1

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background

In 2008, total worldwide energy consumption was 80 to 90 percent derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. This is equals to an average power consumption rate of 15 terawatts. In the International Energy Outlook 2009 (IEO2009) by U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) states that world energy consumption increases from 472 quadrillion Btu (1 Btu = 1.06 kilojoules) in 2006 to 552 quadrillion Btu in 2015 and 678 quadrillion Btu in 2030 by prediction. The recession of current economic slow down the world demand for energy in the near term as manufacturing and consumer demand for goods and services are slow. The use of all energy sources increases over the time. IEO2009 states that the world oil prices will remain relatively high through most of the projection period. Liquid fuels and other petroleum are the world¶s slowest growing source of energy. The liquids fuel consumption increases at an average annual rate of 0.9 percent from 2006 to 2030. Renewable energy source are the fastest growing source of the world energy, with consumption increasing by 3.0 percent per year. The increasing of oil prices, as well as rising concern about the environmental impact of using fossil fuel and strong government incentives for increasing renewable energy sources in most countries around the world improves the prospects for renewable energy sources worldwide.

2

FIGURE 1.1 : World Marketed Energy Consumption 1980-2030

From the figure 1.1 above, the usage of liquids fuel such as petroleum is huge throughout the years. It follows by coal, natural gases and renewable energies. Renewable energies increase actively after year 2005. Nuclear power remains the lowest from year 1980 towards year 2030. Although liquid fuels are predicted to be the largest source of energy, but the liquids share of the world marketed energy consumption declines from 36 percent in 2006 to 32 percent in 2030. IEO2009 states that this declining of consumption is due to the world oil prices and lead to many energy users especially in the industrial and electric power sectors to switch from liquid fuels to another energy sources. From 2006 to 2030, the liquid consumption rate is declining in residential, commercial and electric power sectors throughout the whole world.

3

Natural gas remains an important fuels for electricity generation worldwide after liquid fuels, because it is more efficient and emit less carbon than other fossil fuels. IEO2009 stated that total natural gas consumption increases by 1.6 percent per year on average and its use in the electric power sector increases by 2.1 percent per year. With world oil prices increasing, consumers are expected to choose less expensive natural gas to meet their energy needs especially in the industrial sector. World coal consumption increases by 1.7 percent per year on average from 2006 to 2030. There is no policies or legislation that would limit the growth of coal use, therefore the United States, China and India are expected to turn to coal in place of more expensive fuels. These three nations account for 88 percent of the projected net increase in coal consumption from 2006 to 2030 reported by IEO2009. The only decreases in coal consumption is in Europe and Japan where the populations are either growing slowly or declining, therefore the electricity demand growth is slow and renewable energy sources, natural gas and nuclear power are likely to be used to replace coal for electricity generation. Electricity generation from nuclear power worldwide increases from 2.7 trillionkilowatthours in 2005 to 3.0 trillion kilowatthours in 2015 and 3.8 trillion kilowatthours in 2030 in the IEO2009 reference. The increasing fossil fuel prices, energy security, and greenhouse gas emissions lead to the development of new nuclear generating capacity.However, there are still some issues that slow the development of new nuclear power plant such as plant safety, radioactive waste disposal, and he proliferation of nuclear weapons. High capital and maintenance costs may keep some countries from expanding their nuclear power programs. As the world¶s population increases and there is likely to be demand for more electrical power. Energy sources available in the world including coal, nuclear, hydroelectric, gas, wind, solar, and biomass. In addition, fusion had been originally proposed as the long-term source.

particularly in the Western U. y Many dams available are currently exist y Dam collapse usually leads to loss of life y y Dams have affected aquatics Environmental damage for ares flooded and downstream Gas/Oil y Good distribution system for current use levels y Very limited availability as shown by shortage y Could be a major contributor to global warming y y Easy to obtain Better as space heating energy source y y Very expensive for energy generation Large price swings with supply and demand y Liquefied Natural Gas storage .1 : Advantages And Disadvantages Of All Form Of Energy Source Coal Advantages y y In expensive Easy to recover (in US and Russia) Disadvantages y Requires expensive air pollution controls y Significant contributor to acid rain and global warming y Requires extensive transportation system Hydroelectric y Very inexpensive once dam is built y Very limited source since depends on water elevation y Government has invested heavily in building dams.S.4 TABLE 1.

however tower design can reduce impact. .5 facilities and gas transmission system have met opposition from enviromentalists Wind y y Wind is free if available Good source for periodic water pumping demands of farms as used earlier in 1990s y Generation and maintenance costs have decreased significantly y Well suited to rural areas Solar y Sunlight is free when available y Cost are dropping y y Limited to sunny areas throughout the world Does not require special materials for mirrors/panels that can affect environment y Current technology requires large amounts of land for small amounts of energy generation Biomass y y Industry in its infancy Could create jobs because smaller plants would be used y y Inefficient if small plants are used Could be significant contributor to global warming because fuel has low heat content Hydrogen y Combines easily with oxygen to produce water and energy y y Very costly to produce Takes more energy to produce hydrogen then energy that could be recovered y y y y y Need 3X the amount of installed generation to meet demand Limited to windy areas Limited to small generator size Highly climate dependent May affect endangered birds.

As one can see from the table 1. Therefore.1 above. we need energy source that are cheap in production. all energy sources have both advantages and disadvantages. Energy demand will continue to increase with time. radioactive waste and storage systems y Waste is more compact than any source y Requires resolution of the longterm high level waste storage issue in most countries y Extensive scientific basis for the cycle y Potential nuclear proliferation issue y Easy to transport as new fuel y No greenhouse or acid rain effects y Does not emit carbon Throughout the world. containment. Nuclear has a number of advantages that warrant its use as one of the many method of supplying an energy-demanding world. . less bad effect to the environment and produces massive energy.6 Fusion y Hydrogen and tritium could be used as fuel source y Breakeven point has not been reached after 40 years of expensive research and commercially available plants not expected for at least 35 years y Higher energy output per unit mass than fission y Low radiation levels associated with process than fission-based reactors Nuclear y y Fuel is inexpensive Energy generation is the most concentrated source y Requires larger capital cost because of emergency.

After that time. Several major reasons that people working in the field still remain optimistic about nuclear power are : y y y y The energy produced per amount of material consumed is highest available Costs are competitive with coal. The fuel assemblies remain in the reactor for 3 to 5 years.7 million times as much energy as the same amount of coal. Nuclear method is one of the examples that can last long in the sense of energy supplying. . in the form of the radioactive fission products. Currently. a by-product of commercial nuclear plant operation. 2000 kg of uranium are converted to waste after 1.5 years of operation.7 the world need to choose wisely which energy source can stay long and do not depleted in the future. the major source used in the world Uranium. can also be used as a fuel y y The amount of waste produced is the least of any major energy production process Nuclear energy provides benefits other than electricity generation Uranium-235 is the isotope of uranium that is used in nuclear reactor. the source material is abundant Plutonium. they are being transferred to special storage where air can be used for cooling. Uranium-235 can produce 3. the fuel assemblies remain in the pools for about 10 to 15 years. remains inside the fuel. The waste.

8

1.2

Objectives

Till today, the nuclear power industry has been developing and improving reactor technology for more than five decades of improvement and new generations of nuclear reactors are in research and development to meet the rapidly increasing energy demand in the world market. Therefore, the overall objective of this study is to do comparative study on nuclear reactor technologies and understanding each reactor¶s technology and their requirements. The specific objectives of this study is to perform research study on nuclear energy in nuclear power industry and its concepts, study on current nuclear reactor technologies, comparing on several types of nuclear reactor that are currently being used in the world market, review on technical, economical, commercial assessment and safety of nuclear power technology, and finally, the comparison and conclusions included in this project are intended to provide an overall picture of the current status of reactor technology.

1.3

Methodology

The following approaches are adapted in achieving the objectives. Firstly, is literature studies. Literature studies done on nuclear reactor history, development by region, statistic, nuclear reactor generations, nuclear reactor types and latest nuclear reactor. Secondly is information collection. Next will be information analysis and data interpretation for collected information. Analyze and summarize collected information and comparison will be make for nuclear reactor comparison studies. Follow by that will be the model making process. Model of AP1000 and APR1400 reactor coolant system is made. And finally is documentation. All data collected after summarized and analyze will be documented in a systematic manner. Documentation will be done throughout the whole project process so that follow up of information shall be easy to trace at the end of the project and thesis will be the last documentation work for this project.

9

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

Introduction To Nuclear Power

2.1.1 What Is Nuclear Power Many elements exist in nature with a variety of isotopes. Chemically identical, the various isotopes only differ in the number of neutrons in their nuclei. The majority of the isotopes found on earth are stable but several, including uranium 238 (238U) shown in figure 2.3, are not and these are termed radioactive elements. These can spontaneously naturally decay to form other elements by three processes which are the E, F, and K decay. During E-decay, a helium nucleus is emitted, with F-decay a high energy electron is formed and K-decay results in the formation of a high energy photon. Conversely to the above natural decay processes, a nucleus can be transformed through fission. This usually occurs in highly unstable nuclei, for example, if a U235 nucleus absorbs an extra neutron, it undergoes nuclear fission and splits into two or more fragments, which form atoms of other elements along with some more neutrons. The atoms remaining are termed fission products and examples including strontium and xenon. The neutrons produced in the fission process can be absorbed by other U235 nuclei and the process can continue in a self-sustaining chain reaction if the concentration of U235 in the material is sufficiently high, beside other elements is form, this process emit high energy to surroundings in the form of heat. Figure 2.1 shows a clear picture of nuclear fission.

10

FIGURE 2.1 : Nuclear Fission Process

Using neutron moderators to change the portion of neutrons that will go on to cause more fission controls these nuclear chain reactions. Nuclear bomb is an uncontrolled nuclear fission chain reaction. All these nuclear activity happens in the nuclear reactors. A nuclear reactor is a device which nuclear chain reaction are initiated, controlled and sustained at a steady state to convert nuclear energy into extremely high heat. Beside nuclear fission, there is another process which can produce massive energy which are the nuclear fusion. In figure 2.2, nuclear fusion is the process by which charged atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus. When the nuclear fusion is an uncontrolled chain reaction, it can result in thermonuclear explosion similar to hydrogen bomb. Research into controlled nuclear fusion to produce fusion power for production of electricity has been conducted over the past 50 years. There are some technological and scientific difficulties with the nuclear fusion process while doing the research and therefore it is still in progress till today.

steam turbine and diesel engine must be available to provide the motive force for the rotor. In the electrical generator. . a magnet or we called it as rotor revolves inside a coil of wire named as stator. It should also be obvious that nuclear power plants have some significant differences from other plants. The purpose of a nuclear power plant is to produce electricity.3 : Uranium Ore 2. water turbine. or steam pushes against the fan-type blades of the turbine causing the turbine to turn and therefore the attached rotor of the electrical generator to spin and produce electricity. the kinetic energy of the wind. This flow of electrons is known as electricity.11 FIGURE 2. The most practical for large scale production and distribution involves the use of an electrical generator. creating a flow of electrons inside the wire. Some mechanical device such as wind turbine.2 :Nuclear Fusion FIGURE 2.1. When a turbine is attached to the electrical generator. falling water. There are several known methods to produce electricity. Nuclear power plants have many similarities to other electrical generating facilities.2 How Nuclear Power Works The purpose of a nuclear power plant is not to produce or release nuclear power.

12 FIGURE 2.4 : Hydroelectric Plant For example. heat generated from the burning of coal. in a hydroelectric power plant.4.5 : Fossil Fuel Steam Plant In a fossil-fueled power plant as figure 2.5 above. oil. as figure 2. water flowing from a higher level flow to a lower level and travel through the metal blades of a water turbine causing the rotor of the electrical generator to spin and produce electricity. or natural gases. This will converts the heat and boils the water into steam which . FIGURE 2.

In the turbine. the steam passes through the blades which spins the electrical generator and produce electricity. it will condensed back into water in the condenser and pumped back to the boiler to reheat into steam. FIGURE 2. .13 piped to the turbine. The high pressure steam created will turn the blades of the steam turbine for electrical generator. The only different is the steam boiler that is replaced by a Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS).6 : Nuclear Fuel Steam Plant In a nuclear power plant as shown in figure 2. many of the components are similar to those in a fossil-fueled plant such as the stream turbine and generator. After the stream leave the turbine. a device for nuclear fission to happens and transfer heat emitted from the nuclear reaction to boil the water into high pressure steam. The NSSS consist of a nuclear reactor.6.

the fuel is extracted. When fuel reaches the end of its usable life.7 : Nuclear Fuel Cycle . it is removed from the nuclear reactor and can be reprocessed to re-extract the unused uranium or plutonium. thus reducing the cost of the fuel for electricity generation.14 Besides from this. a coal power station. nuclear power plant consist of advance cooling system that used to cooled or as a safety system to control the heat emitted from the nuclear reaction.7 below. FIGURE 2. For example.1. This process is sometimes called ³closing the back end of the fuel cycle´ and reduces the amount of fresh uranium that has to be purchased. The fuel cycle for a nuclear plant can include all of the steps shown in figure below. Nuclear fuel cycle are summarized in the figure 2. transported to the plant where it is used to burnt and any ash is either sold to the construction industry or disposed off.3 Nuclear Fuel Cycle The fuel cycle for a nuclear power station is much more complicated than for a traditional fossil fuel power plant. 2.

FIGURE 2. The level of radiation is still very low because it is still stable. the yellow cake is concerted to uranium hexafluoride (UF6).2% to 0. Uranium hexafluoride is gaseous.3.15 2. and is spun in a very high speed to separate the lighter U235 from the heavier U235.2 Processing and Enrichment Once purification is complete. This material is currently stored but it may be used in the future fast reactors as a fertile fuel.8 below is taken to be processed into uranium metal or enriched UO2 pallets.1 Mining Most of the uranium comes from Australia. The impurities are removed at the side in order to save on transportation costs and the uranium ore concentrate also known as the ³yellow cake´ as shown in figure 2. If the purification had not been carried out.25%. Canada or United States.8 : Uranium (Yellow Cake) 2.3. other light gases would exist in the centrifuge and contaminate the enriched product.1. this is termed as depleted uranium. . The enrichment process yields large amount of uranium in which the level of U235 is reduced to about 0.1.

The UO2 powder produced at the end of this process is then pressed by compression into pellets. a two step process using a rotary kiln (a furnace or oven for drying). This completes the front end of the fuel cycle. In dry conversion the UF6 is decomposed by steam to produce UO2F2 which is a solid. This is then reduced to UO2 using fluidized bed technology. the cladding is then filled with helium gas and the ends are sealed. This process increases the density of the pellets and gives them the physical properties they requires to withstand the high temperature conditions in the reactor. welded and tested. The fuel is then transported and installed into the reactor where it is used until the build-up of neutron absorbing fission products and other detrimental effects such as fuel swelling. require the fuel to be removed and either disposed off or reprocess again. These differ wildly among the different reactors but a similar process is used for both AGR and PWR fuel elements.1. The production of oxide fuel from the enriched UF6 can be performed via a method named as the dry route. The next process is to assemble the pellets into fuel pins or elements. Unenriched uranium ore is converted into uranium metal rods for the use in Magnox reactors.3. In both of these.16 2. Annular pellets have a cylindrical hole running through the centre of the pellet and thus require a retractable pin in the press. the fuel pellets are stacked and weighed and then inserted into the cladding. commonly is Pressurize Water Reactor (PWR). The purpose of this hole is to accommodate distortions in the fuel and fission gasses formed in the reactor. The shape and size of the pellets differs for different reactors. they are sintered at 1750 oC in a reducing atmosphere of hydrogen or a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen to prevent oxidation and the formation of U3O8. Solid pellets are used in most PWRs and annular pellets are used in Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR). . Once the pellets have been pressed. Once this is complete.3 Fabrication The next step in the process is to convert the enriched UF6 into uranium dioxide for used in the reactors.

y Improved Proliferation Resistance : Proliferation is the unlawful diversion of fissile material. The radioactive content is also reduced as the alternative. converting this material into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel makes it much less . plutonium is potentially attractive to terrorist organizations. While considerable effort is made to keep this material safe. This mean reprocessed uranium is a valuable resource that should not be wasted. These ponds are sealed reinforced concrete structures filled with water.17 2.000 years can be reduced by over 30%. the radioactivity over 10.4 Reprocessing and Recycling or Disposal After the fuel has been removed from the reactor. At this point. it is either taken to a storage site or to a reprocessing plant. direct disposal. y Waste Management : The recovery of useful material means that the volume of high level waste that must be disposed of is reduced by a factor of 9. Once the material has cooled sufficiently. This acts as an effective radiation shield and also provides cooling to the fuel which may otherwise heat to the point where the fuel or the cladding becomes damaged and release contaminated material into the local environment. adds approximately 250kg of plutonium per year to the fuel awaiting burial. the fuel is highly radioactive due to the presence of fission products and need to handle it by care. The fuel is normally stored in the ponds at the reactor site.1. it enters the back end of the fuel cycle. In particular. This fuel must be stored and cooled until the level of radioactive is low enough to allow transport to the reprocessing site or the interim storage facility. Reprocessing has several advantages over storage for later disposal and these are listed here: y Security of Supply : Security of supply is a concern for some countries where there are no natural uranium deposits.3. Since the medium to long term radioactivity is dominated by plutonium isotopes. Some countries choose to store the spend fuel and leave the reprocessing for later but corrosion of the fuel and cladding materials can be a problem if it is to be stored for a long periods of time.

9 below are to summarized and give an overview idea of nuclear fuel cycle. including neptunium. Reprocessing fuel involves separating out the uranium and the plutonium from the rest of the fuel.9 : Summarize of Nuclear Fuel Cycle . Once reprocessing is complete. americium and californium. the uranium and plutonium are stored waiting to re-enter the fuel cycle at the enrichment or fuel fabrication step.18 attractive as the organization would not only have to move the bulky material but to chemically separate it before it could be used. Figure 2. FIGURE 2. These two elements can consist of 97% to 99% of the spent fuel with the remaining being high level waste including fission products and some of the minor actinides.

FIGURE 2.4 Nuclear Waste Any kind of industry develops waste materials along side the desired products and the nuclear industry is no different. While doing this. Store pond shown in figure 2.10 are used to store nuclear waste.1.10 : Store Pond For Nuclear Waste . minor actinides and the remains of the cladding. worn out equipment or clothing and other domestic waste that may have been contaminated with radioactive material.19 2. the environmental impact should be kept as low as reasonably attainable. It¶s the aim of the industry to minimize the amount of secondary waste generated and to convert as much of the radioactive material into a form that is both suited to long-term storage and final disposal while taking up as small volume as possible. Secondary wastes that are formed during reprocessing can include solvents that are no longer recoverable. The source of waste in the nuclear industry mainly come from the following operations: y y y y Reprocessing spent fuel Final decommissioning when a plant reaches the end of its lifespan Military waste Surplus materials Primary waste from fuel reprocessing includes the fission products.

In 1954. Va was the first power reactor in the U. the first nuclear-powered submarine. Arm also launches a nuclear power program. Lewis Strauss. Belvoir. It has a good nuclear safety record. Navy has operated more nuclear reactors than any other entity. In December 1954. the chairman of the United States Atomic Energy Commission spoke of electricity in the future being ³too cheap to meter´ and he refers to hydrogen fusion but Strauss¶s statement was interpreted as a promise of very cheap energy from nuclear fission. the world¶s first commercial nuclear power station. to supply electrical energy to a commercial grid in April 1957. the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)¶s Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant became the world¶s first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for a power grid and produced approximately 5 megawatts of electric power.12. Navy is the first organizations to develop nuclear power in the early stage for the purpose of propelling submarines and aircraft carriers. with no publicly known major incidents. USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was put to sea. . The first commercial nuclear generator to become operational in the United States was the Shippingport Reactor. England shown in figure 2.S.1. beginning in the early of 1954. In 1956.11 was opened and generated initial capacity of 50MW and later generation of 200MW. The U. U.20 2.5 Early Years of Nuclear Power In the early years of nuclear power industry. The U. The SM-1 Nuclear Power Plant at Ft. Calder Hall in Sellafield. including the Soviet Navy.S. before Shippingport shown in figure 2.S.S.

led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and World Health Organization (WHO).21 FIGURE 2. reactor number four at the Chernobyl plant exploded. This accident raised concerns about the safety of the nuclear power industry as well as nuclear power in general. This explosion result in massive fire and highly radioactive fallout into the atmosphere and over an extensive surrounding area. It was four hundred times more fallout was released than had been by the atomic bombing of Hiroshima in world war two. It is the worst nuclear power plant disaster ever happened in nuclear power history.11 : Calder Hall. England There is two major nuclear disaster happened in the nuclear power history. attributed 56 direct deaths which include 7 accident workers and nine children with thyroid cancer.000 most highly exposed people. Estimated of 4000 extra cancer deaths among the approximately 600. The Chernobyl disaster and the Three Mile Island accident. On 26 April 1986. Ukraine.13 was a nuclear accident that happened on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. the development of new nuclear power plant in the whole word is slowing down. . Ever since this accident happened. The Chernobyl disaster shown in figure 2. The 2005 report prepared by the Chernobyl Forum. including the nearby town of Pripyat.

22 FIGURE 2.13 : Chernobyl Power Plant After The Explosion . U.12 : Shippingport.S. FIGURE 2.

It result in release of massive radioactive gases to the surrounding atmosphere. United States on the 28 March 1979.14 : Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station .23 The Three Mile Island nuclear accident shown in figure 2. Pennsylvania. The accident was followed by a slow development of new nuclear plant construction in the United States. the reactor will eventually heat up and result in partial core meltdown. followed by stuck-open pilotoperated relief valve in the primary system which leak large amounts of reactor coolant. This mechanical failures is due to inadequate training and human factors because the plant operators failed to recognize the situation as a loss of coolant accident. There are no deaths in this accident. Since the coolant is loss. on the Wednesday. This accident happened at 4 a.m. 28 March 1979 with failures in the non-nuclear secondary system. The Three Mile Island nuclear accident was a partial core meltdown in Unit 2 which are the pressurized water reactor manufactured by Babcock & Wilcox. It was the most significant accident happened in the history of American commercial nuclear power generating industry.14 happened in Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station in Dauphin County. FIGURE 2.

9 27. TABLE 2. Table below shows that the percentage of nuclear power supply produced for a particular country.1 3.3 1.2 0.1 : Nuclear Power Percentage of Total Primary Energy Supply France Sweden Lithuania Armenia Slovakia Bulgaria Switzerland Belgium Slovenia Korea Finland Ukraine Japan Czech Republic Hungary Germany Spain United kingdom United states Canada Russian Federation Romania Argentina South Africa Mexico Netherlands Brazil China India Pakistan 42.6 1.3 13 12.3 1.8 0.9 17. This data is gained from International Energy Agency (IEA) year 2007.2 31.3 10.8 0.24 2.1 15 14.8 2.8 2.8 24.1.3 16.5 21.1 9 8.3 22.8 6.8 .3 9.9 21 17.7 24.6 World Nuclear Statistics By year 2007. 14% of the world¶s electricity came from nuclear power.6 36.

6 9.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 240. TABLE 2.7 418.9 0 0 7.4 53.4 0 0 0 0 43.3 14.0 37.1 16.25 From the table 2.0 3.3 39.1 17.7 1.8 14.3 35.2 : Nuclear Electricity Generation 2008 and Reactor Operable Country Argentina Armenia Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Canada China Czech Republic Egypt Finland France Germany Hungary India Indonesia Iran Israel Italy Japan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Lithuania Mexico Netherlands Pakistan Poland Romania Russia Nuclear Electricity Generation 2008 Billion kWh %e 6.0 29. the highest nuclear power generating as the primary energy supply is France is year 2007 with 42.5 24.9 0 0 0 0 144.1 72.9 9.2 140.9 28.0 3.8 65.2 2.4 4.8 1.7 32.5 0 0 22.6% of its total generation from other source.6 14.9 3.2 2.3 2. MWe 2 935 1 376 0 0 0 0 7 5728 2 1901 2 1906 18 12652 11 8587 6 3686 0 0 4 2696 59 63473 17 20339 4 1826 17 3779 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 53 46236 0 0 0 0 20 17726 1 1185 2 1310 1 485 2 400 0 0 2 1310 31 21743 .2 25 32.1 14.1 above.5 152.3 76.9 Reactor Operable 1 Sept 2009 No.8 6.2 13.9 88.

4 0 13. 1 0 0 2 0 1 2 4 MWe 740 0 0 2000 0 1245 1900 4400 . TABLE 2.4 61.2 above are showing that the nuclear electricity generation by year 2008 on each country around the world.0 39.0 0 2601 56.553 Table 2.5 19. The total of 15% of the world generated electricity is from nuclear power.3 42.0 12.2 0 0 47.3 18.4 41.533 MWe.7 5.26 Slovakia Slovenia South Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine UAE United Kingdom USA Vietnam WORLD 15. There are 436 reactor operating worldwide by year 2009 which produce 372.7 0 15 4 1 2 8 10 5 0 0 15 0 19 104 0 436 1688 696 1842 7448 9104 3237 0 0 13168 0 11035 101119 0 372. Total of 2601 billion kWh been generate from these 44 countries.7 56.5 809.3 0 0 84.3 0 52.3 26.5 6.3 : Reactors Under Construction and Reactor Planned Country Argentina Armenia Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Canada Reactors Under Construction 1 Sept 2009 No MWe 1 692 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1500 Reactors Planned Sept 2009 No.

27 China Czech Republic Egypt Finland France Germany Hungary India Indonesia Iran Israel Italy Japan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Lithuania Mexico Netherlands Pakistan Poland Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia South Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine UAE United Kingdom USA Vietnam WORLD 16 0 0 1 1 0 0 6 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 5 0 0 0 1 0 0 9 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 50 16440 0 0 1600 1630 0 0 2976 0 915 0 0 2285 0 0 5350 0 0 0 300 0 0 7130 840 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1180 0 45.438 35 0 1 0 1 0 0 23 2 2 0 0 13 2 1 7 0 0 0 2 0 2 7 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 2 2 3 4 11 2 137 37480 0 1000 0 1630 0 0 2976 0 915 0 0 2285 0 0 5350 0 0 0 300 0 0 7130 840 0 3565 0 0 0 2000 2400 1900 4500 6400 13800 2000 151.185 .

4 : Reactor Proposed and Uranium Required Country Argentina Armenia Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Canada China Czech Republic Egypt Finland France Germany Hungary India Indonesia Iran Israel Italy Japan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Lithuania Mexico Netherlands Reactors Proposed Sept 2009 No MWe 1 740 1 1000 2 2000 2 2000 0 0 4 4000 0 0 3 3800 90 79000 2 3400 1 1000 1 1000 1 1630 0 0 2 2000 15 20000 4 4000 1 300 1 1200 10 17000 1 1300 2 600 0 0 0 0 2 3400 2 2000 0 0 Uranium Required 2009 122 51 0 0 1002 308 260 1670 2010 610 0 446 10569 3398 274 961 0 143 0 0 8388 0 0 3444 0 242 97 .185 MWe . There are total of 50 reactor in the building process worldwide which produce 45. 137 nuclear reactor ordered or planned to built which can supply 151.28 Table 2.438 MWe. TABLE 2.3 above showing the statistic of reactors building and ordered or planned reactors in each countries.

FIGURE 2.405 Table 2.405 tonnes.4 above stating that 295 reactor proposed to be built and the total uranium required for the whole world for their nuclear power plant is 65.29 Pakistan Poland Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia South Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine UAE United Kingdom USA Vietnam WORLD 2 5 1 37 1 1 24 0 0 3 4 1 20 11 4 19 8 295 2000 10000 655 36680 1200 1000 4000 0 0 4000 4000 1200 27000 15500 6000 25000 8000 303.15 : Nuclear Capacity in Current and Future Nuclear Power Countries .405 65 0 174 3537 251 137 303 1383 1395 531 0 0 1977 0 2059 18867 0 65.

Low boundary represent minimum global nuclear capability expected while high boundary represent maximum nuclear commitment in most nations. advanced mining techniques. ultimately. more reprocessing. FIGURE 2.15 above gained from Nuclear Century Outlook by World Nuclear Association (WNA) stating that the current nuclear power countries in low boundary is around 84% which are 1725 GW and the future nuclear power countries are 16% which are 325 GW. Factors such as new ore discoveries. employment of breeder reactors which will ensure affordable and continuous of nuclear fuel supplies to produce cheap electricity into the future. current nuclear power countries are 83% which are 9150 GW and 17% which are 1900 GW come from those future nuclear power countries.16 : Global Clean Energy Need and Supply . From the Nuclear Century Outlook. introduction of the thorium fuel cycle and. expert support that there are few combination of factors that contribute to the increasing in nuclear usage by many countries in the world.30 Figure 2. In the high boundary.

7 Nuclear Reactor Technology Just as many conventional thermal power stations generate electricity by harnessing the thermal energy released from burning fossil fuels. 2. typically via nuclear fission. where the thermal energy can be harnessed to produce electricity or to do other useful work. Hydropower growth stops at midcentury while fossil fuel power contribute during the 21st century but does not grow indefinitely. With the conventional method of producing electricity. nuclear power grow within the range defined by the WNA outlook boundaries.6 billion towards 9 billion by year 2050. utilizing different fuels and coolants and incorporating different control schemes. therefore the demand for electricity by year 2050 will greatly increase to meet human needs. Therefore clean energy is introduced.There are many different reactor designs.31 The global population are increasing from 6. New renewables energy grow steadily and robustly and in the mean time. Enriched uranium commonly used as a fuel as this fuel choice increases the reactor¶s power density and extends the usable life of the nuclear fuel load. A cooling system removes heat from the reactor core and transports it to another area of the plant. Some of these designs have been engineered to meet a specific need. and the pressurized steam from that boiler will power one or more steam turbine driven electrical generators. From the figure 2. Reactors are the place where nuclear fission happens and produce massive heat to transfer to the surrounding coolant. Most nuclear electricity is generated using just two kinds of reactors that were developed in the 1950s and improved since. Clean energy is energy produced without emitting greenhouse gases that will result in global warming. it will be insufficient to provide for future demand and the greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming must be reduce by 70% in year 2050. nuclear power plants converts the energy released from the nucleus of an atom.16 above. we needs 8000 GW more nuclear power production. .1. but is more expensive and a greater risk to nuclear proliferation than some of the other nuclear fuels. Typically the hot coolant will be used as a heat source for a boiler. to achieve effective clean energy.

This decay heat source will remain for some time even after the reactor is shutdown. y Coolant ± a liquid or gas circulating the core and to function as a heat transfer medium. The reactor core generates heat in a number of ways : y The kinetic energy of fission products is converted to thermal energy when these nuclei collide with nearby atoms. y Control rods ± these are made with neutron-absorbing material such as cadmium. The most significant use of nuclear reactors is as an energy source for the generation of electrical power and for the power in some ships.000 times that of the equal mass of coal. Early stage of nuclear reactors are use in the naval ship to power up the engine in military usage in the United States.32 A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated. . y Gamma rays produced during fission are absorbed by the reactor in the form of heat y Heat produced by the radioactive decay of fission products and materials that have been activated by neutron absorption. controlled.000. The heat produce in the reactor will be cooled or controlled by the coolant. There are several components common to most of the reactors type : y Fuel ± usually come in pallets form of uranium oxide (UO2) arranged in tubes to form fuel rods. The heat power generated by the nuclear reaction is 1. and sustained at a steady rate. Totally insert of control rod will stop the fission reaction immediately. y Moderator ± this is a material which installed in the core to slows down the neutrons released from the fission reaction so that they cause more fission. hafnium or boron and are to inserted or withdrawn from the core to control the rate of reaction or to stop it if emergency. Usually is water but heavy water or graphite might be used for different reactor design.

3 Enriched water UO2 Graphite . France. Russia.8 Natural U. Sweden Canada 94 86.3 Natural UO2 Heavy water Heavy water UK 18 10. TABLE 2. GWe Fuel Coolant Moderator Water 265 251.6 Enriched water UO2 Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor CANDU (PHWR) Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR & Magnox) US.4 Enriched water UO2 Water 44 24. Japan. It is a meter thick concrete and steel structure. Japan.5 : Nuclear Power Plants in Commercial Operation Reactor Type Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Main Countries US. y Containment ± structure designed around the reactor core to protect it from outside intrusion and to protect those outside from the effects of radiation in case of any malfunction inside such as leak of coolant accident that contain high radioactive coolant. China No. Enriched UO2 CO2 Graphite Light Water Graphite Reactor Russia 12 12.33 y Pressure vessel or pressure tubes ± a robust steel vessel containing the reactor core and moderator but it may be a series of tubes holding the fuel and conveying the coolant through the moderator y Steam generator ± part of the cooling system where the primary coolant transfer heat from the reactor is used to make pressurized steam for the turbine.

the water for the steam turbines is boiled directly by the reactor core. Most reactor systems employ a cooling system that is physically separate from the water that will be boiled to produce pressurized steam for the turbines. UO2 Liquid sodium Graphite None Enriched Water UO2 Total 441 386. If coolant is a moderator. In some reactors. A higher temperature coolant could be less dense. Russia Russia 4 0. then temperature changes can affect the density of the coolant/moderator and therefore change power output. There are several types of reactor in current market which are : y y y y y y Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) CANDU Reactor Heavy Water Reactor Light Water Reactor Many more .05 4 1. The heat is carried away from the reactor and is then used to generate steam. A moderator increases the power of the reactor by causing the fast neutrons that are released from fission to lose energy and become thermal neutrons. like the pressurized water reactor.5 A cooling source often water but sometimes a liquid metal is circulated past the reactor core to absorb the heat that it generates. Thermal neutrons are more likely than fast neutrons to cause fission. France. so more neutron moderation means more power output from the reactors.34 (RBMK) Fast Neutron Reactor (FBR) Other Japan. and therefore a less effective moderator. But for boiling water reactor.0 PuO2. the coolant acts as a neutron moderator.

17 : Typical Nuclear Power Plant Layout .8 Inside a Nuclear Power Plant Nuclear power plants are similar to conventional power plant such coal-fired power plant.35 Reactors divided into 4 generation : y y y y Generation I reactor (prototype) Generation II reactor (most current nuclear power plants) Generation III reactor (evolutionary improvements of existing designs) Generation IV reactor (technologies still under development) 2.1. Beside the common steam turbine. there are other building such as : FIGURE 2.

The area between the steel and concrete building is called the µAnnulus¶. Normally houses the reactor and the related cooling system that contains highly radioactive fluids.36 Figure 2. In BWRs.17 above shows that a typical nuclear power plant layout which are labeled. And the rotating force of H will turn the G to produce electricity.18 : Containment Building . Nuclear fission reaction happens in C and the fission rate being controlled by B. the drywell is located in the reactor building. the heat generated by nuclear fission in C transfer to primary loop through F and D generate pressurized steam to push H to turn. Building is made of steel construction.66 meter thick. Designs vary.37 meter concrete walls reinforced with steel. The containment is the 3rd fission product barrier. Containment or Drywell Building A building shown in figure 2. Water from the lake or sea will transfer through I as a coolant and the heat dissipate to the surrounding atmosphere by J.762 meter thick and the base 3. The steam being condenses at I and being pump back by F to the D and the process repeat itself. At one facility there are 1.18 was designed to sustain pressures of about 345kPa. Sometimes the building is surrounded by a concrete structure that is designed for much lower pressures. The dome is 0. FIGURE 2.

19 : Turbine Building . Turbine Building A building that houses the turbine. condenser. condensate and feedwater systems shown in figure 2.19. FIGURE 2. generator. Emergency equipment is also normally located in this building.37 Auxiliary or Reactor Building A building separate from the containment that houses much of the support equipment that may contain radioactive liquids and gases.

2 meter deep storage pool shown in figure 2.38 Intake Structure or Screenhouse A building that houses the circulating water pumps used to pump water from the river. Casks for shipping or onsite dry storage of spent fuel assemblies will be loaded or unloaded in this pool. sea for cooling the condenser. lake. Trash racks and traveling screens also remove debris to clean the water so that it can pass through the condenser tubes.20 : Fuel Storage Pool . Fuel Building A building separate from the containment that is used to spent fuel assemblies in steel racks in a large 12. A new fuel storage area is provided for receipt of new assemblies and storage prior to going into the containment and subsequently into the reactor during a refueling. FIGURE 2.20.

radiator fans. In some cases. water. fuel oil. y Cooling tower pumps used to pump water to cooling towers. y Control Room . related electrical switchgear for distributing electrical power produced by the diesel generator. In some plants separate buildings or areas within the buildings mentioned above may house the following: y Water treatment systems used to purify water so that it can be used in the power plant. Cooling towers are often used for power plants located on rivers and small lakes so that impact of temperature of discharged water on fish is minimized.21 y y Administration Building Security FIGURE 2. air conditioning. y Radioactive waste treatment systems used to purify and store radioactive liquids and gases. lubricating oil.39 Diesel Generator Building A building used to house the diesel generators and supporting systems (air. and ventilation systems (sometimes called the Control Building) shown in figure 2.21 : Nuclear Power Plant Control Room . related electrical cabling. The Diesel generators that provide backup electrical power to safety and non-safety systems. and ventilation).

mining and purifying uranium hasn't been a very clean process. And once the fuel is spent. According to the Nuclear Energy Institute. The Chernobyl disaster is a good recent example. a properly functioning nuclear power plant actually releases less radioactivity into the atmosphere than a coal-fired power plant. the power produced by the world's nuclear plants would normally produce 2 billon metric tons of CO2 per year if they depended on fossil fuels. All of this waste emits radiation and heat. but it does provide its share of problems. you can't just throw it in the city dump. meaning that it will eventually corrode any container and can prove lethal to nearby life forms. the combined total climbs to roughly 2. When something goes wrong. as well as its share of downright depressing negatives. As for negatives. CO2 emissions are minimal. In 1986. nuclear power's biggest advantages are tied to the simple fact that it doesn't depend on fossil fuels. As far as positives go. nuclear power plants produce a great deal of low-level radioactive waste in the form of radiated parts and equipment. the Ukrainian nuclear reactor exploded. spewing 50 tons of radioactive material into the surrounding area. When you take into account every nuclear plant on Earth.000 metric tons yearly. As if this weren't bad enough. It's still radioactive and potentially deadly. Even transporting nuclear fuel to and from plants poses a contamination risk. With nuclear power plants.1. the cost of nuclear power also isn't affected by fluctuations in oil and gas prices. On average.40 2. the situation can turn catastrophic. classified as high-level radioactive waste. and it's the result of properly functioning nuclear power plants. a nuclear power plant annually generates 20 metric tons of used nuclear fuel. In fact.9 Pros and Cons of Nuclear Power Nuclear power boasts a number of advantages. nuclear fuel may not produce CO2. contributing to climate change. Nuclear waste can pose a problem. Historically. Coal and natural gas power plants emit carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. . By not depending on fossil fuels.

41

contaminating millions of acres of forest. The disaster forced the evacuation of at least 30,000 people, and eventually caused thousands to die from cancer and other illnesses. Chernobyl was poorly designed and improperly operated. While the plant required constant human attention to keep the reactor from malfunctioning, modern plants require constant supervision to keep from shutting down. Still, Chernobyl is a black eye for the nuclear power industry, often overshadowing some of the environmental advantages the technology has to offer.

2.2

Nuclear Reactor Development

2.2.1 Nuclear Reactor Many different designs for power reactors have been proposed and many different prototypes built. Most of the countries that have developed nuclear power started with graphite or heavy-water moderated system, since only these moderators allow criticality with natural uranium. However, most of the power reactors now use slightly enriched uranium. With such enrichments, other moderators especially light water can be used as shown in figure 2.22

FIGURE 2.22 : Nuclear Reactor

42

Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Pressurized water reactor (PWR) shown in figure 2.23 is the most widely used type of power reactors, employ two water loops. The water in the primary loop is pumped through the reactor to remove the thermal energy produced by the core. The primary water is held at sufficiently high pressure to prevent the water from boiling. This hot pressurized water is then passed through a steam generator where the secondary loop water is converted into high temperature and high pressure steam that turns the turbogenerator unit. The use of a two-loop system ensures that any radioactivity produced in the primary coolant does not pass through the turbine for safety purposes. Most of the today¶s advanced nuclear reactor design are based on the PWR basic design philosophy.

FIGURE 2.23 : Pressurize Water Reactor (PWR)

43

Boiling Water Reactor(BWR) In a boiling water reactor (BWR) shown in figure 2.24, cooling water is allowed to boil while passing through the core. The steam then passes directly to the turbine. The low pressure steam leaving the turbine is then condensed and pumped back to the reactor for the same process. By having a single loop, the need for steam generators and other expensive equipment in a PWR can be avoided. By having only single loop on coolant in the BWR might expose radioactive radiation to the surroundings if there is a leak of coolant accident occur.

FIGURE 2.24 : Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)

The fuel rods are placed in these gas cooling channels. carbon dioxide cooled.25 : Gas Cooled Reactor (GCR). The hot exit helium gasews then goes to a steam generator. FIGURE 2. In another design known as the high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR).25. The use of graphite. which remains solid up to very high temperatures. Magnox Reactor are pressurized.44 Gas Cooled Reactor In a gas cooled reactor (GCR) carbon dioxide or helium gas is used as the core¶s coolant by pumping it through channels in the solid graphite moderator. the hot exit gas then passes through steam generators. eliminates the need for an expensive pressure vessel around the core. Magnox Reactor are one of the GCR which design by United Kingdom which shown in figure 2. graphite moderated reactors using natural uranium as fuel. Helium coolant is pumped through other channels through the graphite prisms.Magnox Reactor Design . the fuel is packed in many fuel channels in graphite prisms.

To reduce radioactive sodium from possibly interacting with the water or steam loop. the chain reaction is maintained by fast neutrons. Consequently.45 Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors Figure 2.26 is a fast reactor.26 : Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) . in which the primary coolant is circulated through primary heat exchangers external to the reactor tank y Pool type. moderator materials cannot be used in the core. in which the primary heat exchangers and circulators are immersed in the reactor tank. The great advantage of such fast liquid metal power reactors is that it is possible to create a breeder reactor like the one in which more fissile fuel is produced than is consumed by the chain reaction. an intermediate loop of nonradioactive sodium is used to transfer the thermal energy from the primary sodium loop to the water or steam loop. the core coolant is a liquid metal such as sodium or a mixture of potassium and sodium. There are two designs of the liquid metal fast breeder reactors which are the : y Loop type. sodium becomes radioactive when it absorbs neutrons and also reacts chemically with water. FIGURE 2. To avoid materials of low atomic mass. However. Liquid metals have excellent heat transfer characteristics and do not require pressurization to avoid from boiling.

Vertical pressure tubes are also placed through the graphite core and light water coolant is pump through these tubes and into an overhead steam drum where the two phases are separated and the steam passes directly to the turbine.27 translation in English is high powered pressure tube reactor. FIGURE 2. fuel is placed in the fuel channels in graphite blocks that are stacked to form the core.27 : Reactory Bolshoi Moshchnosti Kanalnye (RMBK) . In this reactor.46 Pressure Tube Graphite Reactors A once widely used Russian designed power reactor is the Reactory Bolshoi Moshchnosti Kanalnye (RMBK) shown in figure 2.

the CANDU reactor design are similar to most of the light water reactors. Fission reactions in the reactor core heat pressurized water in a primary cooling loop and heat exchanger transfer the heat to a secondary cooling loop which powers a steam turbine with an electrical generator attached to it. FIGURE 2.47 Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) The Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor shown in figure 2. It was the pressurized heavy water reactor invented in the late 1950s and 1960s. CANDU . river or lake.28 was build by the Canadian itself. The main difference between CANDUs and other water moderated reactors is that CANDU uses heavy water for neutron moderation.28 : Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). The excess heat in the steam is rejected to into the surrounding atmosphere in different was such as to the ocean.

Because steam produced by Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) is saturated or very slightly superheated. the liquid and gas phases are indistinguishable. and no amount of pressure produces phase transformation. Thus. Water is saturated when vapor and liquid coexist at the boiling point. in water moderated and cooled cores. coolant temperatures are limited to about 340 degree Celsius. These turbines are larger and the cost are more expensive than those used in power plants that can produce superheated steam. Moreover.2. The disadvantage of using water as a coolant is that it must be pressurized to prevent boiling at high temperatures. This high temperature limit for reactor produced steam together with normal ambient environmental temperatures limit the thermal efficiency for such plants to about 34%. . it must be pressurized first to prevent significant steam formation. Thus. Typically. If water is below the boiling point. By far. To maintain criticality in a water moderated core. Normal water boiling point is 100 degree Celsius. Water is inexpensive and engineers have experience in using it as a working fluid in conventional fossil-fueled power plants. Above the critical temperature. and it is superheated when the vapor temperature is above the boiling temperature. the critical temperature is 375 degree Celsius. temperatures must be below this critical temperature. steam is a much poorer coolant than liquid water in common sense. above which liquid water cannot exist.48 2. for water to be used in a reactor.2 Coolant Limitations The thermal properties of a power reactor coolant greatly affect the reactor design. the water must remain in liquid form. Expensive moisture separators which are the devices to remove liquid droplets and special turbines that can operate with µwet steam¶ must be used. For water. the most widely used coolant is water. it is called subcooled.

49 2.2.3 Evolution of Nuclear Power Basically nuclear reactor are divided in 5 main generations which are : a) Generation I b) Generation II c) Generation III d) Generation III+ e) Generation IV : Early prototypes : Commercial power reactors : Advanced lightwater power reactors : Evolutionary design reactors : Conceptual design reactors FIGURE 2.29 : Evolution of Nuclear Power .

passive safety systems and standardized design for reduced maintenance and capital costs. These reactors are design to be safety and efficiency improved from Generation II reactors. Most of these reactor use so-called lightwater technology. Other Generation II design reactor uses other coolants and moderators. but these changes were primarily evolutionary. The first Generation III reactors were build in Japan. The Three Mile Island disaster was from Generation II design¶s reactor. Those reactors are originally usages are either for submarine propulsion or plutonium production. superior thermal efficiency. Generation III A more advanced generation of reactors are the Generation III reactors. and kludged layers of afterthought safety systems. Generation I reactors were characterized by fundamentally unsafe designs. It was modified and enlarged from the military reactors. These improvement will pro-long the operational life. . It is also known as advanced lightwater technology. Generation II reactors were significantly improved from Generation I reactors. It was developed in the 1950s and 1960s. Most of the Generation I reactors use natural uranium fuel with graphite as a moderator. These included improved of fuel technology. Generation II Generation II reactor are commercial power reactor that still under operating mode till today worldwide.50 Generation I Generation I reactor were the early stage prototypes developed by many nations.Generation I reactors are small reactor which is under 250MW. They are moderated and cooled with ordinary water.

proliferation resistance. A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated. Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). utilizing different fuels and coolants and incorporating different control schemes that we have in the current world. minimize waste. Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR). There is an exceptional for a version of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) called the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) which will be completed by year 2021. natural resource utilization and to decrease the cost of building and running a nuclear power plant. and sustained at a steady state. APR1400. mPower etc are all categories under Generation III+ reactor and consider the latest reactor in today¶s world market. AP1000. European Pressurized Reactor (EPR).4 World Nuclear Reactor Development There are many different reactor designs. Generation IV Generation IV are a set of theoretical nuclear reactor designs which are currently being researched and will not be available in the market before 2030. Some of these designs have been engineered to meet a specific need. The most significant use of nuclear reactors is as an energy source for the generation of electrical power. . This generation of reactors are improve base on few primary goals which are on nuclear safety.2. controlled. 2. These reactors were designed to significantly improve on safety and economics perspective over the Generation III advanced reactor design.51 Generation III+ Generation III+ reactor are the advancement of Generation III.

. Experimental Breeder Reactor 1 was build at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) produces the world¶s first usable amount of electricity from nuclear energy. United State have 104 reactors. Europe have 196 reactors while Asia Pacific owns 111 reactors.30 above. From the map above we can conclude that most of the nuclear reactor technology is active in 3 main regions which are United State.30 :World Map of Nuclear Power Reactors 2009 There are total of 436 nuclear power reactor operating and 47 reactors under construction worldwide. Below are the brief timeline for world nuclear reactor development. Europe and Asia Pacific. Europe and Asia Pacific. In 1951. From the world map in figure 2. we can see that most of the nuclear reactor technology developed actively at 3 region of the world which is United States.52 FIGURE 2.

Three Mile Island nuclear accident In 1986. In 1979. Japan. The series is to designed to test the theory that the formation of steam bubbles in the reactor core does not cause an instability problem. the first U. In 1960. large-scale nuclear power plant begins operation in Shippingport.S. was built at INEEL. In 1957. It was then replaced by a more efficient light-water breeder reactor in 1977. nuclear power energy production grows. Nuclear reactor can be built and tested in ZPPR for about 0. the first advanced gas-cooled reactor is build at Calder Hill in England. Pennsylvania. It was intended to power up the naval vessel but is too big to install on ship and it was then successfully used to supply electricity for British consumers. most notably in China. and Taiwan. The pressurized-water reactor supplies power to the city of Pittsburgh and much of western Pennsylvania. In 1966. Korea. first Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) was built In 1962. BORAX-I. where more than 28 GW of nuclear power plant capacity is added since the last decade of the century. the first of a series of Boiling Reactor Experiment reactors. the Advanced Testing Reactor at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory come online for material testing and isotopes generation. In 1969. BORAX-III becomes the first nuclear power plant in the world to provide entire town with all of its electricity. Canada¶s CANDU reactor using natural uranium in fuel tubes surrounded by heavy water. In 1963. In 1955. a specially designed facility for building and testing a variety of types of reactors. Chernobyl nuclear disaster In 2000. .1% of the capital cost of construction of the whole power plant.53 In 1953. the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR).

Around 1960s. Dresden 1 which produce 250 MWe was design and started up in 1960 meanwhile a prototype BWR ran from 1957 to 1963. Many order and projects of nuclear .31 : United States Map of Nuclear Power Reactors Figure 2.4. Construction of new reactor stop due to the accident happen in Three Mile Island on 1979. but a further PWR (Watt Bar 2) is expected to start up by 2013.54 2.582 MWe.31 above showing the location of nuclear reactor in the United States. Almost all the US nuclear generating capacity comes from reactor that been build from 1967 till 1990. There are total of 69 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Westinghouse designed the first fully commercial PWR of 250 MWe capacity which start to build on 1960 and operated to 1992. The United State is the world largest producer of nuclear power. There is no new construction on nuclear power reactor since 1977. generate for more than 30% of worldwide nuclear generation of total electricity output. 35 Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) in the United States which provide a total capacity of 100.2. most of the order are being placed for PWR and BWR reactor units of more than 1000 MWe capacity.1 United States FIGURE 2. The first commercial plant.

2.55 power reactor was cancelled or suspended. which would be part of a system that would produce both electricity and hydrogen gas massively.2 Europe FIGURE 2.4. US are preparing for the new build of nuclear reactor which is ABWR. AP1000. US federal government has significantly stepped up R&D spending for future plants that improve or go beyond current design reactor. the US nuclear industry dramatically improved its safety and operational performance with average net capacity factor over 90% and all safety indicators exceeding target. Next Generation Nuclear Plant projected to develop a Generation IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor. ESBWR. APWR. in the 1970s.2. and EPR for the coming years.32 : Europe Map of Nuclear Power Reactors . and the nuclear construction industry went into the doldrums for two decades ever since the Three Mile Island accident. Since the Three Mile Island accident.

625 MWe were under construction in 6 countries.711 MWe in operation in Europe and 16 unites with 13.2005 Total Commission Reactors 22 37 66 40 7 6 5 183 . reaching a peak between 1980 and 1990. Slovakian Republic. Romania. Lithuania.32. France. natural gas and renewable became important. the countries that have nuclear power plant in Europe are Belgium. Switzerland. Czech Republic. Hungary.6 : Numbers of reactor built between 1971 and 2005 Period 1971 ± 1975 1976 ± 1980 1981 ± 1985 1986 ± 1990 1991 ± 1995 1996 ± 2000 2001 . nuclear power started up in Europe. In the 1970s. Bulgaria. Netherlands. Germany.56 As of June 2009 there is a total of 196 nuclear power reactor with an installed electric net capacity of 169. Slovenia. Spain. Ukraine and United Kingdom. TABLE 2. Finland. From 1990s onwards. followed by a period during which development was halted. Sweden. From figure 2. Russian Federation.

7 : Reactor Type on Different Generation Today Short to Medium Term Generations Reactor Type I and II PWR (92) WWER (22) BWR (19) AGR (14) GCR (8) LWGR (1) PHWR (1) FBR (1) EPR (PWR) AP1000 (PWR) WWER (PWR) ABWR (BWR) ESBWR (BWR) HTR GFR LFR MSR SFR SCWR VHTR III IV Long Term 2.3Asia FIGURE 2.2.57 TABLE 2.33 : Asia Map of Nuclear Power Reactors .4.

as its industrial base has grown. most of the nuclear power development happens in Japan and South Korea. Korean Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) went on to develop the OPR-1000 and APR1400. 28 BWRs and 23 PWRs have been brought into operation. After this unit was completed. South Korea started its nuclear power program in the 1970s by licensing PWR technology from US-based Westinghouse. domestic researchers and firms have updated the System 80 PWR design originally imported developed South Korean versions of all major components. Japan stated its nuclear research in 1954. By the end of 1970s. Japan industry had largely established their own domestic nuclear power production and exports it to East Asian countries. It was a gas-cooled Magnox reactor. The first APR-1400 units are under construction.58 From the Asia map shown in figure 2. Japan only builds LWR. and operation will begun approximately in 2013 or 2014. South Korea has imported CANDU from Canada and is developing a strategy to re-use PWR fuel in these. The first ABWR which started up in 1996-1997 are now in operation. There are total of 55 operating nuclear reactor in Japan and 20 operating nuclear reactor in South Korea. Japan imported its first commercial nuclear power reactor from UK. Since 1970s.33 above. Since then. BWR and PWR. . These 2 reactor are in Generation III+ categories.

One of the large tanks above the reactor serves as a place to deposit heat.59 CHAPTER 3 COMPARATIVE STUDY ON AP1000 AND APR1400 3. US. large pumps by 50%. . AP600 are Generation III reactor designed by Westinghouse Electric Company. and control cables by 80%.1. Water tanks pressurized with nitrogen gas provide sprays to cool the atmosphere inside the containment. It is estimated that the plant can be constructed in 3 to 4 years. heat exchangers by 50%. There are no pumps needed in the process. The main objectives in its design are the plant uses forces of nature and simplicity of design to enhance plant safety and operations and reduce construction costs. AP600 design to be simple by reducing the number of valves by 60%. The AP600 obtains its emergency cooling from huge water tanks mounted above the reactor. All of these factors contribute to reducing the cost. The AP600 is power plants which produce 600 MWe are considered small power plant compared to current power demand in the world.1 The AP600 Reactor AP1000 reactor are derived from AP600. ducting by 35%. piping by 60%.1 Introduction 3. Electric power or operator actions are needed to start the coolant injection.

These systems that contain thousands of cubic meters of water should supply emergency cooling when the normal cooling fails. . New in the design are the emergency core cooling systems designs. a steal and a concrete one. leading hot water under pressure to the steam generators. The AP600 is designed with a single containment.900 cubic meters is situated in the containment. To keep the pressure low enough.300 cubic meters is located to spray the iron containment to cool it down. After an accident it is important to keep the containment intact. Four tanks are located above the reactor with borated water. In case of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) this water (about 50 cubic meters) would enter the reactor. In that way the reactor building would be changed into a kind of swimming pool in which the hot reactor could cool down.60 The basic design of the AP600 does not differ that much from a conventional PWR. The borated water would stop the fission reaction. Conventional reactors are constructed with double containments. above the building is a water tank with 1. The main system consists of a reactor with two cooling circuits. Besides. it would burst and release radioactivity. This water would be enough to cool the containment for three days. Besides.1. This amount would be enough to flood the whole containment building above the level of the reactor core. The AP600 has only one containment to provide maximum heat transport to outside air. With too much pressure on the steam. Most evolutionary and also most controversial is the passive containment cooling system shown in figure 3. the AP600 containment is constructed to lead away the heat by a water-and-air-cooled system. a water tank with about 1. to prevent the overheating and melting of the reactor core in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA).

1 : AP600 Passive Containment Cooling System .61 FIGURE 3.

. Korea. The Reactor Coolant System (RCS) has two transfer loops forming a barrier to the release of radioactive materials from the reactor core to the secondary system and containment atmosphere. The RCS also includes the interconnecting piping to auxiliary systems such as the chemical and volume control system. the shutdown cooling systems etc. and four reactor coolant pumps. Construction period has been dramatically reduced through repeated construction of the OPR1000. OPR1000 plant arrangement consist of one Compound Building combining five buildings which are two Secondary Auxiliary Building. A large pressurizer volume to enhanced capability to cope with LOCA. These RCS components are symmetrically located on opposite sides of the reactor vessel with a pressurizer on one side. two steam generators. Adoption of feed water storage tank.OPR1000 produces 1000MWe. all of the RCS components are located inside the containment building and connected by pipe assemblies. two Access Control Buildings and one Radwaste Building.62 3. the safety injection system. The main components of the RCS of OPR1000 are a reactor vessel. Construction capital cost has been significantly reduced through duplication and shortened construction period of the OPR1000.The OPR1000 operability improved by using two larger steam generator which can reduced plant trips due to greater capability to accommodate the changes of steam generator level at transient conditions. Develop Integrated Reactor Vessel Head Assembly to reduce the refueling time and to enhance maintainability.2 The OPR1000 Reactor APR1400 are derived from OPR1000 that are Generation III reactor.1. Uses circulating water system to reduce the numbers of pumps. It has been in operation since 1998 and has record in outstanding safety and reliability. OPR1000 are design by KHNP.

with each circuit containing one steam generator. interconnecting piping.2 : AP1000 Reactor Coolant System . The RCS arrangement is shown in Figure 3.2. Steam is formed by the heaters or condensed by the water spray to control pressure differences due to expansion and contraction of the reactor coolant.2 Reactor Coolant System AP1000 The reactor coolant system (RCS) consists of two heat transfer circuits. The reactor containment contains all the RCS equipment. or both. where water and steam are maintained in equilibrium by activating the electrical heaters or a water spray. The system also includes a pressurizer (PZR). FIGURE 3. and one hot leg and two cold legs for circulating coolant between the reactor and the steam generators (SG). These valves discharge the overpressure into the containment atmosphere. and the valves and instrumentation necessary for operational control. two reactor coolant pumps.63 3. The RCS pressure boundary provides a barrier against the release of radioactivity generated within the reactor. The RCS pressure is controlled by the PZR. Spring-loaded safety valves are installed above and connected to the PZR to provide overpressure protection for the RCS.

and two RCPs. FIGURE 3. each of which consists of one 42-inch hot leg. one SG.3. The APR1400 RCS arrangement is shown in figure 3.64 Three stages of RCS automatic depressurization valves are also connected to the PZR. All the steam and water released is condensed and cooled by mixing them with the water in the tank. The decrease in temperature in the hot leg result in decrease in frequency of unplanned reactor trips during normal operation so that it can enhance the operation flexibility. Its NSSS is designed to operate at a rated thermal output of 4000 MWth with an electrical output of 1455 MWe. APR1400 The APR1400 is a two-loop pressurized water reactor. These valves release steam and water through sprinkler to the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) of the passive core cooling system (PXS). two 30-inch cold legs.3 : APR1400 Reactor Coolant System . One PZR with heaters is connected to a hot leg of the RCS. It consist of two primary coolant loops.

3 Core and Fuel AP1000 Several important improvements are made based on existing technology. These improvements result in reliable valve operation without the need to remote manual operation the valves under post-accident conditions. and longer burnup features. which has been used in conventional plants in the world now days. 3. This optimization of fuel is currently used in approximately 120 operating plants worldwide. are used to perform the functions of PZR safety valves and safety depressurization valves in the same time. Inconel 690.4 : AP1000 Fuel Assembly . The pilot operated safety relief valves (POSRVs). removable top nozzles. AP1000 uses a standard 17 X 17 fuel assembly which most of the current reactors are using. which is famous to be more resistant to stress corrosion cracking than Inconel 600. which replace the conventional spring-loaded safety valves. the decrease in the hot leg temperature reduce the ageing of the SG tube due to stress corrosion by using an advanced tube material. there are fuel performance improvements.65 Additionally. such as Zircaloy grids. For example. FIGURE 3.

The core design is shown in figure 3. 93 control element assemblies (CEAs).000 MWD/MTU and the thermal margin of the core has increased to more than 10%. In addition. The improvement of this core design has increase the economic efficiency and safety of the APR1400.27 meter. AP1400 The core consists of 241 fuel assemblies. FIGURE 3.5 : APR1400 Fuel Assembly .4 above. The refueling cycle of the core is 18 months with a maximum discharge rod burn-up of 60.66 AP1000 has a 157 assembly high power density core and the core is 4. The fuel assembly is arranged by 236 fuel rods containing UO2 pellets in a 16 X 16 array.5. and 61 in-core instrumentation (ICI) assemblies. Inconel 600 is not used in the reactor vessel welds. The absorber materials used for full strength control rods and part strength control rods are Boron Carbide (B4C) pellets and Inconel 625. movable bottom mounted in-core instrumentation has been replaced by fixed top mounted instrumentation. The refueling cycle is about 18 to 24 months. The core design is shown in figure 3.

FIGURE 3.4 Pressurizer AP1000 The AP1000 PZR shown in figure 3. where liquid and vapor are maintained in equilibrium saturated conditions to control the RCS pressure. Theheaters are removable for replacement or maintenance. The PZR safety valves are spring loaded and selfactivated when the pressure in PZR exceeded the limit. It is a vertical. This line connects the PZR to a hot leg. Electrical heaters are installed on the bottom head. The main function is to provides the flow of reactorcoolant into and out of the PZR during RCS thermal expansions andcontractions.6 is a main component of the RCS pressure control system.6 : AP1000 Pressurizer .67 3. The bottom head contains the nozzle for attaching to thesurge line. It consist of one spray nozzle and two nozzles for connecting the safety and depressurization valve inletheaders. cylindrical vessel with hemispherical top and bottom heads.

7.7 : APR1400 Pressurizer . By discharging the fluid in IRWST through sparger. cylindrical pressure vessel with replaceable electric heaters to maintain the RCS pressure as shown in figure 3. a surge. The main function of POSRV is to have both overpressure protection and safe depressurization. and pressure and level instrumentation. pilot operated safety relief valves (POSRVs). it can minimize contamination in containment. FIGURE 3.68 APR1400 The PZR is a vertically mounted. bottom supported. increase PZR capacity. The PZR is equipped with nozzles for sprays. The PZR of APR1400 has increase several improvement on operational reliability and maintenance. improve capability against transient.

8 : AP1000 Steam Generator .5 Steam Generator AP1000 The AP1000 steam generator (SG) is a vertical shell and U-tube evaporator with integral moisture separating equipment. improved maintenance features that allows easy access by robotic tooling during maintenance. In addition. FIGURE 3. Water from the feed water system refills the SG water inventory through the SG µs feed water inlet nozzle. The main function of the AP1000 SG is to transfer heat from single-phase reactor coolant water through U-shaped heat exchanger tubes. The AP1000 SG is shown in figure 3. and delivers the steam to a nozzle that will end up in turbine. single-tier separators.8. Two model Delta-125 steam generators are used in AP1000. the secondary side of SG provides water inventory which will continuously available to absorb heats at the primary side.69 3. improved anti-vibration bars. There are some design enhancements on the AP1000 SG which include nickel-chromium-iron Alloy 690 treated tubes on a triangular pitch. The steam generator separates dry and saturated steam from the boiling mixture.

The increased in feed water inventory of the SG enhances plant safety and reduces the number of unplanned reactor trips.70 APR1400 The SG is a vertically inverse U-tube heat exchanger with moisture separators.9 : APR1400 Steam Generator . y The upper tube support bar and plate are designed to prevent vibration due to the flow of water. The SG tube reliability is enhanced by the following design improvements: y Inconel 690. is used as the SG tube material. It operates with the RCS coolant on the tube side and the secondary coolant on the shell side. In addition. the primary outlet nozzle angle of the SG is modified so that it will improve on the stability during mid-loop operation.9. and an integral economizer. which is known to be a corrosion-resistant material. y Automatic control of SG water level for all operating ranges. FIGURE 3. steam dryers. The APR1400 SG is shown in figure 3.

Additional water volumes were achieved by increasing tank sizes.11 uses three sources of water to maintain core cooling through safety injection. These injection sources are directly connected to two nozzles on the reactor vessel. which is located in the containment just above the RCS loops. There are no pumps. diesels. and compressed gas where all these are simple physical principles we rely on every day. and passive containment cooling. Usually. The RCS must be depressurized before the injection can occur. The PXS includes one passive residual heat removal heat exchanger (PRHR HX). and the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST). The function of PRHR HX is to protects the plant against transients that will damage the . Since there are no safety-related pumps. the accumulators. Long-term injection water is provided by gravity force from the IRWST. the increased flow was achieved by increasing pipe size. passive residual heat removal. fans. chillers. The RCS is automatically controlled to reduce pressure to around 0.6 Safety System AP1000 The safety systems for AP1000 include passive safety injection. The passive core cooling system (PXS) shown in figure 3.83 bars. natural circulation.71 3. These injection sources include the core makeup tanks (CMTs). These increases were made while keeping the plant footprint unchanged. or other rotating machinery required for the safety systems thus this eliminates the need for safety-related AC power sources. All these passive systems meet the NRC regulatory and standards. The simplification of plant systems result to reduced actions required by the operator if an accident occurs. the IRWST is isolated from the RCS by squib valves and check valves. IRWST is designed for atmospheric pressure. Passive systems uses only natural forces such as gravity. when the level of water in the IRWST overcomes the low RCS pressure or the pressure loss in the injection lines.

The IRWST provides the heat sink to absorb heat generated for the PRHR HX. Once boiling starts. provides the safety-related ultimate heat sink for the plant. During an accident. The water drains by gravity force from a tank located on top of the containment shield building. The passive containment cooling system (PCS) shown in figure 3. . The PCS cools the containment if an accident happens so that the design pressure will not exceed the limits. air-only cooling is capable of maintaining the containment below the predicted failure pressure. The steam condenses on the steel containment vessel and drains back into the IRWST by gravity force after collection. Heat is removed from the containment vessel by the continuous.72 normal steam generator and feed water systems. The IRWST water absorbs emitted heat for more than one hour before the water begins to boil. The PRHR HX and the passive containment cooling system provide continuous heat removal capability with no operator action required. steam passes through the containment.10. natural circulation of air. In addition. even with failure of water drain. Besides that the pressure will also reduced rapidly by the PCS. air-cooling is supply by water evaporation.

73 FIGURE 3.11 : AP1000 Passive Core Cooling System .10 : AP1000 Passive Containment Cooling System FIGURE 3.

The main design concept of the SIS is simplification to achieve higher reliability and better performance. and an increased thermal margin y Reliable engineered safety features (ESF) including the SIS. .12. and the CSS y Extended ESFs such as the SDVS with IRWST. the safety depressurization and vent system (SDVS). the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST). the containment spray system (CSS).74 APR1400 To improve plant safety. Additionally. Each train has one active safety injection pump (SIP) and one passive safety injection tank (SIT) equipped with a fluidic device (FD). Severe accident prevention features are summarized as follows: y Increased design margins such as a larger PZR. larger SGs. alternate AC power. and a diverse protection system y Containment bypass prevention Severe accident mitigation features are summarized as follows: y Hydrogen mitigation system (HMS) such as a passive autocatalytic recombiner and a glow plug igniter y y y y y Reactor cavity and cavity cooling system External reactor vessel cooling system The SDVS and the IRWST Emergency containment spray backup system Robust containment with a large volume Therefore the safety systems of APR1400 consist of the safety injection system (SIS) as shown in figure 3. The SIS is composed of four independent mechanical trains and two electrical divisions. the SIS is designed for safety water to be injected directly into the reactor vessel. The measures of the APR1400 to cope with severe accidents are divided into prevention and mitigation. the AFWS. and the auxiliary feed water system (AFWS). severe accidents have been fully considered in the APR1400 design.

The AFWS is designed to supply feed water to the SGs for RCS as heat removal in a case of failure in main feed water supply. SDVS will function if the PZR spray is unavailable during plant cool down or a cold shutdown. and the CSS.75 The IRWST is located in the containment building and the arrangement is made so that the injected emergency cooling water will returns to the IRWST. y A coolant supply for the cavity flooding system as shown in figure 3. the AFWS refills the SGs following a LOCA to minimize leakage. SCS are designed to have the same type and capacity as the CSS. the SCS. The AFWS consist of two motor-driven pumps. The functions of the IRWST are as follows. y y y The storage of refueling water. A water source for the SIS. This design does not require operator action to switch the SIP suction from the IRWST to the containment recirculation reservoir. This new design lowers the susceptibility of the IRWST to external hazards. .13 in case of severe accidents in order to protect the core against melting The SDVS is a dedicated safety system designed to provide safety when depressurizing the RCS. two turbinedriven pumps and two independent safety-related emergency feed water storage tanks located in the auxiliary building increases the performance reliability of the AFWS. The CSS is composed of two trains and takes the suction from the IRWST by its pump to reduce the temperature and pressure of the containment during accidents that occur in the containment. In addition. The CSS was designed to be interconnected with the SCS and the pumps of the CSS. A heat sink to condense steam that discharged from the PZR for rapid depressurization if necessary in order to prevent high pressure core melting.

13 : APR1400 Cavity Flooding System .12 : APR1400 Safety Injection System (SIS) FIGURE 3.76 FIGURE 3.

These containment hatches located at two different levels. the diesel generator building and the radwaste building. The power block complex consist of five principal building structures which are the nuclear island. allow activities occurring above the operating deck to be unaffected by activities occurring below the operating deck. the annex building. The containment building is the containment vessel and all structures contained within the containment vessel. and the auxiliary building.9 meter diameter maintenance hatch and a personnel airlock at grade level. Each of these building structures are constructed on individual basemats. The containment building is an integral part of the overall containment system with the functions of containing the release of airborne radioactivity following postulated design basis accidents and providing shielding for the reactor core and the reactor coolant system during normal operations. The nuclear island consists of the containment building. These large hatches significantly enhance accessibility to the containment during outages and consequently reduce the potential for congestion at the containment entrances.9 meter diameter main equipment hatch and a personnel airlock at the operationg deck level and a 4. The containment vessel and the passive containment cooling system are designed to remove sufficient energy from the containment to prevent the containment from exceeding its design pressure following postulated design basis accidents.14 below.77 3. The containment arrangement provides significantly larger laydown areas than most conventional plants at both the operating deck level and the maintenance floor level. The principal systems located within the containment . The plant arrangement of the AP1000 consist of the containment that contains a 4.7 Plant Layout AP1000 A typical site plan for a single unit AP1000 is shown in figure 3. Additionally. the auxiliary building and the adjacent annex building provide large staging and laydown areas immediately outside of both large equipment hatches. all of which are constructed on a common basemat. the turbine building. The containment vessel is an integral part of the passive containment cooling system. the shield building.

electrical power systems. The primary function of the auxiliary building is to provide protection and separation for the safety-related seismic Category I mechanical and electrical equipmentlocated outside the containment building. The function of the passive containment cooling system air baffle is to provide a pathway for natural circulation of cooling air in the event that a design basis accident results in a large release of energy into the containment. and the reactor coolant purification portion of the chemical and volume control system. The shield building protects the containment vessel and the reactor coolant system from the effects of tornadoes and tornado produced missiles. The shield building is the structure and annulus area that surrounds thecontainment vessel. During normal operations the shield building. The most significant equipment. systems contained within theauxiliary building are the main control room. The auxiliary building also provides shielding for the radioactive equipment and pipingthat is housed within the building. During accident conditions. The auxiliary building provides protection for thesafety-related equipment against the consequences of either a postulated internal or externalevent. I&C systems. The passive containment cooling system air baffle is located in the upper annulus area. fuelhandling area. lower density air flows up through the air baffle to the air diffuser and cooler and higher density air is drawn into the shield building through the air inlet in the upper part of the shield building. containment penetration areas. The shield building is also an integral part of the passive containment cooling system.The . Another function of the shield building is to protect the containment building from external events. the passive core cooling system.78 building are the reactor coolant system. This heated and thus. in conjunction with theinternal structures of the containment building. provides the required shielding for the reactor coolant system and all the other radioactive systems and components housed in the containment. In this event the outer surface of the containment vessel transfers heat to the air between the baffle and the containment shell. the shield building provides the required shielding for radioactive airborne materials that may be dispersed in the containment as well as radioactive particles in the water distributed throughout the containment. and the mainsteam and feedwater valve compartments. mechanical equipment areas.

and shutdown. and functions contained within the auxiliary building are the following: y y y y y y y Main control room Class 1E instrumentation and control systems Class 1E electrical system Fuel handling area Mechanical equipment areas Containment penetration areas Main steam and feedwater isolation valve compartment The main control room provides the human system interfaces required to operate the plant safely under normal conditions and to maintain it in a safe condition underaccident conditions.The most significant equipment. The instrumentation and control systems include theprotection and safety monitoring system. Instrumentation and Control Systems is the protection and safety monitoring system and theplant control system provide monitoring and control of the plant during startup. the operations staffarea. The Class 1E system provides 125 volts dc power for safetyrelated and vital control instrumentation loads including monitoring and control roomemergency lighting. The auxiliary building provides protection for the safetyrelatedequipment against the consequences of either a postulated internal or external event. and the data display andprocessing system. Theauxiliary building also provides shielding for the radioactive equipment and piping that ishoused within the building. The main control room includes the main control area. the switching and tagging room and offices for the shift supervisor and administrativesupport personnel. . ascent to power.powered operation.79 primary function of the auxiliary building is to provide protection and separation for thesafety-related seismic Category I mechanical and electrical equipment located outside thecontainment building. systems. the plant control system.

liquid. The fuel handling area in conjunction with the annex building provides the means for receiving.The fuel handling area provides the means for removing the spent fuel assemblies from thespent fuel storage pit and loading the assemblies into a shipping cask for transfer from thefacility. the passivecontainment cooling system recirculation pumps and heating unit and the equipmentassociated with the air cooled chillers that are an integral part of the chilled water system . ventilating and air conditioning exhaust fans. It also provides for safe storage of spent fuel as described in DCD Section 9. The fuel handling area is protected from external events such as tornadoes and tornadoproduced missiles. the solid.80 It is required for safe shutdown of the plant during a loss of ac power andduring a design basis accident with or without concurrent loss of offsite power. associated equipment that service the maincontrol room. and gaseous radwastepumps. and theheating.1. the new fuelassemblies and the associated radioactive systems from external events. instrumentation and control cabinet rooms.The fuel handling area provides for transferring new fuel assemblies from the new fuel storagearea to the containment building and for transferring spent fuel assemblies from thecontainment building to the spent fuel storage pit within the auxiliary building. the chemical and volume control pumps. thespent fuel cooling system pumps and heat exchangers. the battery rooms. tanks. The mechanical equipment located in radiological control areasof the auxiliary building are the normal residual heat removal pumps and heat exchangers. The fuel handlingarea is constructed so that the release of airborne radiation following any postulated designbasis accident that could result in damage to the fuel assemblies or associated radioactivesystems does not result in unacceptable site boundary radiation levels.The mechanical equipment located in the clean areas of the auxiliary building are the heating. The primary function of the fuel handling area is to provide for the handling and storage of new and spent fuel.Fuel Storage and Handling. demineralizers and filters.ventilating and air conditioning air handling units. inspecting and storing the new fuelassemblies. Protection is provided for the spent fuel assemblies.

the ancillary diesel generators and theirfuel supply. No safety-related equipmentis located in the diesel generator building.The annex building includes the health physics facilities and provides personnel and equipmentaccessways to and from the containment building and the rest of the radiological control areavia the auxiliary building. The building includes a hot machine shop for servicingradiological control area equipment. Provided are large. electrical. The building alsocontains the non-1E ac and dc electric power systems. Also provided is separation ofredundant divisions of instrumentation and control and electrical equipment.The main steam and feedwaterisolation valve compartment is contained within the auxiliary building. The hot machine shop includes decontamination facilitiesincluding a portable decontamination system that may be used for decontamination operationsthroughout the nuclear island. other electrical equipment. These generators provide backup power forplant operation in the event of disruption of normal power sources. and various heating. the technical support center.81 The auxiliary building contains all of the containmentpenetration areas for mechanical. Theauxiliary building provides separation of the radioactive piping penetration areas from the nonradioactivepenetration areas and separation of the electrical and instrumentation and control penetration areas from the mechanical penetration areas. . No safety-related equipment is located in the annexbuilding. It includes accessways for personnel and equipment to the clean areas ofthe nuclear island in the auxiliary building and to the radiological control area. The auxiliary buildingprovides an adequate venting area for the main steam and feedwater isolation valvecompartment in the event of a postulated leak in either a main steam line or feedwater line.ventilating and air conditioning systems. and instrumentation and control penetrations.The diesel generator building houses two identical slide along dieselgenerators separated by a three-hour fire wall. The buildingincludes the health physics facilities for the control of entry to and exit from the radiologicalcontrol area as well as personnel support facilities such as locker rooms.The annex building provides the main personnel entrance to the powergeneration complex. direct accessways to the upper and lowerequipment hatches of the containment building for personnel access during outages and forlarge equipment entry and exit.

Condensate storage tank 18. Auxiliary 5. Boric acid storage tank 22. Turbine laydown area 25.14 : AP1000 Plant Layout . containment 2. Dematerialized water storage tank 20. Radwaste 10. Dedicated floor areas and trailer parking space for mobile processingsystems is provided for the following: í Contaminated laundry shipping for offsite processing í Dry waste processing and packaging í Hazardous/mixed waste shipping for offsite processing í Chemical waste treatment í Empty waste container receiving and storage í Storage and loading packaged wastes for shipment 1. Passive containment cooling 26. Diesel generator 13. Fire water storage tank 16. Annex 4. Diesel driven fire pump FIGURE 3. Transformer 17. Turbine 3. and for storingprocessed waste in shipping and disposal containers. for processing by mobile systems. Cooling tower 7.82 The radwaste building includes facilities for segregated storage of variouscategories of waste prior to processing. No safety-related equipment is located inthe radwaste building. Diesel generator oil storage tank 19.

theconvoluted vent path of the reactor vessel cavity preventsmolten core debris from being released into the containmentatmosphere.83 APR1400 The general arrangement of the APR1400 was developedbased on the twin-unit concept using a slide-alongarrangement with common facilities. the reactorvessel cavity is designed in a manner that allows the moltencore materials to spread out so that the heat transfer area isnot less than 0.The RCB is wrapped around by the AB and is founded on a common basemat with the AB. It is placed on acommon basemat with the AB. The layout of the AB. Theinterior surface of the RCB is steel-lined for leaktightness. particularly the physicalseparation of the safety equipment.and sabotage. The layout of the APR1400 can be divided into a nuclearisland (NI) and a turbine island (TI). and the compound building (CB). security incidents.A protective layer of concrete covers the portion of theliner over the foundation slab. the auxiliary building (AB). four-train of safety injection system (SIS) and two sets ofEDGs are arranged so that each one is placed in a physicallyseparated division of the AB. The AB accommodatesemergency diesel generators (EDGs) and the fuel handlingarea (FHA). The IRWST is situated inthe RCB in an annular-shape configuration between thesecondary shield wall and the containment wall. is designed to improveplant safety. In addition. As measures to mitigate severe accidents. The TIconsists of the turbine building (TB) and the switchgearbuilding (SB). accessibility. The safety injection pump (SIP)always take water from the IRWST without switching itssuction from the IRWST to the containment sump forlong-term cooling following a leak of coolant accident (LOCA). The layout of the NI improvesthe structural safety margin against external events suchas a seismic event. This configuration designprevents the propagation of system damage by internaland external events such as fire. flooding. The NI consists of the reactor containment building (RCB). and convenienceof equipment replacement.02 m2/MW and so that these materials arecooled and solidified on the cavity floor. Other internal structures are also arrangedto improve maintainability. As examples.The RCB of the APR1400 is a pre-stressed concretestructure in the shape of a cylinder with a hemispherical dome specified as seismic category I. In order .

The internal arrangement of components isdivided into a radiation area and a clean area to reducethe occupational exposure dose. Toimprove the actuation reliability.84 to improve the convenience ofmaintenance. TheSB houses the electrical distribution equipment. The TI consists of the TB and the SB arranged in adirection radial to the RCB. FHA. The AB is a reinforced concrete structure specified asseismic category I. and a hot machine shop.This design improves the convenience of operation andmaintenance. The AB houses the main control room (MCR).and a polar bridge crane are designed so that an steam generator (SG) canbe replaced in one piece. Work platforms are installed toenhance the convenience of inservice inspections of theSGs and maintenance of the reactor coolant pump (RCP). It accommodates an access control area. primary and secondary samplinglaboratories. an underground common tunnelis designed to accommodate underground facilities in thebase floor of the TB. This arrangementmakes access from each unit more convenient and contributesto reducing the size of the power block due to its compactdesign. It wraps around the RCB in a quadrantarrangement. the safety equipment isspatially separated.As a common facility for both units. aradwaste treatment area. the CB is designedwith a reinforced concrete structure specified as seismiccategory II.The systems and internal structures in the AB arearranged to provide physical separation so as to minimizethe danger from internal and external events such as fireand flooding without adversely affecting accessibility. . such as the SIS. the structural arrangement. and the various components related tosafety. an equipment hatch. Each train of the SIS which consistsof four trains is located in a separate division. The TB encloses the components thatconstitute the heat cycle and produce the electricity. demineralizers arearranged at the same level for effective maintenance. The internal layoutof the AB is designed to provide sufficient space and alifting rig to replace heat exchangers and to replace agenerator of the EDG without removing the outer wall. Both buildings are situated ona common basemat and are designed with a steel structureand a reinforced concrete turbine pedestal specified asseismic category II.EDGs room. In addition. To reducethe construction schedule. The EDGsare also separated on opposite sides.

85 FIGURE 3.15 : APR1400 Common Basemat .

Both designs come from the basic Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) design.S. The material used to manufacture the steam generator are Inconel 690.86 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION 4. it only uses force of nature such as gravity and circulation of air. Their similarities are the plant design life are 60 years. the design of the pressurizer and steam generator. while APR1400 are from the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power. AP1000 are from the Westinghouse U.1 Conclusion There are several similarities and differences between AP1000 reactor and APR1400 reactor. Passive safety system means no pumps. diesel or AC related source for the safety system. Hence this reduces the cost of maintenance and reduces the risk of safety equipment failure. AP1000 reactor is more considerable if we are comparing on construction cost and safety wise due to its plants simplification which reduces overall construction time and cost and its safety system which uses passive safety system. There are spring loaded valves are used in the AP1000 and this reduces the dependability on operator. The generating capacity of APR1400 are 1400 MWe which are 400 MWe . APR1400 reactor is considerable if we are comparing in the aspect of generating capacity and safety valves that can greatly reduce the risk of accident happens in the reactor.

. Generally AP1000 have more advantages compare to APR1400 in the aspect of cost of construction.87 comparing to AP1000. AP1000 will have more market value compare to APR1400 because in the future. the study on advanced nuclear reactor in Generation IV can be done and more information should be gathered to make the project more informative for the references of student in Universiti Tenaga Nasional or for the public. cost of production. safety will be the main concern in the world. The main challenges in doing this project is the lack of information on reactor technology due to it is a national security issue in the world. The control room will detect a signal from the Pilot Operated Safety Relief Valves and hence notify the operator to manual override the Pilot Operated Safety Relief Valves if automatic system failure. time of construction and safety wise. For future work. The safety valve which are the Pilot Operated Safety Relief Valves which replace the spring loaded vales that are used by AP1000 can greatly reduce the risk of malfunction when accident happens.2 Future Work This project is about the comparative study on nuclear reactor technology for nuclear power. 4.

. Chul-Hwa SONG.M. Cummins. Retrieved from http://www.S. September 2009. Safety Related Terms For Advanced Nuclear Plants. Status of The Advanced Power Reactor 1400. December 2006.html [7] Jose N. . Generation IV Fast Reactor Strategy. Corletti. M. Nuclear Power Technology Development Section. [8] International Atomic Energy Agency.. [11] U. T.. Nuclear Power for Electrical Generation.org/info/inf08. No.L.88 REFERENCES [1] USNRC Technical Training Center.world-nuclear. Westinghouse Electric Co. [6] Advanced Nuclear Power Reactors. Jr.E. Vienna. Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology Vol. [3] International Atomic Energy Agency. Ltd. The Generation IV International Forum. The U.S. IAEA-TECDOC-626.J.J. 2003. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute.westinghousenuclear. Chris Maslak. [9] Westinghouse AP1000. September 1991. Korea Hydra & Nuclear Power Co. Reyes.com [10] W.S. AP600 and AP1000 Passive Safety System Design and Testing in APEX. Next-generation nuclear energy: The ESBWR.. Seoul. [5] Jhun S. Plant Description. Westinghouse AP1000 Advanced Passive Plant. [2] Choon-Kyung PARK. DOE Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy. Retrieved from http://www. Schulz. A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systemms [12] U. International Atomic Energy Agency. World Nuclear Association.ap1000. 40. Lee S. LLC. December 2002. Korea. [4] David Hinds. 2003. 10. September 2005. Reactor Concepts Manual. January 2006.

December 2005. Nuclear Issues Paper No. Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co. September 2009. Bell. Dynamics of Nuclear Reactors. Prospects for Nuclear Energy in Europe. Hetrick. 2009. September-October 2008. Nuclear Reactor Hazards. .. [21] [22] [23] John R. The Netherlands. World Energy Outook. The Role of Nuclear Power in Europe. Ltd.89 [13] Jacques Bouchard. [15] Bob van der Zwaan. Retrieved from http://www. [17] World Nuclear Association. Nuclear Reactor Theory. Nuclear Plant Journal. Plant Maintenance & Advanced Reactors Issue. Creating Value For The World. The Design Features of The Advanced Power Reactor 1400. George I. Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory. SUNG-HWAN KIM. Energy Research Center of The Netherlands (ECN). [16] World Energy Council. Amsterdam. [19] Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction.2. [20] SANG-SEOB LEE. Lamarsh. Nuclear Power Plants. David L. Ralph Bennett.worldnuclear.html [18] International Energy Agency. Samuel Glasstone. World Nuclear Power Reactors & Uranium Requirements. January 2007. KUNE-YULL SUH.1996. [14] Anthony Frogatt.org/info/reactors. September 2009. Executive Summary.

90 APPENDICES .

91 APPENDIX Model of Reactor Coolant System .

92 .

93 .