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Information Notice for Aircraft Operators,

Air Traffic Controllers and Pilots

Mode S Deployment at and


around Airports in Europe

Mode S and Advanced Surface


Movement Guidance and Control Systems

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Purpose

The purpose of this brochure is to brief Aircraft Operators, Air Traffic Controllers and Pilots
on the essential operational aspects of Mode S and Mode S multilateration at and around
airports in Europe. This information notice includes a summary of Mode S multilateration in
basic terms without delving into technicalities. The Mode S multilateration system has been
deployed as a solution meeting the surveillance requirements of Advanced Surface Movement
Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS).
Table of Contents

What are we asking from you? 5

 Aircraft Operators

 Pilots

 Why?

How does Mode S multilateration work?

 Ground Systems 6

Where will Mode S multilateration be deployed? 7

Flight Crew Awareness 8

 Pre-Push back/taxi
 After landing

What are the aircraft equipment requirements? 9

 Existing requirements
 Are there any changes to transponder operating procedures?

Check your Mode S Transponders 9

Reference Material 10

Contacts 10
© Steve Hall
What are we asking
from you?
Aircraft Operators:
Make sure that the transponder is operating in the ground mode on the airport (otherwise it
may interfere with the approach radar).
Ensure that the Aircraft Identification at Field 7 of the Flight Plan corresponds exactly with
the Mode S Aircraft Identification, to be entered through the FMS or the Transponder Control
Panel, and with the R/T callsign used in flight (see ICAO Doc 8585 - 'Designators for
Aircraft Operating Agencies, Aeronautical Authorities and Services' for details).

Pilots:
Keep the transponder operating when on ground, except when parked on the gate/stand.
Ensure that the Aircraft Identification at Field 7 of the Flight Plan corresponds exactly with
the Mode S Aircraft Identification, to be entered through the FMS or the Transponder Control
Panel, and with the R/T callsign used in flight (see ICAO Doc 8585 - 'Designators for
Aircraft Operating Agencies, Aeronautical Authorities and Services' for details).

Why?
The ICAO Manual of Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (SMGCS)
describes how traffic should be controlled on the surface of an airport, based upon the prin-
ciple of ”see and be seen”. It is recognised that the current SMGCS is not capable of deliv-
ering the required sophistication and capacity, particulary on complex airports and under
conditions of reduced visibility. As a result of this A-SMGCS is being developed.
Eurocontrol is focusing on the introduction of improved surveillance and procedures for air
traffic controllers. Mode S multilateration technology provides accurate surveillance and
identification of all aircraft and transponder equipped vehicles on the airport surface.
Controllers see the result on a dedicated display screen, with each aircraft and vehicle secure-
ly tagged with its identification and position. This is also useful for the controllers in good
visibility, particulary when multiple aircraft with similar colour schemes are manoeuvring in
close proximity to one another (e.g. in a holding bay).
The Mode S Aircraft Identification feature enables ATC systems to correlate stored flight
plan data with the correct aircraft on surveillance displays. Without the Mode S Aircraft
Identification feature, this process relies upon discrete SSR Mode A codes. Consequently,
by using the Mode S Aircraft Identification feature, SSR Mode A codes, of which there are
only 4,096, can be released for other uses.

[ Mode S Deployment at Airports in Europe Information Notice ] 5


How does Mode S
multilateration work?
Ground Systems
The ground systems consists of a number of Receiver units, Receiver/Transmitter units, a
Reference Transponder (all non-rotating sensors) and a Central Processing Station. The num-
ber of Receiver and Receiver/transmitter units vary depending of the size and layout of the
aerodrome.

© Sensis Corporation
© FRAPORT

© FRAPORT
These are examples of Ground Model Systems

The multilateration system uses multiple receivers to capture the “squitter” transmitted from
the Mode S transponder. Then, by comparing the time difference, the system calculates the
position. For aircraft the system will get the identity by selectively interrogating the transpon-
der to receive the assigned Mode A code and the Aircraft Identification (i.e. The ICAO 3-letter
designator and flight number) inserted in the FMS or Transponder Control Panel.
© Sensis Corporation

© Thales

The system normally uses three For transponder equipped vehicles


or more receivers to calculate the system will get the identity
the position of the aircraft or by the unique Mode S address
transponder equipped vehicle. transmitted by the transponder.

6 [ Mode S Deployment at Airports in Europe Information Notice ]


Where will Mode S
multilateration be deployed?
Mode S Multilateration systems will initially be introduced at Amsterdam, Brussels,
Copenhagen, Frankfurt, Geneva, London Heathrow, Milan (Malpensa), Milan (Linate), Paris
Charles de Gaulle, Paris Orly, Prague, Rome (Fiumicino), Vienna and Zurich Airports.
(Purple dots)

Further implementation is foreseen at airports such as Palma De Majorca and Madrid.


(Yellow dots)

Widespread implementation within the USA is also planned.

[ Mode S Deployment at Airports in Europe Information Notice ] 7


Flight crew awareness

Pre-Push back/taxi
The pilot will be requested to enter a Mode A code at start up. This code will be either a
discrete code or the non-discrete code 1000. Whenever the aircraft is capable of reporting
Aircraft Identification, the Aircraft’s Identification, exactly as it appears in Field 7 of the
flight plan, is also to be entered through the FMS or the Transponder Control Panel. Flight
crew must use the 3-letter ICAO designator of the operator, followed by flight identification
number (e.g. BAW123, AFR456, SAS945…).

The ATC system will make the correlation with the


flight plan either from the discrete code or from
the Aircraft Identification entered through the
FMS or the Transponder Control Panel.

Pilots should ensure that the transponder is operat-


ing (i.e. XPNDR or the equivalent according to
specific installation, AUTO if available, not OFF

© Steve Hall
or STBY) and the assigned Mode A code selected
from the request for push back or taxi which-
ever is earlier.

After landing
XPNDR TA ONLY
ALT Pilots should ensure that the transpon-
OFF TA / RA der is operating (i.e. XPNDR or the
equivalent according to specific instal-
STBY lation, AUTO if available, not OFF or
STBY) after landing continuously
until the aircraft is fully parked on
stand.

TCAS (TA/RA or TA ONLY) should normally be selected


at the holding position/point. After landing and vacating the
runway, TCAS should normally be deselected.

8 [ Mode S Deployment at Airports in Europe Information Notice ]


What are the aircraft
equipment requirements?
Existing requirements
Most aircraft are already equipped with Mode S transponders for the purposes of ACAS.
Also, from 31 March 2007, all aircraft flying IFR in the core area need to be suitably
equipped in accordance with the planned implementation of Mode S Surveillance.

Requirements relating to the ground operation of Mode S transponders were included in


ICAO Annex 10, Vol. IV more than ten years ago. The latest version (Amendment 77 appli-
cable from 28th of November 2002) states that when the transponder is switched on and not
in the stand-by mode and in the on-the-ground status, only replies to all call transmissions
shall be inhibited (used for aquisition by Mode S Radars). This status requirement is nor-
mally fulfilled automatically through a nose wheel weight switch.

Are there any changes to transponder operating procedures?


No, except that the transponder needs to remain operating on the ground with on-the-ground
status, otherwise the multilateration system cannot determine the position and identity of the
aircraft.

Check your Mode S


Transponders
The Mode S transponder must be compliant with JAA Technical Standard Order JTSO-
2C112a, or an equivalent standard that is compliant with the relevant ICAO SARPS and
which is acceptable to the certification authority. For the purpose of IFR/GAT flights, exist-
ing SSR mode-A/C transponders must be replaced by Mode S transponders with effect from
31 March 2007, unlesss exempted for a specific purpose.

Full details of transponder compliancy requirements can be obtained from the Eurocontrol
Mode S website at: www.eurocontrol.int/msa

[ Mode S Deployment at Airports in Europe Information Notice ] 9


Reference Material
 ICAO Regional Supplementary Procedures, DOC 7030/4
 ICAO Annex 10, Volume III, Amendment 77
 ICAO Annex 10, volume IV, Amendment 77

Contacts
Airport Operations Programme Contact
Paul ADAMSON
A-SMGCS Project Manager
EUROCONTROL
Directorate ATM Programmes
Airport Throughput Business Division
Tel: +32 2 729 3308
Fax: +32 2 729 9193
e-mail: paul.adamson@eurocontrol.int

Mode S Programme Contact


John LAW
Mode S & ACAS Programme Manager
EUROCONTROL
Directorate ATM Programmes
Sector Productivity Business Division
Tel: +32 2 729 3766
Fax: +32 2 729 9086
e-mail: john.law@eurocontrol.int

10 [ Mode S Deployment at Airports in Europe Information Notice ]


© Steve Hall

EATM (European Air Traffic Management) programme is a European-wide ATM Performance


enhancement programme managed by the EUROCONTROL Agency on behalf of EURO-
CONTROL Member States and other participating States. Its aim is to create a uniform
EUROPEAN ATM environment, to ensure high levels of Safety and to enhance the Capacity
as well as the overall performance of the European ATM system over time in the support of
the implementation of the EUROCONTROL ATM Strategy for the years 2000+.
Published by:
EUROCONTROL
General Secretariat Directorate
96, rue de la Fusée
B - 1130 Brussels Belgium

For more information, contact


EUROCONTROL
Mode S & ACAS Programme
modes@eurocontrol.int

A-SMGCS Project
paul.adamson@eurocontrol.int

m
or visit
Mode S & ACAS Programme
www.eurocontrol.int/msa

ASMGCS Project
www.eurocontrol.int/airports