The ISO OSI model are explained below.

The seven layers of the OSI model are:
• • • • • • •

Application Presentation Session Transport Network Antiqua">Data Link Physical

1 Application layer: This layer provides a means for the user to access information on the network through an application. Many user applications that need to communicate over the network interact with the Application layer protocol directly. The user applications are not part of OSI Application layer, use the networking services offered by the networking protocol suite. Application layer functions typically include identifying communication partners, and determining availability of required resources. Some examples of application layer implementations include Telnet, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). 2 Presentation layer: Presentation layer converts local host computer data representations into a standard network format for transmission on the network. On the receiving side, it changes the network format into the appropriate host computer's format so that data can be utilized independent of the host computer. ASCII and EBCDIC conversions, cryptography, and the like are handled here. Examples of Presentation layer coding and conversion schemes include common data representation formats, conversion of character representation formats, common data compression schemes, and common data encryption schemes. Presentation layer implementations are not typically associated with a particular protocol stack. Some well-known standards for video include QuickTime and Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG). QuickTime is an Apple Computer specification for video and audio, and MPEG is a standard for video compression and coding. 3. Session layer: The session layer establishes, manages, and terminates communication sessions. Communication sessions consist of service requests and service responses that occur between applications located in different network devices. These requests and responses are coordinated by protocols implemented at the session layer. Some examples of session-layer implementations include AppleTalk's Zone Information Protocol (ZIP), and Decent Phase Session Control Protocol (SCP).

Two frequently used transport protocols are the TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and the UDP (User Datagram Protocol). If not. IP address is the logical address. and framing of bits for transmission. etc. . Breaks the message (from sessions layer) into smaller datagrams.4. Important features of Transport layer: • • • Transport layer ensures reliable service. error detection and correction.Transport layer: Transport layer is responsible for providing reliable service between the hosts. an address that doesn't change is required to ensure continuity between hops. Application programs that do not need connection-oriented protocol generally use UDP. Network layer: Network layer is responsible for the routing of packets through the entire network. This is nothing but logical address. IPX address is the logical address. port number. and accounting information for the network.) is added to the datagram before passing it on to the Network layer. and appends appropriate unit header information. For IP networks. Responsible for communicating with the Session layer Important features of TCP/UDP: • • • • TCP/IP widely used protocol for Transport/Network layers TCP: (Transport Control Protocol) TCP ensures that a packet has reached its intended destination by using an acknowledgement. IP (Internet Protocol) is an example of a network layer protocol. TCP is called a connection oriented protocol. UDP (Universal Data gram Protocol): UDP simply transmits packets over the internet. Hence. 5. and so on. As a result. Note that the physical address (like MAC address) keeps changing from hop to hop when a packet travels from source to destination. 6. It does not wait for an acknowledgement. it retransmits the lost messages. UDP is often called connectionless protocol. Hence. This layer is responsible for flow regulation. This layer also provides for congestion control. source address. The layer uses logical addressing for this purpose. Upper layer datagrams are broken down into manageable datagrams and then appropriate header information (such as sequence number. It is the responsibility of upper layer protocols to ensure that the information had reached the intended partner(s). The network data frame is made up of checksum. and for Novell network. Data link layer: Data link layer provides delivery of information frames between communicating partners.

and physical connectors. Important features of Data link layer: • • • Assembles bits into frames. error notification. Different Data link layer protocols define different network and protocol characteristics. or radio (wireless) signals. EIA 232.) in Communication Systems. He is a Cisco Certified Networking Professional. X. If the checksum is not correct. and networking. rf testing.e. 2.21. Ltd. it asks for retransmission. Physical layer specifications define characteristics such as media. and the data itself. and correction to transmitted frames. sequencing of frames.destination address. Consists of two sub layers: 1. Medium Access Control (MAC): Controls media access by regulating the communicating nodes using pre-defined set of rules. Physical layer and Data link layer implementations can be categorized as either LAN or WAN specifications. Complete .E. or light. Physical addressing (as opposed to logical addressing) defines how devices are addressed at the data link layer. The physical medium could be made up of wired electrical signals. 7. making them ready for transmission over the network. The protocols used in Data link layer are SLIP. Provides error detection. and flow control. (Send a control message). Some of the important standards that deal with physical layer specifications are: RS-232(for serial communication lines). Vijayanand has done his post graduation (M. He has several years of experience in electronic assembly and design. The Physical layer handles the bit-level communications across the physical medium. The largest frame size that can be sent is known as the maximum transmission Unit (MTU). and CSLP. and an MCSE (Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer). data rates. Ethernet [CSMA/CD] all have MAC sub-layer protocol). (i. and G730. Token passing. including physical addressing. He is a director of Anand Software and Training Pvt. PPP. Physical layer: This is the bottom-most layer of the OSI model. maximum transmission distances. network topology. Logical Link Control (LLC): Defines how data is transferred over the cable and provides data link service to the higher layers.

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