Chapter 7 - Implementing IP Addressing Services

CCNA Exploration 4.0

1

Introduction

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DHCP

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Introducing DHCP

DHCP assigns IP addresses and other important network configuration information dynamically.

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DHCP Operation

Manual Allocation: The administrator assigns a preallocated IP address to the client and DHCP only communicates the IP address to the device. Automatic Allocation: DHCP automatically assigns a static IP address permanently to a device, selecting it from a pool of available addresses. There is no lease and the address is permanently assigned to a device. Dynamic Allocation: DHCP automatically dynamically assigns, or leases, an IP address from a pool of addresses for a limited period of time chosen by the server, or until the client tells the DHCP server that it no longer needs the address.

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BOOTP and DHCP

Both DHCP and BOOTP are client/server based and use UDP ports 67 and 68. Those ports are still known as BOOTP ports.

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DHCP Message Format

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DHCP Discover

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DHCP Offer

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Configuring a DHCP Server

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Configuring a DHCP Server

Example

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Verifying DHCP
PC1: ipconfig /all

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Verifying DHCP
PC2: ipconfig /all

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Verifying DHCP

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Configuring a DHCP Client

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Configuring a DHCP Client

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DHCP Relay

Host Problem

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DHCP Relay

Host Renew

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DHCP Relay

Broadcast

Unicast

• Helper address configuration that relays broadcasts to all servers on
the segment. RTA(config)#interface e0 RTA(config-if)#ip helper-address 172.24.1.255 But will RTA forward the broadcast?
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DHCP Relay

• •

Notice that the RTA interface e3, which connects to the server farm, is not configured with helper addresses. However, the output shows that for this interface, directed broadcast forwarding is disabled. This means that the router will not convert the logical broadcast 172.24.1.255 into a physical broadcast with a Layer 2 address of FF-FF-FF-FF-FFFF. To allow all the nodes in the server farm to receive the broadcasts at Layer 2, e3 will need to be configured to forward directed broadcasts with the following command: RTA(config)#interface e3 RTA(config-if)#ip directed-broadcast
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DHCP Relay

L3 Broadcast

L2 Broadcast

RTA(config)#interface e0 RTA(config-if)#ip helper-address 172.24.1.255 RTA(config)#interface e3 RTA(config-if)#ip directed-broadcast
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Using helper addresses
• By default, the ip helper-address command forwards the eight UDPs services.

The Cisco IOS provides the global configuration command ip forwardprotocol to allow an administrator to forward any UDP port in addition to the default eight.

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Configuring a DHCP Server Using SDM

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Configuring a DHCP Server Using SDM

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Verifying and Troubleshooting DHCP

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Verifying and Troubleshooting DHCP

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Scaling Networks with NAT

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Private and Public IP Addressing

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What is NAT ?

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NAT Terminology

• •


Inside local address - Usually not an IP address assigned by a RIR or service provider and is most likely an RFC 1918 private address. Inside global address - Valid public address that the inside host is given when it exits the NAT router. – When traffic from PC1 is destined for the web server at 209.165.201.1, router R2 must translate the address. In this case, IP address 209.165.200.226 is used as the inside global address for PC1. Outside global address - Reachable IP address assigned to a host on the Internet. – For example, the web server is reachable at IP address 209.165.201.1. Outside local address - The local IP address assigned to a host on the outside network. In most situations, this address will be identical to the outside global address of that outside device.
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The Forms of NAT
• Static NAT – Mapping an unregistered IP address to a registered IP
address on a one-to-one basis. Particularly useful when a device needs to be accessible from outside the network.

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The Forms of NAT
• Dynamic NAT – Maps an unregistered IP address to a registered IP
address from a group of registered IP addresses. Dynamic NAT also establishes a one-to-one mapping between unregistered and registered IP address, but the mapping could vary depending on the registered address available in the pool, at the time of communication.

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The Forms of NAT
• Overloading – A form of dynamic NAT that maps multiple unregistered
IP addresses to a single registered IP address (many-to-one) by using different ports. Known also as PAT (Port Address Translation), single address NAT or port-level multiplexed NAT.

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NAT Example

• • • •

Inside local address – The IP address assigned to a host on the inside network. This address is likely to be an RFC 1918 private address. Inside global address – A legitimate (Internet routable or public) IP address assigned the service provider that represents one or more inside local IP addresses to the outside world. Outside local address – The IP address of an outside host as it is known to the hosts on the inside network. Outside global address – The IP address assigned to a host on the outside network. The owner of the host assigns this address.
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NAT Example
1 2

DA 128.23.2.2

SA 10.0.0.3 IP Header .... Data

DA 128.23.2.2

SA 179.9.8.80 IP Header .... Data

1

2

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NAT overload

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Next Available Port

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Benefits and Drawbacks of Using NAT

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Configure Static NAT on a Cisco Router

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Example

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Configure Dynamic NAT on a Cisco Router

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Configure Dynamic NAT on a Cisco Router

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Example

Translate to these outside addresses

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Configuring NAT Overload for a Single Public IP Address

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Configuring NAT Overload for a Single Public IP Address

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Configuring NAT Overload for a Pool of Public IP Addresses

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Configuring NAT Overload for a Pool of Public IP Addresses

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Port Forwarding


Port forwarding (sometimes referred to as tunneling) is the act of forwarding a network port from one network node to another. This technique can allow an external user to reach a port on a private IP address (inside a LAN) from the outside through a NAT-enabled router.
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Port Forwarding
http://portforward.com

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Port Forwarding

Ip nat inside source static [tcp/udp] Inside Local IP address Local TCP/UDP Port Inside Global IP address Global TCP/UDP Port Examples: • ip nat inside source static udp 10.0.25.22 53 222.25.249.33 53 • ip nat inside source static udp 10.0.25.33 53 222.25.249.34 53 • ip nat inside source static tcp 10.0.25.16 80 222.25.249.34 80 • ip nat inside source static tcp 10.0.17.2 1723 222.25.249.34 1723 • ip nat inside source static tcp 10.0.25.17 80 222.25.249.34 8082

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Verifying NAT and NAT Overload

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Verifying NAT and NAT Overload

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Troubleshooting NAT and NAT Overload Configuration

• •


Step 1. Based on the configuration, clearly define what NAT is supposed to achieve. This may reveal a problem with the configuration. Step 2. Verify that correct translations exist in the translation table using the show ip nat translations command. Step 3. Use the clear and debug commands to verify that NAT is operating as expected. Check to see if dynamic entries are recreated after they are cleared. Step 4. Review in detail what is happening to the packet, and verify that routers have the correct routing information to move the packet.
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IPv6

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Reason for using IPv6

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Reason for using IPv6

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Address space

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IPv6 Features

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IPv6 Features

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Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 Headers

Traffic class: ToS Payload Length Next Header: Tcp, Udp… Hop Limit: TTL No Checksum

Flow Label: 20-bit field that allows a particular flow of traffic to be labeled. It can be used for multilayer switching techniques and faster packet-switching performance. Extension Headers: Follows the previous eight fields. The number of extension headers is not fixed, so the total length of the extension header chain is variable.
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Extension header

Extension Header

Extension Header

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Extension header

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IPv6 Extension Headers
• IPv6 Header: Basic header described in the previous figure. • Hop-by-hop options header: When used for the router alert • • •

(Resource Reservation Protocol [RSVP] and Multicast Listener Discovery version 1 [MLDv1]) and the jumbogram, this header (value = 0) is processed by all hops in the path of a packet. Destination options header (when the routing header is used) Routing header: Used for source routing and mobile IPv6 (value = 43). Fragment header: Used when a source must fragment a packet that is larger than the MTU for the path between itself and a destination device. Authentication Header and Encapsulating Security Payload header: Used within IPsec to provide authentication, integrity, and confidentiality of a packet. – The Authentication Header (value = 51) – The ESP header (value = 50) Upper-layer header: Typical headers used inside a packet to transport the data. The two main transport protocols are TCP (value = 6) and UDP (value = 17).
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Defining Address Representation

• • •

Leading zeros in a field are optional, so 09C0 = 9C0 and 0000 = 0. Successive fields of zeros can be represented as “::” only once in an address. An unspecified address is written as “::” because it contains only zeros.
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IPv6 Address Types

1.

2.
3.

Unicast address – Link local (FE80::/10): Scope is configured to single link. The address is unique only on this link, and it is not routable off the link. (similar to 169.254.x.x private address) – Site local (FEC0::/10): similar to private address. – Global: Globally unique, so it can be routed globally with no modification. A global address has an unlimited scope on the worldwide Internet. Packets with global source and destination addresses are routed to their target destination by the routers on the Internet. Multicast address (FF00::/8): IPv6 does not have broadcast addresses. The range of multicast addresses in IPv6 is larger than in IPv4. For the foreseeable future, allocation of multicast groups is not being limited. Anycast address: An anycast address identifies a list of devices or nodes; therefore, an anycast address identifies multiple interfaces. A packet sent to an anycast address is delivered to the closest interface, as defined by the routing protocols in use.
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Special Address

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IPv6 Global Unicast and Anycast address

• •

Global Unicast Addresses are defined by a global routing prefix, a subnet ID, and an interface ID. The current global unicast address assignment by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) uses the range of addresses that start with binary value 001 (2000::/3), which is 1/8 of the total IPv6 address space and is the largest block of assigned block addresses. The IANA is allocating the IPv6 address space in the ranges of 2001::/16 to the five RIR registries (ARIN, RIPE, APNIC, LACNIC, and AfriNIC). Addresses with a prefix of 2000::/3 (001) through E000::/3 (111), with the exception of the FF00::/8 (1111 1111) multicast addresses, are required to have 64-bit interface identifiers in the Extended Universal Identifier (EUI)-64 format. When a unicast address is assigned to more than one interface, thus turning it into an anycast address, the nodes to which the address is assigned must be explicitly configured to use and recognize the anycast address.

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Assign IPv6 address

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Stateless Autoconfiguration

1. Phase 1: MAC 00-0C-29-C2-52-FF -> 02-0C-29-FF-FE-C2-52-FF 2. Phase 2: well-known link-local prefix fe80::/64 is added ->
3. 4.
fe80::20c:29ff:fec2:52ff Phase 3: Verify the address’s uniqueness on the link, called duplicate address detection (DAD). Send ICMPv6. Phase 4: Assigned
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IPv6 to IPv4 Transition Mechanism

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IPv6 to IPv4 Transition Mechanism

The 2 most common techniques to transition from IPv4 to IPv6 are as follows: 1. Dual stack 2. IPv6-over-IPv4 (6to4) tunnels For communication between IPv4 and IPv6 networks, IPv4 addresses can be encapsulated in IPv6 addresses.
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Cisco IOS Dual Stack

• •

Dual stacking is an integration method in which a node has implementation and connectivity to both an IPv4 and IPv6 network. This is the recommended option and involves running IPv4 and IPv6 at the same time. Using IPv6 on a Cisco IOS router requires that you use the global configuration command ipv6 unicast-routing. This command enables the forwarding of IPv6 datagrams.
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IPv6 Tunneling

• • •

Tunneling is an integration method where an IPv6 packet is encapsulated within another protocol, such as IPv4. This method enables the connection of IPv6 islands without needing to convert the intermediary networks to IPv6. When IPv4 is used to encapsulate the IPv6 packet, a protocol type of 41 is specified in the IPv4 header, and the packet includes a 20-byte IPv4 header with no options and an IPv6 header and payload. It also requires dual-stack routers. Tunneling presents these issues: – The MTU is decreased by 20 octets (if the IPv4 header does not contain any optional field). – Difficult to troubleshoot.
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IPv6 Tunneling

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Routing consideration with IPv6

• Like IPv4 classless interdomain routing (CIDR), IPv6 uses longest

prefix match routing. IPv6 uses modified versions of most of the common routing protocols to handle longer IPv6 addresses and different header structures.
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Routing consideration with IPv6

1.
2. 3.

The control plane handles the interaction of the router with the other network elements, providing the information needed to make decisions and control the overall router operation. This plane runs processes such as routing protocols and network management. These functions are generally complex. The data plane handles packet forwarding from one physical or logical interface to another. It involves different switching mechanisms such as process switching and Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) on Cisco IOS software routers. Enhanced services include advanced features applied when forwarding data, such as packet filtering, quality of service (QoS), encryption, translation, and accounting.

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RIPNg routing protocol

• • • • • •

Based on IPv4 RIP version 2 (RIPv2) and similar to RIPv2 , distance vector, split horizon, max hop 15, poison reverse Uses IPv6 for transport IPv6 prefix, next-hop IPv6 address Uses the multicast group FF02::9, the all-RIP-routers multicast group, as the destination address for RIP updates Updates sent on UDP port 521 Is supported by Cisco IOS Release 12.2(2)T and later
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Enabling IPv6 on Cisco Routers

• There are two basic steps to activate IPv6 on a router.

– First, you must activate IPv6 traffic-forwarding on the router, – and then you must configure each interface that requires IPv6. By default, IPv6 traffic-forwarding is disabled on a Cisco router. To activate it between interfaces, you must configure the global command ipv6 unicast-routing.
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IPv6 Address Configuration Example

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Cisco IOS IPv6 Name Resolution

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Configure RIPng with IPv6

To enable RIPng routing on the router, use the ipv6 router rip name global configuration command. – The name parameter identifies the RIP process. – This process name is used later when configuring RIPng on participating interfaces. For RIPng, instead of using the network command to identify which interfaces should run RIPng, you use the command ipv6 rip name enable in interface configuration mode to enable RIPng on an interface. The name parameter must match the name parameter in the ipv6 router rip command.

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Configure RIPng with IPv6

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Troubleshooting

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Troubleshooting

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LAB – IPv6 RIP
2003::1/64 L0 F0/0 2fff::1/64
R1

2004::1/64 S1/0

2004::2/64 S1/1
R2

2005::2/64 L0
ipv6 unicast-routing ipv6 router rip bkacad ipv6 route ::/0 lo0 interface lo0 ipv6 address 2005::2/64 ipv6 rip bkacad enable interface s1/1 ipv6 address 2004::2/64 ipv6 rip bkacad enable ipv6 router rip bkacad redistribute static

2fff::2/64

ipv6 unicast-routing ipv6 router rip bkacad interface lo0 ipv6 address 2003::1/64 ipv6 rip bkacad enable interface f0/0 ipv6 address 2fff::1/64 ipv6 rip bkacad enable interface s1/0 ipv6 address 2004::1/64 ipv6 rip bkacad enable

ipv6 install netsh interface ipv6 add address "Local Area Connection" 2fff::2

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Labs

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Summary

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