr M Sheikh) – 10% 2. Flow Simulation (Dr M Cotton) – 10% Contact Dr. M. A. Sheikh Office: P/G20 – Ext. 63802 E-mail: Topics: [Modelling of Linear Elastic Structural Problems (Dr M Sheikh)] ; Coursework: 20% [Unit Code: MACE 30051] 12 Lectures 12 Lectures

Numerical Techniques & their applications in Engineering Basic Theory of the Finite Element Method FE Modelling Techniques for Linear Elastic Analysis Basic Elements & Shapes Interpolation Functions for Simplex Elements Element Equations for one-, two- and three-dimensional elasticity equations Higher Order Elements Numerical Integration & Convergence of Solutions Mesh Design – Modelling Procedures & Model Validity

Pineridge Press Limited. Wiley.. and Owen. Applied finite element analysis. Hinton. S. A simple guide to finite elements. Problem Definition: Γ1 (φ = φ') Ω ∇2φ = 0 n Γ = Γ1 + Γ2 Γ2 [ (∂φ/∂n) = (∂φ/∂n)' ] 1. Chichester. S.. 1982. Pineridge Press Ltd. Secondary Texts: Rao. New York. Oxford. How? Distribute the error . (Laplace Equation: In 1-D) Boundary Conditions φ = φ' (∂φ/∂n) = (∂φ/∂n)' (Essential Condition) [Direchlet] (Natural Condition) [Neumann] Approximate Solution ∇2φ ≠ 0 φ . 2nd ed. D. J. J. and Owen. The Finite element method in engineering. Hinton. E. Swansea. D..(∂φ/∂n)' ≠ 0 on Γ2 Aim: Make the error as small as possible. An introduction to finite element computations. Swansea. E. 1984. 1979. 1980.. R. R.φ' ≠ 0 in Ω on Γ1 ⇒ε ⇒ ε1 ⇒ ε2 (∂φ/∂n) . Governing Equations ∇2φ = 0 2. Pergamon Press.Main Text: Segerlind. Larry J.

q') w dΓ [q = ∂φ/∂n] Integrate by parts: ∫Ω ∂φ/∂xk ∂w/∂xk dΩ = ∫Γ2 q' w dΓ . so that: ∫Ω ε w dΩ = ∫Γ2 ε2 w dΓ or ∫Ω (∇2φ) w dΩ = ∫Γ2 (q . Material Properties etc Selection of Approximating Function Linear.The way in which this error is distributed ⇒ Different Weighted Residual Techniques Weighted Residual Statement ∫Ω ε w dΩ = ∫Γ1 ε1 w dΓ + ∫Γ2 ε2 w dΓ Finite Element Method (FEM): [w: Weighting Functions] Satisfy ‘Essential Condition’ on Γ1 identically. 2. Pre-processing: Problem Discretization Geometry. Assembly Incorporate Boundary Conditions Apply Constraints Solve the System of Equations Gaussian Elimination . 3 depending upon the dimensionality of the problem] Three Steps in FE Analysis I. and approximate ‘Natural Condition’ on Γ2 . Quadratic. Analysis: Form the System of Equations Element Equations.Statement of FEM [k = 1. Post-processing Evaluation of Results At Nodal Points. Boundary Conditions. Cubic II. III. System Equations {F} = [k] {u} Element Equations . Loads. Gauss Points etc Presentation of Results Plots etc. Wavefront Methods etc.






Conclusions: Geometric Modelling: 2-D Plane Strain Representation of 3-D Problems 2-D Plane Stress Representation of 3-D Problems .

Types of Symmetry Planar Symmetry Plate with a hole – Stress Concentration Problem Quarter of the plate required for analysis– due to symmetry y Cyclic Symmetry Repetitive Symmetry .

FE Models of a Thin-Walled Cylinder More than ONE models are possible .Basic Element Shapes Finite Elements with curved boundaries Example .

Cooling Fin – ‘Mesh Size’ effect on the resulting solutions Cooling Fin Problem .Solution Convergence Study Changing the Mesh Size .

Aspect Ratios – allowable element distortions Curved Sides Location of Nodes: .

F per node B = (D + 1) f Model (a) ⇒ B = 20 Model (b) ⇒ B = 12 Solution by the Wavefront Method .O.Bandwidth: = (D + 1) f D: Largest Difference between the node numbers in an element f: Number of D.

Polynomial Approximation in 1-D 1-D Elements and their Interpolation Functions Two-dimensional Elements and their Interpolation Functions Simplex. Complex and Multiplex Elements .

φ = φi @ x = xj .Let's consider: which is a linear Interpolation Polynomial for a Simplex Element in 1-D Apply nodal conditions: @ x = xi . φ = φj Ni and Nj are called ‘SHAPE FUNCTIONS’ Each Shape Function is associated with a ‘Particular Node’ Property: = 1 at its own assigned node = 0 at all other nodes Quadratic Element Variation of Shape Functions Linear Element .

2-D Simplex Element Interpolation function: Shape Functions: In general. 3-D Simplex Element .

Natural Coordinates The natural coordinates can be used to describe the geometry Line Integration: (2-D Local Coordinates) [Area Coordinates] L1. L2. L3 vary from 0 to 1 – as before. so that Area Integration Formula It is now possible to calculate the ‘Global’ coordinates of the point ‘P’ as: .

Natural Coordinates of a three-dimensional element Volume Integration Formula Vector Problems Degrees of Freedom for a 2-D Stress Problem Displacement components Shape Functions Storage of Equations: Alternative definitions for the Degrees of Freedom of a two-dimensional element Equations for a three-dimensional element with four nodes .