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Gimmickry or manipulation Gimmicks are not enough to convince others on issues which are not and cannot be backed up by truth. 2. Propaganda Propaganda is a way of obscuring the distinction between act and opinion. This is because of the one-sided point of view that is why it is dismisses as misleading or evil. 3. Advertising 4. Influence peddling
SHIELA CLOUGH CRIFASI R – research O – objective S – strategy I – implementation E – evaluation PR • … is the management function which evaluates public attitudes, identifies the policies and procedures of an individual or an organization with the public interest, and plans and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance.
- Not influence selling. 5. Panacea
- Not a cure-all thing. 6. Short-term accomplishment Not an over-night sensation; PR is a process, so it goes through stages.
Advertising Paid airtime and space To inform and sell Terms Nature Objective PR Unsolicited space and time To create an environment where the organization can thrive Uses a number of tools other than the trimedia Both internal and external audiences
Management → part of the organization/decision-making process of a company. Action → nothing could take effect without prior action.
MELVIN SHARPE • PR is supposed to harmonize long-term relationships among individuals and organizations in society. 5 PRINCIPLES:
Works almost exclusively through the use of mass media Consumers / external audience
2. 3. 4. 5.
EVOLUTION OF PR: • • Evolved from story-telling (1900’s) Muckrakers: journalists that find nothing but dirt. Post WWII interactive story: two-way communication
Honest communication for credibility. Openness and consistency of actions for confidence. Fairness of actions for reciprocity and goodwill. Continuous 2-way communication to prevent alienation and to build relationships. Environmental research and elevation to determine the actions or adjustments needed for social harmony.
KEYWORDS FOR PR:
1. 2. 3.
HARWOOD CHILDS • Organized Adjustment: PR wherein organizations adjust to the environment. • Public interest is the sole practice of PR. • PR: management function & collective action. JOHN MARSTON R – research A – action C – communication E – evaluation • • • • research on the attitudes of the audiences identify the action programs you intend to implement communicate these programs evaluate the program to know if the program is effective
Deliberate – PR is intentional; has a purpose to give information and provide understanding, gain feedback… influence! Plan – PR activity is organized: systematic; could require research and analysis. Performance – effective public relations is based on the actual policies and performance of an individual or an organization; practice what you preach! Public Interest – the rational for any PR activity is to serve the public interest and not simply to achieve benefits for the organization. It is the alignment of the organization’s self-interest with the public’s concerns and interests. Two-way Communication – important that any PR activity should gain feedback from audiences. Management Function – PR has got to be a part of the decision-making of the company.
PR involves counseling and problem-solving, and not just to release information. It is the voice of the organization.
FUNCTIONS OF PR: 1. Marketing and Promotional Publicity • press relations • Publicity: process of giving news-worthy information to advance the interest of a person or institution. 2. Financial Relations • Involved in writing financial reports accompanied with news features with media. • In order for stock holders to continue investing. 3. Community Relations • Designed to create and implement local community projects and render advice on corporate policies and procedures. 4. Verbal Communications • Designed to project executives’ and employees’ views. 5. Special Events • Designed to project the company’s distinction as business or community leader especially anniversaries, sales promotion, sponsorship or cultural events/sports, etc. 6. Institutional Advertising
18-24 months of experience as beginning professional • works on own initiative, with the least supervision • researches rights, publicity materials, advertising copy, etc • reports to the professional manager 3. Professional Manager • generally have at least 5 years experience as a staff professional • responsible for planning, development and execution of programs of communication between organization and the publics • direct the entire PR staff/ at least the publics • reports to the VP professional 4. VP/Sr. Professional • 10 years experience as professional manager • advices top management on all matters affecting internal and external relations with the public • responsible to top management for the total administration of the PR functions in a corporation ROLES OF A PR PRACTITIONER:
1. 2. 3.
Provides emphasis on an company’s established identity or individuality which is generally accepted, is already accepted, but still worthy of assertion.
WHAT PR PRACTITIONERS DO: 1. Write reports, publicity materials, product information, radio and TV copies. Edit publications. Establish contacts with the press, radio and TV networks, for a client’s news release. Promoting special events. Speaking appearances.(entertaining guests) Adequate production knowledge and layout.
a listener and a researcher – find out how the people feel towards an organization a counselor and a planner – advices the management for possible reactions of the people a communicator – conveys top managements’ message to different publics who’s attitudes and decisions can affect the organization’s operations. an evaluator – he assesses results to determine whether or not the organization is achieving its objectives
3. 4. 5. 6.
QUALITIES OF A PR PRACTITIONER:
1. 2. 3.
Integrity – never allow client to indulge in malpractice or neglect public interest Objectivity – public interest
TYPES OF PR PRACTITIONERS:
Internal PR – somebody who is part of the organization’s internal structure; subject to the control and administration of the company. External PR – Pr counsel kept on a retainer by the organization.
4 CAREER LEVELS: 1. Beginning Professional • a graduate of a 4-yr course • able to undertake basic research, writing, media relations • reports to a staff professional 2. Staff Professional
Stability – he/she must be firm; but should also be flexible and adaptable 4. Sobriety and tact 5. Decisiveness – good in decision-making; be able to think in sharp logical matters and imbard on a course of action that will bring about the needed results. 6. Good manners, appearance, and speech 7. Responsibility, organizational ability, and accountability – make decisions, carry out programs, and deal with consequences of decision. 8. Imagination and curiosity – allows person to be creative come up with out of the box ideas.
• • •
call-in telephone lines mail analysis field reports – not in absolute control of the people and their answers
2. Formal methods • surveys – questionnaire, personal interview • content-analysis – objectively determine what is being presented • secondary analysis and on-line data basis – has been researched before
WHAT PR IS ALL ABOUT: MANAGEMENT PROCESS
How did we do? - assessment
What is happening now? - situation analysis
Basic Steps in Research Process: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Statement of the problem Selection of a manageable portion of the problem Definition of concepts and terms Literature search Development of hypothesis Determination of a study design Gathering of data Analysis of data Recording of the implications, generalizations, and conclusions
How did we do & say What should we do or it? say? - implementation - strategy
Probing and monitoring knowledge, opinions, attitude, and behavior. “Intelligence” Research is necessary: increasing fragmentation of audiences into groups that have specific interests and concerns increasing isolation of top management from personal contact with the public prevent organizations from wasting time and money in attacking problems that don’t really exists provide facts upon which PR program will be based surveys can generate publicity through dissemination of results Methods of Research: 1. Informal or exploratory • personal contact • key informants are open-ended • focus group/community forum • advisory committee and boards • ombudsman – provides greater means of awareness of public opinions and views
Problem Statement: • A useful problem statement summarizes what was learned about a problem situation. • Describes a situation in specific and measurable terms. • Should include: 1. What is the concern? 2. Where is this a problem? 3. When is it a problem? 4. Who is involved or affected? 5. Why is it a concern to the organization and its publics? • Does not imply solution or place blame. 3 Groupings of PR Problems/ Opportunities: 1. 2. 3. Overcoming a negative perception towards an organization, product, or person Conducting a specific, one-time project Developing or expanding a continuing program
Writing a Program Objective: Objectives – spell out the key results that must be achieved 1. Give focus and direction to those developing strategies and tactics. Strategy – over-all plan Tactic – individual course of action 2. Provide guidance and motivation to those charged with implementing the program.
Spell out the outcome criteria to be used for monitoring and evaluating the program.
planning the use of the media effectively communicating the program
Types of Criteria: 1. 2. Objectives should be written in the form of infinitive phrase – specify specialized event. Objectives should be verifiable. Desired outcome should be stated in quantified measurable terms and a time frame or target date should be set for its accomplishment.
Theme – encompasses the program’s entire scope
make it appealing use slogans slogans – give indication on what the project is about.
Action/ Special Event – programs should be actionoriented so it will be news-worthy • more effective if it involves large number of people and includes presence of a celebrity • to advance the public image of the client, it should be substantive, serious, and in the public interest Controlled Media – the message and where it will appear are governed by the person or the company that place the ad. E.g. Institutional ads, brochures, leaflets, flyers, manuals, newsletters, reports, audiovisual materials (film, slideshow), interpersonal communication. Uncontrolled Media – the Pr person provides information but has no control over how the information will appear; the press writes the story. E.g. News release, feature story, photo caption, radio/tv public service, personal appearance on broadcast. 7 CS OF PR COMMUNICATION 1. Credibility – receivers must have confidence in the sender and high regard in the source’s knowledge on the subject. 2. Context – communication must confirm and not contradict the message; must square with realities of communication; comm. must provide participation and feedback. 3. Content – message must be put in simple terms, words must mean the same to the receivers as to the sender. (meaning) 4. Clarity – (simple terms)
Types of Objectives:
Output Objectives – the work to be done or produced; known as the process, support objective or program effort; intentions in the production of the program. 2. Impact Objectives: a. informational – message exposure by message comprehension by message retention b. attitudinal – aimed at modifying the way an audience feels about a client; may consist of: • forming new attitude where more exist • reinforcing existing attitude • changing existing attitude
• • •
Behavioral Objectives – involves the modification of behavior towards the client; may consist of: creation/stimulation of new behavior enhancement/intensification of existing behavior reversal of negative behavior on the part of the audience towards the practitioner’s client
Program Plan: any PR plan starts with the organization’s mission statement... • • • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. A search look backward – background or development of the problem. A wide look around – how does the public feel. A deep look inside – go back with the organization, what’s with it that they has a problem. A long long look ahead – the future! identification of the problem or opportunity identification of the objectives identify the audiences develop the strategy specify the tactics develop a calendar ascertain he budget specify evaluation procedures
Elements of Programming: 1. 2. stating a theme planning the action or special event
Consistency and continuity – communication requires repetition to have penetration; repetition with variation contributes to learning and persuasion. 6. Channels – established channels of communication should be used creating new ones can be difficult, time consuming, and expensive. 7. Capability of the audience – communication is most effective when it requires the least effort on the part of the receivers. 5 STEPS OF ADAPTION 1. awareness 2. interest 3. evaluation 4. trial 5. adapt the product
7 REGULATIONS THAT RESTRICT THE ABSORPTION OR ADAPTION OF NEW IDEA/INFO 1. Complexity of the idea/product 2. Differences from accustomed patterns 3. Competition with prevailing ideas 4. Necessity for demonstration and proof 5. Strength of vested interest 6. Failure to meet a felt need 7. Frequency of reminders TOOLS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS I. SEEN-READ-HEARD FORM a. Printed (seen-read-unheard) 1. Feature Articles: written when there are topics in an event that need emphasis or detailed information which will prove useful and productive. 2. Photo Release: pictures with brief captions identifying the event and the personalities shown. 3. Institutional Ad: focuses on an idea rather than the product. 4. Newspaper & Magazine Fillers: filler ng article na bitin. 5. Brochures, Leaflets, Flyers: handy and informative forms of communication which are capable of minimizing Q&A sessions 6. Announcement Letters: (direct mail) sent to special/specific publics. 7. Press Statements: written in a factual manner signed by a responsible person other that the PR manager of the company. b. Announced (unseen-read heard) 1. Jingles: words and melody are catchy and easy to memorize. 2. Spot Announcements: short and to the point broadcast about an entity, business, and location. 3. Time Ad: time checks
Photo display Luncheons and cocktails Sponsorship of concerts, games, events Open houses Sponsored tours Forums and meetings
HOW TO WRITE NEWS RELEASE Format: Should be factual Devoid of superlatives (praise release) Timely and newsworthy Types: 1. One-Sentence Release: announces new appointments, promotions, retirements, change of company name. 2. Publishable As It Stands 7 Pt. Formula Release
3. 4. 5. 6.
Background Story: general information when the journalist is writing about the subject. Summary And Full Technical Story: when a long detailed story is justified, it is helpful to the editors to precede the main story with a short summary. Extended Picture Caption Story Digest Of A Speech Or A Report: highlighting the contents of an accompanying document.
News release should follow a standardized format! 1. To achieve legibility. 2. To make the release attractive to read. 3. To minimize editorial work. Essential Elements of a Press Release Basic sheet: 8½” x 11” paper (some use letterheads) Length: 1 – 3 pages
Ending of article: ### or ●●● Authorship: clarification or career opportunity Headlines: provide a gist of the article Subheads: rare; emphasize other details Paragraphs: never split sentences in between paragraphs. Style and Punctuation Numbers: one to ten, 11- 99 or so Date: August 9, 2004 Double spaced, 12 courier or times new roman Refrain from using italics and ALL CAPS Abbreviation: unless it is best known for it, otherwise spell it out. Embargoes and dating – banning of write-ups until the time and date. Picture availability Lay-out: Page 1 of 3, 2 of 3, 3 of 3 Running-off: releases printed on one side of the paper Assembling Envelope: short and brown
Radio Program Sponsorships: interviews, hook-ups, quiz shows, trivia in radio, etc.
c. Visuals (seen-read-heard) 1. Audio-visuals: tv or film shows
Movies: documentaries 3. Slide presentations II. MAGNIFIED FORM Billboards Transit ads Neon signs Streamers Posters III. SPECIAL EVENTS Press or news conferences Exhibits
SOMETHING COMPANY Intramuros, Manila
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
August 9, 2004 Hanna Magkasi 09179696685 Ms. Chelo Banal-Formoso Lifestyle Editor, PDI FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE CASA’s JAPANICE INTEG BALL
Focus on one central subject in each release. Make certain the subject is news-worthy in the context of the organization, industry, and community. Include facts about the product, service, issue being discussed. Provide the facts factually with no puff, bluff, and hyperbole. Rid the release of unnecessary jargon. Include appropriate quotes from principals. Include product specifications.
_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ______________________________ ###
Subject of the story Organization Location Advantage of the policy, scheme, product Application to which the subject may be put Details Sources of information
3-PART FORMULA 1. Idea must precede expression – before you write, you should think! Idea must satisfy 4 criteria: a. Ideas must relate to the reader; any idea that does not concern him will be ignored. b. Ideas must engage the reader’s attention. c. Ideas must concern the reader. d. Ideas must be in the reader’s interest 2. Don’t be afraid of the draft! 3. Simlify, clarify, aim. a. Jargons and “in” words should be avoided. b. What should make sense is the simple/complex, familiar/unconventional, concrete/abstract. c. Clarity = tightness: each word/passage/paragraph must belong! d. Writing must be aimed at a particular audience (target audience). Reasons for Worthless Articles: 1. Releases are poorly written. 2. Releases are rarely localized. 3. Releases are not news-worthy. What news is news? 1. impact 2. oddity 3. conflict 4. known principal (person) 5. proximity In sending press releases… 1. Have a well-defined person for sending the release.
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