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A project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRONICS
C.GEETHA VANI (532028)
Under the guidance of
(GM of XLtelecom Ltd)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS SRISAIBABA NATIONAL P.G COLLEGE Affiliated to S.K University (ANANTAPUR)
My humble and heartfelt thanks to sri Y.NARASIMHA MURTHY,Head of the department of Electronics for his constant support and encouragement during this study . I forward our sincere thanks to sri N.NANCHARAIAH, General manager of XL telecom Ltd, for his invaluable guidance, moral support and unreserved cooperation through out the course of my project and for making all the facilities available to me. I would like to express our profound sense of gratitude to RAJKUMAR, incharge of research and development, and all the members who helped in the project of this department . sri
I owe my sincere thanks to XL Telecom Ltd, Hyd for giving me this opportunity to do a project in their concern. Finally I would like to thank all those who either directly or indirectly associated with me in bringing this project to its logical end.
ABSTRACT The project focuses on study and design of “30WATT SWITCH MODEPOWER SUPPLY”, familiar in telecommunication sector for CDMA and GSM instruments (hand sets) , achieving desired specifications by Indian telecom services or any other telecom customers .
I studied cost effective ,high efficiency , better EMI and better power factor ,compact in size DC switch mode power supply. In this project single chip consisting of power conversion as well as feed back control .This chip is being operated at higher frequency of order of 125 kHz . My study shall take care of high noise interference in the circuit as well as in the source and equipment ,EMI/EMC in accordance with CISPAR specifications .I designed 30WATT SMPS by using a world class single chip solution provider of power integration (TOP SWITCH). 30WATTSMPS will work at while input variations and regulated output DC will have very low ripple below tolerance level prescribed .It have dual output which is used for the control circuit, to control the output current, voltage and other specification as required and achieved better electrical isolation of both input and output .
CONTENTS Chapter 1. Introduction a. Introduction to power electronics b. Introduction to switch mode power supplies Chapter 2. Topologies Chapter 3. Circuit design a. General Requirements b. power circuit Circuit diagram Circuit diagram explanation Components used and their specifications Design Methodology c. control circuit Circuit diagram BOM for Control circuit components Explanation of circuit diagram Chapter 4.PCB types Explanation of Different PCBs Layout of PCB both power and control circuit. Chapter 5. Performance Table consisting of readings as per G.R . Chapter 6. Observed wave forms input voltage Output Rectifier Primary voltage Secondary voltage Output voltage Chapter 7. Accessories explanation Chapter 8. Data sheets of all components Chapter 9. Applications Chapter 10. Conclusions Chapter 11. References.
controls the instant of turn-on of semiconductor devices. a) BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR A POWER ELECTONIC SYSTEM:- The major components of a power electronic system are in the block diagram.1. The era of modern power electronics began with the invention of silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) by bell laboratories in 1956. The output of power electronic converter circuit depends upon the requirements of the load. The difference of the two.Introduction to Power Electronics Power electronics is a subject that deals with the apparatus and equipment working on the principle of electronics but at power level rather than signal level. through the digital circuit components. .Power systems today incorporate power semiconductor devices as well as micro electronic integrated circuits. Main power source may be an ac supply system or a dc supply system. MAIN POWER SOURCE COMMAND CONTROL CIRCUIT DIGITAL CIRCUIT POWER ELECTRONIC CIRUIT LOAD FEED BACK SIGNAL The output from the power electronic circuit may be variable dc or ac voltage or it may be variable voltage and frequency. The feedback component measures the parameters of a load and compares with the command.
A power electronic converter is made up of some power semiconductor devices controlled by integrated circuits. heating. Ac to ac converters: converts fixed ac input voltage into a variable ac Out put Voltages. . Dc to Dc converters (Dc choppers): converts fixed dc input voltage to a Controllable dc output voltage. The switching characteristics of power semiconductor devices permit a power electronic converter to shape the input power of one form to output power of some other form. 4. 2. Aero space: space shuttle power supplies. 3. air-conditioning. elevators. 5. power supplies 3.b) Some applications of power electronics:1. 6. Tele communication: Battery chargers. Transportation: Battery chargers. Dc to Ac converters (inverters): converts fixed dc voltage to variable ac Voltage (may be variable voltage). traction control of electric vehicles. 4. Diode Rectifiers: converts the ac input voltage to a fixed dc voltage. Commercial: Advertising. These are classified into six types 1. uninterruptible power supplies. trolley Buses. Ac to Dc converters (phase controlled rectifiers): converts constant ac voltage to variable dc output voltages. satellite power supplies aircraft power systems. 1c) Types of power electronic converters: A power electronic system consists of one or more power electronic converters. Static switches: The power semiconductor devices can operate as static Switches. street cars. 2.
High efficiency due to low loss in power semiconductor devices. 4. Power electronic converter circuits have a tendency to generate harmonics in the supply system as well as in the load circuit. around 50 kHz to 200 kHz) . Long life and less maintenance due to the absence of any moving parts. Regulator REGULATED POWER SUPPLIES: There are two main types of regulated power supplies available: SMPS and Linear. Power transformer c. 3. The reasons for choosing one type or the other can be summarized as follows. Rectifier b. e) DISADVANTAGES: 1. Regeneration of power is difficult in power electronic converter systems. Basically a power supply consists of the following elements a. which runs at a higher frequency (usually above the highest audible frequency. Smoothing filter d. High reliability of power electronic converter system. Power electronic controllers have low over load capacity. 1b) INTRODUCTION TO SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLIES A power supply is used to convert utility ac voltage into regulated dc voltage required for electronic equipment. Size and weight: Linear power supplies use a transformer operating at the mains frequency of 50/60 Hz.-+ 2.d) ADVANTAGES: 1. This component is larger and heavier by several times than the corresponding smaller transformer in an SMPS. 2. Small size and less weight result in less floor space and therefore lower installation cost. 3.
This power loss is necessary to the circuit. Thus. For this an SMPS has to use pulse width modulation on the primary winding and "post-regulating" such as phase control on the secondary windings. and can be reduced but never eliminated by improving the design. Due to the high frequencies in SMPS the inductances and capacitances of the traces become important. ON/OFF control. voltage regulating IC and a noise filtering capacitor. A good design can have an efficiency of more than 95%. inductor and filter capacitors. one or several power transistors and diodes as well as power transformer. Heat output or power dissipation: A linear supply will regulate the voltage or current by wasting excess voltage or current as heat. an "ideal" SMPS will be 100% efficient. at power ratings below 30W. However. Efficiency: Linear power supplies regulate their output by using a higher voltage in the initial stages and then expending some of it as heat to improve the power quality. A regulated SMPS will regulate using Pulse Width Modulation or. . and can increase or decrease their power consumption to regulate the load as required. The only heat generated is because ideal components do not exist. while the linear PSU normally uses independent voltage regulators for the auxiliary outputs. which therefore are often produced in series and available in stock. In all SMPS topologies. Consequently. Complexity: A linear regulator ultimately consists of a power transistor. by optimizing SMPS design. the amount of heat produced can be minimized. An SMPS typically contains PWM controller. which is very inefficient. even in theory. Switching losses in the main switching transistors. Both need a careful design for their transformers. non-zero resistance in the "on" state and rectifier voltage drop will produce a fair amount of heat. a well designed SMPS will be more efficient. the transistors are always fully on or fully off. Multiple voltages can be generated by one transformer core. SMPSs draw current at full voltage based on a variable duty cycle.
the noise may be correlated with the SMPS switching frequency or it may also be more broad-band. Acoustic noise: Linear PSUs typically give off a faint. SMPS usually do not exhibit ripple at the power-line frequency. Power factor: The current drawn by simple SMPS is non-sinusoidal and do not follow the supply's input voltage waveform. Quality linear PSUs will suppress ripples much better. so the early SMPS designs have a mediocre power factor of about 0. These "ripples" are usually on the order of millivolts.6. Electronic noise at the output terminals: Inexpensive linear PSUs with poor regulation may experience a small AC voltage "riding on" the DC output at twice mains frequency (100/120 Hz). . with their much higher operating frequencies. in the case of most computer SMPSs). low frequency hum at mains frequency.) SMPSs. A malfunctioning SMPS may generate high-pitched sounds. and can be suppressed with larger filter capacitors or better voltage regulators. This small AC voltage can cause problems in some circuits. are not usually audible to humans (unless they have a fan. but are not as problematic as SMPSs. Power factor correction (PFC) circuits can reduce this problem. and their use in personal computers and compact fluorescent lamps presented a growing problem for power distribution. Linear PSUs. and are required in some countries (European in particular) by regulation. since they do in fact generate acoustic noise at the oscillator frequency. EMI filters and RF shielding are needed to reduce the disruptive interference. but do have generally noisier outputs than linear PSUs. Radio frequency interference: the currents in a SMPS are switched at a high frequency. but this is seldom audible. These high-frequency currents can generate undesirable electromagnetic interference. (The transformer is responsible. generally do not produce interference. however. Linear PSUs also do not have unity power factors.
annual production of SMPS may be as high as 70 to 80% of the total number power supplies produced. frequency. Electronic noise at the input terminals: In a similar fashion. The frequency is normally selected based on size. Block Diagram of SMPS: AC I/P RECTIFIER AND CIRCUIT TRANSFORMER WITH POWER SWITCH O/P RECTIFIER AND FILTER LOAD . and filter capacitors is inversely proportional to the frequency. NASA was the first to develop a light weight and compact switched mode power supply in the 1960s for use in its space vehicles. SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLIES Now a days in most power supplies providing more than a few watts the energy flow is control with power semiconductors that are continuously switching on and off with high frequency . need for dc power supplies for using in integrated circuits and digital circuits has increased manifold. Subsequently.Such devices are referred as SMPS (switch mode power supplies). very low cost SMPS may couple electrical noise back onto the mains power line. For such electronic circuits. With advances in electronics. inductors. efficiency and EMI considerations. Linear PSUs rarely do this. of these transitions an output parameter is controlled. By varying duty cycle. SMPS incorporate power handling electronic components which are continuously on and off with high frequency in order to control the transfer of electric energy through magnetic components and capacitors. phase. this power supply became popular and presently. Typical frequency range of SMPS is 50 KHz to several MHz the high operating frequency results in a smaller size of switch mode power supplies. Since generally the size of power transformer.
Applications: SMPS find use in computer power supplies. Battery Chargers. Costs are reduced due to the absence of large bulky power transistors. 50Hz.SWITCH CONTROL CIRCUIT VOLTAGE SAMPLING NETWORK The equipment takes 220v. AC power. This is done with the help of power-switch control pulse width modulation circuit. Higher efficiency 2. the PWM circuit takes action to maintain the output voltage constant. Adaptors. electronic toy power supplies. . Less cost 5. stereo power supplies etc. TV sets. Low power dissipation Lighter weight and small sizes are due to operation at a significantly higher frequency range and use of smaller inductive elements. To maintain the output voltage at desired level. TV power supplies. this 220v AC is rectified and filtered into dc voltage without an input isolation transformer. CD players. where the rectified high voltage dc is stepped down to some value to feed the device. Energy dissipation is low due to the rapid switching of power transistor between saturation and cutoff regions. without variations in the output voltage due to input Ac voltage or overloading a sampling circuit is needed. Lighter weight 4. The sampling network gives a sample of the output voltage. The rectified and filtered Dc voltage (in the range of 260v Dc to 360 Dc) is given to the transformer. Advantages: 1. For any difference between the sampled output voltage and the reference voltage. Small size 3.
Factors 2. The difference between the topologies: 1. half bridge to at 100 to 1000 watts and full bridge usually over 500 watts.5 dc is considered by the safety regulatory agencies. There are five major factors to consider when selecting a topology for a particular application. There are 3 basic topologies used in SMPS. Buck Boost topology All the topologies use the same elements transistor. Boost topology 3. Is multiple outputs realized? 5.Input voltages above42. TOPOLOGIES A topology is the arrangement of the power devices and their magnetic elements. Therefore only transformer isolated topologies must be used this voltage. Fly back circuits are used primarily at power levels of 0 to 50 watts. 3. Forward topology has an output voltage lower than its input voltage. Switching power supplies deliver constant power to the output load. Forward topology 2. 2. 2. . What is the peak current flowing through the power semiconductors? 4.3& 5 have a great direct effect upon the reliability of the system. forward converters at 50 to 500 watts. These are 1. Boost has an output voltage higher than its input. Buck Boost can have an output voltage either higher or lower than it’s input but inverse in polarity. inductor and diode but they are in different manner. Is the topology electrically isolated from the input to the output or not. Full bridge and half bridge topologies with full bridge secondary have the highest transformer efficiency because the core and windings are fully utilized. Selection of a topology: The best topology for a given application is selected based on specific requirements for each power supply (including cost and time factors) and personnel experience of the designer. There are nearly dozen topologies used in practical power supply design. How much the input voltage is placed across the inductor or transformer? 3.2. How much voltage appears across the power semiconductors? Factor 1 is safety-related issue . They are 1.
The below figure shows where the common topologies are used for a given level of Dc input voltage and required output power. the input current must be high to maintain the output power.5vdc. Otherwise full dielectric isolation is required. so at low input voltages. Multiple outputs require a transformer based topology the input and output grounds may be connected together if the input voltage is below 42. Cost is a major factor that enters into the topology decision. The design goal is to place as much as possible of the input voltage across the transformer or inductor so as to minimize the input current.5 NON ISOLATED FULL BRIDGE FULL BRIDGE DC I/P VOLTAGE 10 BUCK VERY HIGH PEAK CURRENTS 10 100 OUTPUT POWER(W) 1000 Where various topologies are used . HALF BRIDGE 100 FILY BACK 42. Conversely the higher the input voltage. the lower the input current.This is then reflected back to the input.
The inductor current begins a linear . Its operation is understood when it is broken into two the periods when periods when the power switch is turn on and off. the input voltage is directly connected to the input of the LC filter. When the power switch is turn on.Forward Topology The Buck or Step-down converter is the simplest forward mode converter which is shown in fig.
The disadvantage is that it is step-down topology. The stored energy then continuous flowing to the output through the catch diode and inductor`. supply voltage Vs is turned on. supply voltage .ramp from an initial current dictated by the remaining flux in the inductor.stabilized outputs are required from single supply. the circuit provides extremely cost effective and efficient stabilized DC outputs. When the power is turned off. These supplies along with switching regulators may be used for single output or multiple output applications. where several semi . the voltage on the input side of the inductor tries to fly below ground. This essential attraction of this type of converter is its simplicity and low cost. FLY BACK TOPOLOGY: Explanation: The fly back unit combines the action of isolating transformer. but is clamped when the catch diode D becomes forward biased. Only since it is an isolated topology. the core containing enough energy to supply the load during the following off period some reverse energy. The inductor current is given by i(con) = (vin-vout)*t/L + iinit 0<= t <= ton ---> (1) During this period energy is stored as magnetic flux with in the core of the inductor when the power switch is turned off. As a result of this magnetic Integration. These supplies along with switching regulators may be used for higher efficiency. The inductor current decreases from ipk and given by iL(off) = ipk – vout *t/L 0<= t <= toff The off period continues until the controller turns the power switch back on and the cycle repeats itself. for safety reasons the forward converter can not be used for input voltages greater than 42. When power MOSFET is on.stabilized outputs are required from single supply. an output inductor and a flywheel diode in a single transformer. where several semi . The technique may be used for single output or multiple output applications.5vdc.
When M1 is turned off. voltage across transformer secondary is V2 = -(VS/N1) *N2*AS*V2 .Vs is applied to the primary i. with the polarity shown in fig. Is induced in the transformer secondary that is V2 = (VS/N1) *N2*AS*V2 . A corresponding voltage v2.e. a voltage of opposite polarity is induced in primary and secondary windings as shown in fig (b).reverse bios diode D. V1=Vs.Diode D is forward biased and starts conducting a current i0 as a result current stored in the transformer core is delivered To load and partly to change the capacitor C. .Filter capacitance assumed large enough so that capacitor voltage VC (t) =load out put voltage V0 is taken As almost constant.
(V0/N2)*N1*(1/L)(t. V2= -V0. V2 and transformer magnetizing current are shown in fig . The fall of current Im during TOff can be expressed as under Im (t) =Im1. The transformer magnetizing current at t=0 is not a zero but has +ve value Imo to Im1 at t= TON with the rise of Imo During TON magnetic energy gets in the transformer core Im(t) =imo+ (VS/L)t 0< t < ton 1 Where l= transformer magnetizing inductance. duty cycle of fly back converter.N1.TON ) Ton<t<T At t=T Im (T) =Im1.TON) (VS/L)*TON = (V0/N2) *N1*(1/L)* (T. V2 = (VS/N1) *N2. H At t= TON Im (TON) =im1= imo + (VS/L) TON 2 when m1 is turned off the diode D gets forward biased and this current i0 or magnetizing current reduces from Im1 to Im2 at t=T.TON) V0 = (ά * VS*K)/(1-K) Where ά = (N2/ N1) transformer turns ratio from secondary to primary and K= TON/ T. The wave forms for V1. This voltage refer to primary is V1= (V0/N2).TON) V0 = ( ά * VS* TON )/( T.During the time M1 is on V1=Vs.TON) VS * TON = (V0 / ά) * (T. The total time period T =TON+TOFF.(V0/N2)*N1*(1/L)* (t.TON) = Im0+ (VS/L)*TON – (V0/N2) *N1*(1/L)* (T.TON) 3 Since the net energy stored in core over periodic time T is zero Im(0)= Im(T) Im0 = Im0+ (VS/L)*TON – (V0/N2) *N1*(1/L)* (T.
V0 O t ` IM IM1 IM1 IM0 IM0 t O ` TON ` TOFF TON TOFF MODES OF FLY BACK TOPOLOGY: .V1 -(V0/N2) *N1 VS` O t V2 (V0/N2) *N1 .
Discontinuous transfer mode Continuous transfer mode In the Continuous transfer mode there is some energy left in the secondary at the beginning of the next cycle it is possible for Fly Back to operate in both modes but it has different characteristics. . I n this mode even it has lower peak currents and there fore lower output voltage spikes. is seldom used for low power applications.Fly back topology operates in two modes they are 1.and there is also dead time between the instant the secondary current reaches zero and the start of the next cycle .the wave forms of primary and secondary currents to the transformer are shown in below fig. Discontinuous mode has higher peak currents and there fore higher voltage spikes during the turn off . In this mode all the energies stored in primary during the power switch on time is completely transfer to secondary and top the load before the next cycle .on the other hand. it has faster load transient response and lower primary inductance and there fore the transformer can be made in small size . Continuous transfer mode 2. The wave forms of primary and secondary currents through the transformer are shown in the below figure Discontinuous transfer mode.
Function principle: The transistor works as a switch. which is turned on and off by the pulsewidth-modulated control voltage. For the analysis of the following circuit it may be assumed that the transistor and the diode have no voltage drop . With a Buck-Boost converter one could create a -12V potential from a 5V source.BUCK BOOST CONVERTER TOPOLOGY: The Buck-Boost Converter converts a positive input voltage to a negative output voltage.
there is an input voltage Vin applied across the inductor L. In discontinuous mode the inductor current falls to zero during every period. In the program the diode forward voltage of VF = 0. The voltage VL then oscillates and fades away. At that moment when the current becomes zero. During the blocking phase of the transistor. it is independent of the load. the current IL continues to flow through the inductor and loads the output capacitor Cout. Energy is loaded into the inductor. the voltage VL also goes to zero.7V is taken into account. The inductor current IL increases linearly. • In continuous mode the output voltage depends only on the duty cycle t1/T and the input voltage Vin. The drain-source capacitance in parallel with the diode-junction capacitance together with the inductor L creates a resonant circuit which is activated by the voltage jump of V1.during the respective on-phases. During the on-time of the transistor. The inductor transfers its energy to Cout. .
Operating Modes of Buck Boost Converter Continuous Mode Discontinuous Mode FULL BRIDGE PUSH-PULL CONVERTER: The Full-Bridge Push-Pull Converter belongs to the primary switched converter family since there is isolation between input and output. It is suitable for very high output powers. .
On the secondary side.Function principle For the following analysis it will be assumed that the transistor is simplified as an ideal switch and the diode has no forward voltage drop. formed by the inductor L and the output capacitor Cout. In the program itself. so that V3 is a pulsewidth-modulated control voltage which switches between Vin. the pulse-frequency of V3 is equal to 2· f . -Vin or zero depending on which pair of transistors (T1. where the negative as well as the positive half swing transfers energy. For continuous mode (IL never becomes zero) this leads to: The Duty cycle of this converter may theoretically increase to 100%.T4 or T2.7V. The Low-Pass filter. the AC voltage is rectified. the diode will take into account a forward voltage drop VF = 0.T3) are turned on or off. . Due to the rectification. have to be switched with a time difference to avoid a short circuit of the input supply.(N2/N1) and zero. In practice this is not possible because the serial connected transistors T1 and T2. The Push-Pull converter drives the high-frequency transformer with an AC voltage. The primary transformer voltage V1 can be +Vin. produces the average value of V3.
namely if Iout < ΔIL/2. . The voltage V3 then oscillates and fades away. In that moment. it is load independent. with Vout = Vin · (N2/N1) · t1/T and a chosen switching frequency f it can be shown that: • • The change in inductor current is load independent. The inductor current IL has a triangular shape and its average value is determined by the load. The change in inductor current ΔIL is dependent on L and can be calculated with the help of Faraday's Law. For a small load current. which is activated by the voltage jump at the rectifier. The diode junction capacitance of the secondary rectifier forms a resonant circuit with the inductance. when the inductor current becomes zero. During continuous mode. the current will fall to zero during every period. This is what is known as discontinuous mode. a condition for the turns ratio emerges: During continuous operation: • In continuous mode the output voltage depends only on the duty cycle and the input voltage. The output current Iout is taken to be the average value of the inductor current IL. In this case the calculations stated above are no longer valid.Due to the fact that the duty cycle t1/T can theoretically increase to 100%. the voltage V3 jumps to the value of Vout.
Operating modes of the Full-Bridge Push-Pull Converter .
3 CIRCUIT DESIGN: GENARAL REQUREMENTS: 1)AC INPUT VOLTAGE: 90V to 300V (230 nominal) 2)DC OUT OF REGULATION: 13.35V to 13.5V nominal) 3)EFFICIENCY: Better than 75% at nominal input and rated low and 70% in other separated input and output and load conditions 4)PEAK TO PEAK RIPPLE: .65V (13.
under shoot shall not exceed 5% without battery floated and get restored with in regulating range with in 100msec under following condition i) Switch on ii) Step change of input voltage from 90V-300V and vice versa iii) Load change from 100%to 10% and vise versa iV) The unit shall not have any tendency to hunt at any of the specified input and load condition .Overall peak to peak ripple voltage (with out battery and floated) shall be less than 75mV 5)TRUE INPUT POWER FACTOR True input power factor shall be greater than 0.75 at full rated load & nominal i/p 6) TOTAL VOLTAGE HORMONIC DISTORTION: Shall not be more than 10% for input voltage 90V-300V and at load 50-100% of rated capacity 7)LOAD LIMITING (VOLTAGE DROP) The unit shall be capable of taking excessive load up to 105% minimum but not more than 120% of its rated capacity without any degradation 8)INRUSH CURRENT: Shall not exceed the input current at full loads at the lowest specified input voltage 9)TRANSIENT RESPONSE: The transient overshoot.
it consist of power circuit and control circuit.1V these battery shall be isolated from the load and shall automatically be recommended when voltage is above 12. which are used for controlling the desired output values are controlled through the control circuit .5V d) REVERSE POLARITY The unit shall work automatically even it polarity change The 12V SMPS consist of all the components which are required for the normal power supplies .10)BATTERY PATH CURRENT SETTING LIMITING To protect the battery against over change these shall be a provision of link and terminals inside the unit to set the battery path current to 700mA or 1400m A PROTECTIONS: a) AC UNDER OR OVER VOLTAGE: Float charger unit shall trip and provide galvanic isolation at the ac input in case the input voltage goes behind specified input range of 90-300V with a suitable alarm tolerance = +-5V b) DC OVER VOLTAGE Incase output DC voltage of the FC exceeds 14. topswitch. The input voltages are given to the power circuit and the regulated output voltage is delivered by both the power and control cards in control card or control circuit opamps comparators are present. optocoupler. resistors and capacitors are present.2V the FC shall be isolated at the input automatically c) BATTERY UNDER VOLTAGE: In case output DC voltage falls below 11. In power circuit rectifier transformer.
CIRCUIT FOR POWER CARD : .
EMI Filter: EMI is two types radiated (sound in to the outer space) and conducted (noise flowing in the power ckt) To suppose EMI we use LF1 which is simple inductor filter there fore two types of method to suppress EMI common mode and difference mode Common mode: Here filter is used in between phase and ground. OUTPUT RECTIFIER →Input to the circuit is sinusoidal wave 1. PFC 4.DISCRIPTION OF POWER CIRCUIT: The main blocks of power circuit are 1. Bridge Rectifier: . BRIDGE RECTIFIER 3. EMI Filter 2. TOPSWITCH 6. TRANSFORMER 5. CURRENT CONTROL 7. Difference mode: Here filter is used between two phases or between phase and neutral. (We use common mode filter as neutral is grounded) 2. VOLTAGE CONTROL 8.
in the half cycle of the input voltage the two diodes D1 and D3 are forward biased and the current flows through the output. D4 and forward biased and D3. Half-Wave rectifier Full Wave Rectifier bridge Rectifier is a full wave Rectifier . Input to the given circuit is sinusoidal signal . Consequently in the –ve half cycle of the in put the diodes D2. D1 are reverse biased there fore conductance takes place via the diodes D2. D4 are grounded and another two diodes D1. D4.the diode D1D2D3D4 are arranged in the form of four resistances of when stone bridge networks the diode s D3.thus the current flows in the output for both the +ve and –ve half c cycles . These are two types of rectifier are 1. The current flows the output . D2 are connected to the input through the line filter.thus the current is uni directional.Rectifier : Rectifier is a device which delivers a direct current when connected in a suitable fashion to a source Of alternating voltage.
POWER FACTOR CORRECTION: Power Factor is defined as the ratio of real power to apparent power .the pf is given by the cosign of the phase angle between the input .IDEAL WAVEFORMS OF RECTIFIER: 3.in typical ac power supply application where both the voltage and current are sin soidal .
Passive PFC: .it is import to have the power factor as close as possible to unites so that none of the delivered power is reflected back to the source . The passive PFC operate at the line frequency and use capacitor and inductors is a low pass configuration . A new single-stage fly back converts suitable for low power application with improved valley fill as power factor corrector is introduced. Active PFC 2.current and input voltage . power is negative . And is a measure of how much of the current of the contributes to real power in the load. The active PFC circuit is entirely satisfactory for harmonics compliance but the design complexity and cost of the additional circuits is often unacceptable in low power application. the power factor of unity indicates that cent present of current is contributing to power in the load while a power factor of zero indicates that none of the current contributes to power in the load . Passive PFC Active PFC: A typical active two stage PFC circuit uses a boost converter followed by a dc/dc converter to regulate the output voltage with a dc link at higher voltage then the peak of the AC supply.purely resistive loads have a power factor of unity the current through them is directly proportional to the applied voltage .there are two methods are present in the PFC There are 1.the solution offers a trade –off between the cost and performance unfortunately the physical size and weight of this filter it unattractive for compact solution. The current in an AC line can be though of has consisting of two components real and imaginary the real part results in power observed by the load while the imaginary part is power being reflected back into a source such as in the case when current and voltage are of opposite polarities and there product. . Another way to achieve passive power factor improvement is by a circuit called “Valley Fill” when mostly used in the electronic ballast as PFC.
A resonant based improvement of valley fill circuit was reported for light ballast application where a resonant current was inverted into the v alley fill . The fallowing fig shows a conventional values filled circuit and its wave forms the spikes at the peak of in put current is a result of changing the capacitor at the peak line voltage. Another solution has been presented to reduce the charging current spike by inserting a resistor R1 into the bottom Electrode of C2 and adding a voltage Double to extending the input current conduction angle A higher power factor and lower THDC can be achieved but the draw back is lower efficiency due to losses at the resistor R1 the losses can be slightly reduced if resistor R1 is inserted in the diode D1 branches instead.The valley fill power factor corrector circuit contains two capacitors and the diodes . As long as the line voltage remains above single capacitor voltage. the line feeds the load directly .the two electrolytic capacitors are changed in series along the line peak to a half of the peak line voltage. an inductor can be added in front of bridge (or) charging leg to smooth out the peak of input current due to the abrupt changing of the two capacitors. This spike and the cross over distortion are reflected to AC side as alternating current pulses and associated harmonics.when the line voltage falls below the single capacitor voltage. the bridge rectifier diodes are reversely biased and valley fills diodes conduct and the capacitor are connected in parallel to feed the load. To improve basic valley fill circuit.
4. The objectives of this method to develop an improved valley fill method for a PWN converter to achieve low input distortion and high power factor at a low cast.it can be used to step up or step down voltage levels. the primary consists of large number of turns of thin copper wire. For a step down transformer. while the secondary consist of a few turns of thick copper wire Power Transformer is a crucial part of SMPS A Transformer is an election magnetic device used for transformer of energy between two or more electrical systems with a magnetic field as the coupling device .in a step up transformer the primary consist of a few turns of thick copper wire of large current carrying capacitor and secondary consisting Of a very large number of turns of thin copper wire.The reluctance of the magnetic circuit of a Fly Back transformer is usually much higher than that of a regular . A fly back transformer in its simplest form has current flowing either in its primary or in its secondary .circuit to improve the input current wave forms. Step down transformer The transformer which convert low voltage into high voltage are called the step up transformer while those which convert higher voltage into lower voltage are called step down transformer . Step up transformer 2. They are 1.Transformer: There are two types of transformers. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REGULAR TRANSFORMER AND FLYBACK TRANSFORMER: The main difference between a fly back transformer and a regular transformer is fly back transformer is designed to store energy in its magnetic circuit that is functions like a pure inductor where as regular transformer is designed to transform energy from its primary to secondary and to minimize stored energy.
TRANSFOMER CONSTRUCTION: Based on the construction transformer is either 1.transformer this is because of a c carefully calculated air gap for storing energy. Margin wound 2. with windings placed between them . MARGIN WOUND: The creepage distance is maintained by physical barriers called Margins built up on each side of bobbin using electrical tape. The voltage applied to a Fly Back transformer on the primary side of a Fly Back transformer are either increase or decrease linear sawtooths. Guaranteed creepage distance between primary and secondary windings where reinforced insulation is not used.where as a regular transformer usually has sinusoidal currents. . Finally due to the properties of core materials. This construction is done with ordinary magnetic wire readily available. Fly Back transformer are most conveniently operated in the range of 103to 106 Hz where as regular transformer has a much wider range from few Hz to 1012 Hz.Use insulating tubing at start and finish leads of each windings pass through margins to reach transformer pins. Triple Insulated Wire wound For the magnetic wire used the safety regulations are as follows Reinforced insulation between primary and secondary windings.
The start of primary winding should be connected to TOP Switch drain. high current secondary windings. For Transformers with high power (>40W) output we may split primary to get constant or minimum leakage inductance. For the very purpose considering all the requirements we selected Margin wound transformer. . In margin wound transformer secondary with high output power should be placed closest to primary for best coupling and low leakage. Leakage inductance is less due to more efficient use of bobbin space. To maximize coupling spread secondary over bobbin instead bunching it together. This design uses magnet wire for primary and bias windings and triple insulated secondary. Transformer with triple insulated wire has ½ to 2/3 of size of transformer of same power capability using magnet wire design. REDUCTION OF EMI: Make primary winding the inner most winding in the bobbin. Secondary has few turns of large diameter than primary.TRIPLE INSULATED WIRE: This can be used without creepage margins. But this results in poor load regulation. REDUCTION OF LEKAGE INDUCTANCE: Keep windings in concentric fashion for minimum leakage inductance. Foil winding may be used for low voltage.
SECONDARY SIDE: When top switch is on the current flow in secondary is in direction 8load-10. In the off time the stored energy is reverted.the waveforms come like the sine wave. This is done when only the switch is on again. If the switch is off the stored energy is delivered to the load . To reduce this. In the waveforms across primary. place this winding between primary and secondary to act as a shield. Also shielding between primary and secondary windings and addition of ‘flux band’ to reduce stray field around transformer can be used. Also flux band reduces electrostatic coupled interference. The transformer stores the energy when the switch is On. This acts as shorted turn for stray flux outside. The shunt lies between the load -ve and system –ve. and the sine wave comes in the –ve side of the wave . .The output the bridge rectifier is connected to the primary of the transformer through some resistive network. In some cases. In 12V SMPS Step down transformer is used I t consist of large number of primary turns and less number of secondary turns the designing of transformer as d fallows . There are 6 windings in secondary.For a secondary regulated transformer design. in the on time . stray magnetic field around a switching power supply transformer can interfere with adjacent circuitry and contribute to EMI.But after the discharge of the capacitor only energy is delivered to the load. copper flux band is added outside of transformer. The windings 6-7 for secondary auxiliary winding for indication. The windings 2-5 for bias winding for optocoupler The windings 8-10 for secondary winding to load. In 8-10 windings of the secondary transformer first the energy is stored in the output capacitor and output capacitors and output appears across the output when the output current flows from the +ve to –ve through the shunt resistance to close the loop the energy in the output capacitor delivers when the output capacitors are discharged. opposing currents are induced in flux band by stray field canceling their influence.Therefore the output rectifier diode D105 is reverse biased and hence there is no energy transfer when top switch is on.the reverted voltage is 90v.
When top switch is off the flow is in direction from terminal 10-D105load-8. Frequency reduction at light loads lower the switching losses and maintaining good cross regulation in multiple output supplies. Frequency jittering reduces EM1 . performance and energy efficiency TOP SWITCH provide the fallowing transparent features Soft start 132 KHz switching frequency. The Top switch offers many new transparent features that do not require any external components. These terminals can be connected to the source to operate like Top switch in this terminal mode. to simply design and optimize system cost.TOP SWITCH: Top switch is a device integrating the high voltage power MOSFET. A fully integrated 10ms soft-start limits peak currents and voltage during start-up and dramatically reduces or eliminates output overshoot in most applications 2.1 allows smaller input storage capacitor lower input voltage requirement or higher power capacity 3. C113.fault protection and other control circuitry on to a single CMOS chip. 1. pwm control . C112 form the output capacitors. line sense and external limit have been added to improvement some of the new functions. DCMAX of 78. frequency jittering for lower EM1 wider DCMAX hysteretic thermal shutdown and large creepage packages. Many new functions are integrated it reduce system cost improve design flexibility. In addition all critical parameters have tighter temperature and absolute tolerance. Three terminals frequency. 4 Higher switching frequencies of 132 KHz reduces the transformer size with no noticeable impact on EM1 5. Therefore the diode D105 is forward biased and there is energy transfer from primary to secondary. They are charged whenever flow of current through load during D105forward biased. When D105 is reverse biased the output capacitor supplies the load making current continuous and the output constant DC. 5.
voltage current source .The internal start-up bias current is drawn from this pin through a switched high.restart/compensation capacitor Line Sense Pin: .internal current limit sense point for drain current. Control Pin: Error amplifiers and feed back current input pin for duty cycle control .Functional Description: Drain Pin: High voltage power MOSFET drain output .it is also used as the connection point for the supply by pass and auto.internal shunt regulator connection to provide internal bias current during normal operation .
Connections to source Pin disable all functions on this pin.Input Pin for OV. CONTROL PIN OPERATION: The control pin is a low impedance node that is capable of receiving a combined supply and feedback current. During normal operation a shunt regulator is used to separate the feed back signal from supply current CONTROL pin VC is the supply voltage for control circuitry including the MOSFET GATE DRIVER An external by pass capacitor closely connected between the CONTROL and SOURCE pins is required to supply the instantaneous gate drive current. UV line feed forward with DCMAX reduction. Primary side control circuit common and reference point.the switching frequency is internally set for fixed 132 KHz operation Source pin: Output MOSFET source connection for high voltage power return. remote ON /OFF and synchronization.the soft start circuit gradually increases the duty cycle of the MOSFET from zero to the maximum value over approximately 10ms if no external feed back supply current is fed into the CONTROL pin by the end of the soft start the high voltage current source is turned off and the CONTROL pin will start discharging in response to the supply current drawn by control circuitry if the power supply is designed properly and no fault condition such as open loop or shorted output exists the feed . Frequency pin: Input pin for selecting switching frequency 132 KHz if connected to source pin and 66 KHz if connected to control pin .When the CONTROL pin voltage VC reaches approximately 5.8V the control circuitry is activated and soft start begins . The total amount of capacitance connoted to this pin also sets the auto restart timing as well as control loop compensation When rectified DC high voltage is applied to the DRAIN pin during start up the MOSFET is initially off and the control pin capacitor is charged through a switched high voltage current source connected internally between the DRAIN and CONTROL pins .
Note that a minimum current must be driven into the CONTROL pin before the duty cycle begins to change.to further reduce the EMI level the switching frequency is jittered( frequency modulated ) by approximately +-4 KHz at 250Hz rate PULSE WIDTH MODULATOR AND MAXIMUM DUTY CYCLE: The pulse width modulator implements voltage mode control by driving the out put MOSFET with a duty cycle inversely proportional to the current into the CONRTROL pin that is in excess of internal supply current of the chip .the excess current is the feed back error signal that appears across RE .A clock signal from the oscillator sets a latch which turns on the output MOSFET the pulse width modulator resets the latch.8V(internal supply under voltage lockout threshold). This current flowing through the RE control the duty cycle of the power MOSFET to provide closed loop regulation the shunt regulator has finite low output impedance ZC that sets the gain of error amplifier when used in a primary feed back configuration.this signal is filtered by an RC network with a typical corner frequency 7 KHz to reduce the effect of switching noise in the chip supply current generated by the MOSFET gate driver. The normal switching frequency of 1232 KHz was chosen to minimize transformer size while keeping the fundamentals EMI frequency below 150KHZ . As the control current increases the duty cycle decreases . turning off output MOSFET. The filtered error signal is compared with the internal oscillator saw tooth wave form . When the externally fed current charges the CONTROL pin to the shunt regulator voltage of 5. The dynamic impedance ZC of the CONTROL pin capacitance sets the dominant pole for the control loop OSCILATOR AND SWITCHING FREQUENCY: The internal oscillator linearly charges and discharges an internal capacitance between two voltage levels to create a saw tooth waveform for the pulse width modulator. This s oscillator sets the pulse width modulator/ current limit latch at the begging of each cycle. .back loop will close providing external CONTROL pin current before the CONTROL pin voltage has had a chance to discharge to the lower threshold voltage of approximately 4.to generate the duty cycle wave form.8V current in excess of the consumption of the chip is shunted to SOURCE through resistor RE as shown in figure 2.
in several different ways.The maximum duty cycle DCMAX is set at a default maximum value of 78%(typical) However by connecting the LINE SENSE or MULTIFUNCTION pin (depending on the package) to the rectified DC high voltage bus through a resistor with appropriate value from 78% to 38% LIGHT LOAD FREQUENCY REDUCTION: The pulse width modulator implements voltage mode control by driving the output MOSFET with a duty cycle inversely proportional to the current into CONTROL pin As the CONTROL pin current increases .R or F packages) and into or out from THE MULTI FUNNCTION pin (P or G packages) In addition. the LINE SENSE pin has a 1V threshold comparator connected at its input.The minimum frequency is typically 30KHz and 15KHz for 132KHz and 6KHz operation respectively This feature allows a power supply to operate at lower frequency at light loads thus lowering the switching losses while maintaining good cross regulation performance and low output ripple REMOTE ON OFF AND SYNCHRONIZATION: Top switch –GX can be tuned on /off by controlling the current into the LINE SENSE pin are out from the EXTENAL CURRENT LIMIT PIN (Y .R or F packages ) or THE MULTI FUNNCTION pin (P or G packages) and the SOURCE pin implements function with “active -on” .Below 10% duty cycle to maintain high efficiency at light loads the frequency is also reduced linearly until a minimum frequency is reached at a duty cycle of 0% . This voltage threshold can also be used to perform ON OFF control. This allows easy implementation of remote ON OFF control of TOP Switch –GX .a duty cycle decreases linearly towards a duty cycle of 10% . a transistor or an opto coupler output connected between the EXTERNAL CURRENT LIMIT pin or LINE SENSE pins (Y .
The remote ON/OFF feature allows the TOP Switch-GX to be turned on and off instantly.for long enough time to allow the CONTROL pin to discharge to the internal supply under voltage threshold of 4. It also allows for micro processor controlled and turns ON and turns OFF sequences that may be required in certain applications such as ink jet and laser printers.if the TOP Switch GX is held in remote off state .then the system is on it is that the voltage through the resisters R114.ion the worst case the delay from on to start off can be equal to the full discharge or charge cycle time of the CONTROL Pin.UV and remote ON /OFF. In our system it is designed so that it is on for 90 volts and off at 300 v.R116.R or F packages) or THE MULTI FUNNCTION pin (P or G packages) and the CONTOL pin implements the function with “active off”.8V and runs entirely of the high voltage DC output but with very low power consumption (160 mW typical at 230V AC with M or X pins open).8V and 5. with very little delay . When a signal at the above pins changes state from disable to enable . on a cycle-by –cycle basis .8 V . This is approximately 125mS .R or F packages) or THE MULTI FUNNCTION pin (P or G packages) to disable the output through any of pin function such as OV. it will initiate the normal start up sequence with soft start the next time is the CONTROL pin reaches 5. the internal oscillator starts the next switching cycle . When a signal is received at the LINE SENSE or EXTENAL CURRENT LIMIT PIN (Y .R115.this reduced consumption remote of mode can eliminate expansive and reliable in line mechanical switches. This approach allows the use of these pins two synchronize TOP Switch –GX to any external signal with the frequency between its internal switching frequency and20KHZ.the CONTROL pin goes into the hysteretic mode of regulation in this mode the CONTROL pin goes through alternate charge and dis charge cycle between 4.and the voltage across the zener becomes 5.8V .6v then the zener breakdown it is designed so .If the 3rd pin of TOPSWITCH is zero.While a transistor or an opto coupler output connected between the LINE SENSE pin or LINE SENSE pins (Y .for a 47 μF CONTROL pin capacitor .how ever remote ON/OFF can also be used as a stand by or power switch to turn off the TOP Switch GX and keep it in a very low power consumption state for indefinitely long periods . When the TOP Switch GX is remotely tuned on after entirely this mode..
U102 is grounded The current is flow through the optocoupler the light emitted from the diode of the opto coupler makes the transistor to come into action .15 Amps. 7.Diode .Current Control: When the system output current is grater than 2.the collecter must be +ve so that it is connected to the resistive network of R2& R3. The diode emits light on the transistor. and then the transformer comes into action. opto coupler and Top switch control pin .that then the transistor is on through the apply of base current through resistive network . RA110 to get the voltage across the Zener V102.the Zener now breaks down and provides pater for the current to flow through t optocoupler. A connection to source pin disable all function on this pin.the Top switch changes the pulse width according to the required output voltage. The emitter of the optocoupler transistor is connected to the control pin of the Top Switch which controls the system output current . C117. External Current Limit: Input pin for external current limit adjustment remote ON/OFF and synchronization. 6. U102 when the system output voltage is more than 13.RA110 . then f B is applied to the base of the transistor Q1 the current flows through the resistor R108 to the optocoupler. the zener controlling block consisting of elements RA111.5 v across the loads then the voltage across the Zener becomes greater than the required voltage to reverse break down of Zener . auxiliary winding flows through D107.the secondary voltage. RA111. RA112.R103and R1 then the system automatically off.Voltage Control: In power circuit the voltage drop across the load is taken and potentially divided using the resistors RA111. R100. RA111. If the applied voltage is 300v then the voltage at the pin2 becomes 270microA through the resistive network R102.
We have selected schottky diode.3V-0. Structure and V-I characteristics: A schottky diode is formed by placing a thin film of metal in direct contact with a semi conductor. than that of a silicon diode. the on-state voltage is significantly lower. the schottky diode may be preferable for use in some power applications. Hence it starts conducting much more before at lower voltage than pn diodes. Hence initially when both are diffused there flow of electrons from semiconductor (N type) to metal and the depletion layer is formed. Thus the basic schottky diode i-v curve is I=Is [eqv/kT-1] However. The break down voltage of a schottky diode at present cannot be made reliably larger than 100-200V.OUTPUT RECTIFIER: In the output side we have used only a single diode for the purpose of rectification. typically 0. Although appropriate metal films on p-type material could also be used. the schottky diode has a reverse leakage current that is larger than that of a comparable silicon pnjunction diode.4V. Schottky diodes are usually made by diffusing the thin metal film layers on the semi conductor. Here the flow is only due to the flow of majority carriers but not due to the minority carriers. the i-v characteristic of the schottky diode can be expressed by the same equation as for the pn junction. Thus. The metal film is usually deposited on an n-type semiconductor. Due to the difference in the carriers electrons there potential difference created.The details of diode selected are discussed below. In reverse direction. hence the reverse break over voltage is more. Also due to the low depletion the reverse current is less. Also since the depletion layer is small the forward break over voltage is very small. . SCHOTTKY DIODE: Schottky diode is special diode differing in construction from that of ordinary diodes. Such a structure has rectifying I-V characteristics very similar to that of a pn-junction diode. Although the fundamental physics of the schottky diode is different than that of the pn junction.
When a voltage is applied to the structure that biases the metal positive with respective to the semiconductor. The electrostatic potential barrier that accompanies the space charge region will grow in magnitude and oppose the continued flow of electrons from the semiconductor into the metal. There is a flow of electrons in both directions across the metalsemiconductor interface when contact is first made.Principle of operation: The key to the operation of the schottky diode is the fact that electrons in different materials have different absolute potential energies compared with electrons at rest in free space (the potential energies are lower in materials. no minority carriers. indicating that the electrons are bound in the solid). As a consequence.3V. Every thing is quite similar to that of pndiode except that metal replaces the p. the metal will become negatively charged and the semi conductor will acquire a positive charge by forming a depletion region adjacent to the interface.Considering. it opposes the built-in potential and makes it easier for current to flow. However. were involved. For this reason. since they use both electrons and holes in their basic operation.type side and the negative space charge comes from free electrons. took part. carrier devices or bipolar devices. The difference amounts roughly 0. electrons in this example. Eventually the potential barrier gets large enough so that the flux of electrons from the semiconductor into the metal is just equal to the flux from the metal to the semi conductor. Note that in establishing this equilibrium. holes in this situation. The reason for the smaller voltage drop across the schottky diode is that reverse saturation . the metal-semiconductor interface has rectifying characteristics similar to those of a pn-junction. Biasing the metal negative with respect to the semiconductor increases the potential barrier to majority –carrier current flow. The major difference is that at any given forward current. the flux of electrons from the semi conductor into the metal will be much larger because of the higher absolute potential energy of the electrons in the semi conductor. Thus. Only majority carriers. At this point thermal equilibrium is established and there is no net current flow across the interface. the voltage across the schottky diode is smaller than that across a pn-junction. where an N-type semi conductor is in contact with a metal whose electrons have a lower absolute potential energy than the electrons in the semi conductor. This is the key difference between a schottky diode and pn-junction diode.
R116. Where small size.D5 . D114. In such situations the link between the two must be an isolated one. R117.1. Relays can of course provide this kind of isolation.R114 . R2. like a microprocessor which is operating from 5V DC but being used to control a triac which is switching 240V AC. relays are also not as reliable ó and only capable of relatively low speed operation.when Q2 is on the current flows through the diode D5 and R118 to the 3 terminal of the top switch to give the pulses when the voltage input is below 90V the transistor is off state and there is no pater for current from terminal 3 to ground and hence no pulses OPTO-COUPLER: There are many situations where signals and data need to be transferred from one subsystem to another within a piece of electronics equipment. In addition to the above blocks there are so many resistive networks . R119. Thus it can be said that schottky has less losses than pn-junction diode. typically a gallium arsenide LED (light-emitting diode) and an optical receiver such as a phototransistor or light-triggered diac.R118 . R115. to protect the microprocessor from over voltage damage. Optocouplers typically come in a small 6-pin or 8-pin IC package. R127. but are essentially a combination of two distinct devices: an optical transmitter. . Because they’re electro-mechanical.R3 . R122 . Often this is because the source and destination are (or may be at times) at very different voltage levels. without making a direct ëohmicí electrical connection. These use a beam of light to transmit the signals or data across an electrical barrier. or from one piece of equipment to another. The two are separated by a transparent barrier which blocks any electrical current flow between the two.capacitors . along with the usual circuit symbol for an optocoupler. higher speed and greater reliability are important.current of a schottky diode is significantly larger than that of pn-junction diode of the same cross sectional area. R120.Q2 . a much better alternative is to use an opto-coupler. but even small relays tend to be fairly bulky compared with ICs and many of today’s other miniature circuit components. The basic idea is shown in Fig.diodes are present the information above them is given below When ever input voltage greater than 90v the resistor Q2 is triggered on through circuit . and achieve excellent isolation. but does allow the passage of light.
however that in most devices CTR tends to vary with absolute current level.300 kHz. Other optocoupler parameters include the output transistor’s maximum collector-emitter voltage rating VCE(max). so they’re best for transferring either on-off control signals or digital data. Typical values for CTR range from 10% to 50% for devices with an output phototransistor and up to 2000% or so for those with a Darlington transistor pair in the output. the input LED is maximum current rating IF(max). Optocouplers are essentially digital or switching devices. Typical opto-couplers with a single output phototransistor may have a bandwidth of 200 . and falls away at both higher and lower current levels. Analog signals can be transferred by means of frequency or pulse-width modulation. to physically separate them as much as possible. This usually allows optocouplers to withstand voltages of anywhere between 500V and 7500V between input and output. Note. Typically it peaks at a LED current level of about 10mA. and using the resulting switching of the phototransistor/ diac to generate an output waveform or logic .Usually the electrical connections to the LED section are brought out to the pins on one side of the package and those for the phototransistor or diac to the other side. and the optocoupler’s bandwidth. which is used to calculate the minimum value for its series resistor. Basically the simplest way to visualise an optocoupler is in terms of its two main components: the input LED and the output transistor or diac. This is simply the ratio between a current change in the output transistor and the current change in the input LED which produced it. while those with a Darlington pair are usually about 10 times lower. As the two are electrically isolated. which limits the supply voltage in the output circuit. this gives a fair amount of flexibility when it comes to connecting them into circuit. usually measured in terms of their current transfer ratio or CTR. All we really have to do is work out a convenient way of turning the input LED on and off. Key Parameters The most important parameter for most optocouplers is their transfer efficiency. at around 20 30 kHz. which determines the highest signal frequency that can be transferred through it ó determined mainly by internal device construction and the performance of the output phototransistor.
AND D103 is known as Snubber Circuit Snubber Circuit is a simple electrical circuit used to suppose transients (Snub) Fly back has the dis advantage of large transient voltage spikes at the drain.Snubber Circuit: In our circuit C106. inductors and diodes passive snubber can control either voltage or current and may be either dissipated in a resistive element it is classified as a dissipated snubber but if the energy is return to the input or moved ahead to the output is classified as non dissipative. Primary Leakage Inductance and the MOSFET Switch: Primary leakage inductance LP in a fly back does not participated in the primary to secondary energy transformer and has a –ve impact on efficiency . the power switch and at the secondary rectifier These spikes are a function of the leakage inductance in the fly back transformer snubber control the effect of the leakage inductance and improve the reliability of the power supply Snubber can be passive (or) active network Passive snubber network elements are restricted to resistor. capacitors. For the purpose of feedback we use shunt sh1 (for voltage feedback) From C101 we take current feedback we are trying to use second output and the feedback from shunt for external indication of overhead which will be discussed in next seminar. FEED BACK: The auxiliary winding between point 5 and point 2 supplies VCE of optocoupler U101. R106. During the switch on time it leads to a voltage .Since the leakage inductance does not find the path for the current built up it.
spike . .the parasitic elements in the transformer and the switch determines the magnitude of the voltage spike at higher output voltages the circuit parasitic become large relative to the amount of o/p power deliver.At the turn off the MOSFET and also delays the transformer of power from primary to secondary .
BOMFORPOWERCIRCUIT COMPONENTS: .
DESIGN METHODOLOGY: DESIGN CALCULATIONS : FLOWCHART FOR CALCULATIONS: 1: Establish system requirements 2: Calculate transformer’s turns ratio 3: Estimate primary current 4: Choose switching device 5: Design Transformer 6: Check Primary Current 7: Determine Input Capacitance 8: Select Rectifiers 9: Calculate RMS Ripple Current in output capacitor 10: Calculate Output Capacitance .
Input capacitor selection The current through the capacitor I=c*(dv/dt) From this c=I*(dt/dv) Input power = o/p power/efficiency = 30 /0.5 Current I = input power/voltage =37.DESIGN METHADOLOGY 1.BRIDGE RECTIFIER SELECTION .5/90 = 0.86 So the P-N junction diodes should be selected so that the diode current is greater than 0.86mA 2.43 ID >= 2 * 0.25 * √2 * VAC max where VACmax is 300 . Transformer design 4.41 C = I*(∆t/∆v) .43 ID >= 0.8 = 37. Input capacitor selection 3. Bridge rectifier 2. Output capacitors 1. Top switch selection 5. ID >= 2 * IAVE where ID is the bridge rectifier rated current and IAVE is average input current IAVE = pout/(Vmin * η) Where Vmin =90 IAVE = 0. VR >= 1.
∆t=total period * duty cycle Total period = 1/fs = 1/130k = 7.5*10-6 =8μs Total period=8μs ∆v= ripple in the output voltage (10%) = 9mv DMAX= duty cycle = 0.41 *(8*0.518)*10e-6/9*10*e-3 = 186.5 C = I * (∆t/∆v) = 0.96 μF = 187 μF .
TRANSFORMER DESIGN Step1: Select the type of winding to be used.3 Air gap length. Ns=Te*Vo Primary turns.3.2<Bmax<0. As= (output current)/ (current density) = Io/J mm2 . Np= (Ns*Vdcmin*Dmax)/ [(Vo+VD)*(1-Dmax)] Step4: Find core size. Alg=Lp/Np2 H/turns2 Bmax=Np*Ip*Alg/Ae Where Ae is selected from specified data sheet tables till 0.4ΠNp2*Ae/Lp)-(Le/µr)]*10-3 mm Step5: Find area of the primary winding and the secondary winding Area of primary winding. Te=turns per volt Secondary turns. core air gap Area gap length. Ap= (Input RMS current)/ (current density) = Irms/J mm2 where Irms=Ipp*√ (Dmax/3) also Area of secondary winding. Step2: Find primary inductance Lp= (VDCmin*Dmax)/ (Ipp*fs) Step3: Find Turns ratio selecting turns per volt. Lg=[(0.
Step6: Select the wire gauge Select the wire gauge for both primary and secondary windings based on the values obtained above from the data reference table of Power Integration. .869 A Area of air gap length.1515 where Irms=Ipp*√ (Dmax/3) =0. Lp=[(Po*10-6)/(Ip2*fs(min)*1/2)]*[(z*(1-ŋ)+ŋ)/ŋ] =277. IsRMS=Isp*√ ([1-Dmax]/[3*Kp]) =3.682 Area of secondary winding.35*10-7 H/turns2 Bmax=Np*Ip*Alg/Ae=0.4ΠNp2*Ae/Lp)-(Le/µr)]*10-3 mm = 0.343mm Area of primary winding. Design of transformer We selected the Margin type of wounding Primary Inductance.489 We have selected the wire gauge for both primary and secondary windings based on the values obtained above from the data reference table of Power Integration.Ap= Irms/J mm2= 0.228 Where Ae is selected from specifie Here Ae=39.As= Io/J mm2 =0. Isp= Ip*Np/Ns = 9. Alg=Lp/Np2 H/turns2=1. Lg=[(0.9µH Secondary Peak Primary Current.614 A Secondary RMS Current.6mm2 since the core selected is EE25A Air gap length.
5v Output current = 2. Ip= 2*Iavg/Dmax Iavg= Po/ (ŋ*Vmin) = 0.394 A Primary RMS Current.15 =31w Bias voltage Vb = 16v Ac mains frequency fL =50Hz Minimum Ac mains voltage VAC(min) = 90v Maximum Ac mains voltage VAC(max) = 300v Duty cycle Dm = 0.5W 11W 7W 9W 17W 15W 11W 20W 20W 23W 26W OPEN FRAME 10W 14W 14W 15W 23W 30W 20W 28W 45W 33W 60W TOP242P or G TOP242R TOP242YorF TOP243PorG TOP243R TOP243YorF Selection of the Output Capacitor Co = 13W*IDC/Vp-p toff 29W 20W s 9W 21W 10W T=1/f =1/ (125*10 )= 8µs 10W 34W 30W 37W 40W 30W 50W 65W 57W 85W 25W 45W 3 45W TOP 244P or G TOP244R TOP244Y or F TOP245R TOP245YorF .3584 A Therefore Ip=1.15A Output power ( v0+ vD)I0 = (13.Input Peak Primary Current Input Peak Primary Current. IRMS=√ (Dmax*Ip2/3)=0..5 Estimated power efficiency =0.8 Switching frequency =132kHz Core type EE25A Number of primary turns = 37 Number of secondary turns = 6 TOP SWITCH selection TOP switch is selected from the output power table the switch is TOP 244X PRODUCT 230 VAC 15% ADAPTOR OPEN FRAME 15W 22W 22W 85-265 VAC ADAPTER 6.5+1)2.577 A 30 WATT SMPS Transformer specifications: Output voltage = 13.
15*50 mV= 7 mV Therefore Co=1360µF .Selection of the Output Capacitor Co = toff*IDC/Vp-p T=1/fs =1/ (125*103)= 8µs Vp-p =15% of ripple permitted =0.
CIRCUIT FOR CONTROL CARD: .
BOM FOR CONTROL CIRCUIT COMPONENTS : .
Control Circuit: In control circuit the output voltage output currents are controlled to the desired values .overload indication . & -ve pins and output is the greater one.T4431(VOLTAGE REGULATION ) are used .5V through the TL 431 regulator . The remaining voltage 16. If the output is +ve the diode does not conduct and there is no indication if the output –ve means reference voltage is less that means systems output voltage is greater . The mains are IC‘s in control card are LM348(OP-AMP).comparator and voltage follower each indication has individual circuits . If +ve pin has greater voltage the output will be that voltage.since LM 339 is a voltage comparator.1V in this system positive is connected to the voltage comparator IC LM 339 (8th pin) .Reverse polarity indication . DC Over Voltage Indication: The indication will come when the output voltage is equal to or greater than 14. They are explained below.than the LED is forward biased and it glows by giving the indication dc over voltage. If the .3 V across it.system fail indication . the voltage across the Zener diodes Z1. Is 20V i.5V through the Zener Z1 is maintained by 7.through the resistive network R3 &R4.this reference is used to compare the output voltage .This is given to the IC LM 348 when acts as voltage follower .LM 339(COMPARATOR).in this circuit OP-AMP is used as the differential amplifier . Reference generation: The voltage applied between the TS 1.the control circuit is connected with the power circuit is connected with the power circuit through the 14 pin connector .1V the circuit is designed so that the indication must come when the voltage exceeds 14.currents with this.If the output voltage and current are more than the specified values indication are given by it these are DC over voltage indication .the reference voltage is given to the (9 th pin) through the resistive net works R1&R2 . &TS2. Z2 is 20V since Zener acts as a voltage regulator the Zener Z2 maintains the voltage 3.these are indicated through the control card. It compares both voltages coming to the +ve.e.battery low indication AC mains on battery on Charge .
4V than the out put at the point B will be low.the output A of DC over voltage is fed to the NAND Gate.if the shunt drop is high the output is also high. If the system voltage is less than 11. Over Load System Fail: The shunt drop across the shunt given to the differential amplifier in the current control circuit .system output since i/p=o/p in voltage follower the reference at the o/p of LM 348 is also 7. If the system voltage is greater than 11.the transistor collector is connected to the NAND Gate 1st pin.R13.one pin. when the DC over voltage condition occurs . AC Mains On: W hen the external VCC. . 2nd pin is connected with reference voltage through the resistor R72 when the two pins arte high. When the output is higher the capacitor charges and when the battery discharges the output becomes low then the indication will come that the battery is low.5V Values are greater than or less than the reference values indications will come. When A is higher than the output is also higher indicating system fail.4V than the output becomes high at B. Battery Low Indication: The generated reference voltage is applied to the IC LM 348 through the resistor RA68. This output is given to the Quad voltage comparator LM 339(10tn pin ) reference voltage is given to the voltage comparator through the resistor R12 . The system output voltage is given to another terminal (6th pin) through the resistor R30 &R11. output is low indicating AC Mains on. NAND Gate second pin is connected to the output through the capacitor.Since the output voltage is low which is given to the NAND Gate as input since one input is low the output is always higher irrespective of another indicating over load &system Fail In another condition also system fail indication comes. Is given to the circuit the VCC is applied to the base of the transistor . the OP-AMP acts as comparator here. This B is fed to the NAND Gate .
and R41 are parallel to each other when the fault condition is high the resistor R39.the output of this differential amplifier is applied to the OPAMP WHICH ACTS AS COMPARATOR.The output of the comparator is +ve when the differential amp output is high . Feed Back Control: The shunt drop across the load shunt is applied to the OP-AMP which acts as a differential amplifier.or low if the reference is high .the transistor come into action and produces TC Transistor come into action when the fault condition is high obviously the output is low so the resistor R40.If reversely. THE REFERENCE VOLTAGE IS APPLIED TOP THE COMPARATAOR THROUGH THE RESISTOR R26& R27. Reference voltage is applied to the terminal through the resistor R39.Battery DisConnection: When the System voltage less than 11.If the output is high the diode is forward biased and is fed to fB For reverse polarity: .R40 & C11. Therefore D7 is on.1V than the battery will be disconnected automatically the system output voltage is connected to the voltage comparator through the resistive network. K of D7 is it low potential than A of D7. R41 is a feed back resistor.& R40 are parell to each other when the transistor come into action it produces Tc The produced TC is applied to the collector of the transistor of optocoupler U103 & emitter of the transistor connected to the emitter to the optocoupler transistor than the source of one MOSFET get stored with the gate of another MOSFET than automatically disconnected is done . The result drop is applied through the resistor R22& R23. The out put of comparator is fed to the base of transistor when the out put voltage is less than the reference voltage . Z .
Cross section through a single sided board Single sided boards have their conductive (copper) tracks on one side of the substrate only. although the definitions of these often have some overlap. Most of them. pt. So through hole components are inserted from the opposite side of the board for soldering onto lands using wave soldering (see part 14). or multilayered boards. and then turning the board over. . Fig. however. SMDs can also be wave soldered (see part 20) by first gluing them to the board.14 is high. or reflowed using solder paste (see part 10). and surface mount devices (SMDs) are placed onto the same side as the tracks.PCB TYPES PCB types This part of the encyclopedia looks at the different types of printed circuit board that are commonly found. curing the adhesive.1. It is not concerned with the substrate materials themselves. and all of the surfaces to be soldered are on the same side.) A wide range of PCB types is available. This signal is compared with reference and applied to FB through D5 4.7.1 and this makes BATTERY ON CHARGE LED glows. and FR4 is assumed throughout. For Battery on charge: VE if more than BTYSH-VE BTYSH+. double sided. (Further information on different types of substrate can be found in part 7 of the series. which is amplified to positive level at pt. Double sided boards feature tracks on both outer surfaces of the substrate. can ultimately be classified as either single sided. They can be considered as two single sided boards joined back to back. thus illustrating that the density of components can be increased significantly. This is applied at pt.
Again, through hole and surface mount devices can be used, either on opposite sides to each other or mixed on the same side.
Fig.2. A double sided board with components on one side only
The top and bottom sides of a double sided board can be connected by metal lined holes, or vias, in the board. These are constructed by drilling the holes and then coating the inside surface by a plating process. For this reason, they are known as plated through holes (PTH). Multilayer boards are an extension of PTH double sided boards, and feature several layers of tracks - two on the outside substrate and the rest inside. The internal layers are built up in a laminating process that sandwiches the tracks between layers of insulator. As with the double sided boards, connections between different layers are possible using vias. However, in the case of multilayer, there are two possibilities: through vias or blind vias. Through vias pass all the way from one side of the substrate to the other, and are used for making connections. Blind vias (or buried vias) are only used to make internal joins between different track layers.
From these basic definitions, a number of derivatives can be defined. For example, flexible circuits feature a non-rigid substrate, but they can still include PTH vias and multi-layers. And flexi-rigids are combinations of flexible and rigid substrates, such as the case of two rigid boards stacked one above the other connected by a loop of flexible circuit. For double sided and multilayer boards, further variants follow when the types of components used are taken into account. That is, whether through hole or surface mount components, or combinations of the two, are included. Typical arrangements include double sided SMDs, through hole top side and SMD bottom side, or through hole and SMDs topside with SMDs underneath.
Fig.3. Multi-layered board with PTHs and blind vias
The combination chosen affects the procedure for soldering the components to the board. SMDs on the underside of double sided or multilayered boards have to be glued in place to prevent them falling off. For example, on a board with through hole components and SMDs on opposite sides, the SMDs are glued in place to allow the board to be turned over for inserting the through hole devices. All of the soldering surfaces are then on the same side, and the board can be wavesoldered.
The situation is more complicated when through hole components are mixed with surface mount devices on both sides. The procedure then involves first reflowing the top side SMDs after screen printing solder paste. The through hole devices are then inserted and their leads pinched slightly so that the board can be turned over. The underside SMDs can then be glued in place, before the board is turned back over and the remaining components wavesoldered. SURFACE MOUNTED PCB: A multi layered PCB is an inter connected package which contains more than two layers of circuitary. Multilayer technology evolved as circuit requirements grew and the space in which to fill them shrank. Surface mounted technique ,which not only reduced the size of components but also allowed components to be attached to both sides of PCB.
TABLE CONSISTING OF READINGS AS PER G.R: Voltage Current Power True Current (v) (mA) (w) P.F Actual (A) 11.8 731 0.67 0 9 90V 112 8.6 0.84 0.532 5 211 17.14 0.87 1.077 6 323 26.4 0.88 1.62 5 470 37.3 0.88 2.155 7 0 52 8.77 0.74 0.532 230V 7 (Nom.) 91 16.65 0.78 1.074 9 131 24.8 0.81 1.6 174 32.78 0.82 2.155 7 300V 0 42 9.12 0.70 0.532 9 74 16.9 0.75 1.075 9 106 25.05 0.78 1.62 7 137 32.8 0.80 2.15 1 Current O/P (A) Voltage % 0 13.41 25 50 75 100 0 25 50 75 100 0 25 50 75 100 13.41 13.39 13.38 13.37 13.35 13.41 13.39 13.38 13.37 13.35 13.41 13.39 13.38 13.37 Ripple Efficiency (Peak-to(%) peak)mV 16 0.00 12 12 16 20 82.95 84.14 82.10 77.24
16 16 20 16
81.35 86.45 86.3 87.90
16 16 16 20
78.23 85.17 86.53 87.65
The use of special seal epoxies tongue and groove case and cover construction and long sealing box for posts and connectors.7.EXPLANATION OF ACCESSERIES VALVE REGULATED LEAD ACID BATTERIES: Valve regulated lead acid batteries are designed to provide outstanding performance in which standing over charge over discharge and resisting vibration and shock. assure that the VALVE REGULATED LEAD ACID BATTERY will offer exceptional leak resistance. Compact these batteries save installation space while providing full and reliable power . The Oxygen recombination cycle eliminates the need to add water through out the batteries life and improves its safety of operation The VRLA Battery also contains a self resealing pressure relief value which prevents build up of excessive pressure in the cell and prevents entry of out side air into the cell thus extending the batteries self life S Due to these advantage of no electrolyte spillage or maintenance . and allows them to be used in any position The VALVE REGULATED LEAD ACID (VRLA) BATTERY utilizes a dilute Sulfuric Acid electrolyte which is immobilized so as to eliminate the hazards of skills and leakage and which facilitates an Oxygen recombination cycle.minimum gas evolution extended self life and improved safety the VRLA battery was been selected for a host of critical power application and is rapidly displaying the traditional viewed or wet lead acid .
backup power supplies Lawn Garden tools Engine starters .FEATURES: HIGH Quality and reliability Exceptional deep Discharge recovers No corrosive gas generation Long service life Quick charge abilities Higher power density Maintenance free operation Applications: UPS (Uninterruptible power supply) Emergency lighting Wheel Chairs Tele com.
FEATURTE S AND APPLICATIONS: .9.
resonant and pulse ratio control modes 5. Built in variable frequency oscillator. Regulated gate drive. Latched over voltage protection. 8. 12. House keeping power supplies for large power supplies and motor drives. Built in soft start circuit. Quasi. pointers. 3. Applications: 1. 11. Primary current mode control and secondary voltage control. set top box and other high volume consumer applications. 10. DVD players. 10.30WATT SMPS features: 1. fax machines. 4. 9. 30 to 180w fly back converters. adapters. 7. 4. 6. 3. monitors. Active low pass filter for improved stability at light load. 2. Latched thermal shut down protection. MOSFET with controller IC in a single package. Low operation circuit current before start up. Temperature compensating pulse by pulse order current protection. Photo copies and scanners. Fully characterized avalanche energy MOSFET. AC to DC adapters/chargers. 2.CONCLUSION .
The total process is done through the power circuit and control circuit. The system is automatically disconnected when low voltage is come this is also done through the control card. Testing show that the system is free from the errors and it is case to use The system is designed and implemented as the fixed wireless chargers for the CDMA phones . The conversion of AC to DC. decreasing the rectifier output voltage through the step down transformer and maintaining the output voltage and output current at the desired values through the Top switch are done in the power circuit. The control circuit controls the output voltage. • Connect the input plug into the AC receptacle (3pin). Switch on the AC mains. over load. A new battery needs ten hours to attain fully charged conditions. The power circuit and control circuit are connected with each other one is for producing the output voltage and another is for maintaining and controlling it to that value. Usage: open the plastic fuse holder cover. Thus through these two circuits the output DC regulated voltage 12v is taken from the power circuit from AC input. the battery supplies the power to the FWT. • Connect the DC connector of the cable to the FWT phone. The aim of this project is to maintain the regulated Dc output voltage to 12v. The AC out range led will turn on . under voltage by giving the indications when particular values for them are crossed.It is designed completely and then implemented successfully. The output that is required 12v DC is taken across the power circuit. • Power led will turn green indicating that the 12v SMPS for CDMA and similar system is connected to AC mains. • Battery led will turn amber indicating that the battery is being charged.We basically divided our project into two parts. insert the fuse in the fuse holder and refix the fuse-holder cover. Note: the absence of AC power or AC out of range. The system “30 WATT SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY” is carefully developed after a detailed analysis and design . output current and protects the unit from over DC voltage.
generalsemi.powerInt. Always use a three pin receptacle to avoid electrical shock 2.com WWW. Data book and Design 3. P. use only fuse of correct type voltage rating and current rating.fairchildsemiconductor. 6.S. Don’t keep in house hold items over the unit.Safety Precautions: 1. If battery is not use. Before use. Always connect the battery polarities correctly 4. 3.com www. charge battery for at least 10 hours. 9. Always ensure AC switch is ON condition to avoid deep discharge of battery.coolpower solutions www.ti. charge it periodically (at least once in a month) 5.onsemi. 2.com . 11.focus.bccomponents.REFERENCES Power electronics by Dr.comwww.com www. To avoid fire hazards. 7.com www. Read all the instructions carefully. Don’t install 12v SMPS nearer to water passage areas. BIMBHRA 1. Refer fuse replacement to your service provider. for first time. High frequency transformer for switching mode power supplies by Fukeungwong. 8. Switch mode power supply hand book Web sites: www.
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