CH4-1 What is the major functionalities of Network layer? How do they work?

Forwarding: move packets from router's input to appropriate route output. Routing: determine route taken by packets from source to destination. What are the differences between the functionalities of Network layer and Transport layer? Transport layer: logical communication between processes Network layer: logical communication between hosts How does forwarding table work? Check the prefix of the packet's destination address. If there's a match, the router forwards the packet to al link associated with the match. What is the router architecture and its functions? What is the functionality of each component in the router architecture?

Input port: links from other router. Output port: links to other router. Switching fabric: direct links from incoming to outgoing port. Routing processor: control switching fabric to driect datas from incoming to outgoing port.


What are the three types of router switching fabrics? What are the differences between them?

Memory: packet copied to system's memory, then direct to output port with direct control of CPU. Speed limited by memory bandwidth. Bus: packets are sent via a shared bus. Switching speed limited by sub bandwidth. Crossbar: overcome bus bandwidth limitations. Uses multiprocessor. What are the major component of the Internet network layer? What is the functionality of each component?

How does IP fragmentation work? Show the details of dividing and reassembling a datagram.


What is a subnet in IPv4? What is the format of a subnet address? Subnet is a lobically visible subdivision of an IP network. a.b.c.d/x

How does DHCP work? Host broadcasts "DHCP discover" message. DHCP server responds with "DHCP offer" message. Host requests IP address with "DHCP request" message. DHCP server sends address with "DHCP ack" message. How does NAT work? How does host connect the server behind NAT? • • • Outgoing datagrams: replace <source IP address: port #> of every outgoing datagram to <NAT IP address: new port #>. Remember (in NAT translation table) every <source IP address, port #> to <NAT IP address: new port #>. Incoming datagrams: replace <NAT IP address: new port #> in dest fields of every incoming datagram with corresponding <source IP address, port #> stored in NAT table.

How does traceroute work using ICMP? The traceroute command is implemented by transmitting UDP datagrams with specially set IP TTL header fields, and looking for ICMP Time to live exceeded in transit and "Destination unreachable" message generated in respons.

CH4-2 Calculate ths forwarding tables of all nodes in the example network by Dijkstra algorithm.


Calculate ths forwarding table of all nodes in the example network by Distance Vector algorithm.

How does RIP work? Include route adding, removing, and updating. How does RIP take care of poison reverse? RIP: routing information protocol. Distance vector algorithm. When a gateway is no longer connected to, the one of the gateway will notify all neighbor gateways by setting the unconnected gateway to a number that indicates "infinite". Usually 16. How does OSPF establish its routing hierarchy? List the functionalities of special routers in the hierarchy. Two-level hierarchy: Link-state advertisements only in area; each nodes has tetailed area topology, only know direction (shortest path) to nets in other area. • Area border router: "summarize" distances to nets in own area. • backbone router: run OSPF routing limited to backbone. • boundary router: connects to other AS's. What is the functionalities of BGP? BGP (Border Gatway Protocol) is the protocol backing the core routing decisions on the Internet. How does BGP select routes? Elimination rules: • local preference value attribute: policy decision • shortest AS-PATH • closest NEXT-HOP router: hot potato routing • additional criteria


What are the differences between Intra-AS and Inter-AS routing? Polocy: Inter-AS: admin wants control over how its traffic routed, who routes through its net. Intra-AS: single admin, so no policy decisions nedded. Performance: Inter-AS: can focus on performance Intra-AS: policy may dominate over performance How does multicast become more efficient than broadcast? When node receives brdcst pckt, sends copy to all neighbors. How does a network build spanning tree? How does a network build shortest path tree? Spanning tree: Define center node, each node sends unicast join message to center node. Message forwarded until it arrives at a node already belonging to spanning tree. Shortest path tree: Uses Dijkstra's algorithm How does reverse path forwarding(RPF) work? How does pruning work in RPF? Each router has simple forwarding behavior If mcast datagram received on incoming link on shortest path back to center: flood datagram onto all outgoing links else: ignore datagram "Prune" msgs sent upstream by router with no downstream group members. How does center based tree work in multicast? Single delivery tree shared by all. One router identified as "center" of tree. To join: • edge router sends unicast join-msg addressed to center router • join-msg "processed" by intermediate routers and forwarded towards center. • Join-msg either hits existing tree branch for this center, or arrives at center. • Path taken by join-msg becomes new branch of tree for this router. How does PIM work in dense and sparse mode? Dense: group members densely packed, in "close" proximity; bandwidth more plentiful. Sparse: # networks with group members small wrt # interconnected networks; group members "widely dispersed"; bandwidth not plentiful. 5

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