History of Mobile Phones Mobile phones (or cell phones, Smartphone¶s, etc.

) have become an integral part of our daily lives, many people finding it very difficult to imagine life without the possibility of making a quick call from wherever they might be (or, better said, as long as they're within the specific area covered by their mobile operator). Furthermore, most mobile phones are capable of providing a whole range of extra-functions, from the capability of taking photos and shooting video clips to music playback, Internet browsing and a lot more. However, things were not always like this. In fact, I'm pretty sure that most people using mobile phones today don't even remember how their first cell phone looked like, let alone just how big and clunky the first ever mobile phones were. I, for one, do remember my first portable phones, namely one large Nokia 2110 model, which, without a doubt, could have easily been used as a self-defense weapon in case of trouble (luckily, that wasn't the case). The point is that the overall form factor and size of mobile phones have also changed a lot over the years, and for this reason, we've decided to go back in time to the moment it all began, so that, eventually, you'll get an idea why you're now able to read this article from your Smartphone¶s browser. Back to the beginnings: the two-way radio   As some of you probably know, mobile phones are based on radio technology and, to some extent, are nothing more than two-way radios (well, the concept is much more evolved, but that's beside the point). This is the reason why our first stop in the history of mobile phones is this particular subject. So, two-way radios became quite popular in the 1930's and 1940's (despite appearing as early as the 1920's), when they were installed in a wide array of vehicles, including here mostly taxis, trucks, police cars and so on (just about where you're likely to find them today as well). Not only did they build around them a very serious user community, but also provided the foundation for a whole new concept, namely that of radio-telephony. In fact, the first radio-telephones appeared even before World War II, albeit their use was rather limited to some special-purpose communications, such as airplanes or ships. Nevertheless, engineers used these concepts in order to develop the next step in the evolution of mobile phones. The mobile radio-telephone Now, although two-way radios made it possible for users to communicate while being on the go, it wasn't like people were able to simply pick up the phone and contact the person using a twoway radio. However, the first service that allowed exactly this type of functionality was

developed by AT&T and Southwestern Bell and introduced on June 17. Evolution of mobile phones throughout the 1960's and early 1970's While the Americans and Europeans were busy improving on designs and segmenting the mobile spectrum. this Mobile Telephone System (MTS) opened up the door for more developments in this field. towards the end of the 1940's (namely. on March 1."just" 40 kilos Although many developments in the field of portable communications were carried out in the United States. including here the first truly portable phones. and then the operator dialed the "carrier"). since the number of receivers was initially pretty low. The system required no manual control. the first fully automatic mobile phone system. used DTMF signaling and attained a maximum number of 600 customers. was developed by Ericsson and commercially released in Sweden in 1956. the calls would often get mixed up or the audio would be pretty bad. able to communicate with a base station on a distance of maximum 30 kilometers. Russian and East-European scientists also tackled this particular field. Another disadvantage was represented by the fact that the equipment required for making and receiving calls while being on the road was actually pretty bulky. The successor of the MTA system was called MTB and used transistors. while the security of the conversation was extremely bad. but the weight of the equipment used for engaging in communications was absolutely huge. However. gave the number of the mobile radio they wanted to contact. called MTA (Mobile Telephone system A). Europe didn't lag behind. The only problem was that all calls made from landlines were "Long Distance" (the caller contacted his operator. 1948). a 3-kg radiophone. which translated into higher overall costs for the person making the call. For example. Hence. Plus. Moreover. Indiana. and featured a rotary dial and antenna. USA. namely somewhere in the vicinity of 40 kilos. in spite of its shortcomings. The first "mobile" phone from Ericsson . was created by Russian scientist Leonid Kupriyanovich in Moscow in 1957. The systems used six channels in the 150 MHz band with 60 kHz channel spacing and allowed users to make calls while being on the go or receive calls from landline phones. called LK-1. which weighed only around 500 grams. the first fully automatic radiotelephone service began operating in Richmond. and needed a hefty amount of power. . which translated into a much lower weight (around 9 kilos). It was introduced in 1965. The next year. Kupriyanovich came up with an even smaller version. eliminating the need for a human operator and thus further cutting costs. Missouri. 1946 in Saint Louis.

who were actually rivals in this particular field. RTMI. C-Net. things changed dramatically with the arrival on the market of the Motorola Dyna 8000X. the USSR began to deploy its first mobile phone service. However. Hence. Another interesting evolution was represented by the pocket mobile automatic phone RAT-0. the terminals they used could hardly be considered portable. TACS. Initially. Motorola's DynaTAC. 1973 . Martin Cooper from Motorola and Dr.the first analog mobile phone call in US is made Despite the fact that mobile communications had been there for quite a long time. AT&T submitted a proposal for cellular service to the Federal Communications Commission. and Radiocom 2000. The first-generation (1G) mobile phone and networks The delays by the FCC led to the United States losing the head start in mobile telephone deployment. combined with a base station RATZ-10 (RATC-10). Apparently.Also in 1958. Another important problem solved during this period was that of "call handoff" between different cells. this system allowed one station to service up to six customers. without requiring a briefcase (or worse) in order to do so. an Bell Labs engineer. called "Altay. followed by the NMT system in Denmark. The two parties involved were Dr. but this problem was solved in 1970 by Amos E. over the course of 1981. who invented an automatic "call handoff" system to allow mobile phones to move through several cell areas during a single conversation without loss of conversation. By then. Joel S. the FCC approved the proposal only in 1982. the first "official" mobile phone call was carried out in 1973. a system developed by a team of Bulgarian researchers. Norway and Sweden. the first commercial launch of cellular telecoms was made by NET in Tokyo Japan in 1979. which was launched in 1971 in Finland." dedicated to motorists. via the ARP network. Other similar systems deployed around the world were AMPS (United States).5. Finland. Engel. unfortunately. What's really interesting to mention here is the fact that some upgraded versions of the "Altay" are still in use in the most remote parts of Russia. users were only able to talk while in the radius of a certain receiver (or within a "cell"). In spite of the fact that mobile networks began popping out around the world in the 1980's. which was one of the first phones that could really be carried around easily. Europe had already taken the lead in the field of mobile communications. Joel. The second-generation (2G) mobile phones and networks Research and development in the field of mobile communications (as well as the popularity that mobile communications enjoyed) led to some serious improvements in the field of cellular .. The handheld used in this operation was in fact a prototype of the first "true" mobile phone. Jr. since they were generally pretty large and occupied a lot of space. In December 1971. head of research at AT&T's Bell Labs.

the first mobile phones featuring a built-in camera appeared. all previous models falling under the "candybar" category. the concept of Bluetooth in mobile phones was introduced. Also around that period of time. In fact. . Bluetooth became a must for any serious phone. camera modules built within mobile phones have evolved a lot. While the quality of the mobile services improved. one of the most important examples being Motorola's StarTAC. the first machine-generated SMS message being sent in the UK in 1991 and then the first human-to-human message being sent in 1993 in Finland. two full years ahead of Nokia's much more famous 8810 model (which also featured a built-in antenna). iDEN and IS-95 ("CDMA"). this is when the SMS appeared. IS-136 ("TDMA"). Since then. during this period. which arrived on the market in 1996. After that. with the first handheld to incorporate such a module reportedly being Sony Ericsson's T36. which can be considered the first cell phone one could actually carry around in his/her pocket. even low-end handheld devices sport such a module. the first GSM network to start operation being Finland's Radiolinja. one of the best examples being that of ringtones. That distinction belongs to the TCP-6000 (developed by Toshiba and released as the Hagenuk GlobalHandy).telephony over the course of the 1990's. which have created a whole new market for musicians. For example. Also during the 1990's. the cost of sending an SMS is almost equal to zero for the operators. due to the numerous features it enables. it was also the first cell phone to feature the "clamshell" form factor. Towards the end of the 2G period. Hence. many people (mostly young) preferring to send an SMS rather than calling. the first handheld featuring a built-in antenna (as opposed to an external one) was developed. These systems provided some serious improvements over their predecessors (digital circuit switched transmission and the introduction of advanced and fast phone-to-network signaling). The leaps forward attained by both cellular operators and handheld manufacturers opened up the way for all sorts of improvements and new services in the area of cell phones. and were rapidly adopted around the world. the MMS) ushered in a whole new concept of communication. also because these messages are much cheaper than actually making a voice call (in fact. in 1991. smaller and slimmer phones became the norm. Plus. SMS (and its successor. the first ever such device was developed by Sharp in 2000 and rolled out in Japan under the name of J-SH04. the size of the handhelds decreased. and now. starting with the emergence of "second generation" (2G) mobile phone systems such as GSM. Another innovation brought about by 2G systems was the possibility of adding multimedia content to one's phone. so I don't really have a clue just why they're not making them completely free).

but now has reached a whole new level.g. like 2. and then 3G erupted all over the world. CONCLUSION In this paper we have presented a mobile task reporting system and shown how this system depends on the mobile device used as the client. we might witness a complete overhaul of this concept over the following years. and the same can now be said about Internet browsing. compared to 2G (as well as the extensions of 2G. ultra-portable computers. The input capability of can however be improved by integrating intelligent dictionaries into the application like done in e. developments in display technology also led to the appearance of the first mobile phones equipped with touchscreen displays (Apple's iPhone being the first such product to arrive on the market). 2001. First of all. . cellular networks have opened up a world of possibilities for handheld manufacturers as well. what 3G networks provide. Moreover. and then to the whole "smartphone" concept. although it's still hard to predict what direction they'll eventually take. Japan is the place where the first 3G networks made their appearance.The third-generation (3G) mobile phones and networks Actually. as Japanese carrier NTT DoCoMo launched the first commercial 3G network on October 1. a trend that is main stream now. Practically. using the WCDMA technology. the Nokia SMS application and by providing other types of interaction like selections.5G and 2. Now. via cellular networks. since they'll be eventually equipped either with flexible or even holographic displays. let's see how the functions enabled by 3G networks have affected the handhelds themselves. The first 3G networks on the rival CDMA2000 1xEV-DO technology were launched by SK Telecom and KTF in South Korea in 2002. this is where our short history of the mobile phone reaches modern times. Thus. which was initially a cross between the more industrial-oriented PDAs and cell phones. Prospects for the future Recent developments in the industry clearly point out to the fact that mobile phones are here to stay. by enabling this kind of functionality. We found that the mobile phone can be a helpful tool for checking the status of tasks because of its portability and connectivity. Plus.75G) is the seamless transmission of data. Practically. Furthermore. as well as voice. the developments in mobile hardware and processing have led to the appearance of operating systems for mobile devices. The limited user interaction capabilities of WAP is however a problem when writing text. able to carry out a huge array of functions besides voice communication. the first signs of things to come being already here. the most plausible scenario is that mobile phones will slowly turn into tiny. the possibility of accessing one's e-mail account has become the norm (with RIM and its BlackBerry handhelds setting the norm in business communications).

for getting overview of tasks and for managing tasks (delegation etc. the portable PC¶s keyboard is very convenient. A portable PC can be too big to be carried around as a mobile toolbox. This means that it is possible to analyze future mobile systems without the constraints of the existing mobile devices.The number of keystrokes needed to write a word might thereby in the best case be reduced to the number of characters in the word. and specify and analyze mobile scenarios in detail. we recommend the MOWAHS characterization framework for mobile work [9]. Also if a lot of text should be entered into the system. The process of designing and finding requirements for a mobile system is not always straightforward. This framework can be used to characterize mobile work in order to elicit functional and nonfunctional requirements for a mobile process support system. One example of such a framework is the CAGIS-trans. The lack of connectivity can however be a problem because of possible conflicts with other off-line devices.2. it is important that a flexible transaction framework is used that can adapt to policies of different companies. which is likely to be integrated to the MTRS system in the future. As an aid to identify requirements for systems to support different mobile scenarios. The PDA with bigger screen and more convenient text input is a very useful device for entering end-task reports. or just a simple selection from a list. . To overcome this problem. However. The main advantage with this framework is that it is independent of hardware and network resources. This means that the MTRS system must include some advanced transaction support that can handle off-line devices and conflicts between these devices between data synchronizations. Because several policies can be used to solve this problem (from exclusive locks to anarchy).3.) big screens are needed. we have described some solutions in section 3.