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Organizational Behavior RESEARCH REPORT
SUBMITTED TO: FARUKH AHMED MIAN SUBMITTED BY: ASAD AFTAB
Table of Content:
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Introduction Hobbes and Power: Power Enhancers: Powerlessness: Power Types: Stages of Personal Power: Strategic Contingencies Theory: Three Dimensions of Power: Toffler's Three Forms of Power: Powerful People: Power in Organizations: Power in Politics: Conclusion
3 5 7 8 9 11 13 14 16 17 19 22 24
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As what you want is often constrained by other people.in fact anything we find desirable can be a reward. Although it is often seen as negative. Other forms of power can also be used in coercive ways. A person holds back their friend who is about to step out in front of a car. such as when they are withheld. Reward power One of the main reasons we work is for the money we need to conduct our lives. Coercion can result in physical harm. Parents coerce young children who know no better. believe and do. from a million dollar yacht to a pat on the back. despots and bullies. Reward power is thus the ability to give other people what they want. It is the power of dictators. Coercive power This is the power to force someone to do something against their will. There are many more forms of reward -. the use of power often includes changing or influencing what others think. The promise is essentially the same: do this and you will get that. such as when a reward or expertise is withheld or referent power is used to threaten social exclusion. and hence ask them to do things for you in exchange. Demonstrations of harm are often used to illustrate what will happen if compliance is not gained. Rewards can also be used to punish. it is also used to keep the peace. Coercion is also the ultimate power of all governments. This divides power into five different forms. although its principal goal is compliance. 3 . French and Raven's Five Forms of Power The most common description of power is French and Raven (1960). It is often physical although other threats may be used.Definition: Power is the ability to get what you want. It is at the heart of all techniques of changing minds.
not them. It is the power of charisma and fame and is wielded by all celebrities (by definition) as well as more local social leaders.Legitimate power Legitimate power is that which is invested in a role. It is also the power of the specialist R&D Engineer when they threaten to leave unless they get an exorbitant pay rise or a seat by the window. In wanting to be like these people. The legitimacy may come from a higher power. we stand near them. Those with referent power can also use it for coercion. then I have Expert power. hoping some of the charisma will rub off onto us. and all it takes is a word from a social leader for us to be shunned by others in the group. When they either fall from power or move onto other things. often one with coercive power. including most companies where the principle of specialization allows large and complex enterprises to be undertaken. policemen and managers all have legitimate power. One of the things we fear most is social exclusion. Referent power This is the power from another person liking you or wanting to be like you. Legitimate power can often thus be the acceptable face of raw power. 4 . Expert power When I have knowledge and skill that someone else requires. Expert power is that which is used by Trades Unions when they encourage their members to strike for better pay or working conditions. A common trap that people in such roles can fall into is to forget that people are obeying the position. it can be a puzzling surprise that people who used to fawn at your feet no long do so. This is a very common form of power and is the basis for a very large proportion of human collaboration. Kings.
Instrumental Power He also noted that we have 'Instrumental Power' which has the sole purpose of acquiring more power. and who seek to use others rather than cooperate and live in harmony with them. 'Leviathan'. so much as would be given for the use of his Power. his Price. This leads us to a perpetual power struggle with other people. he describes power and promotes the notion of a commonwealth as an effective society. He also noticed that there are some people who can never get enough power. In his 1660 masterwork. If I can get you to use your power on behalf of my purpose. 'The value or worth of a man is.Hobbes and power Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) was a 17th century thinker who sought to apply the new methods of science and the Greek rigor of logic to sociology. Ceding power Hobbes found that many of us find a balance in life and gaining 'sufficient power' is adequate for us. This includes wealth. each vying for ever greater power and each seeking to acquire the power of others. that is to say. He saw people as having 'Natural Power' that come from internal qualities such as intellectual eloquence. In its most simple form. then I can add your power to my arsenal. If I have less power than you. reputation and influential friends. we buy the compliance of others. physical strength and prudence. We also seek to co-operate and share power with others to escape from an endless escalation. Hobbes divided motivation into appetites and aversions. as of all other things. then I am effectively powerless in your presence. Natural Power Hobbes defined power as the ability to secure well-being or personal advantage 'to obtain some future apparent well'. He thus saw the quest for power as the quest for command over the power of others. 5 . predating Freud and his pleasure-pain principle by a couple of centuries. Relative power Hobbes noted that power is relative only to the power of others. This he considered a dysfunction.
by the way. is monstrous and fearsome sea creature in the book of Job. and be contented with so much liberty against other men. 6 .' He considered the most effective use of personal power in society is to cede it to a central authority that can use this power without question back on the people who give the power. Going against the Leviathan was an act of great peril. which Hobbes called the 'Leviathan'. as farre-forth as for Peace and defense of himself he shall think it necessary. This effectively leads to an elected monarch and commonwealth. to lay down the right to all things. as he would allow other men against himself. The Leviathan.'that a man be willing when others are so too.
If the power I have is something that other people do not have. Burn rate Power. Acquisition cost Sometimes power costs a great deal to acquire. it will only work for a while and if they keep it up. for which takes time and money to get through college. Desirability If what I have is more desirable. when used. may be used up or it may retain its 'full strength'. 7 . Impact If my power has a great impact on people. Thus when a teacher shouts at a class. a skilful user of power uses just enough to get what they want and no more. then I can make greater demands. the greater the undesirability of my power the stronger the power is (although it will create very different reactions to a positive and desirable thing). before long the children will ignore the loud thing at the front of the class. there are a number of things that may be considered which will increase the power you have. Again. Like a swordsman with a sharp cutlass. then they will pay greater attention to it. such as the power to punish. A negative form of this is where my power is undesirable. Skill Some people have power but are not good at wielding it. Thus a bank robber acquires great power (and money) from the use of a gun.Power Enhancers Although there are many different types or power. A good teacher only needs to hint or raise an eyebrow. asking more for it and so on. Scarcity The Scarcity Principle makes anything that is not easily available more desirable. such as expert power. then I am the only wielder of this power and hence I can choose how it is used.
Powerlessness The opposite of having power is powerlessness. which is a remarkably common illusion. Internal conflict thus can create significant internal tension but no real movement. It may also come from a self image of being unable to achieve goals (I do not have the skill or knowledge to do anything). preventing them from even beginning any action. Fear of failure Another root of powerlessness is the fear of failure. The illusion may continue into feelings of guilt. for example where a manager wants to discipline an employee but also wants to be liked -. If I feel powerless. The power of powerlessness Curiously. powerlessness is a form of power. 8 . believing that they are not able to achieve anything. shame and loneliness.the result can be a stasis of inaction. This is often based in the fear of persecution and rejection and may be related to the paranoid-schizoid position. Internal conflict Internal conflict can lead to powerlessness. sees themselves failing and then continues to imagine others criticizing and ostracizing them. A low self-image can thus have a cripplingly paralyzing on a person. the net movement is zero. Self-image Many people have a self-image of powerlessness. The person typically projects forward into the future. then this gives me the power to ask for help. When equal and opposite forces pull against one another. I can be powerless like a child and hence demand help from an adult-figure. Begging uses powerlessness to persuade. This may take the form of needing to ask for approval before taking any action (I am not authorized to decide).
If I own a chair I can set fire to it. The degree of power that a knowledge user has depends even more than other forms of power on a supply and demand situation. Librarians control access to knowledge. Formal positions include managers. If nobody wants the knowledge or cares about it. then I will obey the rules regarding that position (rather than obeying you. then I can use it to my advantage. per se). as they say. It is the power of experts and academics. Knowledge may come in several forms: • • Technical knowledge is knowing how things work. But if the world is being invaded by aliens and I know how to repel them. If I know something. I can spend it any way I choose. then there is little power. Personal assistants control access to the managers they serve. Informal positions also exist. policemen. This may include secrets that could be used for blackmail. If I own money. Ownership If I own something then I can also use it in any way I like. I can demand a high price for my services. here is a composite and extended list that is perhaps easier to use. such as social leaders or team roles such as the Belbin Team Types. 9 . These may well have formal authority vested in them by the company or the country. Knowledge Knowledge is power. Social knowledge is knowing things about people. Bouncers at night clubs and company receptionists are gatekeepers to entire organizations. Access control Another form of ownership is where you are the gatekeeper to something that is desired. Position Where you occupy a recognized position.Types of Power Although the French and Raven list is common. which I couldn't do if I had borrowed it from you. If you hold a creative social position such as a 'plant' then I will listen carefully to your ideas. and so on.
As such I have power. Obligation If I feel obligation towards you.Skill Skill is closely related to knowledge. the basic power of Trade Unions. Trust If you earn my respect then I will trust you and this gives you far greater power to ask me for things. 10 . Engineers have technical skills. as I will not need to wonder whether you may take advantage of me. for example as a parent. Self determination I am the only person who can decide what I say and do. you can tip the scales by reminding me of that obligation. which can be much greater than is suspected. Obligations may come from: • • • Favors you did me in the past and which I must now repay. there is technical skill and social skill. Sales people have social skills. As with knowledge. for example. I can. always choose to say no and to walk out. but is the ability to do something rather than just know it. which include the ability to communicate and the ability to persuade others. such as social rules to help a person in distress. This is of course. Rules that I must follow. friend or a manager. Responsibilities that I feel.
Achievement leads to achievement. If we do well at work then we are given more important work and may also get promoted. they gain more power.Stages of Personal Power Janet Hagberg. Paradoxically. on whose ability and power they may consequently depend. thereby gaining the power of the group. which then allows them to achieve further still. we can gain power through internal reflection and realizing we have all personal power on which we can draw. The power we get from this multiplies. Power by association Power by association is the power we gain by being able to utilize the power that others already have. The secret of gaining associative power is hence in being able to create bonds and draw on relationships. When we join an organization we know nobody and are totally dependent on others for initial assistance in understanding how things work. as people cede power to those who prove their ability. Powerlessness We start from a position of powerlessness. 4. Power by reflection In a curious reversal of depending on others for power. We can also join teams. As we get to know people and gain their respect and trust. Power by achievement Power by acquisition is that power which we gain through what we do and the persuasive evidence that others perceive in this. 11 . clubs and form other associations and coalitions. as they let go of their ego. how to influence others and how to get things done. 3. in her book 'Real Power: Stages of Personal Power in Organizations'. A person at this stage is competent and has sound integrity. 2. They are widely respected and this strength draws others to them. for example in asking them to ask others to do things or asking them for introductions. describes six stages through which people go when developing their power within a company. 1. we may leverage their power.
connecting and reflecting. 6.5. They know and accept powerlessness and in doing so find ultimate power. Power by purpose People at this stage are driven by their purpose. They are visionary and self-accepting. Their power comes from within. they can influence decisions of many others. They may often spend time in solitude. The purpose they work to is very high. humble and spiritual. Power by wisdom Stage six people feel a deep connection to the greater universe. Great leaders show this purpose in stirring speeches and powerful and symbolic action. They may have been through great pain and crisis on more than one occasion. 12 . They succeed because they believe in a greater purpose beyond themselves. yet have used these events to learn and grow. Their inner power is so much greater than the power of those around them. They have found contentment and live on an 'even keel'. They embrace paradox and do not need to take sides.
and understands its complexities very well (uniqueness). when things go wrong. If you have the skills and expertise to resolve important problems. then what you do is very important.Strategic Contingencies Theory Description Intraorganizational power depends on three factors: problem skills. he is very good at fixing things. if you are difficult to replace. the whole show stops. such that if your part of the company fails. then if you do make enemies up the hierarchy. both mechanically and with the unions. Again creating attention and giving you bargaining power. This gives you many opportunities to be noticed. Become expert in problem solving in it. So what? Using it Get a job on the critical path through the organization. actor centrality and uniqueness of skill. Finally. If you work in a central part of the workflow of the organization. Example A production manager in an organization is in charge of a key manufacturing operation (centrality). From a long experience. It also means you are on the critical path. 13 . It also gives you power from the reciprocity created. And by the law of supply and demand. then they cannot just move you out or sideways. that gives your the upper hand in negotiations. Acquire and defend knowledge and skills that nobody else has. Defending Do not let any one person become indispensable. then you are going to be in demand.
Knowledge is power. Channels The channels of power are the way in which power is enacted. It can also come from having weapons. where you can permit or offer access to others. Owning a building or a machine or even a sewing needle are forms of physical power. Threats are often emotional in the effect they have. Informational power This is derived from knowledge. such as the power of a wrestler. For example if I know your weaknesses I could leverage this knowledge when trying to persuade you. Physical power also comes from having things that are not designed to hurt people. They can perhaps more readily be remembered as 'head. with two. 14 . Intent These form the intent of the person using power. which can be the ultimate power of groups and governments. Physical power This is power derived from material or physical advantage. helping or hurting others. which gives 12 ways of using power. it can come from strength or skill. hands and heart'. using emotion to get what you want.Three Dimensions of Power There are three dimensions of power in action. or maybe help you learn and shore up those weaknesses. Power often comes from the control of access to information. including the power of oratory and the use of subtle body language. as they say. In fact most interactions between people include some form of emotional power. Individually. Emotional power This is the social power of affect. Charisma is a form of emotional power. two and three possible states. This gives 2 x 2 x 3 possible combinations.
as they imply deliberate intent. with the intent of helping others. Negative power This power that is used either to directly harm other people or with no care or concern about them. It's a neat way of understanding how different forms of power appear. the triggers which lead to power being used. Uses of power Positive Reactive Negative Proactive Positive Negative Allow harm Defend Attack Physical Do no harm Informational Open book Allow access Do not inform Deny access Inform. concern and pro-social values. premeditation and forethought. for example using your physical strength to attack someone. Reactive power This is power that is used in response to situations. It is based on love. Uses of power Put together. It is based either on greed and selfishness or on other negative emotions such as fear and hate. In some countries. Thus. This power cannot be utilized that until someone else wants something that can be blocked. care. Proactive power This is power used consciously and deliberately. Deliberateness These are the deliberateness of power.Positive power This is power used for good. these three domains of power can be used to create the table below. This is where Values. Morals and Ethics are more significant. or at least do no harm. 'crimes of passion' are dealt with more leniently than over the water in Britain. crimes are considered as being less so when they are deemed as being reactive. It is used to protect and nurture. teach Warn of danger Withhold information Emotional Respond to calls for help Ignore Reject calls Comfort Nurture Taunt 15 . for example where a person has the power to say no or to restrict access in some form. in France.
then give the money to others to save time/action. 'Might is right' is their watchword and it is close to the law of the jungle in operation. from armies and police forces to the ownership of specific weapons. Those who gain the power of violence do so by controlling the mechanisms of physical domination. Violence The most basic form of power is violence. Wealth Money is a more flexible form of power than violence as it can be exchanged for pretty much anything you want. Knowledge Knowledge is the ultimate form of power and can be used to acquire both wealth and violence. Those who gain wealth do so largely through a superior ability (or sometimes luck) in investment. The evolution of power Toffler indicates how violence was the basic power of the nobility in ancient times. violence gave way to wealth. deceive Seduce Toffler's three forms of power Futurist Alvin Toffler describes three forms of power and shows how these have changed over time. Money can be viewed as 'stored time/action': you work and are given money. or physical forms of power. The basic promise is 'do as you are told and you won't get hurt'. 'Knowledge is power' is a common saying that highlights this. 16 . taking controlled risks and gaining disproportionate returns. as the merchant classes became more powerful and gained control of critical resources and channels. In the industrial revolution. from goods to services of all kinds.Do harm Blackmail. if applied in the right way. where powerful elite worked largely through domination that threatened violence to those who did not comply. The trick in acquiring wealth is to invest the money in ways that it provides a maximum return on investment.
they will speak rather than waiting politely for others to end. quite possibly in a louder voice. It also allows the powerful person to praise or criticize other speakers. It may also enhance power. after others speak is a distinct technique as it allows the person to take account of the useful information gained by listening to others. Using symbols Powerful people often use the symbols of power to demonstrate to others that they are powerful. The symbols of power are still significant but in their absence rather than their presence. By an almost reverse psychology. Speaking when they want is an example of how powerful people will break rules.Powerful People How do powerful people behave? Here are some of the things they do. powerful people will speak more or less. it also allows the powerful person to close the conversation or change topic. to demonstrate the person's power. Symbols are consequently a part of the toolkit that 'powerful' people use to persuade others that they have more real power than they perhaps have. and is as much about confidence as anything else. Rule-breaking may be deliberate. As others have already spoken. thus showing they are more powerful. Others will wait quietly then speak briefly but forcefully. drive new and powerful clothes. Power is often illusory. Rule-breaking When speaking. They dress in expensive clothes. pushing themselves up the hierarchy and the other person down. Speaking at the end. Truly powerful people are often understated in how they dress and how they use symbols. 17 . they say 'I do not need symbols' and they live more by their reputation and the quiet knowledge that they can get everything they need. When they want to speak. and why. Speaking more or less Depending on whether they have a psychological need to be heard or not. powerful people will interrupt more. with power being ceded by those who believe they have less. for example when they interrupt another person. They have powerful friends and let others know this. The more extraverted people will take the stage and pronounce for a long as they like. In particular powerful people act either to get what they want or simply to sustain and enhance their power.
because they have the power to change decisions. as if conflict arises between them the powerful person will likely win. Thinking less People with less power may be harmed by people with power so they think carefully before speaking to powerful people. Also. they act like a bull in a china shop. if the decision might affect their power then they will be more cautious. powerful people know they punish others if they are not trustworthy and that they have the means to extricate themselves from a damaging situation. And because powerful people do not have to worry about what others might think about them. whilst they will be more cautious spending large sums. Trusting more When less powerful people trust more powerful people they may be putting themselves in danger. 18 . In the reverse case.Rule-breaking may also be unthinking as the powerful person is so accustomed to getting what they want that without criticism. Less powerful people consequently are less trusting of more powerful people. they think less before speaking. In consequence there is less risk for them to trust and so they trust more. On the other hand. damaging all around them. they often think less before making decisions. For example a rich person will spend a smaller sum (which seems large to the average person) with impunity.
and in particular in motivating people more effectively such as is found in transformational leadership. Of course there are many more ways that power can be exerted. departments. By managing how decisions are made. The basic employment transaction is 'we give you money. you do as your are told'.Power in Organizations Here is a list sources of power that may be found in organizations (Morgan. It is not unsurprising that many of the political battles in organizations is over control of resources and 'empire-building' is a classic game. with a significant risk that organizational goals get forgotten in the cut and thrust of winning and losing control of resources. When decisions are made in committee or other meetings. which makes them a source of power for those who care to take time to learn their detail. teams and other structures. 1986). with further commentary Formal authority The simplest form of power is that vested in the position of 'manager'. for example by requiring consensus or senior-manager signoff. Control of decision processes Work is selected and resources are allocated by decisions. Use of organizational structure. the person who chairs the meeting or keeps the minutes may have notable power to control decisions. the power of some people may be curtailed whilst others gain the ability to shape decisions. only within legal and organizational rules. A manager has subordinates who must do his or her bidding. A part of this control is the ability to allocate these resources to projects and other work. Many people do not know all of these rules. 19 . managers control budgets and the assets and other resources that the firm holds. often each with its own rules as well as the rules that govern the action within the organization as a whole. many of which are decided in some form by groups of people. Power can also be gained from quoting rules that do not exist or misquoting rules by overstating or understating their meaning. rules and regulations Organizations have hierarchies. from technology to people. Control of scarce resources Other than directing employees.
networks and control of ‘informal organization’ Who you know makes a lot of difference. which no doubt gave power to the lower people in the name-dropping they could use and and help they might get. Interpersonal alliances. We naturally help our friends and those who have helped us in some way in the past. thereby giving the holder social power in the way they can show themselves to be influential and clever. as they say. providing data. Thus. an executive's Personal Assistant may have disproportionate power in the ability to allow access or not to the executive. the ability to handle uncertainty and stress that might debilitate others. for example. protecting their elevated status by hiding the sources of their knowledge and exacting high prices (whether financial or social) for their learned opinions. bar or hassle people crossing their boundaries. information. whether it is technical or social information. though not paid very much can allow. Experts often work in this way. Control of technology Technology is (or should be) an enabler. and how you gather and distribute it is a source of power. and the person who used to be the 'IT Manager' may now be the 'Chief Information Officer'. access and other benefits. Likewise security guards. Those who control what technology is used by the organization or who gets the latest computers and software has significant power. Social networks are the glue of organizations and those who build and work their informal associates can thereby gain significantly more power.Control of knowledge and information Knowledge is power. Ability to cope with uncertainty A quite different source of power is personal resilience. analysis. Having the latest technology can also be a status symbol. In the time when smoking was allowed but only in special 'smoking rooms'. Such people can gain position by taking on work that others fear and is a common route for upwardly-mobile go-getters who seek early promotion. 20 . Control of boundaries The structures and groups of the organization are only so because they have boundaries which people cross in order to access resources and meet people. it was often said that this became a 'club' where the low and the high in the organization rubbed shoulders.
is the power of the individual. and tall and shapely people continue to make good use of their physical assets. The 'glass ceiling' still exists in many companies and. Symbolism and the management of meaning We live a lot. If you can recognize the subtlety and understand the workings of how meaning is created. If you can shape the direction of the organization. include local opposition to factory expansion. fewer women make it to the higher echelons. We can be charming. Gender and the management of gender relations In a balanced workplace. Symbols and meaning-making is a particular pattern of culture. around half the people are men and half are women. then you have a surprisingly powerful tool for change and influence. In practice. strategy and other high-level shaping activities that lead to scenarios of activity. If you can infiltrate or otherwise hold some sway over the groups who might oppose you. and those who would change the underlying culture of an organization can make use of these. Structural factors that define the stage of action The 'stage of action' in organizations is set up by the organizational purpose. willing. from driving into new markets to struggling with organizational change. you have tremendous power to affect much of what it does and consequently the futures (and power) of others in the firm. perhaps due to life breaks such as having children. whole ecologies spring up. This can lead to frustrations and energy that can be put to good and destructive use. you may at least be able to damp the danger they power and possibly neutralize them completely.Control of counter-organizations Not to every organization is there an equal and opposite counter-organization. If you can harness this. but certainly not least. but in the battlefield of businesses. And we have feet we can use to leave the company at any time we choose. in the sway of the symbols and semiotics of the workplace. obstinate and more. The power one already has Last. vision. trade unions seeking ever-increasing pay and benefits and so on. mission. you have power. 21 . more than perhaps we realize. some women gravitate towards particular roles whilst men seek other work positions. There is also the power of sexual attraction.
Change the power of the coaltions leaders. for example by sacking them or sending them overseas. removing their position power. Managing the sequence of information to guide their thinking and at least avoiding the worst forms of coalition. so a coalition cannot form around impossibly big issues. although watch out for this causing war games. because it is surprising how often just talking works. Increase the visibility of specific issues to show the irrelevance of a coalition. Coalitions When threatened or otherwise stressed. especially the waverers and key people. Co-opt coaltion members onto plum jobs. not only because they represent mass action. for example by restructuring their jobs beneath them. This makes handling them very dangerous. Macmillan and Guth (1985) suggest the following tactics: • • • • • • Form a pre-emptive coalition. you really do not want to have to do battle with a coalition. Avoiding coalitions It is best if you can first act to avoid coalitions starting. They may also band together to achieve a common goal. Handling coalitions Coalitions are more powerful than individuals. Form a counter-coalition if the opposing coalition appears anyway. This can be bad news and the bottom line is that if you are trying to get something done in an organization. people form into groups to defend against a common enemy. 22 . Break down the problem into separated issues. including some of the key people who would otherwise join the opposition. for example by: • • • • Managing information to demonstrate that they are not needed. Increase communication and persuasion.Power in Politics: Power and politics are often seen as synonymous and most certainly it is important to gain and maintain the diverse forms of power you have. but because they also build in social obligations such that individual coalition members will be loathe to act individually and against the interests of the coalition as a whole. Remove coalition leaders.
and political power. A political animal will hide the information. such as pushing through a change.Political power Political power is gained with care. or may be positive. blackmail and corruption Politics can indeed have a shadow side to it. where people in a power relationship support one another as needed and perhaps in different ways (possibly even by breaking the rules).. 'Together we stand. A politically naive person will squander the power it could give. 23 . The trick with coalitions is to build a core idea around which people cluster. divided we fall'. for example stopping a hated change. as they say. This may be negative. Digging out the dirt is a popular political ploy. Good politicians invest now to get more power later. cunning. and such negative means may be gained to garner power.. either by not talking about it or by turning it into office gossip. Bribery. Favors and back-scratching Political power often is build on a system of exchange. A surprising number of people have skeletons and more in their closet. What you do with it next depends on your style. Alliances and coalitions When people band together into coalitions they become more powerful.
Like gorillas thumping their chests. The most effective power is that used so subtly that people do not realize it is being used. Beware of sleeping dragons: many people will only use their power when aroused. Power does not have to be used directly: threats are often effective.Conclusion: Understand the power you have as well as the power of other people. 24 . Perhaps the greatest power you can have is to get others to use their power on your behalf. we seldom need to fight. especially when accompanied by displays of power. Use your own power carefully.
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