Social Context of Education, Ljubljana 2009

SOCIAL CONTEXT OF EDUCATION
Edited by

DAMIJAN ŠTEFANC BOŻENA HARASIMOWICZ

LJUBLJANA, 2009
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Reviewer:

Social Context of Education, Ljubljana 2009 Damijan Štefanc Bożena Harasimowicz

Edited by:

Assoc Prof. Anna Kožuh, PhD Prof. Vjačeslav Terkulov, PhD

© Univerza v Ljubljani, Filozofska fakulteta, 2009. All rights reserved. Main entry under title:

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or othervise, without the prior permission of the publisher.

Published by: University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts For the publisher: Valentin Bucik, Dean Issued by: Department of Education

SOCIAL CONTEXT OF EDUCATION

Includes index. 1. Educational-Research-Slovenia-Adresses, essays. 2. Education-Social Sciences-Methods-Slovenia-Adresses, essays. Damijan Štefanc, Bożena Harasimowicz.
CIP - Kataložni zapis o publikaciji Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, Ljubljana 37.01(082)

SOCIAL context of education / edited by Damijan Štefanc, Božena Harasimowicz. - Ljubljana : Faculty of Arts, 2009
Printed by Mellow Technical Editor: Luka Novak Publikacija je brezplačna

ISBN 978-961-237-337-5 1. Štefanc, Damijan 249000960

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Social Context of Education, Ljubljana 2009

CONTENTS
GIFTEDNESS AS A PEDAGOGICAL PHENOMENON................................... 7

1. Elena Bocharova 2. Richard Kahn

VISION OF THE DEMOCRATIC FUTURE OF THE NET .......................... 27 THE LOCAL SOURCES OF AN IDEA OF HOMELAND ............................. 47

3. Zbigniew Pucek

METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF CAUSALITY .................... 65

4. Alison Kington 5. Boris Kožuh

THEORY OF META-ANALYTIC STUDIES ..................................................... 79 ETHNOGRAPHIC APPROACH IN PEDAGOGICAL RESEARCH ............ 89

6. Jelena Maksimović

7. Nenad Suzić STEPS TOWARDS TO INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN BiH ........................ 97
SUPPORTING PURPOSE-DRIVEN TEACHING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA, USA A Teacher Education for the Future Project .......................................... 117

8. Jodi Bergland Holen, Bonni Gourneau, Woei Hung

9. Teresa A. Hughes, Norman L. Butler, William A. Kritsonis, David Herrington

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION IN CANADA AND POLAND-COMPARED: INTERNATIONAL IMPLICATIONS ................ 135 TEACHER’S ACTIVITY IN THE DEVELOPING OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM ............................................................................. 143

10. Danuta Skulicz

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Social Context of Education, Ljubljana 2009 11. Norman L. Butler, Barry S. Davidson, Ryszard Pachocinski, Kimberly G. Grif�ith, William A. Kritsonis
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: POLISH POST – SECONDARY VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS AND CANADIAN COMMUNITY COLLEGES: A COMPARISON USING AN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTUAL MODEL .................................................................................... 159 DIGITAL SUPPORTS FOR PERSONS WITH MULTIPLE DISABILITY AND COMPLEX COMMUNICATION NEEDS ............................................ 171

12. María del Carmen Malbrán

ACTION RESEARCH IN THE INCLUSIVE CLASSROOM ...................... 179

13. Natasha Angeloska-Galevska, Zora Jacova

Index ................................................................................................................... 185

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Elena Bocharova Нorlivka State Pedagogical Institute of Foreign Languages UKRAINE

GIFTEDNESS AS A PEDAGOGICAL PHENOMENON

Under the conditions of modern social cultural situation, which is characterized by rapid changes in different spheres of the life of society and constant introduction of new information technology, the problem of education of intellectually and creatively talented personality, capable of non-standard thinking, ready for refusing from templates and usual methods of activity in searching something new and creative shouldn’t be neglected. School should fulfill the social order for pupils’ all-round developed personality, the future highly qualified specialist in a definite sphere of creative life. The future of Ukraine depends on intellectual and spiritual power, creative potential of the growing generation, its desire of acquiring the new knowledge, making new technological innovations, creative thinking and taking constructive decisions. It is confirmed on a government level with the Ukrainian President’s introduction of the Program “The Gi�ed Child” and the decision of the Cabinet of Ministers “About confirming Government goal-directed program of working with the gi�ed youth during 2007-2010 years”. That is why organizing the normal conditions for developing the gi�ed pupils and students is one of the most actual problems in the modern psycho-pedagogical science. So, the actuality of the problem is based on the necessity of system research and generalizing the conception of gi�edness and its kinds, describing the effective methods of diagnostics for a

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Elena Bocharova: Giftedness as a Pedagogical Phenomenon
gi�ed personality, peculiarities of pedagogical process, which the gi�ed children are involved in and forms of realizing the social and pedagogical support for the gi�ed youth. During the century in psycho-pedagogical science gi�edness has being discussed in educational practice, reveal the gi�ed individuals, organize their learning according to special educational plans and programs. But the scientists have not come to any univalent conclusion about what the gi�edness is, which method is be�er for defining it, which instruments should be used for revealing a gi�ed pupil. From the point of view of D. Bogoyavlenska, the difficulty and specificity with gi�ed children demand involving into this problem different specialists. They are: teachers, psychologists, sociologists, cultural and sport figures, managers from different spheres of education. The work with gi�ed children cannot base only on empiric experience. It should have scientific and methodological fields, which permit to decide such important questions as defining, teaching and developing a gi�ed child [14]. From the psychological point of view the gi�edness is a difficult object, in which cognitive, psycho-physiological emotional, motivating and willing persons’ spheres are crossing. The difficulty of the phenomenon is caused by the specificity of work with talented children. In this process pedagogical and psychological difficulties constantly appear and they are connected and they are connected with different kinds of gi�edness, a great amount of theoretical approaches and methods which define it, lack of specialists, who are professionally ready for work with different categories of gi�ed children in educational establishments of different types [16]. The problem of gi�edness is considered to be psychological. In addition there is no doubt that the notions “gi�edness”, “genius”, “talent” belong only to psychological apparatus. For a long time Psychology was developing in the network of philosophy, thanks to which most of the categorical notions were formed as philosophical, and only much later they became the object of investigation of psychologists. That’s why we will begin with the examination of the problem of gi�edness from the point of view of Philosophy. As far back as the times of Antiquity great hopes were set on the people with prominent intellectual faculties, a special role in the society was assigned to them. In particular, Plato believed

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that people with a high level of intellectual faculties had to form an elitist caste and to occupy the top of the social pyramid in the ideal republic. Plato also thought that a person’s intellectual faculties did not change with the lapse of time and that is why the humanity did not have any opportunity to influence their level [21, p. 27]. Long before Anno Domini some individuals appraised to be cleverer than the others. In Ancient Egypt in order to begin studying the art of a priest one had to stand the defined system of the tests. At the beginning the applicant gave an interview during which his biography, the level of experience and also his appearance, the ability to hold a conversation were found out. Then came the rest of his ability to work, listen to and keep silent, ordeal by fire, water, fear and so on. It is recollected that Pythagoras, a famous scientist of antiquity, stood the system of the tests successfully and when he returned to Greece he found there a school. One could enter it only a�er standing a number of different tests which were like those ones which he had stood himself in due time. The sources indicate that Pythagoras appreciated the role of intellectual faculties and he asserted that “it is impossible to turn Mercury out of every tree”. That is why he a�ached a great importance to the diagnostics of these faculties. Quintilian’s pedagogical theory is based on the learning of the positive nature of a person. He believed that almost all the children had abilities for learning and that is why a teacher had to know and take into account in his work the individual peculiarities and abilities of each child. He suggested beginning to learn as soon as possible. According to Quintilian, every person is gi�ed by the nature in different ways. The thinker emphasized the great importance of education for forming gi�edness, he thought that collective education did more good than the private one. He also mentioned the great importance of school friendship [7, p. 158]. Hippocrates was the first to express the opinion about the subordination of the human way of existence to the universal law with endless variety of individual variations. Taking into consideration the canons of ancient Greek philosophy (about four origins) he developed the teaching about four types of temperament, which explained individual differences between people [17, p. 86]. Aristotle developed the theory of education of “the citizens who were born by free parents”. From his point of view, a person

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Elena Bocharova: Giftedness as a Pedagogical Phenomenon
gets from the nature only bents which education can develop. The mind is the God’s part of the human existence; people are born with “clear mind” which is being filled by thoughts during gaining the life experience. According to Aristotle, education must ensure harmonious combination of physical, moral and mental development of a person. In the sphere of mental education he stood up for bread scholarship which is not compatible with specialization in one of the kinds of activity which from Aristotle’s point of view is unworthy of the people who were born by free parents [7, p. 29]. In psychological investigations the problem of gi�edness takes a long period of time. O. Klimchenko believes that it is appropriate to divide it into two periods: before-scholastic and a�er-scholastic. While analyzing before-scholastic period the author defines that in philosophy of antiquity the existence of some internal preconditions was not prohibited, however a person’s perfection to the level of wisdom, gi�edness was considered to be the product of will and freedom of any particular person. Thus, almost in all the philosophical views of this period the distinct differentiation of the notions of genius, gi�edness, talent is absent, and related notions were defined by individual views of thinkers [11, p. 25]. The situation changed in scholastic period. The main difference from antique period was that scholastics tried to prove the innateness of all the person’s qualities, the fact that all these qualities were given to people by God. A high level of the development of abilities is gi�edness, or God-given talent. During a�er-scholastic period (Schopenhauer, Carlyle, Hirsch, Jolly, Lafi�e, Reynard and others) differentiations of the notions of gi�edness, genius and talent appeared. Thus, the problem of origin of the highest human abilities – gi�edness, genius, talent – in philosophy became a basis for systematic and scientific study of this phenomenon in psychology and helped the psychologists to develop the theory of gi�edness.

Renaissance

The epoch of Renaissance is the epoch of passion for the culture, knowledge art and the wide demand for painting. A famous Polish pedagogue and writer of political essays Andrew Frich Modrzewsky wrote about school orientation which consisted in the selection of pupils to schools according to their abilities. He emphasized that the task of parents was the support

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of development of children’s abilities and the task of teachers was to educate the children in the way so that they could bring joy and pleasure to their relatives.

XVII Century

The conception of the development of children’s abilities thought appropriate encouragement of pupils to intellectual activity in the process of teaching appeared. (R. Descartes)

XVIII Century

Zh.-Zh. Rousseau in his conception of “free education” stated that abilities and other features of gi�edness had to develop without any interference of teachers, and education had to come only to allocation of the possibilities of the free choice. Rousseau thought that the main factors of education were the nature, the people and the objects of surrounding world.

XIX Century

Y. Pestalozzi propagandized the elemental development of a person according to his character and inclinations. Education and teaching, according to Pestalozzi, had to correspond to the child’s nature and the instincts which were put in it. A German philosopher, pedagogue Johann Fredrick Herbart (1778-1841) stated: “The variety of human mental faculties makes the biggest problems in school education. Not taking this fact into account is a fundamental mistake of any legislation which concerns education” [23, p. 19]. In the XIX century the emphasis was laid, essentially, on intelligent development of pupils, but all the pupils were taken as homogenous group, without taking in account their individual peculiarities. At the beginning of the XX century, due to Swedish teacher’s work “Ellen Key the Century of the Child (1990)”, the a�itude to a pupil and importance of the school education was changed. Reorganization of the teaching content, differentiation of programs and methods of teaching has been going on over a period of the whole century [23, p. 19]. In 1916 German psychologist William Stern (1871-1938) published the work “The growth of talents” in which he ascertained, that due to abilities a child develops rapidly over a program of acess and enriching course in a primary school, which obliged to include not only 2% of talented children, but another

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Elena Bocharova: Giftedness as a Pedagogical Phenomenon
10% of clever pupils. It’s necessary to mention, that these clever statements were formed more than 90 years ago! [23, p. 20]. The investigation of the problem of human abilities was started in the XX century and promoted the accumulation of the information data about the nature of gi�edness. The increasing of this problem was promoted by the interest of famous authors and thinkers. The works which were appeared in the second half of the XIX century concerned to explications of the existence of creative process. In the Ukrainian publication of “The Pedagogical Dictionary” it was defined that “gi�edness is the individual potential peculiarity of inclinations of a person, owing to which one can achieve success in a certain branch of activity”. The necessary natural inclinations for the development of the gi�edness do not define it themselves. Gi�edness is developing in a process of mastering by an individual cultural and other wealth of the humanity, individual’s creative activity. Gi�edness can be technical, musical, poetical and artistic. The high level of gi�edness is called talent. The general gi�edness is an ability of people to different branches of activities [7, 236]. In the psychological encyclopedia of O. M. Stepanova gi�edness is a level of the development of general abilities which defines the range of intellectual abilities of a person and provides the achievement of considerable success in the accomplishment of different kinds of activity. Gi�edness is a basis for the formation of a great number of abilities and the result of the development of special abilities [17, p. 228]. The main function of gi�edness according to V. Molyako is a maximum adaptation to the surroundings, finding decisions in all kinds of situations, when unpredictable problems which need creative approach appear. The researcher thinks that a person must get specific potential of abilities (ancestral factors and earned experience). That’s why gi�edness cannot be supposed as unique or rare phenomenon [13]. The literature analysis of scientific sources shows that the concept of cleverness has being used in different meanings till now. Thus, in 1792 in the official report of the state department of the USC (the Congress) the following definition of gi�edness, which has being used by American specialists was proposed by now: gi�ed and talented are those pupils, who are exposed by

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professionally prepared people as persons who have a potential for great achievements under outstanding abilities [15, p. 15]. B. Teplov defined gi�edness as the peculiar consolidation of abilities. The success of realization of an activity depends on it. He thinks that “general gi�edness can be defined in a general meaning as the gi�edness for the wide range of activities” [19, p. 15]. American psychologist Rensulli J. S. emphasizes that gi�edness is a number of interacting components and that it is impossible to indentify it by only one description. According to it he suggested the scales of estimation of the peculiarity of the gi�ed children’s behavior in the educational, motivational and creative and leadership sphere. One of the most holistic concepts of the gi�edness in the world of psychology is the J. Renzull’s theory about three rings. The concepts describe the gi�edness as the interaction of three groups of person’s qualities. The models contain three elements: mental ability, which surpasses the middle level, insistence (the motivation is oriented on the task) and creativity [24]. In this theoretical model the knowledge on the basis of practice and favorable society is also taken into account. The author noted that due to his concept the number of gi�ed children might be rather higher than according to IQ-tests identifying the achievements. He does not connect the term “gi�edness” only to extremely high marks in every sphere. His model is democratic. This makes it possible to refer the children who showed high results even in one parameter to the category of gi�ed. At the beginning of the XX century American psychologist Ch. Spearmen assumed that gi�edness is based on the special “mental energy” which is constant for certain individual and considerably distinguishes one person from another. In A. Matushkin’s concept the psychological structure of gi�edness coincides with structural elements, which characterize the creativity and creative development of a person. The gi�edness is regarded as general ground of creativity in any profession, science or arts [12]. Researchers distinguish a great number of indications of gi�ed children. On the basis of principle of systematization they may be united in three groups: - Leading cognitive development; - Psychosocial sensibility;

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Elena Bocharova: Giftedness as a Pedagogical Phenomenon
- Physical peculiarity. According to this, there are three tasks for the pedagogical work: to promote person’s development, to draw the individual achievements of the child to the maximum level as soon as possible, to promote social progress using the resources of gi�edness. In foreign psychological researches there is a great number of “lists of abilities of creative personality”. We will dwell on two of them. The first belongs to E. Torrans and L. Holl. The peculiarities of genius personalities are: 1)”the possibility of working miracles. Miracles mean the actions which go out of bounds of usual, natural phenomenon, but do not contradict the laws of nature” 2) The high level of intrusion into needs and wills of people; 3) The aureole of peculiarity that possesses the ability to give to the people, he communicates with, the belief in their power; 4) The ability of solving conflicts, especially in that situation when they do not have any logical solution; 5) The presence of feeling of future, vivid imagination that is connected with reach fantasy and intuition; 6) The a�itude to the transcendental meditation. The basic aim of the meditation is to reach the condition of selfactualization and perfectness [8, p. 28]. The American psychologist K. Taylor points out such features of a gi�ed personality as: the desire for being always the first; the independence; the tendency to a risk; activity; curiosity – the insistence in searching, dissatisfaction with existing methods, traditions that provokes dissatisfaction with society; unconventional thinking; the reclines to make a decision of gi�ed communication; the talent of prevision [8, p. 28]. Summing it up, it is possible to say that particularities of a gi�ed person are: the versatile knowledge and in-depth study of searching process of objects which give him an opportunity to learn the inherent laws and to forecast their further development; the original way of thinking and creating the ability of enriching the science and art with new fundamental ideas and discoveries which are directed to creating new sciences and spheres of knowledge, new theories, paradigms, directions or styles in art that finally may cause a revolutionary renewal in culture of people or a new interpretation of known; the independence of thinking is

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a great influence, not only during your life, on social and spiritual activity of society; insistence in achieving aims [8, pp. 30-31]. Due to the widespread researches of cognitive abilities it is possible to trace the way of forming the term “gi�edness”, for example, in mental gi�edness. The investigation of the problem of human abilities was stated in the XX century and facilitated accumulation of information about the nature of gi�s. The interest of popular creators and thinkers promoted growth of this problem. The works, that appeared in the second half of XIX century concerned the explication of the existence of the creating process. Their results se�led that people are quantitatively differ from each other according to their mental abilities. In course time they came to resume that individualities differ from each other according to the mental abilities not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Qualitative differences are caused be presence of mental ability in structure except general mental components, factors which are responsible for mental abilities. The time has proved this theory as now they distinguish two types of gi�edness: special and general. But the concepts of that time form not intellect but its outside display, when the intellect is unlimited in its outside displays. In psychological sciences there is an opinion that mental development is determined by anatomical and psychological particularities of neurotic relations and processes and also by some psychological person qualities, his volitional, emotional and motivational spheres. Scientists mentioned that the links between the separate facts and phenomena which are known from the previous practice and the speed of processes that are responsible for exchange of information are marked on the efficiency of the mental activity. L. Vygotsky indicted, that the idea is being formed in the sphere of needs and interests. When solving one or another problem, the thinking of a human thinking time a�er time distracts from the basic activities and processes information, produces ideas which are not connected with the content of a problem which is being solved. O�en the idea of solving is lost. Thus, the ability of concentrating on the problem is necessary for making your brain work. It is an important component in the structure of intellect [5, p. 24]. Sorting out an individual tendency of learning some development of intellect, cognitive and relative in particular, led to the consideration of creative abilities.

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The problem of connection of intellectual and creative abilities is not new. The highest expansion achieved the result of Terman’s experiment who, having measured intellectual abilities of 1500 children, noted the results of their creative activity, while being adults. He came into conclusion, that there is a close relation between person’s intellectual and creative abilities of a person and as the argument, he came up with the fact, that pupils who have achievements in two academic branches show much more creative hobbies [1, p. 15]. Veil and Martinson include to the main characteristics of intellectual children’s abilities an early speech, usage of different words, early learning of counting and arithmetical action over numbers and reading, curiosity, tenacious memory, quick perception, rich imagination [2, p. 77]. Those children make up sentences with complicated syntactical structures. It is typical for them to classify information and experience. Barco, Panuc, Lasarevsky, Vasilchenko, Guilbuh mention that very o�en gi�ed persons show an excessive a�ention and wide vocabulary. In young ages they are capable of intuitive brain leaps during thinking process. The next feature of intellectually gi�ed children is persistence in achieving their aims and ability to concentrate themselves in one kind of activity. Those children possess the ability to get connections and relations between the objects and phenomenon. In their characters the desire to do everything by their own is showed brightly. They express mostly resourceful various propositions towards a concrete situation. They can look at the same problem from another side. Intellectually gi�ed children crave for completeness, order and precision, they have a high energetic level which give them an opportunity to solve many problems at the same time. They are fond of making models and systems. They also pay a�ention to the ability of asking questions. The persons mentioned above make up new words and give definitions to conceptions which come to their mind, the main point of phenomenon, process, quality or fact which are under examination. They give their preference to intellectual games; most of them have inclination to mathematics. The independent thinking is typical for these children which is shown both in creative for founding the self-made solving a problem and in learning without an excessive directions of teachers and parents. They give their preference rather to difficulties than to easy ways. They are mainly erudite. At

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last, from the very childhood these children have special abilities which are concerned to one or several kinds of abilities. As for the physical development of intellectually gi�ed children, some scientists say, that they begin to walk earlier, have tall stature, coordinative movements; they are healthy and a�ractive, though these indications are not typical for every person. Many scientists stated that every intellectually gi�ed child, except his general indications, inherent to the majority of these types of persons, differ from others by his uniqueness that complicates the process of his detection. Altogether the independent features of these persons can be inherent to ordinary pupils. It leads to the mistaken identity. That is why, in order to get a reliable prediction of intellectual development of the children, they use quantitative values of their intellectual abilities that is to the testing diagnostics of the intellect. First tests of intellectual abilities appeared at the beginning of XX century in connection with the pragmatic program of showing out those pupils who lag behind their class-mates and therefore they are not able to learn material, except by educational programs. Later they made a test to measure intellectual abilities of a wide range of pupils in order to range pupils on the basis of the development of intellectual activities, dividing them into groups and organizing their differentiated education. These tests are widely known. In fact, the usage of them gives the basic reason to control not only the level of development, but also some of manifestations and intellectual skills, that’s why it will be correct to call them as the tests of intellectual skills. Thus, intricacy of it is that you should give the answer to the question: what meaning of the level of intellectual skills of some pupils alienates the intellectually gi�ed children from usual pupils. Associating the higher intellectual skills with good inclinations of the person that nature gives him. Such kind of pupils is used to be called the gi�ed pupils. In such way we get to know about term “gi�edness”, but with this one we have new problems of scientific and practical character. By this moment we don’t know unique and exhaustive term of “gi�edness”. As though manifestation of gi�ed pupils is not end of itself, but it is a component of complex action for organization of differentiated studies, development of skills, social rehabilitation, so in this situation the criteria of gi�edness should be special for

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Elena Bocharova: Giftedness as a Pedagogical Phenomenon
numbers of gi�ed pupils to correspond with opportunities of practical work with supporting and helping. Thus, in reviewed artistic literature we have found a few terms of gi�edness. The gi�edness is reviewed as the most special combination of skills which predetermines the possibilities of a person, the level and the originality of the activity of a person. But from another hand the gi�edness is an intellectual capability, undivided individual characteristics of perceptional opportunities and skills for studies. Besides, the gi�edness is the totality of skills, characteristics of extent of expressing and originality of natural reasons for skills. Sometimes the gi�edness has some associations with availabilities of internal conditions for famous achievement in an activity. As you know, the high level of development of personal skills is also called the gi�edness. This item also gives some opportunities to do the best in the specific activity. The gi�edness is a talent in some kind of activity and unique creative abilities; the high level of intellectual and academic abilities. The term of “gi�edness” means that pupils have some unusual abilities to study at its own discretion and power of abstract and independent thought. The gi�edness is not a discrete, but continuous formation, it’s impossible to speak about presence or absence of gi�edness because it is inherent for everyone but in different extend. It is now thought that the extend of gi�edness are the results of human’s work and due to it one creates something new or open a great deal of opportunities for achievements in something in the easiest way without charges of time and energy. Thus, the basis of gi�edness is a special combination of inclinations that is a guarantee of high intellectual abilities and at last ends with great achievements in perceptional activity. If we compare the definition of the term “talent”, which is given in “The pedagogical vocabulary”: “Talent is a combination of different levels of genetic gi�edness and work” [7, p. 326], we can see that the boundaries are uncertain. Moreover, such a feature of talent as preference of a particular kind of activity is almost the same as the terms of different kinds of gi�edness. We agree with Shepotko V. P. and Voloschuk I. S. who believes that general and special gi�edness is the basis for the human talents. However, the life success of a person is defined not only by the level of the development of gi�edness if teachers defined his talent correctly [21, p. 42].

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As it has been already mentioned gi�edness is basically connected with general abilities of a person and his achievements in studies. Earlier the gi�edness was connected with general abilities of a person. Then it became clear that high intellectual possibilities are based on special personal abilities. The new approach includes either special abilities or the high general intellectual development [6, p. 115] For a long time gi�edness has been associated just with the intellectual abilities of a person. Then besides the intellectual ones academic, art, social, physical and other kinds of gi�edness are used We are sure that it is correct to use the term of general gi�edness and connect the specific combination of abilities which define intellectual, mental and physical spheres of a person with it. The general gi�edness is realized in one of the kinds of special gi�edness: scientific, technical, organizational, art, physical. Each of them is realized in a practical activity in the form of this or that talent. Having worked over the scientific-pedagogical literature we agreed to the points stated by Grabovsky who classifies the gi�edness in the most complete and reasonable way. He defines several criteria for the differentiation of the kinds of gi�edness with qualitative and quantitative aspects. The analysis of qualitative characteristics of gi�edness is going to define its specific types in connection with the specification of the psychological abilities of a person and peculiarities of their realization in these or those kinds of activity. The analysis of quantitative characteristics allows describing the level of realization of psychological abilities of a person. There are several criteria of gi�edness: 1. the kind of activity of psychological sphere which supports it; 2. the level of development of gi�edness; 3. the form of its realization; 4. the level of realization in different kinds of activity; 5. the peculiarities of age. Following the first criterion of the classification of types of gi�edness is realized according to five kinds of activity which reflect three psychological spheres and the level of different stages of psychological organization. Practical, theoretical, esthetical, communicative, mental are the main kinds of activity. The psychological spheres are subdivided into intellectual, emotional and volitional [19, p. 510]. The following kinds of gi�edness can be divided into: the practical activity – the gi�edness in trades, sport and

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Elena Bocharova: Giftedness as a Pedagogical Phenomenon
organizational ones; the cognitive activity – choreographic, stage, literary, art, musical ones; the communicative activity – leading and a�ractive ones. In the mental activity we define the gi�edness in creation new mental values, the service to people. According to such an approach the gi�edness is shown as integral realization of different abilities for the concrete activity. The same kind of gi�edness may have its unique character, as some its components that different people have may be realized differently. It is necessary to organize the conditions for the forming of the internal motivation of the activity, straightness of the person and the system of the values which make the basis of the stature of the spiritual personality. According to the criterion “the level of the forming of the gi�edness” it can be differentiated as the actual and potential gi�edness. The first is the psychological characteristic of the child with the researched indices of the psychological development, which reveal themselves and on a higher level of the execution of the activity in the concrete subject-branch by comparison with the age and social standard. It goes without saying, that in this case not only learning activity is mentioned but also the wide rank of the various types of activity. The special category of the mentally gi�ed people consists of the talented children who reach the results which meet requirements of the objective novelty and social significance. As a rule, the concrete product of the activity of a talented child is estimated by the expert as one which corresponds to the criteria of the creation. The potential gi�edness is a psychological characteristics of the child which has only certain psychological possibilities for the high achievement in the certain type of activity, but he can’t realize them at the moment because of his functional insufficiency. The maturity of this potential can be delayed because of the unsuitable reasons (the hard family circumstances, insufficient motivation, the low of the self-regulation, if the receives of the abilities of people let compensate the absence or not enough expressed components, necessary for the successful realization of the activity. The special striking gi�edness or talent say about the presence of the high gi�edness and a great number of the components for the realization of activity and also about the intensity of the integration process together with the personal sphere. The

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various contribution of the leading components in the structure of the cleverness can give a paradox picture when the effective learning of the activity, intelligence and creation do not coincide with the expression, The facts of this difference in the expression of the gi�edness do not say in one meaning for the benefit of the distinguishing its types (academic, mental, creative). The activity is always realized by the person. The aims and motives influence on the level of the quality of the realization. If a pupil prepares his home task just for not being shouted because of bad marks or not to lose the prestige of the rank of a good pupil then the activity is done rather doubtful and its result even in the best realization does not surpass the normal requirements [18, p. 92]. The gi�edness forces the involvement in the subject, activity that the child does with love, he constantly makes be�er, realizing new thoughts, born in the process of working. As a result a new product is rather higher than the first idea that is why it is impossible to say about “development of the activity”. If the last one is realized with the initiative of the child, this is the creativity [4, p. 151]. The theoretical approach has a very important result, researching the development of gi�edness, it is impossible to limit the work only by the construction, the program of the absence of the necessary environment. The expression of the potential gi�edness requires the high prognoses of the diagnostic methods which are used because the question is about the system of the abilities which has not been formed yet, about the future development of which could be considered only on the basis of separate features. The integration of the abilities, which are necessary for the high achievements is absent yet. The potential gi�edness is showed according to the suitable conditions, which provide for certain developing influence on the outgoing psychological abilities of the child [9, p. 17] According to the criterion “the form of manifestation” there are evident and hidden gi�edness. According to the criterion “the width of manifestation in various types of activity” the general and special gi�edness can be distinguished. General gi�edness is shown with a regarding to the various kinds of activities and sticks out as the basis of its productivity. The general gi�edness defines the level of the understanding of what is happening, the depth of

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the emotional and motivational involvements in the activity, the effectiveness of the aim-formulating and self-regulation. The special gi�edness reveals itself in the concrete types of activity (music, arts, sports etc). The special gi�edness influences the specialization of general psychological resources of a person, increasing its uniqueness of the gi�ed child. According to the criterion of the age development, it is possible to distinguish the early and the late gi�edness. The temp of the psychological development of the child and also those age stages on which the gi�edness is brightly defined are the decisive markers here. It is necessary to take into consideration the fact that the rapid psychological development, the early defining of the gi�edness of a child do not always determine the high achievements further. At the same time the lack of them at the childhood does not mean any negative conclusion concerning the prospects of the further psychological development of a person. The example of the gi�edness is the children called “infants”. There is some dependence between the age at which the gi�edness is defined and the sphere of activity. The earliest gi�edness is determined in arts, especially in music, a bit later in the sphere of fine arts. In the science the achievements of important results in the form of famous explores, creation of new spheres and methods of investigation take place later than in arts. Besides, it is connected with the necessity of acquisition of deep and wide knowledge without which the scientific discovers are impossible. As a rule, the talent for mathematics is determined earlier than those. It was already mentioned above that differences in gi�edness may be connected both with the level of manifestation of its features and with the control of the level of the child’s achievements. The defining on this basis notwithstanding the conditional character is being realized with the help of comparing different markers with the average age standard. The uniqueness is known to counterbalance with mediocrity. So, the individual development influences greatly the peculiarities of the gi�edness. Thus, the abilities of some children exceed to some extent the average level of abilities of their coevals. Their gi�edness is not always visible. But they have the basic definite features and must be evaluated by teachers and school psychologists. Others show rather striking intellectual, artistic, communicative or other kinds of inclinations. As a rule, their gi�edness is evident for the people surrounding them.

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At last, there are some children who go beyond their age standards that does not allow to speak about their unique and special gi�edness. The success of their activity may be extremely high. At the same time they o�en form “a risk group” as they have serious problems which require a special a�ention and appropriate support from teachers and psychologists. It is very important to take into consideration the level of the defining of gi�edness as there are certain principles of its demonstration and dynamics depending on its level [10, p.132]. Summing it up we can sort out the particularities of the gi�ed child. They are: uniqueness of knowledge and the depth of penetration in exploring processes or objects that give him an opportunity to investigate interior regularities and to anticipate their further development; originality of thinking and creativity, the ability of enriching science and art by new fundamental ideas and discoveries which lead to the creation of new science and branches of knowledge, new theories, paradigms, tendencies or styles in arts that finally can lead to the revolutionary renewal in the culture of people or the new interpretation of the old known; independence and liberty of thinking: a great influence (not only in life) the social and spiritual life of society; persistence in achieving targets [8, pp. 30-31]. Generalizing everything which was mentioned above a very rapid development of the intellect concerning the child’s age is considered to be a sign of gi�edness. This development is connected with the maximum combination of anatomypsychological peculiarities which were received at one’s birth and which define mental faculties, character of moral and will qualities and psycho energy. Talent shows that the creative level of development of abilities which are specific for every kind of human activity is characteristic for a child. Thus, every individual case of a child’s gi�edness may be evaluated from the point of view of all the criteria of the classification of its kinds which are enumerated above. Thereby, gi�edness is defined as a multifarious phenomenon according to its character. For a practitioner it is a possibility and also a necessity of a more concrete view on the originality of talent of a particular person.

References

1. Барко В. І. Психолого-педагогічна діагностика творчого потенціалу учня в навчально-виховному процесі: метод.

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реком. / В. І. Барко, В. Г. Панюк, С. В. Лазаревський. - К., 2000. - 30 с. 2. Виговський О. Вольові якості талановитої особистості. Парадокси психологічного дослідження / О. Виговський // Директор школи, ліцею, гімназії. — 2002. — No 3. — С. 76-79. 3. Гальтон Ф. Наследственность таланта / Фрэнсис Гальтон. - М., 1996. - 272 с. 4. Гильбух Ю. З. Внимание: одаренные дети / Юрий Зиновьевич Гильбух. - М.: Знание, 1991. - 198 с. 5. Гильбух Ю. З. Умственно одаренный ребенок: психология, диагностика, педагогика / Юрий Зиновьевич Гильбух. - К., 1992. - 83 с. 6. Глассер У.: Школа без неудачников / У. Глассер; общ. ред. В. Я. Пилиповского. - М.: Прогресс, 1991. - 184 с. 7. Гончаренко С. У. Український педагогічний словник / Семен Устимович Гончаренко. - К.: Либідь, 1997. - С. 326. 8. Гончаренко Н. С. Гений в искусстве и науке. – М: Искусство, 1991. – 432 с. 9. Грабовский А. И. К вопросу о классификации видов детской одаренности / А. И. Грабовский // Педагогика. - 2003. - No 8. - С. 13-18. 10. Карпенко Н. В. Діагностика психічного розвитку дитини в роботі педагога (вчителя, вихователя): навч. посіб. / Н. В. Карпенко. - К.: Каравела, 2008. - С. 130-134. 11. Клименченко О.Н. Проблема одаренности, гениальности, таланта в философии / О.Н. Климченко // Одаренный ребенок.- No1. - 2003.- С. 25. 12. Матюшкин А. М. Одаренность и творчество / А. М. Матюшкин // Учителю об одаренных детях / под. ред. В. П. Лебедевой, В. И. Панова. - М., 1997. - 148 с. 13. Моляко В. О. Проблеми психологи творчества и разработка похода к изучению одаренности / В.О. Моляко // Вопросы психологи. – 1994. - No 5. – С. 86-95. 14. Одаренность: Рабочая концепция / Под ред. Д. Б. Богоявленской. - М., 2002.-192 с. 15. Одаренные дети / Под ред. Г.В. Бурменской и В.М.Слуцкого.М.: Прогресс, 1991.- С. 15. 16. Панов В. И. Теоретические и практические аспекты выявления, обучения и развития детей с признаками одаренности / В.И. Панов // Одаренность: рабочая концепция. Матер. 1 Межд. конф. – М., 2002.- С.110. 17. Психологічна енциклопедія / Автор-упорядник О. М. Степанов. – К.: «Академвидав», 2006. – 424 с. 18. Савенков А. И. Диагностика детской одаренности как педагогическая проблема / Александр Ильич Савенков // Педагогика. - 2000. - No 10. - С. 87-94.

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19. Теплов Б. М. Проблемы индивидуальных различий / Борис Михайлович Теплов. - М., 1961. — С. 9-535. 20. Теплов Б. М. Способности и одаренность // Избр. труды. Т. 1.М., 1985.- С. 14-15. 21. Шепотько В. П. Організація навчання обдарованих і талановитих школярів / В. П. Шепотько, І. С. Волощук // Рідна школа. - 2006. - No 9. - С. 27-54. 22. Юркевич В. С. Одаренный ребенок: иллюзии и реальность / Виктория Соломоновна Юркевич. - М., 1996. - 215 с. 23. Mónks F.: Zdolności a twórczość // Teoria i praktyka edukacji uczniów zdolnych / red. Wiesława Limont. – Kraków: Oficyna Wydaw. Impuls, 2004, s. 19-31, Менкс, С. 20. 24. Rensulli J. S. The Three ring conception of gi�edness. A developmental model for creative productivity // Sternberg R.L., Cambr. Univ. Press, 1986. - P. 303-326.

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Richard Kahn University of North Dakota USA

THEORIZING A NEW PARADIGM OF ECOPEDAGOGY THROUGH TEACHERS’ EMANCIPATORY PRACTICES

While environmental education o�en stresses a variety of physical, affective, imaginative and moral methods of learning from and about the environment, it is hardly a controversial statement to say that environmental education is additionally a way of making a form of critical inquiry into the world. Minimally, there is the expectation that students need to inquire into the workings of nature and pose questions about the nonhuman order that can in turn be experienced and evaluated in order to generate knowledge that will serve the be�erment of civic society. Environmental literacy so defined reaches back to the field’s beginnings, as in the formulation given by Stapp (1969). The U.S. Office of Environmental Education, created under the George W. Bush administration, also now promotes a related form of critical environmental literacy.1 Considering that this is a political administration that has been deemed the most environmentally unsound in history (Pope & Rauber, 2004), and which has routinely moved to block scientific findings that may support sustainability as well as overturn or ignore important environmental regulations on corporations and the military (Kellner, 2005), current State-endorsed critical environmental literacy frameworks must therefore be judged as suspect (at least in the United States). Alternatively, well meaning reformist programs of outdoor education, like those promoted by the No Child Le� Inside Coalition and writers such as Richard Louv, tend themselves to reduce environmental education to a

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single-issue focus that over-privileges under-theorized states of nature and wilderness. In this way, environmental educators can adopt problematical epistemologies and work ideologically against the aims of emancipatory multicultural movements and anti-oppressive education, as a reified form of environmental education likewise becomes curricularly tethered to the natural (and not the social) sciences (Kahn & Nocella, Forthcoming). Increasingly then it is becoming clear that if contemporary environmental educational literacy practices are not themselves made the object of critical inquiry, they are at least as liable to work on behalf of a social hegemony involved in the domination of nature as they are to work against it. In other words, environmental education—as with the world in which it a�empts to work—now stands in a moment of crisis, a concept that implies the need for our informed collective judgment and diagnostic deliberation. As Capra (1984) has remarked, such crisis implies both measures of danger and opportunity hanging in the balance. But, crucially for this paper, it is also “a moment of decisive intervention…of thorough-going transformation…[and] of rupture” (Hay, 1999, 323). Despite environmental education’s potential limitations as a critical field of study, significant theoretical inroads have been made over the last 10 to 15 years that have sought to intervene and reconstruct it as an advocacy pedagogy capable of transformatively engaging with the socio-political and cultural contexts of environmental problems. It is thus not altogether uncommon now to hear critical environmental educational theorists speak of the need to either develop pedagogical methods that can work both for ecological sustainability and social justice or mount critique of environmental education from an oppositional variety of racial, class, gender, queer, and non-ableist standpoints. Institutionally, this has translated into the recent emergence of education for sustainable development as environmental education’s heir (Gonzalez-Gaudiano, 2005) along with a�empts to blend forms of environmental education with work hailing from the tradition of critical pedagogy (for examples, see McKenzie, 2005; Gruenewald, 2003; Gruenewald & Smith, 2007; Fawce�, Bell & Russell, 2002; Bell & Russell, 2000; Cole, 2007; McLaren & Houston, 2005; O’Sullivan, 2001; Kahn, 2008a; 2008b; 2006; 2002; Andrzejewski, 2003; Gado�i, 2008).2 While some of this work, like that of McKenzie, Russell, Fawce�, and Andrzejewski has been concerned with the need

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for a critical literacy of nonhuman animals, the majority of the socio-ecological turn in environmental education has either ignored nonhuman animal advocacy issues or has worked only ambiguously on nonhuman animals’ behalf through an a�empt to teach non-anthropocentric values. Though deconstructions of anthropocentrism are no doubt useful towards reconstructing educational frameworks, they have however been deployed for different and sometimes contradictory ends by a variety of groups. Hence, a curriculum of deep ecology might critique anthropocentrism in order to establish norms of greater equality between species and to challenge human identities through an a�empt to foster biocentric or ecocentric literacies of planetarity. This could work well with outdoor education and other wilderness-oriented pedagogies. Animal welfarist educators, by turn, might promote reformed visions of humanity as a good steward for life on earth and thereby uphold human rights to use nonhuman animals within an ethics that is less imperialist and more paternalistically familial. The curricular model here could question painful or needless dissection exercises in science education or promote the value of using classroom pets to teach character traits of responsibility and non-violence. Yet, neither of these theoretical perspectives, despite whatever positive outcomes they may tend toward, entail the production of knowledge about the ways in which the plight of nonhuman animals is structurally necessitated by our current system of political economy based on exploitative capitalism, violent militarism, and industrial technics. Moreover, they do not demand that we understand the subjugated status of nonhuman animals in our society as related to or concordant with the historical reality of oppressed human groups as well as with the domination of nature generally. Without seeking to limit the multiple pathways that liberatory pedagogy may presently take—that is, I recognize differences between sociopolitical struggles even as I seek to promote recognition of their common causes—my feeling is that a new paradigm3 of what might be inclusively termed “total liberation ecopedagogy” is now at hand and beginning to be more fully articulated in the practices of a vanguard of educators. This total liberation ecopedagogy a�empts to work intersectionally across and in opposition to all oppressions (including those of nonhuman animals) and for ecological sustainability. Producing what Haraway (1988) has called “situated knowledges,” total liberation ecopedagogy may in any given instance favor analysis

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of the primacy of one social antagonism over another, or one set of antagonism over the others, in generating inequalities of power and privilege. Again, there is still room for the application of ecofeminist educational theory, for example, and it need not give way to the universalization of vegan Third World ecofeminist anticapitalist Queer disability (etc.) pedagogy, no ma�er how much I might welcome the la�er.4 But total liberation ecopedagogy, following the advances of multicultural educational theory, views oppression in systematic and complex terms, what Collins (2000) has termed the “matrix of domination.” This not only allows for a more refined analysis of the ways in which power circulates throughout nature and culture, to the systematic advantage of some and disadvantage of others, but by increasing the number of epistemic standpoints from which to teach and learn we free a potential multitude of educational subjects from the culture of silence generated by the dominant mainstream pedagogical and political platforms. To backtrack, save for perhaps lacking a strong commitment to the moral challenge that society’s treatment of nonhuman animals now poses for robustly democratic educational theory, those taking the socio-ecological turn in environmental education already tend to integrate intersectionality into their analyses. What distinguishes total liberation ecopedagogy, then, is its normative requirement that we also educate against what intersectional social psychologist Melanie Joy (2008) calls, “arguably the most entrenched and widespread form of exploitation in human history: speciesism” (p. 17). This would be to go beyond, for instance, teaching non-anthropocentric values. For by developing educational platforms that illuminate the socially-constructed nature of “species,” total liberation ecopedagogy does not seek to just destabilize human power in the abstract, but roots this in the need to support cultural and political practices that actively seek to overthrow speciesist relations across society. To put speciesism on the agenda in a major way is crucial now for a number of reasons. First, we live in a time of a mass species extinction event such as we have not witnessed on the planet for nearly 65 million years.5 The zoöcidal eradication of unprecedented numbers of mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, insects, and other animals that is now fully underway is analogous to the mass-murder of American bison or the great whales that took place during the 19th century. Only there, species were driven to extinction at the direct point of the gun

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and harpoon; here, we must learn the ways in which speciesist ideology is folded into and intersects with nearly every array of social relations and institutional practice, including the institution of education proper (Kahn, 2007). A second reason to take up speciesism within intersectional pedagogy involves the exponential growth over the last few decades of the industrial factory farm model of animal agriculture as a worldwide standard. As animal advocates like Peter Singer (1975) have made famously clear, the ubiquitous low price and high availability of supermarket meat comes at a tremendous cost to the sentient nonhuman animals themselves, who spend whatever lives they have being tortured until their brutal slaughter in order to provide such meat. More recently, people are becoming increasingly aware of the environmental effects of factory farming—including its role in deforesting the Amazonian rainforests for soybean monocrops, its toxic effects on streams, water tables, soil, and the air local to such farms, and its being recognized as a primary cause in aggravating global warming. Moreover, recent books like Schlosser’s Fast Food Nation (2005) and Eisnetz’s Slaughterhouse (2006) reveal how the nightmare of factory farms extends into its role as an exploitative and racist labor industry as well as its corrupting influence on public health in the name of maximized profiteering. Still a third reason I believe that it is important to demand an intersectional, anti-speciesist pedagogy at this time is because I believe that exactly this form of education has been developing within grassroots activist circles in recent years. What is more, slowly but surely, the “cognitive praxis” (Eyerman & Jamison, 1991, p. 44) of this movement pedagogy has started to become established within formal education across its various levels and to challenge prevailing approaches to environmental education and critical pedagogy. Yet, it is ultimately my argument that intersectional critical literacies forged from the practices of anti-oppressive/critical pedagogues, ecological educators, and nonhuman animal advocates remain, unfortunately, a potential to be far more powerfully realized in the future. In this essay, therefore, I draw upon a series of interviews conducted with nine new paradigm educators in order to chronicle and contextualize the challenges to their work across elementary and secondary education, higher education, and nonformal education sectors. By so doing, I do not seek to describe their total liberation practices in detail. Neither do I wish to suggest that each is the possessor of specific pedagogical a�ributes

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(beyond their commitment to the development of the kind of critical intersectional literacies I hope for) that therefore allow me to create a character sketch of a total liberation ecopedagogue. None of these educators self-identifies to my knowledge as being “total lib,” and while I believe that all demonstrate anticipatory elements of and problems for a total liberation ecopedagogy built upon critical intersectional literacy practices, I also desire to let them speak for themselves as much as possible. I do aspire, however, to call a�ention through their stories to the crisis now faced by the form of total liberation ecopedagogy I theorize, even as we maintain that such pedagogy represents a coherent a�empt to respond to the crises of contemporary environmental education, critical pedagogy, and animal advocacy in kind. By so doing, I aim to provide a kind of critical counterstorytelling (Yosso, 2006)—tentative and introductory in scope—that may serve as a seed for future dialogue on the issues pertinent to these educators with a wide variety of more majoritarian environmental educators, as well as with their colleagues working primarily for either social justice or animal advocacy in education and other fields.6

Humane Education in Elementary and Secondary Schools

Anyone interested in intersectional total liberation ecopedagogy simply must study the history of the humane education movement, which represents its original form.7 Emerging circa 1870 along with the formation of humane societies, humane education initially worked at the juncture of animal and child welfare, a�empting to encourage public sentiment for abandoned or neglected children and nonhuman animals. While the increase of social service agencies in the 20th century led to the narrowing of humane education, such that it became a pursuit largely concerned with ending domestic animal cruelty, the last two decades have found humane education reinventing and revisioning itself, at times in radical ways. In the 1980s, for example, humane education broadened its scope to include wildlife issues as well as to question the use and treatment of nonhuman animals in institutions such as zoos, aquariums, and circuses. Moreover, when the 1990s saw a surge of interest in the animal advocacy movement by citizens concerned with achieving progressive change across society, key humane educationalists such as David Selby and Zoe Weil responded by articulating how humane educational theory could integratively incorporate

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environmental and human rights issues alongside its ongoing focus upon the violence, exploitation, and injustice done to nonhuman animals (Weil, 1998). According to Rae Sikora, who co-founded The Center for Compassionate Living (ultimately to become the Institute for Humane Education) with Weil in 1996, there were also strategic reasons for moving the field to an intersectional focus. For despite Sikora and Weil having developed a thriving certificate and M.A. program in humane education through the Institute that has trained over 1200 elementary and secondary-level educators, humane education has been described somewhat accurately as the “Ultima Thule” (Selby, 2000) of education – a far-away, unknown region, barely if at all recognized by emancipatory educators working in related endeavors such as environmental education or critical pedagogy because of its advocacy for nonhuman animals. Thus, Sikora believes that intersectionality has made it easier for humane education “to be seen as more consistent and credible” and that “More doors open for the work when it incorporates all life” (Sikora, Personal communication, 2008).8 Indeed, in the 32 years that she has been involved in catalyzing this work, she has witnessed it ripple outward from being virtually unpopulated to the point where many of the programs she designed now occur under others’ names and she is sometimes contacted by students who unknowingly communicate workshop or website ideas to her for which she was the original impetus (ibid.). But a critical problem for humane education remains its lack of adequate resources and school or other stakeholder support. For example, Dani Dennenberg, who obtained an M.Ed in Humane Education from the Institute for Humane Education student and founded Seeds for Change (a non-profit humane educational organization), found that her work as an adjunct faculty member and director of a small educational non-profit equated to less than $30,000 annually with no health care, benefits, or savings plans available to her to draw upon (Dennenberg, Personal communication, 2008). Further, when private funding for her organization expired a�er 6 years she was forced to retire her operation despite the success of having created one of the first high school courses devoted to examining global ethical issues from an intersectional humane perspective. The Canadian humane educator, Lesley Fox, who helped to found the Power of One secondary education program through the Vancouver Humane Society in 2006, provides additional evidence of humane

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education’s chronic resource problem. Fox discovered that with a li�le ingenuity it was surprisingly easy to gain access to Canadian schools and to network with the Ministry of Education in British Columbia. As such, her program grew quickly to provide a widerange of intersectional curricular offerings for any and all takers. However, as she relates:

Our program was part of a small non-profit organization with a limited budget. There were no resources in terms of staff to help with presentations and grant writing and fundraising. The program became too much for one full time staff person to manage. The demand for the presentations and resources could not be met. Ultimately, the program was such a success it became its own undoing. (Fox, Personal communication, 2008)

In our opinion, if the critical intersectional literacies of humane education can become be�er integrated into environmental education standards and frameworks, it will undoubtedly serve to more sufficiently support humane educators who might then realize the added benefit of stable employment opportunities within school districts. While I do not imagine that many schools consider themselves more cash positive than the majority of animal advocacy non-profits, it still must be the case that with greater legitimacy within formal education institutions the work of humane educators can more fruitfully advance and proliferate in a timely manner.

Critical Intersectional Literacy Developments in Higher Education

In order to achieve the developments that I would like to see happen in schools of elementary and secondary education, as well as in the ranks of grassroots activism, there will have to be a correlative shi� in the sphere of higher educational discourse to develop and teach critical intersectional literacies as part of a total liberation ecopedagogy movement. If environmental education degree programs integrate social science such that students are trained in issues of the brown agenda9 and environmental justice, or the ecological effects of globalization, this should translate into more critical forms of environmental studies for youth in schools that can supplement curricular forays privileging nature walks and outdoor appreciation exercises. What is additionally required, though, is that the “animals agenda” not be le� out of the equation. Too o�en forms of conservation science are still offered uncritically as a form of pedagogy that implies that

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nonhuman animals are natural resources that can be managed to produce maximum sustainable yields or harvests. Relatedly, more and more students are asked to explore how invasive species are ecological threats without a corresponding demand that students question the histories of colonialism and world trade that have produced the invasive species problem. What is more, with its known advantages in contributing to a low ecological footprint, should any environmental educator be allowed to graduate today without having seriously investigated the ecology and politics of veganism? But how common is this practice really in higher education? Connie Russell, Associate Professor in the Faculty of Education at Lakehead University and co-editor of the Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, seems to us to be a leader in environmental education that is working to transform the field in light of the total liberation-oriented problems I raise here. In her own work, she consciously organizes the curriculum to focus on “the interconnections between social and environmental justice and animal issues” (Russell, Personal communication, 2008). She is careful to point out that, in her opinion, this does not require the formation of a new educational field of study. Rather, Russell believes such critical intersectional literacy can emerge reconstructively within present forms of environmental education, including outdoor and experiential approaches:
[T]here is a subset of outdoor educators out there who aren’t making connections to social issues and whose work seems too overly science educationfocused, or about pursuing adventurous or recreation-oriented activities outside. But on the flipside, I also see many environmental educators who seem to have li�le experience with other animals or the more-than-human world. So I guess I get nervous when I see what almost looks like a discounting of outdoor experiential education approaches. For me, tackling anthropocentrism means paying some a�ention to natural history and ge�ing to know the places where we live and our more-than-human neighbours. It is not an either/or approach, a zero-sum game, but a broadening of our horizons (ibid.).

Another intersectional educator I contacted is Julie Andrzejewski, who has explored the possibility of a new field for this work.10 Andrzejewski co-founded the M.A. program in Social Responsibility at St. Cloud State University in 1995, which she now directs. In recent years, Professor Andrzejewski has worked to radicalize what could otherwise be a social justice-oriented program through in-depth examinations of how the animal rights

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movement offers an inclusive standpoint for the emancipation of oppressed persons and the restoration of environmental justice. While she finds that students increasingly have some familiarity with nonhuman animal issues, and overwhelmingly respond to her courses by changing their life practices and engaging in collective activism, she also guardedly believes that “Very few others are doing this work and there are very few support systems for it” (Andrzejewski, Personal communication, 2008). In 2006, Andrzejewski therefore a�empted to organize a Critical Interspecies Special Interest Group (SIG) within the American Educational Research Association in order to gather educators around these issues and provide them with a platform for ongoing research. However, the SIG proposal was rejected, ostensibly because the application commi�ee believed that the subject ma�er was already covered thematically by the SIG for Ecological and Environmental Education. Whether or not this is correct, and in Andrzejewski’s opinion it is not, I believe that this is further confirmation of the need for environmental education to step forward and demonstrate a leadership role on total liberation issues in order to accord critical intersectional literacies wider institutional legitimacy. The case of highly influential ecofeminist, Greta Gaard, supports this conclusion. Despite having produced a large body of important feminist work, she has found Women’s Studies itself to be an unwelcome home and thus has o�en had to strategically find courses in Interdisciplinary Studies, the Humanities, or English in order to teach. As she told me, “teaching ecofeminism has always been difficult since most introductory Women’s Studies textbooks still ignore the environment as well as the vast body of work produced by vegetarian (eco)feminists, and there is still no single introductory textbook for a course on ecofeminism, women and ecology, or feminist environmentalism” (Gaard, Personal communication, 2008). If teaching critical intersectional courses has proven difficult for Gaard, though, finding receptive colleagues who will not punish her for her radicalism has been harder still. While she remarked that her tenure at Fairhaven College, a place known for cu�ing-edge interdisciplinary pedagogy, was a warm experience, in another teaching appointment at the University of Minnesota-Duluth she felt that her politicized intersectional coursework was tolerated only because it was offered as a summer option that served to generate revenue at a time when other faculty did not care to work. More shocking still, the recent

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release of Gaard’s book The Nature of Home (University of Arizona Press, 2008) was pointedly ignored by her colleagues in English at the University of Wisconsin-River Falls, who then added to their protest, she said, by voting “overwhelmingly against retaining me due to my excessive emphasis on environmentalism, feminism, and creative writing” (ibid.) on ma�ers such as the suffering of animals. As I consider these stories about a total liberation ecopedagogy that works to include social, ecological, and animal justice issues in higher education, I must conclude that critical intersectional literacy is gaining ground but continues to encounter resistance. As the examples of Russell, Andrzejewski, and Gaard intimate, this new paradigm of pedagogy is excitedly surging forth on campuses across both Canada and the United States. Yet, there is also significant fear of and a�empts to repress it (Kahn, Forthcoming). For the time being, critical intersectional literacy practitioners will undoubtedly continue to face opposition in their professional and personal lives. Still, I am hopeful that a moment has finally arisen in which future perspectives on this struggle are starting to coalesce and to have the ear of ever more allies in academia and beyond.

A Movement for Cognitive Praxis

As previously noted, a major impetus to transformative change in higher education is coming from scholars who have one foot in, or ear open to, emancipatory grassroots social movements. As Connie Russell mused, “I entered academia as an activist and have remained one, just a different type of one than I originally envisioned…any social movement needs some members who can step back and analyze the work we are doing, and academics are in a unique position to do that. That is the beauty of academic/ activist collaboration” (Personal communication, 2008). With this in mind, then, I would like to briefly relate the current efforts of three emerging academic-activists that we believe are on the cu�ing-edge of furthering the type of critical intersectional literacy work representative of total liberation ecopedagogy. Breeze Harper is doing research on critical food geographies at University of California Davis and considers her scholarship a kind of “literary activism” (Harper, Personal communication, 2008). Several years ago, Harper came to examine the role diet had in her health as a black American woman and came to the opinion that she was a member of a demographic suffering environmental

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racism, one whose diet was colonized by brutal corporate agendas designed to exploit life. She took this knowledge to a practical level and “decolonized” (ibid.) her diet by rejecting the Standard American Diet and instead adopted a whole food, plant-based diet instead. She also began to organize other vegan females of the African diaspora through a project called “Sistah Vegan!.”11 This has resulted in an anthology (Harper, Forthcoming) of black female voices “who resist and/or combat the systemic oppression that has manifested as diabetes, uterine fibroids, obesity, depression, environmental pollution, and the inhumane treatment of nonhuman animals” (Harper, Personal communication, 2008). More than a statement of identity politics, Harper hopes that this book can stimulate dialogue on issues of public health, environmental justice and sustainability, and the corporate food industry’s role in establishing the Standard American Diet. For her part, Lauren Corman, an assistant professor of critical animal studies at Brock University, has used her position as longstanding host of the radio show Animal Voices (CIUT 89.5) to put “environmental, social justice, and animal advocacy issues in conversation” with one another and with current scholarship (Corman, Personal communication, 2008). Interviewing a myriad of major activists and academics whose work she believes informs the animal rights movement, Corman is very interested in using her medium as a form of public pedagogy to encourage “a crossfertilization of ideas” (ibid.). Specifically, she hopes the Animal Voices show can work pedagogically and politically to make:
academic ideas more accessible to a wider audience, or…provide an entry point into theories while it simultaneously pushes scholars to demonstrate the practical relevance of their research. Additionally, it introduces the public and other animal activists to the burgeoning field of animal studies. Among the most important contributions, though, is that the radio show ekes out a space within the public sphere for critical perspectives on animals, while disrupting the stereotype that all animal activists are terrorists, humourless, self-righteous, hysterical, exclusively white and middle-class, North American, etc. Crucially, too, it demonstrates to other social justice and environmental movements that many animal activists and scholars are not single-issued in their approaches, which hopefully provides incentive for coalitions. Similarly, it promotes critique and reflexivity within the animal movements, and foregrounds a diversity of perspectives.

Lastly, I would like to call a�ention to the work of Anthony Nocella, a doctoral student in Syracuse University’s Maxwell

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School for Social Science and co-founder of the Institute for Critical Animal Studies.12 Nocella has served in the past as an organizer for Earth First!, animal rights and prisoner support campaigns, and has drawn upon his penchant for intersectional political collaboration as an editor of two path-breaking books on the animal liberation and revolutionary environmentalist movements, Terrorists or Freedom Fighters? and Igniting a Revolution (Best & Nocella, 2004; 2006). Containing contributions from an extremely diverse mix of radical scholars and activists who are variously pushing for social or environmental justice as well as animal rights, Nocella sees these publications as an a�empt to forge solidarities between oppressed groups by effecting dialogue on issues of mutual (or potentially mutual) interest. Another way in which he has a�empted to link academic research and intersectional activism is by creating a non-profit organization, Outdoor Empowerment, which he described as “ecopedagogy in action—dedicated to providing alternatives to violence, environmental awareness, and empowerment skills in an outdoor se�ing for urban community members” (Personal communication, 2008). Currently, the organization works with youth in a detention center to critically explore their lived environments, practice conflict resolution exercises, and experiential methods for living according to what Nocella calls “the 5 Ss—safety, simplicity, sustainability, service and social justice” (ibid.).

Concluding Remarks

As should now be clear, it is a misnomer in some ways to label the educators I have here chronicled as either elementary/ secondary, post-secondary, or movement educators. Those with present or future careers as university faculty almost invariably have an interest in mobilizing their pedagogy amongst children and youth, and many of those involved in providing curricular materials and presentations to elementary and secondary schools either have been or are involved with developing formal graduate degree and certificate programs in fields such as humane education. Additionally, most if not all of these educators are involved with practice on the boundaries between formal and nonformal education, are teacher-activists, and should be regarded as cognitive praxists—public intellectuals who are integrating social movement theory, practice, and values into academic discourse as well as a�empting to bridge such discourse with the everyday needs of community organizations

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or concerned citizenry. This ability to resist being standardized and confined within a particular educational sphere strikes me as a particularly crucial aspect of the form of total liberation work that is our interest. As the critical educator Paulo Freire remarked, education is not itself the lever of social change but it can play an important role to the degree that it works curricularly to generate counterhegemonic knowledge and stir the feelings of sociopolitical protest in students (Shor & Freire, 1987). In our opinion, the new paradigm of total liberation ecopedagogy that I have here a�empted to highlight should be understood as part of an evolving social movement that has been struggling to emerge over the last couple decades—one whose militant advocacy is informed by a holistic respect for life up to and including the planet and which strongly rebukes the ongoing instantiation of classism, racism, sexism, ableism, speciesism, and other “dominator hierarchies” (Eisler, 1988). Liberation pedagogy offering critical intersectional literacy has thus far been blocked (i.e., Selby’s “Ultima Thule”) from formal educational circles, in part, because it has critiqued the ideological blind spots of much that is considered legitimate educational discourse. Moreover, its transdisciplinarity and desire for affecting qualitative change in students’ identities pits this new pedagogical paradigm against mainstream discursive demands for specialization and quantitative accountability. But the time for critical intersectional literacy has finally arrived. I feel certain that a pedagogy for total liberation is no longer locked in the remote Hyperborean imagination of the ultra-radical Le� but is rather flooding like rays of light into the dawning work of a new generation of environmental and ecological educators, social justice-oriented critical pedagogues, anti-oppression teachers, humane education instructors, and other faculty with an abiding interest in the pedagogical aspects of realizing a be�er world for all beings. In other words, I believe that a conscientization of these fields is underway, which should produce significant changes both within the academy and the world-at-large. Yet, without dialogue across these fields, as well as between those working in other educational se�ings (be they elementary, secondary, post-secondary, or nonformal), the transformative possibilities resulting from these pedagogies will remain limited. What is more, the dialogue that I feel is necessary does not translate merely into trading syllabi or thoughts on what

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constitute emancipatory “best practices.” Instead, it must foster the kind of critical encounters that best relate the situation of the school to that of society, as well as that analyze the structural forces that disrupt a�empts to alter the institutional status-quo of our everyday lives. I also seek dialogue toward what the philosopher Steven Best (2003) has termed “interspecies alliance politics,” or the organization of solidarities across a wide-range of educational actors that should in turn propel them to occupy spaces of power. In order for this to happen, however, those working for environmental education and animal rights need to begin to robustly engage with political issues such as white supremacy and class privilege, even as it suggests that those working for the benefit of peace and equality between human groups need to critique their own potentially speciesist and/or industrialist-urbanist assumptions. Undeniably, it still is not easy to think, much less work, intersectionally without quickly spiraling into a bevy of contradictions. But these contradictions should become the foundational context for new progressive theories and literacy practices, not the raison d’etre for debunking them. We must try to unravel the systemic causes of the present misery and end our future peril. That we can now name zoöcide (Kahn, 2006) as the historical condition for our work in environmental education means that we possess both the necessary and sufficient condition for the field’s radical reconstruction in accordance with a total liberation ethic. The massive desecration of our planetary ecology that is now taking place, a crime that includes an unparalleled a�ack upon the great mass of nonhuman animals and the generation of global social upheaval that equates to dire poverty, disease, starvation, and the unending threat of armed violence for many billions of people, simply demands that we aspire to nothing less.

References

Allen, A. & You, N. (Eds.) (2002). Sustainable urbanization, bridging the green and brown agendas. Jenner City Print, Ltd. UK: UN-Habitat, Department for International Development, and the Development Planning Unit. Andrzejewski, J. (2003). Teaching animal rights at the university: Philosophy and practice. Journal of animal liberation philosophy and policy, 1(1).

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Andrzejewski, J., Baltodano, M. P., & Symcox, L. (Eds.) (2009). Social Justice, Peace, and Environmental Education: Transformative Standards. New York: Routledge. Bell, A. C. & Russell, C. L. (2000). Beyond human, beyond words: Anthropocentrism, critical pedagogy, and the poststructuralist turn. Canadian journal of education, 25(3), 188-203. Best, S. (2003). Common natures, shared fates: Toward an interspecies alliance politics. Impact press (Dec/Jan). Best, S. and Nocella, II, A. J. (Eds.) (2006). Igniting a revolution: Voices in defense of the Earth. Oakland, CA: AK Press. ——. (Eds.) (2004). Terrorists or freedom fighters?: Reflections on the liberation of animals. New York: Lantern Press. Capra, F. (1984). The turning point: Science, society and the rising culture. New York: Bantam Books. Cole, A. G. (2007). Expanding the field: Revisiting environmental education principles through multidisciplinary frameworks. The journal of environmental education, 38(2), 35-45. Collins, P. H. (2000). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York: Routledge. Eisler, R. (1988). The chalice and the blade: Our history, our future. San Francisco: Harper. Eisnitz, G. (2006). Slaughterhouse: The shocking story of greed, neglect, and inhumane treatment inside the U.S. meat industry. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. Eyerman, R. & Jamison, A. (1991). Social movements: A cognitive approach. University park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. Fawce�, L., Bell, A, & Russell, C. (2002). Guiding our environmental praxis: Teaching for social and environmental justice. In W. Leal Filho (Ed.), Teaching sustainability at universities: Towards curriculum greening. New York: Peter Lang. Gado�i, M. (2008). Education for sustainability: A critical contribution to the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. Green theory & praxis: The journal of ecopedagogy, 4(1), 15-64. Gaard, G. C. (1993). Ecofeminisim: Women, animals, nature. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. González-Gaudiano, E. (2005). Education for sustainable development: Configuration and meaning. Policy futures in education, 3(3), 243–250. Greenwood, D. A. (2008). A critical pedagogy of place: From gridlock to parallax. Environmental education research, 14(3), 336-348. Gruenewald, D. A. (2003). The best of both words: A critical pedagogy of place. Educational researcher, 32(4), 3–12. Gruenewald, D. A. & Smith, G. (Eds.) (2007). Place-based education in a global age: Local diversity. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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Gray-Donald, J. & Selby, D. (Eds.) (2008). Green frontiers: Environmental educators dancing away from the mechanism. Ro�erdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers. Haraway, D. (1988). Situated knowledge: The science question in feminism as a site of discourse on the privilege of partial perspective. Feminist studies, 14.3, 575-599. Harper, A. B. (Forthcoming). Sistah vegan!: Decolonizing our diets, Healing our bodies, liberating our souls. New York: Lantern Books. Hay, C. (1999). Crisis and the structural transformation of the state: Interrogating the process of change. British journal of politics and international relations, 1(3), 317-344. Humes, B. (2008). Moving toward a liberatory pedagogy for all species: Mapping the need for dialogue between humane and anti-oppressive education. Green theory & praxis: The journal of ecopedagogy, 4(1), 65-85. Joy, M. (2008). Strategic action for animals: A handbook on strategic movement building, organizing, and activism for animal liberation. New York: Lantern Press. Kahn, R. (Forthcoming). Operation get fired: A chronicle of the academic repression of radical environmentalist and animal rights advocate-scholars. In S. Best, A. Nocella, II, & P. McLaren (Eds.), Academic repression: Reflections from the academic-industrial complex. Oakland, CA: AK Press. ——. (2008a). From education for sustainable development to ecopedagogy: Sustaining capitalism or sustaining life? Green theory & praxis: The journal of ecopedagogy, 4(1), 1-14. ——. (2008b). Towards ecopedagogy: Weaving a broad-based pedagogy of the liberation for animals, nature and the oppressed peoples of the Earth. In A. Darder, M. Baltodano, & R. Torres (Eds.), The critical pedagogy reader (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. ——. (2007). Toward a critique of paideia and humanitas: (Mis)education and the global ecological crisis. In I. Gur-Ze’ev & K. Roth (Eds.), Education in the era of globalization. New York: Springer. ——. (2006). The educative potential of ecological militancy in an age of big oil: Towards a Marcusean ecopedagogy. Policy futures in education, 4(1), 31-44. ——. (2002). Paulo Freire and eco-justice: Updating Pedagogy of the Oppressed for the age of ecological calamity. Freire online journal, 1(1). Kahn, R. & Nocella, II, A. J. (Forthcoming). Greening the academy: Environmental studies in the liberal arts. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. Kellner, D. (2005). Media spectacle and the crisis of democracy. Boulder: Paradigm Press.

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McKenzie, M. (2005) The ‘post-post period’ and environmental education research. Environmental education research, 11(4), 401412. McLaren, P. & Houston, D. (2005). Revolutionary ecologies: Ecosocialism and critical pedagogy. In P. McLaren, Capitalists & conquerors: A critical pedagogy against empire. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Li�lefield. Noddings, N. (2003). Caring: A feminine approach to ethics and moral education (2nd. ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. O’Sullivan, E. (1999). Transformative learning: Educational vision for the 21st century. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press. Pope, C. & Rauber, P. (2004). Strategic ignorance: Why the Bush administration is recklessly destroying a century of environmental progress. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. Santayana, G. (1906). The life of progress. New York: Scribner’s Sons. Schlosser, E. (2005). Fast food nation. New York: Harper Perennial. Seed, J., Macy, J. Flemming, P. & Naess, A. (1988). Thinking like a mountain: Toward a council of all beings. British Columbia, CA: New Society Publishers. Selby, D. (2000). Humane education: Widening the circle of compassion and justice. In T. Goldstein & D. Selby (Eds.), Weaving connections: Educating for peace, social and environmental justice. Toronto, CA: Sumach Press. ——. (1995). Earthkind: A teacher’s handbook on humane education. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham. Shor, I. & Freire, P. (1987). A pedagogy for liberation: Dialogues on transforming education. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey. Singer, P. (1975). Animal liberation: A new ethics for our treatment of animals. New York: Random House. Stapp, W. (1969). The concept of environmental education. Journal of environmental education, 1(3), 31-36. Weil, Z. (2004). The power and the promise of humane education. British Columbia, CA: New Society Publishers. ——. (1998). Humane education: Charting a new course. The animals agenda (September/October), 19-21. Yosso, T. J. (2006). Critical race counterstories along the Chicana/Chicano educational pipeline. New York: Routledge. Notes See h�p://www.epa.gov/enviroed/basic.html. 2 For additional scholars exploring the crossroads of environmental education and critical pedagogy, see Greenwood (2008, p. 338). 3 By “new paradigm” we do not mean to assert that the work that we chronicle does not have a significant history of theory and
1

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practice, rather that this history is finally now beginning to affect a Kuhnian paradigm shi� in others’ theories and practices. 4 As McKenzie and Russell (in works previously cited) both note, ecofeminism in its many variants has been an important influence for an intersectional pedagogy that works against social oppression and to increase the moral status of nonhuman animals and nature. There are shades of grey, however, with more and less compelling approaches to the form of intersectional analysis we feel is now required. A poor example would be Noddings (2003), whose animal welfarist-tinged approach to the pedagogy of care provides an inadequate model for total liberation ecopedagogy, and Gaard (1993), whom we interviewed for this essay as an illuminative trendse�er. Also noteworthy within the ecofeminist tradition is the work of anti-nuclear and peace activist, Joanna Macy, who has helped to create ritualized intersectional educational practices such as the Council of All Beings (Seed, Macy, Flemming & Naess, 1988). 5 For more information on this and an educational movement centered around it, see Species Alliance (h�p://www.speciesalliance.org/ video.php). 6 Environmental education’s potentially primary role in this critical diplomacy process cannot be overstated. As Gray-Donald & Selby (2008) have wri�en, “Environmental education is well positioned to be a unifier, to bring together different disciplines and galvanize them into unified action” (18). 7 For a careful and robust study of the history, philosophy and practice of humane education, which is beyond our scope here, see (Humes, 2008). Important humane education texts include Selby (2000; 1995; Weil (2004); and Gray-Donald & Selby (2008). 8 However, humane educator Lesley Fox also told us that intersectional humane education can be a problem for some people with single-issue orientations who “believe that it is too ‘broad’ in scope—and they would rather focus on one specific topic such as human rights as opposed to introducing other elements/angles” (Personal communication, 2008). Still, she agreed that when elementary and secondary curricular frameworks lack demands for dealing with nonhuman animal issues in the classroom, covering the environmental and human rights concerns of topics like slaughterhouses or factory farms provides a way to be invited in as a speaker.

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Sustainable development literature distinguishes between the traditional “green agenda” of environmentalists concerned with preserving wilderness or conserving natural resources and the “brown agenda” of how environmental issues like waste water treatment, air pollution, or soil degredation may affect people’s quality of life. See, for instance, Allen & You (2002). 10 Related to this endeavor, she is the recent co-editor of Andrzejewski, Baltodano, & Symcox (2009). 11 See h�p://sistahveganproject.com. 12 On critical animal studies, see h�p://criticalanimalstudies.org.
9

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Zbigniew Pucek A. F. M. Krakow University POLAND

THE LOCAL SOURCES OF AN IDEA OF HOMELAND

What I mean is Lübeck as a spiritual form of live Thomas Mann The term locality comes from the Latin word “locus”, which means a point in space, also in the space understood as a territory, a geographic area. But locality is something more than just a place, it is rather a certain state of affairs connected with the place, it is the content which fills this place. The term refers to the local syndrome of natural, social and cultural components. In the sociological sense, locality is a set of local conditions determining the functioning of a local community and the people who belong to it. Such a conception of locality is only one of the aspects of the life of a local community. Apart from this, a set of supra-local factors can be distinguished. It has various aspects: regional, nation-wide, global, but from the point of view of the local community, the most important thing is that the conditions which are connected with it and the inspirations of the processes which are taking place within the community, do not belong to the local system, they are outside it. An always-present component of many important problems which are involved in the functioning of local communities is the clashing of internal and external factors. Their importance and the strength of their influence are variable and subject to various fluctuations in which general tendencies of social life,

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that appear in various periods, are expressed. This phenomenon occurs and is the subject of many studies. The XX century’s prevailing tendency was the strong predominance of the external factors, and the diminishing importance of locality, not only as an aspect of the organization of a social systems but, first of all, in the sense of the influence it exerts on the life and the social and cultural functions of local communities. There can be observed considerable subordination of local communities to the central authority, a significant loss in the scope of self-government and the phenomena of disintegration which are due to the changes which are taking place in broader social structures, especially the migrations as well as the development of electronic media and mass communication. Today cultures seem to be not so very deeply entrenched in their local ground like before, because of still stronger impact of a distant events and values on local live and affairs (Appadurai 1996). All this points to a relative weakening of the role of locality in modern society. On the other hand, the process should not be treated as an irreversible and final decline of locality. Such a tendency is disproved by the appearance of new trends in political life which a�empt to depart from the centralized and arbitrary system of authority in favour of transferring authority to various social structures and circles. It means also an effort to restitute a social subjectivity of many communities, group and cultures. Inevitably, the process could not omit local communities which have an inherent, spontaneous inclination towards autonomy. And it is this quality of local communities that makes us hope for the present trend to be reversed or stopped at least. Even if circumstances do not favour particular forms of social, economic, political and cultural life, local communities strive to create and reproduce communal elements thus regaining and retaining what I mean by locality. Since locality is a form of realization of communities which are spatially grouped on a permanent territorial base, it is a way of their concrete se�lement in space, it is their homeland. The a�achment of local communities to a particular territory defines their specific position among social communities. From this point of view they are contrasted with family, tribal and political nomadic communities, and are assigned to the sphere of the European culture. Within the scope of this culture, the local community is an indispensable element of the organization of society, so the social progress cannot consists in the reduction of its role (Sowa 1988).

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Territorial se�ing of local communities is accompanied by a number of social and cultural phenomena which stem from their ties with the local pa�ern. The very fact of durable, sometimes multi-generation rooting in the common territory is a factor promoting the appearance of ties. The local environmental pa�ern determines the basic framework of a relatively autonomous local community and the people who belong to it. Such a pa�ern can be, and very o�en is, conceived and treated by the local community as homeland. It is in this sense that locality is understood here as homeland. Within the reach of the European culture, where the local community plays such a great role, locality is one of the most important forms of man’s homeland. The idea of homeland, although intuitively easily perceptible, is nevertheless rather difficult to discursively articulate. Neither locality nor any other form of reality given to man is not homeland by itself. It may only be considered to be homeland in the effect of providing it with some definite meanings. In its most general sense, homeland is a value which is applied by people and whole communities to their milieu. Stanisław Ossowski says: “Homeland is a correlate of some psychic a�itudes which are part of a cultural heritage of a group” (Ossowski 1967). What is meant here are, of course, a�itudes towards some area of reality which is, more or less directly, subject to manifold experiences of a community. This area of reality is the milieu of the community. However, in its objective form the milieu is only a substratum from which there arises and on which is constructed a phenomenon of homeland, which is connected with it by a fine network of meanings. Thus, we are dealing with a term which belongs to this specific category of notions that describe neither autonomous, objective facts nor purely subjective, psychic phenomena, but refer to the sphere of values and meanings which are expressed by the a�itude of members of a social group towards their milieu. “An area becomes homeland only inasmuch as there is a group of people who share some specific a�itude towards it and shape its appearance” writes S. Ossowski. “Only then this stretch of outside reality assumes some specific values which make it homeland (…) Characteristic features of homeland are always a function of images, which members of some community associate with it” (Ibidem, p. 203). In each se�led culture, the idea of homeland fulfils an important adaptative function by providing models of identification with a specific area of reality at which a community happens to build up and develop its existence. It is, in a sense,

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an “ecological” idea, which ties man culturally and emotionally with his milieu. It also performs the function of integrating a human community by developing an a�itude, common for all and shared by all, towards the environment in its broad sense. The term homeland refers then to the specific manner in which the man and human communities are rooted in some areas of the surrounding reality. The word always evokes specific associations and a full range of images of the country, places, customs, people, landscapes. It calls forth memories and experiences referring to this reality and, in a way, building the core of our personality and our biography. All this has real grounds. What is a homeland for human communities?; what is considered to be homeland in various social situations?; what are proportions of objective and subjective factors, habits, creational and emotional factors and convictions? all these are questions about the real ground, the substratum of the phenomenon of homeland. The fact of homeland being rooted in man’s specific milieu does not raise any doubts, but the character of this relationship is varied and changing. It is also shaped in a selective way. The idea of homeland appears in various aspects and different ranges of environmental se�ing of human communities. It is not only locality that is a correlate of homeland but also the national territory, all cultural areas, and in some contexts, even humanity and the world. On the other hand, it is strongly associated by the social consciousness with some specific areas and forms of reality and it can hardly, if at all, be transferred to new milieux in which a social group and its members have to live. Breaking the continuity of ties with a given native milieu does not automatically erase from the consciousness the feeling that it is a homeland. The image of homeland remains, as a rule, associated with the old environment, at least for the generations which were spiritually formed in it. It is known that a feeling of stronger or weaker ties with the place of origin is o�en awoken in subsequent generations and is very characteristic for descendants of emigrants. This supports the thesis that the phenomenon of homeland is of cultural character and that it belongs to the cultural heritage of a social group. This selective sense of the idea of homeland, in connection with the tendency to keep its continuity, is an important characteristic of the phenomenon. Homeland is not only what one has. It is also one’s duty. Homeland should be retained and one should be faithful to it, no ma�er whether direct

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ties with the native milieu still exist. “Should I forget you, let my right hand forget me” - calls the Psalmist, Defining man’s milieu as a substratum of his homeland inevitably gives rise to the question whether locality is characterized by some particular features in this respect. It seems that a positive answer can be given to this question. Locality has some characteristic features which diffract in the image of a local homeland, giving it a specific multi-dimensional character. It allows us to perceive the local homeland as a separate type, which is distinguished against the background of other types of this cultural phenomenon. What is the distinctive feature? Giving an answer to this question requires a broader definition of man’s life milieu. By milieu I mean this part of our environment which is separated from our individual and communal experience as an existentially important area of reality. Life activity of communities, in its broadest sense, is concentrated at this area. So, it is this part of the world around with which man is in direct contact and which exerts influence upon him. It is also subject to transformations by man’s activity. Man’s needs are satisfied in this area and it is a point of reference for his tasks and aims. What is considered to be a milieu for an individual or for a community depends on the range and importance of their contacts with the environment. There is always a definite horizon of these contacts. It depends on many factors, among which are: the area of se�lement occupied by a given community, the system of natural and cultural boundaries determining the community’s sphere of activity as well as such specific features of a given group as the degree of its openness, its expansiveness and the flexibility of its culture. Generally speaking, man’s milieu is always limited and it never corresponds with the boundaries of the world ruled by man. Even in the present-day, restless world, which is becoming “smaller” all the time, the limitations imposed by man’s culture and biology are not subject to any radical changes, so the problem of their becoming extinct is out of the question. Human communities live in numerous and varied social and cultural structures which have specific character. Thus, homeland basically remains a particular phenomenon, it always remains someone’s homeland among other homelands of other people, communities, nations. The phenomenon of milieu is complex, both from the aspect of its range and components. As far as the range is concerned, it

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can usually be divided into a closer and a more distant milieu. The closer milieu is determined by points of contact and close, recurrent and durable relationships. These are mostly direct relations. We are in contact with the more distant milieu by random and infrequent encounters. The character of the influence which is exerted upon us by the more distant milieu is discontinuous and indirect, as a rule. Its importance, in the existential experience of a se�led community, is smaller but, of course, it can have, and usually has, some importance in some particular moments in the life of a community. The theory of sociology, while taking into account the division of man’s milieu into closer and more distant, is trying to deal with it in terms of typology of homelands. Very popular is the differentiation between a small, local homeland and the large homeland approached in the categories of the nation or the state. This division is similar to the typology introduced by Ossowski: “The private homeland and the ideological homeland, brings out, among other things, the question of the specific character of the local homeland. The local homeland, in this sense, is the homeland stemming from the closer milieu. It is born in the conditions of continuous and durable contacts with the area of reality, where the live of a local community and its members is directly rooted. It is a set of real places and conditions in which the life is taking place. The tie between the man and this homeland is to a considerable degree habitual, being a result of fixed pa�ern of relations with various elements of environment. Convictional and ideological ties connecting the man with the broader, more distant milieu, like the national territory, plays complementary role here”(Ibidem). Locality generally produces the notion of homeland, whereas the more distant milieu need not necessarily be included in this notion. It finally depends on the strength of the influence it exerts on people and on the positive meanings a�ributed to it by the people in whose experience the more distant milieu occurs. The closer milieu, well known and familiar as it is, may equally well determine the borders of the accepted world, beyond which lies a foreign territory. Such is undoubtedly the consciousness of cultural ghe�os or social groups which live in exceptionally difficult and hostile natural environment. The idea of a local homeland is o�en enriched in a situation like this. It is penetrated by the awareness of being besieged and compulsion to defend the endangered national values. These phenomena were presented by

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S. Ossowski in his work on the countryside in the Opole region of Silesia (Ossowski 1967, b). Within the circle of the se�led people, the closer, local homeland is historically the former one. It was the broadening of the environmental basis for the existence of communities and the development of new mechanisms of supra-local integration characterized by ethnic, national or political character, that contributed to their inclusion in the notion of homeland. Of course, the ideological homeland, constructed on the basis of the ideological relationship of the conviction type. Nevertheless, even nowadays the roles of the closer and more distant milieux are not constant but are subject to various fluctuations. Under the conditions of a harmonious integration of locality into a broader environment, we usually have to do with a variant of two homelands: the local homeland and the supra-local homeland which are, to a considerable degree, complementary to each other. There are also situations (although infrequent in modern societies) in which the notion of homeland is reduced to the local pa�ern. Nowadays, there also appears a third variant which is very interesting and becoming a reality right now. It is the phenomenon of locality becoming extinct, its degradation being an element of a positive social experience. It is probably not an irreversible process, but through it the idea of homeland loses, to some extent, its local grounding and the local sense, not without opposition and resistance against this situation. Just like the other idea, it retains some durability and the ability to influence human a�itudes. Like the phoenix from the ashes, locality may be reborn from it. However, as the time goes by, the lack of roots in broad locality, weakens the idea of homeland which stems from it. What is more, it can eventually weaken the feeling of bond with a broader, ideological homeland by hushing up emotional components of its perception. Undoubtedly, it is the locality that is the most important medium in the assimilation of the idea of a large, national homeland; it is the value around which this lo�y idea accumulates and crystallizes. That is why patriotic feelings are so willingly expressed by recalling the images of the private, local homeland. At any rate, something more than just a stylistic figure can be seen in it. In this sense locality, or at least locality felt to be a homeland, may be seen as an important condition for the emergence and the functioning of the notion of the ideological homeland. The reduction of the local dimension of social existence

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and its degeneration is sure to have an unfavourable impact on the feelings of bond with any homeland. For a man whose existence is firmly set in a se�led community the local pa�ern is simultaneously an expression of the order of existence, a prefiguration of the world, an archetype in which, to a certain extent, a vision of an ideological homeland can be seen, which is constructed of convictions and beliefs. It is in this way that the specific experience of local community named Soplicowo from the poem “Pan Tadeusz or the last foray in Lithuania” by Adam Mickiewicz is interpreted by a contemporary writer: “Sunrises and sunsets, common activities like making coffee or picking mushrooms are (…) a surface under which there is hidden total acceptance which enlivens and supports the description (…) The cucumbers and melons from the orchard in Soplicowo fulfill all conditions to be granted the status of symbols, which means that they fully are the things the names of which are assigned to them, but they also have, a different meaning.” (Miłosz 1982, p. 133). A concrete association of the ideological homeland consists, first of all, in the pictures of the private homeland. This is partly due to the fact that the former one is, to a great extent, an a priori construction, from the point of view of an individual, whereas the la�er one stems from a direct and personal experience. Ever partial and random perception of the supra-local world cannot essentially change this state of affairs. Anyway, it does not degrade the ability of emotional perception of the ideological homeland. Locality is not only the closer homeland but alsothe fullest and the most complete one. Its multidimensional character is a reflection of the complexity of the local life milieu. It is a natural conglomerate of all three elements which make up man’s world: nature, culture and community. Each of these elements plays some definite role in the shaping of the notion of homeland. Each part of the milieu contributes to this notion. A direct and durable contact with them all is, for a man who lives within the local pa�ern, not only natural but, as a ma�er of fact, unavoidable. Locality is a complete milieu of man’s life. It is always a community which is set in some specific and limited natural and cultural environment. Sociology seldom uses such a broad category of environment. It is due to the fact that we have to do with the elements given to man in different ways, each of them influencing the man in a different and specific way (Rybicki 1979, p. 593). Natural and cultural factors cannot be reduced to the social ones, therefore they are marginal in sociological considerations. This mostly refers to the

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nature. In reality, however, the respective parts of the milieu are not ideally separated from one another in social experience. First of all, they are filtered through the system of values and expressed in culture pictures. In these images, the various components of the surrounding world are connected and integrated with one another by a number of meanings and interrelations. The more life of a given community is bound with some specific territory and local pa�ern, the stronger are the features of a unity in the images created by the social consciousness. There is also an objective aspect of this phenomenon: the functioning of a local community is, to some extent, a real factor which integrates the components of the milieu. One could mention here the phenomenon of the transformation of space, the shaping of the landscape, the adjustment of the se�lement and the architecture to the topographic and climatic conditions of the natural environment (e.g. the type of economy imposed by these conditions). Locality then is a pa�ern the dimensions of which are usually perceived jointly as some composite whole and a specific quality: the completeness. The bonds connecting the man to his local homeland are, in a sense, integral and complete bonds, whereas in relation to the supra-local, ideological homeland they have a partial, aspect-sensitive character. The supra-local homeland is given to the man basically in an indirect way, as an ideological conviction. In its image, which by nature is of a priori kind, the whole variety of environmental components is reduced to the area of symbolic culture. And although there are ways of broadening of one’s own personal a�itude towards this homeland, first of all by tourism, nevertheless such contacts do not produce such a�achment as is a result of the habits arising from the se�led life (Ossowski 1967 a, p. 222). Generally speaking, the broader the notion of homeland, the more abstract, detached and devoid of a direct contact with the people, landscape and culture, is phenomenon of it. This creates favourable conditions for imbuing it with a mystic element, which is exemplified by numerous nationalist movements in the contemporary world. The local life milieu is a typical milieu. I am referring here to the concept of a typical life milieu proposed by Paweł Rybicki. In the conditions of a se�led life limited, to a great extent, to the local pa�ern, all the components of the life milieu can be considered as typical, i.e. as a sum of durable and recurrent conditions determining the human being. Within the local framework, the

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man, not only meets the same people all the time, but also the same ideas and values. What is more, even the natural environment assumes, through recurrent aeries of the same stimuli, the features of typicality. These elements of experience are similar for all members of a community and are common for them. They are the factor which shapes the appearance of the community. The problem of how a specific local pa�ern influences the life of an individual, how it shapes him and the forms of his communal existence can, of course, be solved only through systematic and detailed studies. However, in the context of these observations, a general thesis can be adopted that the local homeland is a correlate of a typical life milieu which for man is locality. Thus, it turns out to be an idea which in the cultural consciousness integrates the surrounding reality into one, relatively reasonable system of habits and conceptions, organizing his a�itudes towards locality. As I have already mentioned, in the idea of homeland there is expressed some conception of order, which is a sort of a axionormative predestinate order, which is obligatory, since it is predestined. Within this context, a special a�ention to the elements of magical thinking must be paid (Ibidem). At any rate, one can in some sense speak here of the task and role. Predestinate order is an idea, to which man’s a�itude is spontaneous, in his contacts with the outside world. “To leave the Ukraine” - writes Zenon Fisz - “with the village heart, our heart, with the local notions of people and things, with the belief, straightforward but not blind, and to leave everything which will pass before my eye, and how it will relate to our notions.” (Fisz 1988 a, p. 149). So locality is o�en idealized as the object of deep emotions, and in literary visions it sometimes assumes the importance of the mythical Arcadia, an earthly paradise, like the Lithuanian Novogrodek in the Mickiewicz’s poem. In this sense Bohdan Jałowiecki writes about the archetypal character of homeland (Jałowiecki 1988, p. 61). An archetype seems to be an important factor in the continuity of the notion of homeland and it may exert a preserving influence on the shape of its environmental substratum. The desire to retain homeland in its beloved and accepted form is a frequent motive of human behaviour, manifesting itself by local ecological movements or act1vities initiated by lovers of local history, monuments, landscape, customs and folklore. In various conditions, the desire provides an impulse to introduce suitable corrections to the environment in order to make it the same or similar to the cultivated vision of the local homeland

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/e.g. actions in favour of preserving customs, rituals, architecture, natural environment and even the local community with its institutions and organizations/. The archetype of homeland, while being an expression of an ideal adjustment of a community and its members to some specific area of reality, allows the man, on the one hand, to be in harmony with it, but on the other, makes it difficult for him to accept changes at his territory, especially such changes which lead to the change of the life milieu. Last but not the least, the archetype should be perceived as a factor which preserves the pluralistic structure of the human world, since the very a�achment of man to various forms of life rooted in some specific places poses an obstacle to the unification processes which are inspired by the claims of the ideologies of centralized development of challenges of the globalization process. The local type of homeland, as opposed to the supra-local homeland, is bound with the man’s life milieu in a threefold way: by the bonds of nature, culture and community. Each of them influences the notion of homeland in a specific way. The influence of the natural environment is exerted both directly and by means of culture forms. It is sometimes pointed out that the former Commonwealth of Poland, the communal life set on the stretch of Europe between the Baltic Sea and the Dnieper river, had its foundations rooted more deeply in the landscape than in its statehood. One can says that the topographic and landscape features find their expression in the social organization and in the system of values of some communities (Vincenz 1979). Advantages of the natural environment and their impact on other areas of human world find their reflection in the images of homeland. “Apart from the Baltic Sea” - writes Thomas Mann “Lübeck has other landscape features, landscape in its real sense of the word. It is such a beautiful landscape, that the beauty of it can freely compete with many, or - in my opinion - with all the landscapes in Germany or anywhere else. Here we have the Holstein Switzerland, the areas around Eutin and Molln, the lake Uklei - it would be unnatural if such images did not leave an imprint on the psyche of a Lübeck child, and even the more so that no future impressions were able to obscure, in my soul, the fresh and pure character of those idyllic landscapes.” (Mann 1971, p.p. 17-18). What is meant here is, of course, not the conviction that the Lübeck landscape is superior in some objective sense. In Mann’s relation, the determination of a direct psychological

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effect is related to the emergence of a cultural model. It contains a scheme of a pa�ern intermingled with the native notions of beauty. This particular a�itude towards nature that surrounds us is repeated with a great regularity not only in the visions created by literature but also at lower, much more common levels of sensitivity. The majority of us are most sensitive to what confirms the vision of natural order, which is so deeply rooted in us, and remains in harmony with this vision. The sense of this order is built in the course of durable and recurrent contacts with the native environment. The individual experience of a direct contact is intermingled with the element of culture. We familiarize the world by interpreting it in terms of esthetic-functional order we identify ourselves with. While living in a permanently devastated and chaotic environment, the man need not necessarily like it. Just the opposite, the discrepancy between the reality and some ideal principles of our culture invariably remains the source of uneasiness, dissatisfaction and frustration. Natural environment as a place of emotional se�ing is given to the man mostly through the category of his culture. Natural qualities of the respective regions of Poland usually have found their sanction in the local folklore and their development in art and literature. But local likes and dislikes are sometimes in conflict with some more popular or more qualified judgments. The refined artistic culture does not always use the same criteria and models as the local culture. Characteristic in this respect is the great argument in Chapter III of “Pan Tadeusz”, referring to the features of the landscape, in which the arguments of the local, native aesthetics are opposed to the criteria of the European artistry. Of course, the problem of the natural environment cannot be reduced only to the esthetic questions. It can also be approached as a workshop or a source of components which are indispensable to life as well as a set of conditions determining the quality of this life. All these things form the basis of our a�itude towards the environment - the more so that the local milieu is an area at which a community, a family or an individual build their lives, sometimes for generations. In this way it becomes a part of human biography and history, a distinguished area in the world. Let us listen to the words of Broniewski: “for me, this land is dearer than others/ I neither want nor can leave it/ my childhood and my youth were blown with Mazurian winds over the Vistula/ There are fields and poplars in my window/ and I know it is just Poland.”

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The feeling of affiliation, which usually accompanies the man’s a�itude towards his native land results from the adoption, in the process of communal socialization, of a role of an inheritor, lover and user of the landscape. This thesis is confirmed by the many instances of emigrants’ children recognizing the native land of their parents to be their own homeland: “The land where my parents lived, where they were buried, the land (…) is dearest for me.” (Pamiętniki emigrantów ... 1977). In this context Ossowski mentions the predestinate bonds (Ossowski 1967 a). Another element of the local milieu which leaves its mark on the vision of homeland is other people and the social bonds that tie them. The vision of the local homeland is rooted in the local community. While existing within the framework of a larger social whole, the local community retains the character of a relatively autonomous centre of social life (Rybicki 1979, p. 18). This is expressed by at least partial autonomy, a spatial separation, usually imperfect, and the ability to satisfy the needs of the day. This brings the local community closer to a type of a social community, even if its origin is natural. An individual is born in this community, grows up and builds his social and personal life. In an individual experience, the community is separated as a group of identification and solidarity, as an indispensable part of homeland. The local community is perceived by its members as a carrier of considerable sovereignty. This explains the constant tendency, recurring even in relatively unfavourable outside conditions, to act autonomously, which is a result of a direct discernment of one’s own needs, aspirations and possibilities. It is an effect of recognizing the native homeland as a basic area of one’s own life. It can also be founded in the perception of the local community as “inheritance”, as an element of cultural heritage. Assuming the role of children of their homeland, people adopt a masterful a�itude towards the domain they consider to be their own. Thus, the elementary social substratum of the local homeland is a permanently assembled human community which creates, for the individuals who grow up and live within its boundaries, a basis for repeated social contacts and which is a source of the most permanent and important part of their social experience. For them it is a typical social milieu. It seems that the moat substantial part of the social experience, which not only shapes the image of homeland but also tinges it with sentiments and emotions, is the type of social relations which are the basis for the functioning of

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the group. It is characteristic of a local community that the life there is permeated with personal ties founded on a direct contact. So, in the case of a local homeland we have to do with a situation which meets the personalistic ideals. This characteristic is particularly well expressed by the German term Heimat, which refers to the homeland as determined by individual personal experiences in relation to the community rather than to the territory. The a�achment to this homeland stems from personal contacts among the people who share the same feelings. It should be added that the core of the local community is usually composed of a set of interrelated bonds of kinship and neighborhood of families in a broader sense (Jałowiecki 1988, p. 19). These bonds make the image of the local homeland assume the character of a more personal and intimate experience. While considering the problem of social sources of the local homeland, such factors should be taken into consideration as some dominant features of the social structure, elements of social standards and even the features of the political system in its local realization. A classical example of praising the political system as a factor which creates bonds and is the cause of a communal pride of the homeland is the famous speech by Pericles to the Athenians, which is known to us through the relation of Thucydides. Also T. Mann writes with sentiment and approval of the middle-class character of Lübeck, and traces back his spiritual formation to this middle-class character. Prompted by similar motives, a Polish 19th century writer acknowledges with regret the changes which took place within the community of small town Czehryn – “The middle-class type in Czehryn, as elsewhere in the Ukraine, is foreign, diverse and alien to the place and the relics of the past. The local elements have been degenerated in such a way that they cannot be recognized any longer.” (Fisz 1988 b, p. 354). The last component of the local milieu is culture: the world created and transformed by human activity. Locality is filled with products of human hand and human mind. Apart from the element. of material culture like houses, public buildings, se�lements, roads, parks and gardens, cultivated fields and technical facilities which are so characteristic of this type of culture, there is also a broad sphere of customs, rituals, and the equally rich area of symbolic culture. The contents of the local culture are assimilated by an individual together with elements of broader, supra-local culture and are o�en mixed in such a way that it is difficult to discriminate between them.

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The proportions vary. The more the traditional forms of life are cultivated by a community, the stronger is the role of the local culture. The autonomy and the cultural separateness of the Polish villages in the inter-war period was expressed not only by the domination of local, district forms of social organization, but also by the countless facts of everyday and festive, material and spiritual life. Czarnowski observes that even in neighbouring villages there were differences in the customs, rituals, cra�smanship, a�itude towards school and reading habits, religious and political convictions. He also shows the strength of the local culture which, even when the interests clash, makes people show solidarity in their actions (Czarnowski 1956). At the source of these phenomena there lies the constant trend of “organic” evolution of the local community and its culture. That is what Maurycy Mochnacki noted in his criticism of the “constructivist” genesis of Petersburg with reference to older European towns, which could still be contained in the conception of locality. “Other European capitals” - he wrote –“slowly developed from the elementary se�lement and lazily broke the boundaries. The spirit and the appearance of generations, the character of the inhabitants, the history of the nation and the nature of the government, all le� their stamp on the different types of architecture, on the various and ever changing shapes of buildings, streets and churches. A great town of a great nation is an architectural chronicle of its notions, customs, education, it is a history wri�en with walls and geometrical shapes.(…). In such a town the past is. always related to the subsequent periods, and is a sum of continuous effort and labour of the nation.”(Mochnacki 1863, p. 29). In the modern world, characterized by popular education, mass culture and information efficiency, the autonomy, continuity and unity of the local culture are not so strongly marked and must assume a different shape. Dialects, customs and other elements of the local folklore disappear. Manifestations of unification or foreign interference can also be seen within the sphere of the material culture. The evolution of styles in regional architecture in provincial Poland may serve as an example. Of course, the more the local culture is perceived (even against the facts) as one’s own and local, the more important role it plays in the construction of the image of homeland. The Lübeck Gothic is a synonym of private homeland for T. Mann in the same way as the Vilnius Baroque is for polish poet Czesław Miłosz (1985). The bonds of conviction play an important role in the perception of

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cultural elements as components of homeland. Ossowski observes that the values which ere assigned to the whole group may be an important link among individuals, both due to the conviction that all the members of the community are bound by these values in the same way, as well as due to the fact that the forms of coexistence depend on these values. And although the bonds of conviction are the main generator of the images of the ideological homeland, they also are, apart from the bonds of habit, a significant element in the shaping of the private, local homeland. All components of the natural environment belong to two categories. On the one hand, they are a set of objective facts. On the other, they are elements of a symbolic order, as all the objective phenomena are filtered through a representationalsymbolic level and are given to man as components of his milieu in these two forms. It is very important for the understanding of the specific character of the local homeland. If the contact between the man and the sphere of the objective phenomena produces the bond of habit, then the domain of the symbolic culture is a basis for the creation of the bonds of conviction. The unification of these two factors determines the strength and durability of the local homeland. The decline of the bonds of habit results in the decline of the bonds of conviction. The decline of localism as a relatively autonomous form of communal life, the weakening of its position in the organization of a society may mean the decline of the local homeland. This, in turn, as was mentioned earlier, may clear the way for the erosion of the ideological, national homeland. To sum up these considerations, I should like to emphasize the most important points. The local homeland may be defined as a set of notions belonging to the cultural heritage of a local community, referring to its life milieu: the nature, the people and the culture. It is a milieu typical of the members of the community. Locality is the foundation from which the idea of a local homeland arises on the basis of the bonds of habit and the bonds of conviction. The full and typical character of environmental a�itudes distinguishes this type of homeland from the homelands of the supra-local type: the regional, national, civilizational etc. This se�les the issue of its importance in the processes of communal identification and the cultural and social integration, Its image is component of a man’s personality and due to this it evades, on the one hand, rational manipulations and evaluations, and on the other, being filled with emotions, it becomes transformed into a specific archetype of the fundamental se�ing of a human being, through which an

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individual perceives and interprets the world that surrounds him. The notion of the local homeland contains in it a well formed conception of a predestinate order. All this refers, of course, to some ideal situation. The reality approximates to this ideal, be�er or worse. Nevertheless, in all those areas where locality is an important axis of the communal and individual life and retains its position in the clashes with the outside world that presses against it, the local homeland appears as its correlate. The feeling of affiliation to the local homeland, which is not just a ma�er of a spontaneous impulse but also acculturation in the local community, imposes a specific social role on the man: the role of the son of the local homeland and its citizen. This role lies at the foundation of many types of communal behavior and actions undertaken by the citizens of small towns, village. and se�lements all over the world, or at least within the framework of the European civilization. “If I chose the title ‘Lübeck as a spiritual form of life’ for my lecture”, says T. Mann, “what I meant was the form of life and the life a�itude of the son of Lübeck.” (Mann 1971, p. 6).

Literature

Appadurai A., Modernity at Large. Cultural Dimensions of Globalization, University of Minnesota Press 1996. Czarnowski S., Podłoże ruchu chłopskiego, „Dzieła”, vol. II, Warszawa 1956. Fisz Z., Listy z podróży przez Tadeusza Padalicę, In: Janina KamionkaStraszakowa, Do ziemi naszej, Warszawa 1988 (a). Fisz Z., Wieś Subotów i okolice, In:J.Kamionka-Straszakowa, Do ziemi naszej, Warszawa 1988 (b). Jałowiecki B., Lokalizm a rozwój, In: Problemy rozwoju regionalnego i lokalnego, B. Jałowiecki (ed.), Warszawa 1988. Mann T., Lubeka jako duchowa forma życia, O sobie, Warszawa 1971. Miłosz Cz., Ziemia Ulro, Warszawa 1982. Miłosz Cz., Zaczynając od moich ulic, Paryż 1985. Mochnacki M., Powstanie narodu polskiego w roku 1830 i 1831, BerlinPoznań 1863, vol. I. Ossowski S., Analiza socjologiczna pojęcia ojczyzny, Dzieła, Warszawa 1967, vol III. (a) Ossowski S., Zagadnienia więzi regionalnej i więzi narodowej na Śląsku Opolskim, Dzieła, Warszawa 1967, vol.III. (b) Pamiętniki emigrantów. Stany Zjednoczone, Warszawa 1977. Rybicki P., Struktura społecznego świata, Warszawa 1979. Sowa K. Z., Lokalizm versus centralizm, „Zdanie” No. 10, 1988. Vincenz S., Krajobraz jako tło dziejów, Z perspektywy podróży, Kraków 1979

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Alison Kington University of Nottingham UNITED KINGDOM

DEFINING TEACHERS’ CLASSROOM RELATIONSHIPS

Introduction

The study of social development in children differs from the study of cognitive development in that it does not solely focus on the process of development and acquisition of knowledge, but considers the constraints (situational and interpersonal) that are apparent during this process. Children entering school already have a long history of social learning, bringing with them perceptions of the self and of their social environment. However, social learning in early years has taken place mainly within the family and supervised play-groups. During this process of socialisation, an important component of the culture which the child adopts, and a significant determinant of his/her needs and self-perceptions is the element of grouping. Even while the child’s experience is limited within the bounds of the family, values of group interaction enter into his/her world because they are part of the family life and customs. When that experience extends to school, there is greater opportunity for encounter with cultural values of other groups, which widen the child’s experience. Schooling covers a broad area of intellectual and social development, much of which takes place under the direction of the main agent in the classroom, the teacher. Evidently interactions between teacher and pupil have profound effects upon the formation of social skills. The teacher mediates

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Alison Kington: De�ining Teachers’ Classroom Relationships
between a child and society, while schooling provides the practice arena for the child’s social behaviour. This chapter presents selected findings from a small-scale, exploratory study of teacher-pupil relationships. The study employed both observation and interview techniques with children and teachers in order to provide a description and understanding of teacher-pupil relationships ‘in context’. However, a further method was also used that was based on teachers’ own ideas and feelings regarding classroom relationships. Such an instrument is the repertory grid interview, the practical method based on Kelly’s personal construct theory (Kelly, 1955). It is this method that is the focus of this chapter. The aim of the project was twofold: i) to develop a method with which a teacher’s classroom relationships could be discussed from his/her perspective; and, ii) to assess the method and to explore the perceived qualities, as well as elements of the formation and development of teacher-pupil relationships. The study considered aspects of school life such as classroom context and organisation in terms of opportunity for interaction and reinforcement of positive relationships, as well as investigating some of the possible pervasive influences on teacher perceptions and expectations. The findings reported in this chapter advocate that the nature of these relationships has great significance when related to their manifestation and use in everyday interactions, and that continuity of positive feedback and shared activities are important as a means of emphasising a sense of reciprocity between teacher and pupil.

Theoretical background

For brevity, a review of the current literature in this area will not be included as it can be found elsewhere (e.g. Kington, 2001; Kington, 2005). However, a brief overview of personal construct theory and the repertory grid technique is detailed below. Personal Construct Theory Personal construct theory was proposed by George Kelly. According to Kelly (1955), a person tries to organize experiences in a way that is meaningful for them. Observations are made about the environment, and hypotheses are put forward, tested, and a theory is developed. Every experience is filtered through personal constructs. Constructs created in different situations are

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built into a construct system which can both define thinking and actions, and affect personality when talking and acting. Kelly (1955) formed a fundamental postulate, as follows: A person’s processes are psychologically channelized by the way in which he anticipates events. (Kelly, 1955, p. 46) Kelly characterises the central concept of ‘construct’ in his theory, as follows: Let us give the name constructs to these pa�erns that are tentatively tried on for size. They are ways of construing the world. They are what enables man, and lower animals too, to chart a course of behaviour, explicitly formulated or implicitly acted out, verbally expressed or u�erly inarticulate, consistent with other courses of behaviour or inconsistent with them, intellectually reasoned or vegetatively sensed. (Kelly, 1955, p. 9) Kelly (1955) considered constructs bipolar, in order to stress their dichotomous nature. They have two extremes, e.g. honest vs. dishonest. Another central concept in Kelly’s theory is that of the ‘element’ that is explained as ‘The things or events which are abstracted by a construct’ (ibid: 137). Thus a construct is characterised through its elements, and with elements an individual can describe phenomena through which they exist. Such phenomena are, for example, persons, events, objects, ideas, etc. The repertory grid interview In addition to philosophy and theory, Kelly (1955) developed a method for data gathering called the repertory grid technique. This technique gives an holistic view of the individual, and enables them to do so in their own terms. Whereas other techniques – such as questionnaires, a�itude scales, or observation techniques – presuppose that one can use the terms offered by others, the repertory grid technique allows the participant to discover personal constructs in terms of how they experience a�itudes, thoughts, and feelings in a personally valid way (Solas, 1992). The grid technique has been used a number of times in the past with individual teachers (Oberg, 1986; Shaw & Thomas, 1982). Diamond (1988) concluded that ‘the grids proved a useful, speculative tool which reflected back to the teachers their changing views of themselves and teaching as seen through their own eyes’ (p 176). For the purposes of this study, the repertory grid interview was conducted by following four steps:

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i) The teacher is asked to produce a list of people who are important to him/her (e.g. mother, father, sister, etc.) or describe significant incidents / turning points in their professional life. These may come from present as well as past experiences. The situations, people and/or events form the elements of the grid, with the teacher included as the most significant element. ii) The teacher is given a triad of these people and asked to think about how two of them are similar to each other, and at the same time differ from the third. All of the elements are included in one or more triads. The categories obtained formed the constructs (Ingvarson & Greenway, 1984; Fransella et al, 2003). Based on these elements and constructs, a matrix is formed (elements in columns, constructs in rows). iii) The teacher is asked to rate the matrix. iv) Factor analysis is applied in order to condense the information obtained.

Research design The sample
Four teachers were involved in the study; however, the data for only one of these teachers is presented here. Linda1 was a Year 3 (7-8 yrs old) teacher in her early thirties. She had worked at the school for nine months and prior to that had completed a year and a half of supply teaching in and around the local area. Linda worked at Greenacre Primary School, which was a maintained County primary school for children aged 4-11 years. The school opened in 1880 but had only been in existence as a primary (elementary) school since 1984. There were 15 classes, with one class designated for children with Special Educational Needs. The school was well equipped and was located on the edge of some playing fields used by the school for football and other sporting activities. Data collection Prior to the repertory grid interview being administered, evidence was collected via semi-structured, face-to-face interviews, supplemented at various stages of the research by document analysis, and informal interviews with school leaders and other teachers. The evidence was gathered in an iterative

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and evolving process consistent with the use of grounded theory methods. Thus, a rich and detailed picture of the teacherpupil relationships in the target classrooms was recorded. The preservation of this evidence in detail serves to enhance the verifiability of the findings (audit trail, etc). The opportunity for in-depth description of relationships was also offered by observations of interactive episodes between teacher and pupils and sequences of interaction within the classroom. Observations were interrelated with the interviews regarding the perceptions of the existing relationships. The contextual information which this approach generated regarding participants’ perceptions of and interactions within the relationship were important in order to incorporate both partners’ understanding and behaviour, and to explore these interrelated elements. Finally, diaries were also used to illuminate further the teachers’ perceptions and feelings about the relationships. A complex profile was compiled for each teacher which comprised: · a general description of the day’s lessons focusing on the teacher’s behaviour; · verbatim notes of teacher and pupil interactions, including examples of when the teacher talked about or expressed feelings with the class, used praise, built on the ideas of the pupils, used criticism, etc; · a diagrammatic representation of the classroom seating plan. In order to understand the nature of teacher-pupil relationships it was also necessary to consider what was happening between the teacher and pupils in relation to: · each participant’s behaviour and understanding within the relationship · the se�ing (class organisation, space) · the dynamics of the relationship (roles, changes in behaviour etc) · the context of the relationship as defined gradually by the participants (in context, in time). The repertory grid interview was presented to each of the teachers as an empty table, i.e. the teacher contributed all of the material in order to construct her perceptions. Since these interviews generate plenty of rich data, factor analysis was used

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to condense it and determine the nature of underlying pa�erns among a large number of variables. In order to strengthen the reliability of the results, the structure of perceptions was shown to the individual participant teachers so that they could reflect on their thinking and understanding. The repertory grid interviews were conducted in the school, during the school day. Each teacher participated in four interview sessions, each taking approximately one hour. In order to elicit the elements for the grid, each teacher was asked a series of questions. The responses formed a list of positive and negative relationships characteristics which were used as the elements of the repertory grid. When continuing with the grid, the elements were wri�en on cards which the participant could physically arrange. Variations of this approach have been previously used with teachers (e.g. Day et al, 2008). Once all the elements had been wri�en on individual cards, they were given to the teacher and she was asked to confirm that they were the same ones she had described. Each teacher was given an opportunity to change wordings as well as to add or to remove properties during the interview. Each teacher was then asked to choose cards that described themselves as a teacher and which best described the relationships they had developed in the classroom. The 16 elements elicited from Linda, as well as the eventual codes given for these elements, are shown in Table 1 (next page). The second step in the interview was to ask Linda to sort the cards (elements) in an arbitrary way that made sense to her. At the same time she selected the constructs that she connected with her own classroom relationships. Having grouped the constructs, Linda was asked to describe the groupings (i.e. the similarities of the elements in each group) and write them on cards. These are given in Table 1. Furthermore, Table 1 also shows which elements belong to each grouping.

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Table 1: Elements elicited from Linda and groupings
ELEMENTS Liking Shared construction Caring Questioning Feedback Daily rituals Rules Clarity Flexibility Organisation Approachability Discipline Respect Sensitivity Loyalty Dependence on peers GROUPINGS Contextual understanding of classroom relationships Classroom interaction

Teacher expectations of pupils

Teacher perceptions of relationships with pupils

The structure of Table 1 was used as a starting point for the next step. Linda was asked to describe differences between the groupings, comparing them in pairs. According to Kelly (1955) the similarities and differences are described as constructs and, since in the repertory grid technique constructs are considered bipolar, Linda was also asked to determine the opposite of each construct, and write these on the cards. At the same time, she explained which pole of the construct best described her classroom relationships. Table 2 shows the constructs (and their opposites) given by Linda.

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Table 2: Linda’s constructs
Construct Pupil likes the teacher Teacher and pupil work together in learning process Teacher cares Teacher uses questions to elicit interest from pupil Teacher gives positive feedback to pupil Clear rituals within the school day Class rules are established at the beginning of the relationship Opposite pole Pupil does not get along with teacher Pupil does not want to work with the teacher in learning Teacher does not show caring Teacher does not ask questions Teacher does not give feedback Day is chaotic and not structured No rules

Teacher is clear about expectations No clear expectations Teacher shows flexibility in expectations Good classroom organisation Teacher is approachable Good standard of behaviour and discipline Teacher shows respect for pupils Expectations are rigid No organisation in the classroom Teacher is not approachable Behaviour and discipline is poor No respect for pupils

Teacher is sensitive to pupil needs No sensitivity to pupil needs Teacher shows loyalty to pupils Teacher encourages dependence on peers No loyalty Teacher discourages dependence on peers

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For the second interview, the elements and constructs were set into a grid where elements were in columns, and constructs were in rows. A copy of the grid was given to Linda, and she was asked to rate every box in the grid on a scale of 1 – 5 (1=the construct was not important to the element, 5=the construct was very important to the element). Factor analysis Due to the amount of data generated via the grids – the 16 x 16 matrix with value loadings from 1 to 5 - factor analysis was employed to reduce the information in order to determine relationships and structures among constructs. When implementing the factor analysis, two constructs (‘teacher shows loyalty to pupils’ and ‘teacher encourages dependence on peers’) were removed because they showed no variance (i.e. all their ratings were the same (5)). The factor analysis resulted in a threefactor solution. Since the purpose of the study was to define classroom relationships through the perspective of a teacher, Linda was asked to validate the findings during a third interview. She was shown the results of the factor analysis and asked to comment on the four-factor solution (which was explained in advance). As she was happy with the solution, Linda was then asked to rank the categories. As the next step, the factor analysis with three factors was implemented, and the solution was shown once more to Linda (Table 3).

Discussion
Context for relationship development Linda commented on the notion of ‘liking’ developed through familiarisation, shared construction, and knowledge of the relationship. The opportunity and time children had to interact with the teacher was said to be significant. Limited positive interactions and controlled impositions by the teacher (seating arrangements or interruptions of interactions) sometimes diminished the shared opportunities with the teacher and opportunities to experience reciprocity in their relationship. Conversely, pupils whose development led to an increased number of social encounters were said to enjoy more opportunities to learn about others and about relationships.

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Table 3: Linda’s perspective on good classroom relationships
CONSTRUCTS Pupil likes the teacher Teacher shows respect for pupils Teacher cares Teacher is approachable Teacher is sensitive to pupil needs Clear rituals within the school day Class rules are established at the beginning of the relationship Teacher is clear about expectations Teacher shows flexibility in expectations Teacher gives positive feedback to pupil Teacher uses questions to elicit interest from pupil Good classroom organisation Teacher and pupil work together in learning process Good standard of behaviour and discipline Teacher expectations (3) FACTORS Context for relationship development (1)

Positive interaction (2)

Linda reported that this factor was further related to the dynamics between the social networks, and pupil dependence and independence in their relationships with the teacher. She said that, in her experience, children would define their relationships by the relationships other children had with the same teacher, rather than in relation to the qualities of their own relationships. This concern was intrinsically linked to a pupil’s awareness of the status of their relationship with the teacher compared with other developing relationships in the class. The building of trust was another aspect relationship development. According to Linda, this trust was grounded in the care and consistency demonstrated over a period of time, in which a teacher’s concern was reflected in response to an individual

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pupil and the actions they were prepared to take in order to support and develop the child and their relationship. Behaviour that potentially undermined this trust, was said to include inconsistent application of the rules, escalation of situations due to immediate use of sanctions, and humiliating pupil in front of peers. Finally, Linda discussed reciprocity as an instrumental aspect of teacher-pupil relationships in the sense that if the teacher demonstrated a negative a�itude to the pupil, the pupil would react negatively to the teacher. Lack of reciprocity, expressed usually through bad or unfriendly behaviour, was a potential cause of breakdown of the relationship. To elaborate, a teacher and pupil were said to have a good relationship if the esteem/ respect that one expressed toward the other was reciprocated. Positive interaction Linda thought that an important principle in the development of relationships was proximity. This did not guarantee that a ‘good’ relationship would develop; however, it seemed that pupils needed to see, hear and interact with the teacher regularly and consistently. Closely related to proximity was the consistency of the relationship, which was demonstrated by the teacher in the form of verbal and non-verbal communication. This consistency could be at any level – personal or institutional. The importance for the teacher to be genuine in their teaching, according to Linda, was associated with the need to maintain communication, to reduce barriers, and for new ideas to be considered. She went on to state that the intensity and strength of the relationship depended on the status of the pupil and their willingness to exhibit genuine feelings to the teacher rather than a�empt to seek a�ention. The pupils who were more successful in the development of their relationships were those who acknowledged and accepted the fact that, although the relationship could be reciprocal, it was unequal. Pupils enjoyed sharing time with the teacher, but the ways in which this manifested itself in classroom interactions differed according to the specific relationship rituals and the individuals concerned. Linda stated that daily rituals provided a vehicle through which the teacher might establish relationships with the pupils. For example, the first ritual of the day, taking the register, offered an opportunity for the reinforcement of relationships from the previous day. The classroom rules also provided a framework

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for the stabilising of relationships within the group and with the teacher. Pupils who were involved at an early stage in the formation of these rules were provided with an initial bonding experience with the teacher as well as enhancing their own commitment to the rules. Teacher expectations Linda commented that clear expectations about the level of ability within their classes in terms of academic and social skills were important. She expected to take on a strongly nurturant/ pastoral role with the class, as well as the rigorous daily curriculum. Her day had a relatively flexible structure, mainly due to reliance on outside help from parents or classroom assistants. However, there was also a focus on independent learning, with an emphasis on organisation of work and time. The need for the teacher to be approachable and to provide a secure environment where pupils could be happy and confident was said to be vital. Within this context, where all pupils were to be offered equal opportunities for academic and social success, high standards were to be set by the teacher and a fair but firm discipline enforced. Participation in the management of their learning experience was also reported by Linda as essential for all pupils since this enabled their progress both academically and as active members of the class group.

Conclusions

Through the repertory grid interviews, Linda provided her explanation of a positive teacher-pupil relationship. During interviews she was compelled to consider issues that she had not reflected on previously. Rather than a specific type of teacherpupil relationship, a range of relationships was found to occur for this teacher. Individual differences as well as the perception of relationships as dynamic and continuously developing made it difficult to establish general statements about a specific type of teacher-pupil relationship. This was partly due to the fact that each teacher-pupil relationship develops dynamically between two individuals; therefore, no two relationships were identical. Many factors contributed to the formulation and development of such relationships. This research suggests that, in order to understand classroom relationships, one should perceive them as a dynamic, developing and contextual process. Dynamic in the sense that they involve

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more than one person in the negotiation and construction of shared meanings; developing because relationships continuously change in various ways; and contextual in the sense that teacherpupil relationships, as a process, take place within a certain definable context. Inferences made about teacher-pupil relationships have to take into account the individual differences of the teachers and pupils involved in the study, the interpersonal competencies, context of the relationship, and the methods used to approach and understand these. The repertory grid technique gleaned more reliable information than with more traditional semi-structured approaches, since although less flexible, the starting point is the participant’s own thoughts, ideas and experiences. Therefore, the discussion revolves completely around what is important to them. However, there are weaknesses to this method – it is a lengthy process and one that can be mentally and emotionally exhausting for the participants as they are required to reflect on their own thinking, reasoning and practice. Although the development of a relationship with participants over time can be an advantage to a study of this kind, the use of such a method could also result in participant fatigue and retention issues. In spite of this, the methodological implications of this study provide an important critique towards the methods o�en used in the study of classroom relationships. Consistent observations of the relationship proved to be an essential base for the conduct of the interviews with participants and the understanding of the importance of the responses.

References

Day, C., Sammons, P., Kington, A., Regan, E., Ko, J., Brown, E., Gunraj, J. & Roberston, D. (2008). Effective Classroom Practice: A mixed method study of influences and outcomes. Final report: ESRC. Diamond, C. (1988). ‘Turning-on teacher’s constructs.’ In F. Fransella & L. Thomas (Eds). Experimenting with Personal Construct Psychology (p 175-184). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Fransella, F., Banister, D. & Bell, R. (2003). A Manual for Repertory Grid Technique. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., London. Ingvarson, L. & Greenway, P. (1984). Portrayals of Teacher Development. The Australian Journal of Education, Vol 28, 45-64. Kelly, G.A. (1955). The psychology of personal constructs. Volume 1: A theory of personality. New York: Norton. Kington, A. (2001). Teacher-Pupil Relationship at Key Stage Two: Individual differences, experiences and constraints. Unpublished PhD thesis:

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University of Bristol. Kington, A. (2005). ‘Qualities, Formation and Development of Teacher-Pupil Relationships in the Primary School’. In B. Kozuh, T. Beran, A. Kozlowska & P. Bayliss (Eds). Measurement and Assessment in Educational and Social Research. Exeter-Calgary-Cracow. ISBN 83-89823-61-6. Oberg, A. (1986). Using Construct Theory as a Basis for Research into Teacher Professional Development. Journal of Curriculum Studies, Vol 19, 55-65. Shaw, M. & Thomas, L. (1982). Extracting an Education from a Course of Instruction. Journal of Educational Technology, Vol 1, 1-17. Solas, J. (1992). Investigating Teacher and Student Thinking About the Process of Teaching and Learning Using Autobiography and Repertory Grid. Review of Educational Research, Vol 62, 2, 205-225. notes
1

All names are pseudonyms.

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Boris Kožuh A.F.M. Krakow University POLAND

THEORY OF META-ANALYTIC STUDIES

Introduction

In the study of educational phenomena pedagogy encompasses theoretical thought and empirical inquiries, as well as explaining the essence and the rules of education. Cognition is always systematic and comprehensive on the one hand, and partial and limited on the other. The character of pedagogy, therefore, is that of both empirical and theoretical science at the same time. Actually, it may be assumed that it functions solely as an inseparable union of theory and practice. Theoretical and empirical inquiries are mutually complementary. Empirical knowledge allows pedagogy direct contact with the social reality, and above all, with the educational reality. Without empirical knowledge, pedagogy would remain on the level of speculation and abstract thinking about phenomena, with no meaning a�ained through the contact with the educational reality. Lack of theoretical analysis and of points of departure in pedagogy means losing the possibility for generalisation and explanation of phenomena (giving sense to them). It also renders impossible determining the essence of phenomena and from formulating general rules. One of the effects of the complexity of the educational phenomena is the complexity of the cognitive process with regard to these phenomena. At the same time, this means the complexity of the cognitive methods, i.e. research methods. The development and dissemination of empirical studies are basic factors of the development of pedagogical methodology.

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Effectiveness of a method may be evaluated and verified mainly through the empirical research practice. Its development initiates the methodological discourse. The relation discussed acts in both directions, the effect of which is the development of the pedagogical research methodology and the effectiveness of the research practice. Empirical studies constitute the basis for theoretical deliberations. One of the most important aspects of scientific research to be found at the point of transition from the empirical to the theoretical inquiries into the essence of the educational phenomena, is the issue of integrating the results of the empirical studies. Such integration constitutes a bridge between specific and already acknowledged facts and the rules of a more general nature. It is not a new problem in the scientific methodology. Nevertheless, the dilemma of integration, despite the volume of research, remain open to this day. There is also the need for searching for new answers to the questions already posed and for finding new ways of integration of empirical studies.

Origins and Development of Meta-analysis

The history of inquiries into meta-analysis proves that every successful original empirical research includes in its early stages a review of the previous theoretical scientific reports. By its nature, it is an a�empt at initial integration. Such reviews are mostly unsystematic and are mainly based on intuition. Due to this fact, descriptions of reviews are rarely of a scientific nature, which is determined by such features as preciseness, accuracy and explicitness. The principal assumption of the already discussed reviews of the theoretical achievements is the formulation of the scientific premises and hypotheses. Analysis and synthesis remain secondary aims in such perspective. This is the reason why these reviews serve their purpose well in most cases. In its subsequent stages, the primary analysis searches for the answers to the research questions and brings new theoretical statements. In the cases where the primary analyses are aimed at reaching new theoretical conclusions, while, at the same time, exploring the essence of the research subject, the reviews appear insufficient. It can, therefore, be assumed that they may be sufficient, however, they do not lead to any new conclusions in a systematic manner. Hence, a review ought to be distinguished as an introduction to the first empirical study or as an independent research undertaking.

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These types of reviews are differentiated by their essential aim and disparate methodologies. One of the simplest ways of quantitative integration is calculating the results which confirm or invalidate the formulated hypothesis. In the case of research based on sampling, the only results which can be calculated are those having certain level of relevance (e.g., 0.05 or higher). In the already discussed cases, activities are admi�ed, whose results of the level of relevance below 0.50 are categorized as “positive”, and whose results of the level of relevance above 0.50 are categorized as “negative”. A third category is o�en distinguished – critical results, i.e., mean results which do not se�le the results definitively (e.g., their level of relevance is between 0.40 and 0.60). A study using the “positive” and “negative” results was carried out by Meehl in the field of clinical psychology (Meehl 1954). In his study, he integrated the results of twenty original analyses which compared the forecasts of the clinical psychologists with the statistical data. Meehl found that the statistical forecasts were confirmed in half of the original analyses studied, the psychologists’ forecasts were more accurate only in one analysis, while the remaining part did not show any differences. The inequality of the results was so obvious that Meehl showed the weaknesses of the clinical forecasts solely on its basis. The second example is provided by another study, which yielded similar results (similar in the sense of confirmation the studied, though completely different, relations). The study was concerned with the effects of studying with the use of television (Chu & Schramm 1968). The authors of the study integrated the results of the examination of efficiency of the two forms of studying: the traditional school teaching and studying with the use of television. The analysis showed that in 15% of the cases, students learned more with the help of television, in 12% of the cases the traditional school teaching proved to be more efficient, while in 73% of the cases no clear difference was reported. The results of the integration lead at least to the conclusion that the supremacy of one form of studying over the other should not be assumed on the basis of one individual study only. The methodology of integration of studies the results of which are expressed in percents is more complicated. It requires calculating the results which confirm or invalidate the formulated hypotheses and quantifying the input of each study while confirming or invalidating the formulated hypotheses. An

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example of this is provided by such results as 54% and 79%, the first of which has a definitely smaller input, although they both lie on the same side of the border, confirming he same hypothesis. A study conducted by Eysenck, regarding the effectiveness of psychotherapy, is an example of employing this methodology (Eysenck 1952). It was used in numerous independent studies, all of them describing changes of conditions of post-psychoanalysis neurotic patients. The author singled out in them the level of permanent improvement, comparing it with the level of improvement of the condition of patients who underwent electric treatment and of the patients who were looked a�er by GPs and social workers. He found that among the patients treated with psychoanalysis, the improvement of their condition reached 44%, the patients who underwent electric treatment showed an improvement of 64%, while the result of the third group was 72%. The negative relation between the efficiency of treatment and therapy is, therefore, obvious. The result of the individual studies are o�en the correlation indices. The situation is very simple for integration, as the correlation indices constitute a measure of effect in themselves. The fact that they are independent of units of measurement is even more important. In consequence, the correlation indices are among the most precise in the process of meta-analytical study. The discussed research methodology is best illustrated by Bloom’s study concerning the effects of various factors on pupils’ school results (Bloom 1976). It integrates the results of studies of school achievements of pupils from 30 countries. The studies were conducted mainly within the framework of International Studies of Educational Achievement. They were concerned with diverse levels of the educational system, different groups at schools and different subjects taught. Bloom focused on the statistical evaluation of the correlation index. The most important results are the correlation indices converted into the proportions of influence of the three main factors (and some variables functioning within them) on the dispersion of the pupils’ educational achievements. Bloom’s interpretation is concerned above all with the integrated results. They were obtained from the results of separate studies, which were not directly employed by Bloom. Hence, all the conclusions are drawn from the integrated results. The methodological model of this study appears to be of more importance. In the process of working out the correlation indices, Bloom did not use the statistical methods considered by many

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authors to be an integral part of meta-analysis. Nevertheless, even without applying them, he achieved almost the same scientific level of his studies, as he would have achieved if he had applied them. This was possible due to the features of the correlation indices, which in themselves are a sort of reflection of the effect size. In the 1960s, Erlenmeyer - Kimling and Jarvik published a review, which caused quite a stir in the scientific community (Erlenmeyer-Kimling & Jarvik 1963). The subject of their study was the influence of heredity and environment on the development of intelligence. Although the obtained results will not be presented here, it ought to be emphasized that the degree of utilization of the information included in the correlation indices was even higher than in the case of Bloom’s studies discussed above. It is at this point that Kulik and Kulik notice the borderline between the reviews and the meta-analyses. The study by Erlenmeyer - Kimling and Jarvik is classified by them as metaanalysis. They even suggest that the only thing that this and similar studies lack is the name – meta-analysis (Kulik & Kulik 1989, p. 242). The ideas formulated by Glass turned out to be more profound than just inventing new methodology and finding a name for it. This is why Glass did not content himself with just the findings. At the time of his lecture, the fundamental principles had already been formulated and developed in a way which allowed for their implementation in practice. For instance, Rosenthal made several syntheses which could have been defined as meta-analysis. In their first meta-analyses, Glass and his collaborators introduced the concept of quantitative integration (Smith & Glass 1977, Glass & Smith 1979, Glass, Cahen, Smith & Filby 1982 etc). At the same time, several theoretical papers were published, concerning the methodology of such studies (Glass 1977, Glass, McGaw & Smith 1981). If the main idea and the very beginnings of meta-analysis are separated, it is difficult to determine explicitly whether Smith’s contribution can match the scientific inquiries of Glass. Hence, the analysis of their works will be carried out simultaneously. The said authors were among the first to achieve such complex integrations. The extent of those meta-analyses was definitely larger than the extent of the previous quantitative reviews. No one had earlier displayed such great erudition in the application of statistical methods to the needs of integration

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of the empirical studies. Nor had anyone followed with such a�ention the factors influencing the study results. Glass and Smith were innovators in the application of the differences of the arithmetic means as a measure of the effect size in the integration of experimental research. The main advantage of such effect size measurement is its independence of measurement units. This fact has substantially broadened the area which could be covered by the quantitative reviews and integration. They showed that the number of studies which could have been used in the integration was considerably larger than had previously been assumed. The third innovation is presentation of a method of controlling the effect of a set of features of a study on the results. The earlier quantitative reviews controlled only one or two features. There were also reviews which did not control any qualities at all. Another novelty concerns the analytical methods applied by Glass and Smith. These are very progressive and they differ considerably from the methods used in previous quantitative reviews. They developed a whole set of regression equations, used in studies concerning the relation between the effect of the therapy and the kind of therapy, the patients’ characteristics, way of measuring the effects, etc. Although Glass’s first meta-analysis was made in the field of psychotherapy, the author clearly discerned the possibilities and the perspectives of the application of this methodology in other humanities, particularly in the studies of educational phenomena. He crystallized his reflections showing the issues of the pedagogical sciences concerning, among other things, programmed education, computer-aided education, evaluation of the syllabi (mainly, mathematics syllabus), etc.

The Bases of Meta-analysis

Over the past decades, the global development in the methodology of pedagogical research was heading in the direction of development of consciousness, which discerns the meaning and the need for empirical foundation of research. At the time when many new methods were developed (e.g., action research, new models of pedagogical experiments, diverse complex statistical analyses, etc.), many opportunities arose to use them on a large scale. Today, it is hard to imagine the implementation of any undertaking in the scholastic system without it having a basis in analyses of the educational reality, i.e., empirical studies.

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The problem of mass publication of research results very clearly appeared over the last few decades. The number of the research results is increasing continuously, which, in consequence, leads to limitations in the possibilities of reviewing them. The researchers who take up those issues within their specialities keep trying to meet the growing challenges of reality. A�er all, the research projects are also intended for teachers, class tutors, school principals, educational officials, etc. Therefore, a be�er systematisation of such overabundance of literature is necessary and urgently needed. There are reviews, in the world scientific and specialist literature, which a�empt to summarize the most important scientific achievements and results concerning specific issues. Over thirty years ago, Glass unravelled the faults of scientific reviewing of the time (Glass 1976). He found that the authors of the reports and reviews chose materials for their integration mostly at random. The results of such studies were inaccurate and too general. As a result of the listed errors, the statements of those reviews were unreliable, unsystematic and very o�en did not allow comparison. Moreover, the authors of the reviews did not define their methodology clearly. Poor clarity of the reviews makes it difficult if not impossible for the readers to evaluate the accuracy of the presented statements. Most of the reviews apply too simple a methodological model of li�le accessibility. Glass saw the main reason for that in poorly developed methodology of integrating the results of the published studies. He maintained that what was needed were methods allowing systematic evaluation of results of a study so that the essence of cognition could be extracted from a large set of separate studies (Glass 1976, p. 4). In his opinion, the contemporary reviews cannot accomplish this task well enough. Consequently, he categorised three types of analysis indispensable for making progress in research within the field of education: primary analysis, secondary analysis and metaanalysis. Primary analysis is the basic operation in data study, which is usually performed by the researcher who organises the study and data collection. Secondary analysis is a reanalysis of the data, oriented towards searching for answers to the primary research questions by employing be�er statistical methods. Metaanalysis is, in turn, a quantitative study of the research results, not the data related to the primary and secondary analyses. Hence, a meta-analyst carries out statistical analyses of the

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quantitative results of the individual researches. Meta-analysis is not concerned with the initial empirical data but with the results obtained from such data. The a�ributes of meta-analysis are (Glass 1976, pp. 3-4): 1. making use of the most objective methods of selection of the studies chosen for synthesis, 2. describing qualities of the selected studies with the quantitative categories (i.e., large sample, small sample, publications in periodicals, monographs, etc.), 3. converting results of all studies into the same scale, the socalled “effect size”, 4. making use of quantitative statistical methods to measure the relation between qualities and results of the studies. According to Glass, not all empirical reviews are metaanalyses. This pertains mostly to the earlier reviews. Apart from the subject of a study, the methodology is also vital. The subject of a study may be the same both in a meta-analysis and in a review, as opposed to methodology, where they are completely different in either case. The intention of the author is to summarize the main qualities of a meta-analysis based on the former methodology sources. What will be taken into consideration are the fundamental starting points of Glass’s deliberations on metaanalysis, as well as studies carried out in the years that followed (the works of Schmidt, etc.). The preeminent features of a meta-analysis are as follows: 1. Meta-analysis comprises study results (the results of the study reports). This means that no initial empirical material is gathered in a meta-analytical study. What is necessary for meta-analysis are the primary studies and some of their results. 2. Meta-analysis involves application of statistical methods to quantitative study results. The empirical material used in meta-analysis includes, for example, mean values, measures of dispersion, correlation indices, results of verifications of statistical hypotheses, etc., 3. Meta-analysis involves a set of individual studies. Some of the meta-analyses integrate several hundred, or even several thousand of studies. 4. What is calculated in a meta-analysis is the effect size, not only its direction or a determined level of relevance. The

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procedure of calculation of the effect size ought to allow comparing effects of several studies. 5. The subject of meta-analysis is also the relation between the study results and the fundamental qualities of studies. The effect of qualities of a study on its results is also taken into account. The purpose of meta-analysis is not only to make the simplest summary of the available literature, but also to determine the effect of the qualities of a study on the differences, effects, levels of relevance or on the effect size index. The term “meta-analysis” was the subject of a discussion and critical remarks. Some authors claim that the expression has associations with a be�er kind of analysis, when compared with the primary and secondary analyses, i.e., with a super-analysis with regard to the level of scientific value of its results. Another issue related to this term is concerned with how it sounds. It points to dispersion and division, though the essence of metaanalysis is the opposite – integration. This is the reason why some authors suggest that the term “synthesis”, rather than “analysis”, is more appropriate for this procedure. Nevertheless, none of the suggested terms (e.g., research integration, synthetic study, metasynthesis) has been accepted in practice.

References

Borenstein, M. Hedges, L. Higgins, J. & Rothstein, H. (2009). Introduction to meta-analyses, London. Bushman, B. J. & Wells, G. L. (2001). Narrative impressions of literature: The availability bias and the corrective properties of metaanalytic approaches, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1123-1130. Bloom B. S. (1976). Human Characteristics and School Learning. New York. Chu G. C. & Schramm W. (1986). Learning from television: What the research says. Washington. Cohen J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale. Cooper, H. M. (2009): Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis, Applied Social Research Methods, 4th edition, Los Angeles. Erlenmeyer-Kimling L. & Jarvik L. F. (1963). Genetics and intelligence: A review. Science. pp. 1477-1479. Eysenck H. J. (1952). The effects of psychotherapy: An evaluation. Journal of Consulting Psychology, pp. 319-324.

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Eysenck H. J. (1978). An exercise in mega-silliness. American Psychologist, p. 517. Glass G. V. (1976). Primary, secondary, and meta-analysis of research. Educational Researcher, pp. 3-8. Glass G. V. (1977). Integrating findings: The meta-analysis of research. Review of Research in Education, pp. 351-379. Glass G. V. & Smith M. L. (1979). Meta-analysis of research on class size and achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. pp. 2-16. Glass G. V., Cahen L. S., Smith M. L. & Filby N. N. (1982). School class size: Research and Policy, Beverly Hills. Glass G. V., McGaw B. & Smith M. L. (1981). Meta-analysis in social research. Beverly Hills. Hedges L. V. & Olkin I. (1982). Analyses, reanalyses. and metaanalysis. Contemporary Education Review, pp. 157-165. Hedges L. V. & Olkin I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. New York. Kožuh В. (2004). Integracja wyników badań w pedagogice, Częstochowa. Kulik J. A. & Kulik C.-L. C. (1987). Effects of ability grouping on student achievement. Equity and Excellence, pp. 22-30. Kulik J.A. & Kulik C.-L. C. (1989). Meta-Analysis in Education. International Review of Educational Research, pp. 223-340. McGaw, В. (1988). Meta-analysis. [In:] J. P. Keeves (ed.). Educational research, methodology and measurement: an international handbook. Oxford. McGaw B. & Glass G. V. (1980). Choice of the metric for effect size in meta-analysis. American Educational Research Journal, pp. 325-337. Meehl P. E. (1954). Clinical versus statistical prediction. Minneapolis. Rosenthal R. (1990). Evaluation of procedures and results, [In:] K. Wachter & M. L. Straf (eds.). The future of meta-analysis. New York. Rosenthal R. (1991). Meta-analytic procedures for social research, Beverly Hills. Slavin R. E. (1986). Best-evidence synthesis: An alternative to metaanalysis and traditional reviews. Educational Researcher, pp. 5-11. Smith M. L. & Glass G. V. (1977). Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies. American Psychologist, pp. 752-760. Smith M. L. & Glass G. V. (1980). Meta-analysis of research on class size and its relationship to a�itudes and instruction. American Educational Research Journal, pp. 419-433. Suzić, N. (2002). Metaanaliza u pedagogiji i socijalnim naukama, Pedagoška stvarnost, 1-2, pp. 68-84.

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Jelena Maksimović University of Niš SERBIA

EVALUATION APPROACH IN PEDAGOGICAL RESEARCH

Introduction

At the time of significant global changes (European integrations, new EU members, disintegration of the USSR, SFRY, Czechoslovakia, Iraq wars, American aggression) it becomes more than evident that modern societies are very dependent on communication and co-operation, on interrelations in all spheres of science, art and culture, and especially so in the sphere of education. International, intercultural and interdisciplinary qualities are the main a�ributes of modern education, communication, and education environment as well as of the related research. One question has to be answered: to what extent do the participants in education become instrumental in various researches and what is the right time for the realisation of these researches? For an effective research and examination of education and the teaching process as well as for a be�er communication between students, teachers, educators, administrators, parents and other participants in the process of upbringing and education, it is necessary to evaluate their work. Within that context, evaluation research appears to be essential for assessing the level of student achievement, drawbacks of the existing education system, organisation, methods, procedures, and steps of the curricula. It is a common practice in the EU countries, the States and many other countries trying to keep abreast of the current world

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tendencies that each innovation, a new method or technique, curriculum or overall reform of the education system first be tested on a chosen sample. It means that it will be observed, evaluated, assessed, and appreciated, in order to locate weak points and consequent negative effects, with the idea of correcting or eliminating them. Only then is the evaluated innovation, method, technique, curriculum or reform implemented in the wider community. Methodologists and education researchers have to tackle the question whether it is possible for a reform or innovation in the schooling and education system to be implemented without prior assessment and evaluation. Earlier approaches to pedagogic research are no longer adequate in practice. For that reason one is constantly running a�er new approaches, accepting and rejecting them without consideration. What do the participants in education need to know and to do in order to function well? Most educators recognize the increasing emphasis of formal evaluation research.Educators frequently ask how evaluation research can help decision-makers and various policy-making groups improve schools and make wise educational policies. Which desings and methods are most appropriate in education for XXI century? Evaluation research also yield more general educational knowledge about education in many schools. A brief definition of evaluation research is the determination of the worth of an educational program, product, procedure or objective. Most educators recognize that evoluation using in education can serve a formative purpose, such as helping to improve a curriculum or a summative purpose. Many types of studies are called evaluation research, especially in last decade of XXI centudy. Evaluation research will be include in all segment of schooling embracing curriculum materials (textbooks, films, microcomputers, hand calcurators, educational television), programs (language arts program, talented and gi�ed programs, preventive programs), instructional methods (lectures, discovery), educators (administrators, teachers, volunteer tutors, inservise teachers), students, organization (alternative schools, high schools, higher education), menagement and all other ways of school system. Evaluation research offers many potentional benefits to education. Education is a complex activity within a larger, changing interdependent social and political society. In this

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context evaluation research offers a rational and empirical perspective on educational practices. A good evaluation educational study satisfies the standards of utility, feasibility and accuracy. How does the nature of research problem and selected methodology - quantitative or qualitative influance the format of research communication? The future perspective in education are modify the time being through many types research methods, but in this work, we will show evaluation research methods, like methods with strong tendency to change school powerless in this society which certainly isn’t free of foults.

Methodological concept of evaluation research

Evaluation research aims at assessing the success of completing a certain task or activity taking into account the preset criteria or goals. Evaluation, an act of calculating or judging the value or degree of, to evaluate, to calculate or decide the value or amount of. Evaluation research is a kind of progress research whose main goal is to assess the value of a certain educational and pedagogical situation by applying various procedures of qualitative and quantitative analysis. It gains special prominence in assessing the curricula for pedagogical and educational activities. Despite the fact that it has been used in education process, evaluation research gets into the limelight in the last decade of the previous century and begins to be implemented with the new millennium when the need arises to evaluate in an appropriate manner every step in teaching, schooling, and education. It has long been considered, by some authors, a kind of disciplinary pre-school research and an integral part of progress evaluation or applied research, with the main goal of assessing the value of a pedagogical-educational activity, procedure, technique, situation, result etc., in other words of the given pedagogical-educational practice, on the basis of qualitative and quantitative analyses. Such research represents an integral part of transversal, longitudinal, activity and other research and investigation (Banđur 1999, p. 112). In The Dictionary of Pedagogical Methodology the item ‘evaluation research’ is substituted with ‘evaluation studies used for a systematic assessing of curricula, projects, interventions,’ which is an indication of relative theoretical congruence (Gojkov 2002, p. 56). Evaluation is used for the quality assessment and analysis of the procedures, curricula, innovations or means.

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According to Savičević, it determines whether the educational practice justifies the material investments, whether it pays and whether it contributes to more comprehensive communication among the participants in the education process (Savičević 1996, p. 254). Evaluation is a distinct type of pedagogical and educational research, relying on research methods and techniques common to all disciplines. Evaluation is characterised as an educational research because such a research based on evaluation contributes to easier making of decisions significant for the practice. Too long considered as a phase of some other types of pedagogicaleducational research, evaluation research or evaluation as a procedure represented a link following planning, realisation of pedagogical-educational contents and assessing of that procedure in practice (Mužić 1999, p. 31). Evaluation research, aimed at effecting changes in the process of upbringing and education, covers the whole span from preschool to university level, in the areas where practical tendencies of dynamism and adequacy of methods, techniques, procedures, plans and curricula are to be implemented. The investigation of phenomena can be appreciated, measured and assessed, i.e. evaluated in their dynamism, so that they appear as indirectly related to communication within the horizontal and vertical community context. It is evident that evaluation research in its aspects of complexity and dynamism greatly contributes to the development of pedagogical practice and a specific act of communication in every society which is ready for assessment and resulting changes, and consequent rejection of interference by politicians producing disorder and disorganisation in the whole process of successive steps leading to a more modern education practice.

Evaluation research steps

The need for evaluation research is the result of demands made by individuals, groups, institutions, organisations and all others who require analysis and reassessment of the adequacy of education tendencies. It comprises a description and familiarisation of the researcher with the object of research (it should be noted that evaluation research is not carried out of personal motivation of an individual or the whole team of researchers regarding a certain problem or specific segment of the education process, but out of the need and necessity imposed by institutions, groups or individuals) including a description of what is to be evaluated,

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the intention, goal or meaning of evaluation, composition of evaluation questions, selection of the evaluation model concerning the problem in question, specification time, analysis and interpretation of the strategy, positive outcomes, evaluation management (implies the evaluation outcome which would contribute to the budget of the institution realising the evaluation) and the meta-evaluational plan for further developments. Evaluation research concerns all relevant problems and curricula, so that it is not carried out only at the end of the research but all along, which is the main characteristic of this research distinguishing it from all other types. It may be significant to mention that many methodologists relate it to action research while some consider it an integral part of action research whose course undergoes constant change. For that reason this research is based on the independent and dependent variables and observing the changes of the dependent variable. Like all other research, evaluation research meets the established methodological standards which means it has to be reliable, valid and objective. There are two types of evaluation research: the formative and summative, and their two functions: control function and innovation function (Kundačina 2003, p. 50). Formative evaluation research type is used for improving and advancing of current activities, the role of the educator, and achieved results, while the summative evaluation research type is used with regard to responsibility, selection or issuing of adequate diplomas and certificates. The participants and creators of evaluation research are students, teachers, educators, professors, assistants, volunteer tutors, in-service teachers, administrators, members of school boards, officials from the Ministry of Education and all others who indirectly or directly influence the process of assessment in education. According to the methodology standards, evaluation research consists of phases and a general course, designing and reporting on the researched field or problem. There are: the phase of preparation, the phase of realisation, and the phase of interpretation and conclusion, and within them the selection of the problem, goal, tasks, hypotheses, variables, samples, methods, techniques, instruments and procedures, then practical realisation, data analyses, evaluation and presentation of conclusions. Further there is the feedback information, team work, and the possibility of efficient changes towards the set goals.

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Conclusion

Different evaluation methods, as an integral part of evaluation research, have so far provided significant qualitative and quantitative indicators of success regarding projects, programmes, and data, suggesting that there has been an advancement in the pedagogical and educational practice so that we could rely on the power of education. Pointing out current tendencies in science and education reminds one that education could be altered with the goal of reaching higher quality more suitable to individual and common needs. It is significant to note that the promoters of evaluation research are primarily pedagogues, andragogues, and education sociologists, open towards new methods, techniques and instruments for assessment and evaluation of the outcomes of projects, plans or programmes. Although fairly recently presented, evaluation research quickened the spirit of change and modernity which will contribute to the advancement of education and team work with possible changes in the course of realisation. The results of assessment and evaluation of the teaching process, teachers, professors, assistants, administrators, course books etc. are a permanent focus of research studies, investigations and papers. With regard to the evaluation of teacher activity, assessment of teaching means validity or success of the teaching process, it becomes evident that both the researchers and educators constantly undergo the process of self-evaluation using self-assessment as the basis for mutual evaluation and advancement of the teaching practice either in relation to themselves or their colleagues. To get an insight into the education system, acknowledging the significance of adequate and proper communication in schools, to acquire knowledge, skills and abilities to assess and correct oneself, means to be a researcher who by evaluation gets school democracy in motion.

References
Bandjur, V., Potkonjak, N. (1999). Metodologija pedagogije. Savez pedagoških društava Jugoslavije, Beograd. Gojkov, G., Krulj, R., Kundačina, M. (2002). Leksikon pedagoške metodologije. II. drugo dopunjeno izdanje, Viša škola za obrazovanje vaspitača, Vršac. Kundačina, M. (2003): Funkcija evaluativnih istraživanja u reformi obrazovanja, Godišnjak za psihologiju, 2, Filozofski fakultet, Niš.

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Mertens, D. M. (1997). Research Methods in Education and Psychology. Sage Publications, New Delhi. Mužić, V. (1999). Uvod u metodologiju istraživanja odgoja i obrazovanja. Educa, Zagreb. Savičević, D. (1996). Metodologija istraživanja u obrazovanju i vaspitanju. Učiteljski fakultet u Vranju Univerziteta u Nišu, Vranje. Whity, G. (2000). Teacher Profesionallism in New Time. Journal of InService Education, 26 (2), pp. 281-295.

Abstract

The present paper will investigate the interaction of evaluation research which results in favourable effects in relation to the current practical conception of education. The literature available in Serbian periodicals concerning evaluation research does not offer extensive information since this field became an area of research as late as the last decades of 20th century coinciding with the introduction of the concept of evaluation in schools. That was an instigation to search for new solutions and paradigms by evaluating the researched phenomena. This paper will focus on the possibility of empirical evaluation of the outlined theoretical foundation within the context of practical implementation so as to contribute to the quality of communication among participants in the process of education. The paper will explore various specific applications of evaluation research as well as methods, techniques and instruments in studying the education process and its outcomes which leads to more common usage and opens the possibility for the education renaissance of the whole community oriented towards modern tendencies in information technology. Key words: evaluation, evaluation research, education, modern tendencies, reform.

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Nenad Suzić University of Banja Luka BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

STEPS TOWARDS TO INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN BiH

Introduction
Cultures, civilizations and nations are differentiated today, among other things, according to the nature of established relationships between people living in a community. We would like to remind you that the term symhedonia in the broadest sense means “sympathy for the happiness of other people” (Royzman and Rozin, 2006, p. 82). To be more specific, symhedonia is to be understood as “a man’s tendency to support the other person, to help him/her in his/her accomplishments and development, to enjoy the happiness of others” (Suzić, 2006, p. 8). A short history of inclusive education in Republika Srpska and BiH indicates that we are at the beginning of a long-lasting process of the integration of children with special needs in school system. Italy, which has had experience in this ma�er for more than three decades, can serve as an example, its experience can assist us to overcome introductory difficulties of integrating children with special need in regular education and the life of a community. The Balkan people are turned to symhedonia. It is known that people in our local communities keep be�er drink and food for their guests. Similarly, people in local communities also spontaneously help each other in building houses and, o�en, in everyday jobs. This symhedonian determination of people living on the Balkans can be used as a basis for the development of qualitative inclusive education.

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The first steps towards inclusive education in BiH and RS are assisted by Italy and Finland since these countries are rich in experience in this area. We should outline the contribution of Educ-Aida, an Italian NGO which was of special importance for the encouragement of inclusive education in RS and BiH and also the assistance of the organization “Cooperazione Italiana”. Steps towards inclusive education in BiH will be best presented by historical comparison, if I identify the inclusion phases in my country and the world starting from the first inclusive education up to the present.

A short historical overview

First documented case of a�empting to individualize or personalize the treatment of people who are different compared to other people dates back to more than 200 years ago. It is about an a�empt of Marc I�ard, John Lock’s associate, who wanted to help a boy Victor, known as a “wild boy” (Hardiman, Drew Egan, 1996, p. 4). In the late XIX century, Binet and Simon constructed their scale for measuring intelligence which they published at the beginning of the XX century. According to the scale children with the lower IQ are called “idiots“, “imbeciles“, “morons“ (Binet, 1922). No ma�er how stigmatizing it seems, this classification brings in scientifically focused consideration of children’s characteristics and their needs that are delayed in their mental development. Two works of an American psychologist, John Watson, focus the a�ention on environmental effects on mental process and human behaviour (Watson, 1914). As the education developed during the XX century, norms of school behaviour and achievement were established, and children who could not meet them were treated as “abnormal“, “inadaptable“or deviant. From 1920 to 1960 the adjustment of schools to children with special needs was sporadic. “Special education was permi�ed in many countries but was compulsory only in few” (Hardiman, Drew & Egan, 1996, p. 5). In the 50s of XX century, in many countries in the world parents of children with special needs organized in groups which lobbied at the governments for proper educational and social support for their children. Many professionals from different areas: medicine, psychology, pedagogy and social work joined this endeavour was. “Between 1950 and 1960 many children with a mild mental retardation and emotional difficulties were taught in an environment which was isolated from their peers who did

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not have any disorder in their development “ (ibidem, p. 5). In the 60s of XX century many researches were conducted which should give a respond to the question if children with special schools got more than in regular schools. “The research on the efficiency of special classes for children with mild disability indicated that there were li�le or no advantages of moving these children from special to regular classes” (ibidem, p. 5). In the 70s of XX century a real revolution began in special education. Three key phases of inclusive education can be distinguished: 1) formation of special classes and special schools in the 60s of XX century, 2) opening of regular schools for children with special needs in the 70s of XX century and 3) educational integration and non-discrimination a�er 1990. Each of these phases will be described in order to have a be�er insight of what is happening with inclusive education in BiH and Republika Srpska today. Formation of special classes and special schools began intensively worldwide a�er 1960, although there are a number of examples that special schools and institutions were opened in many countries in the 70s of XX century. This decade can be described as “a revolution in the area of special education” (ibidem, p. 5). The main idea was that all children had the right to education and that it also applied to the children with special needs. It was considered that “special classes” and “special schools” would give children with special needs more than when those children would a�end regular schools. Opening of regular schools for children with special needs began as a result of numerous analyses and research (ibidem) which showed that children who had difficulties in their development considerably improved in special schools than they would be in regular ones. As a turning point for this phase was the year of 1975 when the Congress was held in the USA known as IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) at which the idea that the children with special needs should have access to all educational institutions, especially to free public education was promoted (ibidem). A basic idea was that children with special needs should be placed in “special“ classes only if they by the nature of their disability could not participate in teaching of regular classes. Today this phase is recognized in BiH in two forms: 1) formal inclusive education and 2) partial inclusive educations (explanation follows). Educational integration and non-discrimination means the support to children with special needs in educational and

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wider, social sense. The term integration is broader that the term inclusion and means elimination of separation of children with special needs. It is about the integration of children with delays in development, gi�ed children, children of ethnic minorities and social integration of all community members in educational system, social life and justice. An especially interesting term for us is educational integration which is, again, narrower than the general term integration. “Educational integration is defined as a physical inclusion of children with extensive needs in schools and campuses of general education. Other definitions can add a need for support, servicing and collaboration between general and special education” (ibidem, p. 7). This process was more intensively recognized in the world a�er 1990 when ICD-10 classification was adopted (ICD-10, 1992; MKB-10, 1998). It is about a coordinated activity between many institutions and individuals in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) aimed at protecting persons with deficiency and handicapped from irresponsible and incomplete diagnosis. It resulted in wider endeavours to provide these persons with rights and conditions for inclusion in regular education and social life. Three phases of education relates to each country and region individually. To be more precise, this issue has been delayed in BiH so that we have all three phase simultaneously. In Italy the third phase started 30 years ago. Simply, these three phases can be presented as three steps towards inclusive education.

Three steps towards inclusive education

Steps towards inclusive education can be presented in three levels (Scheme 1 and Scheme 2). The First step presents Level C, which is about opening of special schools for children who had deficit or handicap in their development, and special classes were formed for these children in regular schools. This is rather a separation of children from a real life environment, a kind of stigmatization, than inclusive education However, for the Balkan circumstances it is a significant improvement because handicapped children were tacitly considered as God’s punishment, bad luck or a curse. Parents did not want to show children like these, o�en hiding them from the public even from their peers. It has remained so until today. An essay of a teacher who has a boy with the damaged eyesight in her class tells about it. This boy was kept by his parents like in a “glass cage“ until he had to go to school. The following text from her essay testifies this:

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“I found out that he had no other friends expect for those in the class. He said he had celebrated his birhtday during the weekend. I asked him if he had a party and whether his friends came. He said they did not by there were his grandpa and grandma” (Suzić, 2008, p. 40). Scheme1: Three steps towards inclusion in education

Even today in Bosnia and Herzegovina there exists this type of inclusive education which proves the current “Law on Primary Education in RS” stating that: “Children with severe mental disabilities acquires primary education in compliance with this law and are enrolled in a special school or a class based on the Decision which determines the type and degree of disability in development” (Law on Primary Education, 2008, p. 9). In Article 84 of the same Law there is a term “autistic children” (ibidem, p. 9). As we can see, stigmatization and rigid past in the area of inclusive education is projected in the future. The things would be less dramatic if the author of this text did not publicly and in wri�en warn the creator of the law, but still, despite the warnings, these terms are used in the “ Law on Primary Education “ and the provision of the Law are applied in schools.

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Scheme 2: Models of inclusive education (Suzić, 2008a, p. 90)

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The second step (Scheme 1 and 2, level B) means practical and formal inclusive education. What is practical and what is formal inclusion? Practical inclusive education means practical inclusion of children with special needs in regular schools and their a�ending a part of teaching in a special school or a class. This means a close co-operation of a special and regular school or the existence of a special class within regular school. In BiH there are special classes within regular school so that children with special needs are involved in school life at least for school performances, extracurricular activities, breaks etc. Formal inclusive education could be defined as a tendency to meet the desired form, and that a child with special needs is included in regular classes but without necessary humane preconditions for inclusion. Such cases are o�en seen in Republika Srpska, and also throughout BiH. For instance, a teacher beginner has three children with different development delay in her class, but she does not have an assistant teacher. The problem becomes even more complex if we consider the fact that the public is informed that there are 20 assistant teachers in Republika Srpska, in Mostar canton 22, Una-Sana 3 and so on (Vlašić – inclusion monitoring, 2009). This is obviously about misunderstanding or confusion of terms. Namely, assistant teacher is not the same as a mobile team or supporting team. When we say assistant teacher, it means that we talk about a specialist teacher who, together with a regular teacher, does the teaching, but a specialist teacher works individually with a child (children) with special needs so that he/she permanently gives support both to the child with special needs and the teacher in program implementation adapted for children with special needs. Supporting team or mobile team comes to school on weekly or monthly basis or even more rarely and should not be identified as an assistant teacher. The third step (Scheme 1 and 2, level A) includes real and complete the integration of persons with special needs in inclusive education and social life. It also implies the support to both children with development delays and gi�ed. It means the removal of all barriers, physical, social, moral and economic. Traditional system of education represents a serious barrier for children with special needs. In order to include children with special needs in regular schools in a humane manner, we have to provide their acceptance by their peers, adapted curricula, and an assistant teacher in the classroom and to remove architectonical and other barriers. Examples of such a support exist in BiH, but are rare.

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Humane preconditions for inclusion

Humane preconditions for the inclusion of children with special needs in schools are of special importance on the Balkans. The reason for this is that even the most humane idea can be turned into its contradiction if it becomes a decree and if carried out mannaristic and formally. Which are humane preconditions for inclusion? Without giving the priority, hereto five preconditions are given: 1. “Children with special needs should get more than what they get in special schools. 2. Children in regular schools should not loose anything. 3. Children, parents and teachers should accept the child with special needs in regular teaching. 4. All human resources, material and organizational preconditions need to be in place. 5. All risks should be foreseen and negative consequences prevented” (Suzić, 2008, p. 17). If we accept inclusive education as something coming form the top, imposed by the Ministry of Education, if we understand it as a trend or „fashion“ which Europe follows, there is a great danger of transforming this idea in an inhuman act. If this is the case, a supervisor civil servants from the Ministry and Pedagogical Institution “order” the inclusion and “demand” that children with special needs are included in regular classes although a teacher has twenty or more students in the class. This is exactly what the “Law on Primary Education in RS” offers, stating that: “For one student with psych-physical disability the number of students in a regular class is reduced for two compared to an optimum number of students, whereas for two students with psycho-physical disabilities the number of students in the class is reduced for six compared to an optimum number of students” (”Law on Primary Education in RS, 2008, Article 44, p. 9). If we consider that the provision of this Law “optimal number” of students states the number of 25 students, it is obvious in what kind of situation are the students with development

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delays, other students and the teacher who has to work with 23 students of regular education and a child with development delays using an adapted curriculum. We can imagine how a child with development delays might feel when he/she finds himself/herself among twenty peers and watch them using the multiplication table, do their exercises, answer the teacher’s questions, write on the blackboard, and for him/her everything is incomprehensible, unfamiliar language and skills. So, it happened that a boy with special needs from Banja Luka, who a�er a month of being included in a regular class (without an assistant teacher), waited for a break and when everybody had le� the classroom, he opened all the windows and threw out of the classroom schoolbags, a chalk, a sponge, geometry kits and everything what his peers used in learning with ease but what frustrated him. We have to wander if it was humane to place this boy in the classroom without an assistant teacher. Somebody might say that we do not have the money for these teachers. But that is not true! Namely, each year in Republika Srpska the number of teachers decreases from 100 to 200 because of lesser number of enrolled children. Similar proportion is also valid at the BiH level. If these salaries are reallocated to assistant teachers, we will have a humane precondition for inclusion without additional resources for the revenue. It is interesting that there are a number of people who think that inclusive education is harmful (Figure 1), but it is no wonder if know that humane preconditions for inclusion have not been established. On the sapmle of 607 teachers in BiH research has discovered 80 teachers who holds this opinion (Figure 1) or 13.18% of the sample. Teachers who are considerably against inclusion are mostly over 40 years old (M = 40.99), and have more years of experience (M = 16.90) and higher level of qualification (M = 2.20) and therefore, significantly differ from 86.82% of their colleagues. When I examined their essays, it was clear to me that it is not about being inhumane of these people, but rather about their willingness to work with children who had problems in their development but they want to be trained and to learn new methods and techniques adapted to these children. It is encouraging that out of six teachers, five is determined to support inclusion unconditionally, but they also think that humane preconditions have been fulfilled to a great extent. (scores above M = 3.72: ibidem, p. 23).

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Figure 1: Attitudes towards inclusion in relation to age, years of experience and qualifications of teachers (Suzić, 2008, p. 25)
Category Against inclusion Supports inclusion Strongly supports inclusion Total Against inclusion Supports inclusion Strongly supports inclusion Total Against inclusion Supports inclusion Strongly supports inclusion Total N 80 435 92 607 mean (M) 40.99 35.92 33.09 36.16 standard deviation 13.40 13.61 14.54 13.87 7,320 80 435 92 607 16.90 12.72 10.34 12.91 13.86 13.08 13.74 13.38 7,320 80 435 92 607 2.20 1.92 1.64 1.91 0.72 0.76 0.76 0.77 11,653 0.001 0.005 0.001 F significance

A close estimation of humane precondition for inclusion was given by 162 parents in other research (M = 4.03; Čolić, 2009). As we can see, both parents and teachers give high importance to humane preconditions for inclusion.

Data about children with special needs

In order to include children with developmental delays in regular system of education, firstly we need data about the number of those children, what kind of disabilities can be identified to develop strategic support of the state and to organize adequate social support in this regard. Data2 which are presented here can be generalized with a great reliability for the entire population in BiH because the sample is representative for all students in BiH. About 0.71% of students have been indentified to have developmental delays (Figure 2; n = 1351).

Qualification

Yrs. of experience

Age

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Figure 2: Children with developmental delays
Region sample DPP with documentation 836 144 229 142 1351 % DPP without documentation 1.731 489 506 295 3021 % DPP with and without docum. 2567 633 735 437 4372 %

Republika Srpka Tuzla Canton Canton Sarajevo Zenica-Doboj Canton Total

116.451 14.300 40.173 20.128 191.052

0.72 0.10 0.57 0.71 0.71

1.50 3.42 1.26 1.47 1.58

2.20 4.43 1.83 2.17 2.29

This datum corresponds to other parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina and enables the projections of support for children with special needs according to two criteria: 1) long-term and 2) individualized. Long-term support can be based on a familiar fact that the structure of children with special needs will not radically be changed for a longer period, given to the fact that the research includes children of ten different ages. Therefore, we can also project the profile of specialist teachers who will work with these children as assistant teachers in the classroom. They will also participate in planning of purchasing equipment. Individualized curricula can be designed with regard to the level of disability and the need of each individual child. These curricula can be easily exchanged if we know where these children with special needs are. For example, the school for children with damaged sight in Banja Luka can develop curricula which can be used in Bihac and vice versa. The Internet data base would be of great benefit.

Legislation

Recently we can notice that state administration has been trying to improve laws and provisions regulatimg inclusive education and social integration of persons with special needs. Despite of these efforts, it should be pointed out that these regulations are not in compliance with European and worlds standards and they contain a number of deficiencies. The greatest deficiency lies in that fact that what is defined in legislation is

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partially or not implemented at all. For example, “Rulebook on teaching children with special educational needs in primary and secondary schools in RS” (2004) has excellent provisions on inclusion of children with special need, but in practise they are weakly implemented or not implemented at all. Article 5 of the above mentioned Rulebook states that there are assistant teachers in the classroom: “Through the cooperation with the Pedagogical Institute, the Government will design projects for the employment of assistants in regular classes” (Article 5, p. 2). As we can see, this is defined in a very humane manner, but up to now there have been no assistant teachers employed in BiH or just sporadic examples. In addition to this Rulebook, the right of children with special needs is also regulated by the Rulebook on exercising the rights of child protection. This Rulebook mainly regulates benficiary rights of children with special needs and their parents, socialization and re-socializations, summer and winter holidays, pre-school curricula and other rights of children with special needs. These rulebooks are designed differently throughout BiH, at entity and cantonal levels. As a bylaw for identification of children with developmental delays entity and cantonal governments have enacted the Guidelines for conducting the first instance procedure for the categorization of persons with developmental delays and disabilities. These Guidelines are designed in a way to prevent stigmatization of children with special needs which appears immediately a�er or during the diagnostic observation. It is of special importance that these Guidelines prevent unprofessional diagnosis which can be o�en found in our school practice. The latest Framework Law on Primary and Secondary Education in BiH, entity and cantonal laws foster inclusive education and integration of children with special needs, but in some provisions we can notice understatement or even stigmatisation. For example, adequate a�ention has not been paid to the engagement of assistant teachers; some terms are in contradiction with ICD 10 and the newest ICS classifications of disabilities and handicaps of children with special needs. Although we see considerable improvement, it should be stressed out that action have to be taken in two strands: 1) the implementation of provisions of the existing legislation and 2) the improvement of the legislation and introduction of European and worlds standards in this area.

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Lesson Learned – achieved results

A critical overview does not mean the negation of the achieved results. There are numerous good examples which could be noticed contributing to inclusive education and social integration of persons with special needs in BiH. Here are some of the most important: 1) Considerable improvement of legislation, 2) Pre-service and in-service teacher training on inclusion is officially and systematically provided, 3) There are more and more children in regular classes who use adapted curricula, 4) There are more and more schools with architectonical barriers removed and provided with the equipment for work with the children with special needs, 5) The increase of awareness about the need for inclusive education and integration, 6) There are more and more examples of good practice. I have already discussed the improvements in legislation – obviously they exist, but a lot of effort should be put into its implementation and additional improvement and new one is also needed. Pre-service and in-service teacher training on inclusion is officially and systematically provided for the first time. Thanks to the project of an Italian NGO “Educ-Aid” and the Finish Government “Inclusion and individualization in education”, and the enthusiasm of professors from the Faculty of Philosophy in Banja Luka, a study programme of the course “Introduction to Inclusion” was dra�ed. Apart from the study programme, two textbooks were published (Ilić, 2009; Suzić, 2008a). A basic idea of this programme is to inform teachers and specialist teachers into preliminary diagnosis and to provide them skills for the recognition of elementary symptomatology so that they can cooperate with other specialists and work with children with developmental delays. This example of positive practice should be followed by other higher education institutions which provide teacher training programmes in BiH as well as pedagogical institutions.

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More and more children with special needs a�end regular classes who have adapted curricula. Research conducted by EducAid” indicates this (Graph 1). We can notice that the number of children for whom individualized programmes have been created differs from region to region BiH. Here we have a key issue to rise: if these curricula are appropriate and whether those who filled in the questionnaire had clearly defined criteria on what individualized curricula mean for a child with special needs. If we obey the elementary principle which was promoted by professor Andrea Canevaro from Bologna, stating that individualized curricula for these children should be designed starting from “what a child can do” (Canevaro, 2000), and that parents should be included in curricula design because they know best what their children can do, then we would review many of these curricula or apply a completely different approach. Graph 1: Individualized curricula for children with special needs

There are more and more schools with architectonical barriers removed and provided with the equipment for work with the children with special needs. Graph 2 shows that there are more schools with architectonical barriers compared to schools in which these barriers have been removed.

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Graph 2: Removal of barriers in BiH schools

If we consider the fact that ten years ago schools did not remove barriers and adjust their rooms for children with special needs, we can be satisfied with the data that today there are more and more schools which have removed barriers and become accessible to children with disabilities. When it comes to the equipment for supporting the children with special needs the situation is different. Most schools in BiH do not have equipment for support although children with special needs are in the classroom. (Graph 3). This should be discussed further. Firstly, it is inhumane to bring a child with damaged hearing or sight into a regular class without providing a device which will help him/her to follow the work with other children or to work individually. Secondly, we have to bear in mind that this child without assistant teacher in the classroom, and that a regular teacher does not have time to devote only to him/her because there are twenty or more students in the class. It is obvious that in this way a humane idea transforms into its controversy.

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Graph 3: Equipment for support the children with special needs in BiH schools

As we can see in Graphs 2 and 3, in BiH schools the process of removing barriers and purchasing equipment for support the children with special needs. It should be emphasized that it depends li�le on schools because they are financed from the budget and they cannot afford to buy expensive equipment. Obviously, it is up to those create and handle the budget to make a move to accelerate this process and make in humane at the same time. Rising awareness about the need of inclusive education and integration is evident although there are some zealous opponents to inclusive education. We can illustrate this with an example from my practice. I have recently participated at the seminar for school principles and pedagogues in Republika Srpska. I told them about a meeting of scientists in Belgrade and there was and an old professor who said: “Those people from the West want to destroy our old special schools”. Some ten a�endees loudly supported this professor although I had expected only an ironic smile. It is comforting that most people who were there understood his decadency and observed the reaction of strong opponents of inclusion in amazement. Media do not work enough of changing awareness of people about inclusive education, and

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seminars for teachers focus rather on formal side of inclusion than on influencing peoples mind of inclusion. Therefore, we need more examples of good practice and research to find out what is behind of these negative a�itudes towards inclusive education and to have contra arguments. There are more and more examples of good practise indicating that humane process of introducing inclusive education for children with special needs is justifiable. In the book “Introduction to Inclusion” (2008a), I gave a number of examples confirming this, essays of children with special needs, their parents and teachers. An example is also found in magisterial thesis of Tanja Čolić quoting a statement of a mother of a child with special needs. “Once I watched three boys covering Marko with sand and kicking him. There was sand in his eyes, hair, even in his ears. I was standing aside and watched them secretly. When I could not stand it any longer, I approached them and chased them away. Like a lion defending her youngster. Interestingly, Marko asked me: why did you do that? I should not have stopped the game. Yes, that was a game for my Marko. He agreed to everything just to be a part of that game. He was happy!” (Čolić, 2008, p. 253). Regardless of being treated as a “toy” Marko enjoyed the game. The worst thing to do would be to move Marko away from that environment. By counselling and advising, teachers, parents, pedagogue/psychologist it is possible to explain the boys that they treated Marko inhumanely, and that they should treat them as equal while playing games. This example shows how justifiably is to include a child with special needs in interaction with the peers. Firstly, it was pleasurable for him. Secondly, only by active participation in peer interactions children with special needs can be socialized. Thirdly, it is difficult to influence peers to accept children with special needs only by talking to them –the presence of a child with special needs is the best educational base for learning. There are other examples of good practice: there a number of well-adapted curricula, there are more and more teachers who successfully deal with challenges of working with adapted curricula. Parents give examples that it was justifiable to include children with special needs in regular education. Another

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example shows both cons and pros of inclusive education. A teacher who has never been taught elementary special pedagogy has a boy with Down syndrome in her class. The term of the first year she put a lot of effort working with the child because she had noticed that he had considerably improved. At the beginning of the second term a parent criticized her for neglecting her son who is talented in maths. She cried at that. When I asked her why she had cried, she replied that the most difficult thing was that the parent had been telling the truth. She unconsciously neglected the talented child in her most humane desire to help a child with special needs. A typical female reaction followed – tears. The solution to this problem is the angagement of an assistant teacher who would be working together with her with a child with special needs, and if needed, also with talented ones.

Conclusion

Steps towards to inclusion in BiH correspond two three historical phases of inclusive education: 1) segregation which is recognized in opening special schools and institutions for persons with special needs, 2) formal and partial inclusion is recognized in the formation of special classes within regular school or by formal “inclusion” of children with special needs in regular classes without teachers being trained and the preparation of other students and even without individualized curricula and 3) integration which is found in real inclusion of children with special needs in inclusive education and social life. At present inclusive education is at the lowest level, i.e. the inclusion of children with special needs in special schools or classes (level C). The second, higher level of inclusive education is temporarily more present with formal inclusion than with partial or real inclusion (level B). The reasons for this can be: poverty, weak social organization, inconclusive regulations and inconsistency in their implementation, low awareness of inclusion in our society and other subjective and objective factors. Real integration of persons with special needs acquired for (level A) exists only in fragments and very rarely in BiH. It takes time to remove barriers in people’s minds and the physical ones so that inclusive education should get its genuine humane dimension and be transformed into real integration. Despite all difficulties, we can state that there are improvements in inclusive education in Republika Srpska and BiH. Therefore, we can conclude that awareness has been

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raised, legislation has been improved, inclusive education has been organized, individualized and adapted for children with special needs, and architectonical barriers are fewer and fewer, purchasing equipment for children with special needs has began, there are more and more examples of good practice. Finally, it should be emphasised that the current level of achievements in inclusive education in Republika Srpska and BiH would not have been a�ained without the support of the Italian Government, NGO Educ-Aid, the Finish Government, and a number of international projects. This does not mean that without this international assistance there would be a lack of progress in BiH, but the achievements certainly would not be as notable.

References
Binet, A. (1922). L’étude expérimentale de l’intelligence. Paris: Alfred Costes. Canevaro, A. (2000). Između deficita i hendikepa. (Prevod izdanja Universita’ degli studio di Bologna, Departmento di science dell ‘educazione). Tuzla: Educ Aid. Čolić, T. (2008). Smisao i sadržaj inkluzivnog obrazovanja u savremenim uslovima kod nas. Banja Luka: Monografija. Čolić, T. (2009). Priprema učenika redovne škole za prihvatanje djece sa posebnim potrebama. Doktorska disertacija. Banja Luka: Filozofski fakultet. Defektološki leksikon (1999). Beograd: Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva. ICD-10 (1992). Classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization. Ilić, M. (2009). Inkluzivna nastava. Istočno Sarajevo: Filozofski fakultet. MKB-10 (1998). Klasifikacija mentalnih poremećaja i poremećaja ponašanja: Dijagnostički kriterijumi za istraživanje. Beograd: Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva. Правилник о васпитању дјеце са посебним образовним потребама у основним и средњим школама (2004). Службени гласник Републике Српске бр. 85 од 29. септембра 2004. Правилник о остваривању права из дјечије заштите (2005). Службени гласник Републике Српске бр. 80 od 31. avgusta, 2005. godine Royzman, B. E., and Rozin, P. (2006). Limits of shymedonia: The differential role of prior emotional a�achment in sympathy and sympathetic joy. Emotion, 6, pp. 82–93.

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Сузић, Н. (2006). Симедонија између културе и образовања. In: Култура и образовање (pp. 7–29). Бања Лука: Филозофски факултет. Suzić, N. (2008а). Uvod u inkluziju. Banja Luka: XBS. Сузић, Н. (2008b). Инклузија у очима наставника. Васпитање – часопис за педагошку теорију и праксу (Подгорица), nr 1, pp. 13–32. Упутство о спровођењу првостепеног поступка разврставања лица са сметњама у физичком и психичком развоју (2007). Службени гласник Републике Српске бр. 15 od 7. marta, 2007. godine. Vlašić – monitoring inkluzije (2009). Sastanak predstavnika entiteta i kantona BiH održan 13. 02. 2009. na Vlašiću. Watson, B. J. (1914). Behavior. New York: Holt. Закон о основном образовању и васпитању (2008). Бања Лука: Службени гласник Републике Српске бр. 74.

Summary

Steps towards inclusive education in BiH are presented in a simple manner in three historical phases of the origin and development of inclusion. The first phase is called segregation (level C) and relates to the establishment of special schools and institutions for children and persons with special needs. The author calls the second phase partial and formal inclusion (level B). It concerns the inclusion of children with special needs in regular schools. Formally, it is only physical inclusion of these children without trained teachers, equipment, individualized programmes, and in partial sense, it means the fulfilment of some conditions, such as individualized programmes, but without trained teachers and specialized equipment. The third phase (level A) means the real integration of children with special needs and their complete involvement in teaching process and social life of the community. The paper presents a set of data about positive improvement in inclusive education and the most important issues related to inclusion in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The author does not forget to stress and document the assistance from Italy and Finland and from many other international non-governmental organizations, especially Educ-Aida, which largely contributed to the development of inclusive education in Republika Srpska and BiH. Key words: inclusive education, inclusion, integration, stigmatization, humane preconditions for inclusion

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Jodi Bergland Holen, Bonni Gourneau, Woei Hung University of North Dakota USA

SUPPORTING PURPOSE-DRIVEN TEACHING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA, USA
A Teacher Education for the Future Project

The faculty of the School of Education at Southern Oregon University invited 3 faculty from the University of North Dakota (UND) to participate in a Teacher Education for the Future research project. This project is an international collaboration between teacher educators in 8 countries that has been ongoing for 3 years. The purpose of this research is to investigate the perceptions of educators regarding the aims and purposes of education as well as issues that need to be emphasized in the preparation of future teachers around the world. Surveys were administered by the UND faculty members to area teacher educators, classroom teachers, student teachers, and pre-service teachers. This study consisted of mixed methods including both qualitative and quantitative data collection. The findings and ideas for the future direction of this work will be shared in this paper.

Introduction

As many great educators have previously stated, “we teach who we are.” Ultimately, it is important to note that the implementation of a belief system for any educator is a carefully constructed “way of being” in the realm of their own individual schools and classrooms. It is impossible to remove inculcated value systems and life experiences if we deem to work as our authentic selves. Bill Ayers (2001) states, “I believe that human development is complex and interactive, and that it is not useful

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to separate physical, emotional, social, and intellectual growth. We are all whole people—cognition is entwined with affect, and my mind (and yours) is embedded in spiritual, cultural, and psychological being” (p. 60). However, teachers today are showing more and more concern for educating the whole child, all the while a�empting to understand their context, divergent personalities, and life experiences. “There is almost unanimous support in the literature for the notion that teachers’ beliefs, a�itudes, values, and feelings significantly impact on their classroom practice” (Connor & Greene, 2006, p. 321). This concern has led the School of Education at Southern Oregon University (SOU) to initiate a research project Teacher Education for the Future (TEF). This project a�empted to depict a be�er a picture of teachers’ beliefs and values and how they affect teachers’ classroom practices. The faculty members in the Department of Teaching and Learning at University of North Dakota have participated in this project since 2008 and this chapter will report the UND team’s research findings from this project.

Background
The University of North Dakota (UND) is located in Grand Forks, a college town of 50,000 on the Red River of the North separating North Dakota and Minnesota. UND enrolls 13,172 students in 193 fields of study from baccalaureate through doctoral and professional degrees. Fi�y percent of students come from North Dakota; the rest represent all other states, seven Canadian provinces, and more than 50 other countries. With specifics to race/ethnicity White/Non-Hispanic American students make up 82.81%, American Indian/Alaskan Natives, 2.66%, Black/NonHispanic Americans, 1.51%, Asian/Pacific Islander Americans, 1.52%, and Hispanic Americans at 1.17% (www.und.edu/profile/ 2009-10). The Teacher Education Unit at UND includes programs and faculty involved in the preparation of teachers and other school personnel. The Department of Teaching and Learning prepares undergraduate students to earn teaching degrees in early childhood, elementary, middle level, and secondary education. There are also a large variety of graduate programs at the master and doctoral levels. The TEF project is an international collaboration between teacher educators in eight countries. These countries include

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New Zealand (Christchurch), Australia (Sydney), USA (Oregon, Hawaii, and North Dakota), Fiji (Suva), Korea (Seoul), Latvia, Mexico, and China. The purpose for this international research collaboration investigates the perceptions of educators regarding the aims and purposes of education as well as issues that need to be emphasized in the preparation of the future teachers around the world. The project was originated by the SOU faculty in 2005 and UND was invited to join in fall 2008 with the purpose of examining the varying perspectives on the role of education and teacher preparation programs and current issues facing educators in this area of the United States. The survey, developed by SOU, was then administered by the UND faculty members to area teacher educators, classroom teachers, student teachers, and pre-service students who were enrolled in their last semester of classes before student teaching. The questions in this study ask the respondents to reflect on the aims and purposes of education, how teaching practice supports beliefs about education, and what should be the role of teacher education in preparing teachers for the future. Teachers and teacher candidates have strong beliefs about education, how students construct knowledge, what is important to know, and how to ingratiate appropriate behaviors in their given classrooms. With this in mind, educators o�entimes find themselves stuck in a status quo type of thinking instead of taking an existential and /or futuristic approach to their work. The TEF Project has enabled our University to look inward so that we can begin to state our core values and beliefs, respect them in each other, and begin to use them for visionary thinking and as a vehicle for change. In order to create change in the 21st century, schools of education throughout the United States will need to make a major paradigm shi� in how we train future teachers as well as implementing non-traditional ways of educating our students. Hoagland-Smith (2005) discusses what corporate America is presently doing to beef up their workforce and make extreme changes to their ways of doing business. She states, Maybe it is time for public education to take a lesson from corporate America who is just now also realizing the impact of so� skills on the bo�om line. During the last two centuries, businesses focused on controlling their employees. The work environment was one of control where individual actions required a chain of approval that

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went vertically up, then vertically down. This type of management style produced excessive waste and failed to capitalize quickly when opportunities were presented. She goes on to talk about the knowledge skills that are needed in today’s workforce as represented by Michigan State University’s annual national college employment survey. They are as follows: analytical ability, communication including verbal and wri�en, decision making, higher order thinking skills, leadership (both individual and group), personal a�ributes including work ethic, flexibility, initiative and motivation, problem solving, team building, and time management (Michigan State University as cited by Hoagland-Smith 2005). At UND, the development of these so� skills has become as important as the growth of cognitive abilities. These skills are personal a�ributes; innate human qualities that are required to establish strong personal relationships and create valuable team players. Authentic relationships are at the forefront of any successful classroom. Building these bonds enables the development of trust and allows students the freedom to make mistakes and take risks without the fear of failure and/or judgment (Bergland Holen, 2009). According to Charles (2008), “trust grows within a climate of ethics, civility, and socially moral behavior, but it cannot survive in a climate where unethical or threatening behavior is a continual concern” (p. 52). Charles also denotes that kindness, consideration, faith in potential, helpfulness, fairness, honesty, and patience are the most powerful ethical qualities in a teacher (p. 53). Developing these relationships is at the core of the successful teacher/student teacher/teacher, teacher/administrator a�achments. A�achment as it pertains to schooling is well documented here: A�achment has at least two functions pertinent to classrooms. (1) A�achment provides feelings of security, so that children can explore freely. While all children seek to feel secure, a�achment helps them balance this need with their innate motivation to explore their environment. (2) A�achment forms the basis for socializing children. As children and adults are drawn together and interact harmoniously, children adopt the adults’ behavior and values” (Bergin & Bergin, 2009, p. 142).

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To a�end to the child’s affect and the promotion of so� skills will be of the utmost importance in a world filled with technological advancements and the ability to multi-task in a variety of different ways.

Data collection

The surveys were distributed and collected during the Spring 2009 and Fall 2009 semesters at UND. This study consisted of mixed methods including qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis. There were a total of 122 participants, consisting of 37 student teachers, 55 pre-service teachers, 14 teacher educators, and 16 classroom teachers. The student teacher and pre-service teacher participants were enrolled in the teacher education undergraduate programs at the University of North Dakota, the teacher educator participants were faculty members of College of Education and Human Development, and the classroom teacher participants were practicing teachers from public schools in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Surveys contained personal rankings of beliefs concerning education and open response questions that were organized under the following two themes: Part 1: The Aims or Purposes of Education Under the aims and purposes of education, the respondents were to rank and select 5 educational purposes that most closely align with their own beliefs about the purposes of education from 28 choices. Three open-ended questions followed that probed deeper into how teaching practice reflects beliefs and purposes of education, obstacles encountered in a�empting to put beliefs into practice, and factors that supported pu�ing beliefs into practice. The survey choices included the following: The purpose of education is to: (a) Prepare students for employment (b) Secure in students the skills for independent living (c) Promote material well-being (d) Help students acquire academic knowledge and skills (e) Increase students’ motivation to learn (f) Prepare students to be rational problem-solvers and decision-makers (g) Prepare students to be critical thinkers

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(h) Promote students’ sense of competitiveness (i) Discover and facilitate the realization of each student’s human potential (j) Develop students’ sense of individuality (k) Promote positive personality formation (m) Develop students’ ability to raise their standard of living (n) Prepare students to be productive members of society (o) Develop students’ respect for the beliefs and values of others (p) Promote social and emotional development of students (q) Develop students’ empathy for the needs of others (r) Promote moral development of students (s) Preserve cultural heritage (t) Promote spiritual development of students (u) Create changes in values and beliefs to promote a be�er society (v) Develop positive values and a�itudes toward society and democracy (w) Create active citizens in local and national society (x) Prepare students to live cooperatively with others in the larger society (y) Prepare students to understand dilemmas in global sustainability (z) Prepare students to be active agents of change for social justice (aa) Prepare students to take a role in solving political and religious conflicts (bb) Prepare students to take responsibility for protecting the environment (cc) Other (please describe) Part 2: Areas Emphasized in the Preparation of Future Teachers Under the areas to be emphasized in the preparation of future teachers, the respondents were to rank and select 5 issues for which tomorrow’s teachers should be prepared for from a list of 24 choices. Two open-ended questions followed that probed

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deeper into how teacher education programs can be�er prepare future teacher programs and what should be the focus of teacher education in the 21st Century. The survey choices included the following: Teachers in the future will increasingly need to: (a) Establish a balance between academic and non-academic needs of students (b) Base curricular decisions on academic content standards (c) Address the discrepancy between personal ideals and teaching practice (d) Employ student-centered approaches (e) Establish collaborative and creative interactions among teachers (f) Exert a stronger voice in educational change and reform (g) Promote greater mobility and access for students to educational pursuits (h) Encourage a sense of community and belonging in the school/classroom (i) Foster closer relationships with students’ parents/ families (j) Make the curriculum more relevant to work and career opportunities (k) Adapt or change instructional strategies and delivery modes (l) Respond to technological change (m) Provide students with tools and skills for active citizenship (n) Instill respect, tolerance, and empathy for other cultures (o) Teach conflict resolution skills (p) Address controversial issues while maintaining neutrality (q) Uphold universal human rights while respecting local cultural practices (r) Promote equity and opportunity for all students (s) Promote survival skills for planetary citizenship (t) Be be�er prepared for teaching basic academic skills and content

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(u) Adapt to changing economic, social, and political environments (v) Be be�er prepared for teaching critical thinking (w) Provide students with the tools for improving social conditions

Quantitative findings

There were 2 parts to the questions in this survey: “The Aims and Purposes of Education” and “Areas to Emphasize in the Future.” The quantitative data analysis results are summarized in Table 1 and Table 2 for the two parts respectively. For the first part of the survey, the participants were asked to select 5 educational purposes and rank them from 1 to 5 to reflect the degree of their importance. The participants were asked to do the same for the second part of the survey. Overall, (g), (d), (f), (e), and (n) were ranked the highest in all participant responses as to the importance of aims and purposes of education. Similarities and Differences among groups: · Pre-service teachers and teacher educators shared similar beliefs and values as they consistently ranked (g), (d), and (f) in the ranks of 1-3. · Student teachers and classroom teachers shared similar beliefs and values as they both ranked (f) and (g) as second and third most important. · Classroom teachers ranked (e) [Increase students’ motivation to learn] as the most important issue to the aims and purposes of education, while pre-service teachers and teacher educators did not feel as strongly about that as classroom teachers did. · All participants ranked (g) [Prepare students to be critical thinkers] highly.

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Table 1: Question One: Aims and Purposes of Education
Rank 1 Student Teachers N=37 (d) Help students acquire academic knowledge and skills (f) Prepare students to be rational problemsolvers and decisionmakers (g) Prepare students to be critical thinkers Pre-service Teachers N=55 (g) Prepare students to be critical thinkers Teacher Educators N=14 (g) Prepare students to be critical thinkers Classroom Teachers N=16 (e) Increase students’ motivation to learn Overall N=122 (g) Prepare students to be critical thinkers

2

(d) Help students acquire academic knowledge and skills (f) Prepare students to be rational problemsolvers and decisionmakers (e) Increase students’ motivation to learn

(d) Help students acquire academic knowledge and skills (f) Prepare students to be rational problemsolvers and decisionmakers (n) Prepare students to be productive members of society (o) Develop students’ respect for the beliefs and values of others

(f) Prepare students to be rational problemsolvers and decisionmakers (g) Prepare students to be critical thinkers

(d) Help students acquire academic knowledge and skills (f) Prepare students to be rational problemsolvers and decisionmakers (e) Increase students’ motivation to learn

3

4

(n) Prepare students to be productive members of society (o) Develop students’ respect for the beliefs and values of others

(d) Help students acquire academic knowledge and skills (n) Prepare students to be productive members of society

5

(i) Discover and facilitate the realization of each student’s human potential

(n) Prepare students to be productive members of society

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Table 2: Question Two: Areas to Emphasize in the Future
Rank 1 Student Teachers N=37 (d) Employ studentcentered approaches Pre-service Teachers N=55 (h) Encourage a sense of community and belonging in the school/ classroom (d) Employ studentcentered approaches Teacher Educators N=14 (v) Be be�er prepared for teaching critical thinking Classroom Teachers N=16 (t) Be be�er prepared for teaching basic academic skills and content (l) Respond to technological change Overall N=122 (d) Employ studentcentered approaches

2

(a) Establish a balance between academic and non-academic needs of students (i) Foster closer relationships with students’ parents/ families (n) Instill respect, tolerance, and empathy for other cultures (v) Be be�er prepared for teaching critical thinking

(d) Employ studentcentered approaches

(h) Encourage a sense of community and belonging in the school/ classroom (r) Promote equity and opportunity for all students

3

(r) Promote equity and opportunity for all students

(r) Promote equity and opportunity for all students

(k) Adapt or change instructional strategies and delivery modes (d) Employ studentcentered approaches

4

(n) Instill respect, tolerance, and empathy for other cultures (v) Be be�er prepared for teaching critical thinking

(k) Adapt or change instructional strategies and delivery modes (q) Uphold universal human rights while respecting local cultural practices

(v) Be be�er prepared for teaching critical thinking (n) Instill respect, tolerance, and empathy for other cultures

5

(h) Encourage a sense of community and belonging in the school/ classroom

Overall, (d), (h), (r), (v), and (n) are ranked the highest in all participants’ responses as to the importance of aims and purposes of education.

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Similarities and Differences among groups: • The different groups of participants had more diversity in their beliefs and values about preparing teachers for the future as seen from less consistency in terms of the items chosen and their rankings. • Student teachers, pre-service teachers, and teacher educators consistently ranked (r) as the third most important to this question. • (d) [Employ student-centered approaches] was the belief that was ranked as high priority by all four student teachers, pre-service teachers, teacher educators, and classroom teachers groups. Although (d) was on the classroom teachers’ top 5 list, it was ranked as the fourth most important, as opposed to first or second most important as ranked by the other three groups. • Classroom teachers shared a very different set of beliefs in regards to this question, as their top 2 (t, l) out of five beliefs were not the same as any of the other three groups’ top five beliefs.

Qualitative findings

Part 1: Under, “The Aims and Purposes of Education,” the survey respondents were asked three open-ended questions that probed deeper into how teaching practice reflects beliefs and purposes of education, obstacles encountered in a�empting to put beliefs into practice, and factors that supported pu�ing beliefs into practice. The three questions included: 1a. Describe how your teaching practice reflects your strongest beliefs about the purpose of education. 1b. What obstacles have you encountered in a�empting to put into practice your beliefs about the purpose of education? 1c. What factors have supported you in pu�ing into practice your beliefs about the purpose of education? The emergent themes for each of the four groups, Student Teachers (ST), Pre-service teachers (PST), Classroom Teachers (CT), Teacher Educators (TE) will be summarized below.

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Question 1a. Describe how your teaching practice reflects your strongest beliefs about the purpose of education.

ST
Differentiated instruction Teach content knowledge Create safe learning environments Promote respect/value systems

PST
Critical thinking skills Content knowledge Problem solving skills Relevance

CT
Teach critical thinking Educate productive members of society Increase motivation to learn

TE
Teach critical thinking Implement differentiated instruction Teach problem solving skills

Question 1b. What obstacles have you encountered in attempting to put into practice your beliefs about the purpose of education?

ST
Lack of critical thinking Rigidity in schools/time constraints Lack of motivation/behavioral concerns Weak home school relations

PST
Complacent students Respect issues

CT
Lack of student motivation Diverse student populations

TE
Time constraints Internal /external obstacles

Question 1c. What factors have supported you in putting your beliefs into practice?

ST
College coursework Mentor support Life experiences/core values

PST
Teaching critical thinking skills Using problem solving skills Teaching content knowledge Creating relevant learning experiences

CT
Promoting life-long learning Creating classroom community

TE
Using problem solving skills Honing positive relationships Developing cultural/diversity awareness

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Analysis of Part 1 The analysis of Part 1 in the surveys held common reoccurring themes. Developing students into critical thinkers and problem-solvers seemed to be important for all four groups. One respondent stated, “I am not here just to teach students how to read. I believe we are here to teach children to think!” Another emphasized the point this way, “I am not an “answer machine. I think students need to feel frustration once in a while. They need to learn how to “figure it out.” Another theme focused on the importance of schools preparing students to be productive members of society. One respondent wrote, “I believe that schools prepare students to be respectful, responsible, members of society. I do this by creating a democratic classroom and instilling a strong sense of motivation in my students.” Another shared, “There are many skills needed to become an active, independent, and cooperating citizens.” Motivating students to learn was another theme discussed by the groups. This was evidenced in quotes that stated, “Without motivation, they won’t be interested and won’t be engaged. As a teacher, it is important to be excited about teaching and learning because if you are, chances are your students will be too. I want to instill my students with a passion for learning and acquiring knowledge that will be carried with them into adulthood.” The key was also to make the learning relevant to the students’ lives as stated by this respondent, “I try to make lessons as interactive and interesting as possible. I build on student interests and relate content to the child’s everyday life.” There were also themes discussed that related to what effective educators must be able to do -when teaching students. One thread was differentiating instruction for all students. A teacher said, “I encourage my students to discover their strengths and follow their preferences. I -don’t like the memorization of facts but the understanding of concepts,” while another -mentioned, “Differentiated instruction is one thing I believe future teachers can do to help -promote equality and opportunity for all students. Also, differentiating instruction for individual -students help foster close relationships with parents and families.” Having a thorough grasp of

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-content knowledge was also discussed many times with quotes such as, “It is critical for teachers -to know subject content thoroughly in order to be able to adapt instructional practices for all students.” Another quote stated the need for teachers to be able to “develop new thoughts and ideas on how to teach content by staying ahead of students and not by only using the traditional methods of teaching. Another theme found in the surveys was the importance of respect and creating a safe environment. One respondent wrote, “Empathy is needed to be a good teacher. Without empathy teachers would be unable to relate to the students. We have to understand students come from different backgrounds; different home lives, and have different learning styles. Being blind to this would hamper the students’ education. We must be empathetic to their needs, wants, and lives outside the classroom.” It was also reassuring when respondents grouped together a number of the themes as shown in this quote. “My emphasis is on producing empathetic teachers who understand the needs of their students and differentiate instruction to facilitate the learning of their students. I o�en use simulations and discussions to promote empathy and understanding of others.” When survey respondents discussed obstacles, the diversity of students was a common concern along with time constraints and required testing. One explained the testing obstacle in this manner, “Currently the biggest obstacle in education is the emphasis placed on the test scores to be sure your school is making Adequate Yearly Progress, (a mandate of the United States No Child Le� Behind Act). O�en times teaching to meet the needs of the test does not match the needs of the students.” While another touched on diversity in this way, “Diversity is the ruling factor in our classrooms and around the world. Helping students think about the world will help build a future of more informed and peaceful worldly thinkers.” In summary one respondent touched on many of the themes with this quote, “Children need safe, encouraging places where learning how to search out knowledge and promote the desire to learn is always [present] as well as compassion for all humanity.” Part 2: Under, “Areas Emphasized in the Preparation of Future Teachers” the survey respondents were asked two openended questions that probed deeper into what teacher education

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programs can do to prepare future teachers. The questions included: 2a/2b. How do you think Teacher Education programs can best prepare future teachers to promote the things you discussed above? What else should be the focus of teacher education in the 21st century? The emergent themes for each of the four groups, Student Teachers (ST), Pre-service teachers (PST), Classroom Teachers (CT), Teacher Educators (TE) will be summarized below. 2a/2b. How do you think Teacher Education programs can best prepare future teachers to promote the things you discussed above? What else should be the focus of teacher education in the 21st century?

ST

PST

Promote a more holistic curriculum More field experience More field experience More technology training Prepare for diversity/multiculturalism Focus on diversity

Summary of Classroom Teachers (CT) Teacher Educators (TE) Emergent Themes

CT
Utilizing technology More field experience

TE
Linking theory and practice Utilizing technology appropriately Creating trusting relationships Developing cultural/diversity awareness

Analysis of Part 2 The analysis of Part 2 in the qualitative portion of the survey related ideas about how teachers should work in the future. Technology, extended field experiences and diversity were common themes permeating all 4 groups. To emphasize the need for more fieldwork one student teacher noted, “Anytime we are given the opportunity to interact with students in a classroom se�ing, so much more can be learned [t]here, rather than in a college classroom,” another says, “More hands on classroom experience with expert teachers.” Historically, the idea of hands on learning is not a new one, and dates all the way back to the prolific writings of John Dewey.

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With technology changing on an almost daily basis, it is incumbent upon schools of education, their students, and classroom teachers to stay current and receive the training needed to do so. It also warrants mentioning that the immediate technological support must also be in place to embed technology in creative ways. With this in mind, a classroom teacher hopes for more meaningful uses of technology as represented by this comment “utilizing technology in purposeful ways-not just for the sake of using technology” [is what is needed]. Another mentions, “technology!-use it to inspire, motivate, and engage students.” Diversity is becoming more prevalent in the Grand Forks Public schools, the state of North Dakota and the region. Teachers are quite concerned about how to deal with not only intellectual diversity but cultural diversity as well. A student teacher is concerned that schools of education must focus on “teaching students to be flexible and an awareness of the changing faces of our students.” Several classroom teachers also mention that UND must help our education students to be aware of differences, be adaptable to the multiplicity of the classroom, and be willing to as one put it, “know your students and their needs, and be willing to accept change.”

Conclusion

The study has lead us to 2 assertions: 1) Teachers must a�end equally to the affective and cognitive needs of their diverse student populations 2) Teachers must inculcate technology in meaningful ways in order to fully engage students and keep them connected to the current ideologies of a global society. These assertions agree with many of the findings from other groups in the Teacher Education for the Future Project. This ongoing research intends to focus on collecting more data from all the cooperating parties including pre-service teachers, student teachers, classroom teachers and teacher educators. As well, it is possible that the instrument may be modified in order to be more exacting on what the needs of our students, the university, and the state of North Dakota as a whole. Another overriding goal of this study is to use the collected data as an impetus for departmental reflection and critical action. It is through the continual discussion and reflective process that schools of education be�er ourselves and continually work as active agents of change, all the while deepening our understanding of education from a global perspective.

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As the flagship university of the State of North Dakota, it is our responsibility to share our findings with colleagues, sister institutions, and contribute to the literature in the rising field of global education. As we do this, we will continue to be active in the Teacher Education for the Future Project and use this collaborative to understand not only ourselves, but our colleagues and students from around the world.

References

Ayers, W. (2001). To teach. New York: Teachers College Press. Bergland Holen, J. (2009). Rubrics rules requirements: What about risk? Teaching & Learning: The Journal of Natural Inquiry and Reflective Practice. 23, (2), 72-87. Bergin, C., Bergin, D. (2009). A�achment in the classroom. Educational Psychology Review, 21, 141-170. Conner, L., Greene, W. (2006). Teacher education for the future project: A collaborative study of diverse perspectives from Fiji, Korea, the United States and Latvia. General Scope and Purpose. In A. Pipere (Ed.), Education and Sustainable Development: First Steps Towards Changes, 1, (319-323). Daugavpils: Daugavpils University. Hoagland-Smith, L. (2005, October 23). Education needs to emphasize so� skills that translate into hard cold cash. Retrieved December 21, 2009, from h�p://ezinearticles.com/?Education-Needs-to-EmphasizeSo�-Skills-that-Translate-into-Hard-Cold-Cash&id=85905. (2009-2010) www.und.edu/profile/

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Teresa A. Hughes, Norman L. Butler, William A. Kritsonis and David Herrington USA, POLAND*

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION IN CANADA AND POLAND-COMPARED: INTERNATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

Introduction

Unlike Poland, Canada does not have a national system of education. Each province and territory has its own system of schooling. One advantage of having separate school plans in a country as large as Canada is that regional needs are more likely to be dealt with. Conversely, a single system of schooling might strengthen Canadian identity.

Purpose of the Article

The purpose of this article is to compare Polish and Canadian primary and secondary education in terms of systems, curriculum, governance and teacher education. Polish and Canadian educators are sensitive to the linguistic needs of minority groups. Generally speaking, the language of instruction in Polish schools is Polish, but there are provisions for Slovaks, Ukrainians, Jews, Germans, Byelorussians and Lithuanians to be taught all subjects in their own language (Janowski 1992, p. 49). Likewise, “minority language education” (English or French) is provided for in Canada (Council of Ministers of Education, Canada).
Prairie View A&M University, USA AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland

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Both Poles and Canadians are commi�ed to the notion of compulsory education and public (state) schooling. Poles start school at age 7 and can leave at age 18; Canadians are expected to begin their studies generally between 5 and 7 years of age depending on the province or territory and remain in school until they are 16 or older (Council of Ministers of Education, Canada). As a ma�er of fact, there are guarantees in both countries for private schools and special education. Perhaps, the main feature of Polish and Canadian education respectively is: 1) the studying of West European languages at an 1 early age which are of benefit to Poles in the European Union and 2) religious tolerance (Johnson 1968, p. 5). In some Canadian provinces, there are separate school systems based upon religious preference, Ontario and Quebec, for example. It is the recent reforms in Polish primary and secondary education that motivate this study. The theoretical framework for this work is supplied by the general notion of the school as an organization and social institution.

The Systems and Curriculum

In September 1999 the Polish Ministry of National Education and Sport introduced significant changes into the primary and the secondary school system (Kucińska, 23 February, 2000; Ministerstwo Edukacji Narodowej, 1999, pp. 3-72; Ministerstwo Edukacji Narodowej, 1999, pp. 3-80; Ministerstwo Edukacji Narodowej, 1999, pp. 3-48). The number of years of primary schooling was reduced from 8 to 6 years, 3 year junior secondary schools (gymnasiums) were created, and starting in September 2001 students (depending on their academic ability) began their studies in either 3 year academic senior secondary schools (specialized lyceums) with the possibility of earning a school leaving certificate (the matura) or 2 year vocational senior secondary institutions (Bogaj et al. 1999, p. 70). The Ministry hopes that junior secondary schooling will lead to an increase in the number of pupils entering secondary school due to the fact that these institutions will be be�er staffed and equipped than many primary schools (Kucińska, 23 February, 2000, Ministry of National Education, 2000, pp. 12-13). Poland’s rural dwellers will most likely significantly profit from this particular change. A UNESCO report entitled “Republic of Poland Education For All: The year 2000 assessment” indicates that 35% of the urban adult population have finished secondary school

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whereas somewhat less than 15% in rural centers have done so. The establishment of junior secondary schools is in itself a benefit because it segregates pupils between the ages of 13 to 15 from 2 much younger ones. That is, of course, if these schools are located apart from primary institutions. Academic schools include broad vocational training in their curriculum, and the vocational schools offer “wide fields of study” instead of “narrow ones” which prepare students to move from “one vocation to another” (Bogaj et al. 1999, p. 86; Kupisiewicz, 1999, pp. 105-108). This approach to vocational education is very much in keeping with the labor requirements of a global market economy which Poland now is now part of. Moreover, it is possible for those students who originally choose to study at vocational institutions to prolong their education in two grade academic schools and then write the school leaving exam (Bogaj et al. 1999, p. 71; Ministry of National Education, 2000, p. 4). The new system involves: 1) integrated skills teaching for the first three years, 2) block instruction for the next three and 3) teaching by subject throughout junior secondary school. In the old system, instruction by subject began in the second grade. Since it is thought that children have difficulty differentiating between subjects at an early age these changes in teaching practices are an a�empt “to make the school fit the child” (Kucińska, 23, February, 2000). Besides, these new initiatives include standardizing the wri�en part of the school leaving exam (the matura) resulting in increased equivalency of school leaving certificates (Szymański 2000, p. 197). Major changes also took place in the Ontario secondary school system of education. Grade 13 was abolished at the end of the 2003-2004 school year. Therefore, Ontario learners are now able to pursue post-secondary learning opportunities a�er 12 years of schooling as is the case with their Polish counterparts. Furthermore, according to a 1998 report published by the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, interesting initiatives were happening a few years ago in education in other parts of Canada: 1. The “development and implementation of curriculum that reflected the Dene and Inuit perspectives” (Northwest Territories). 2. The development of “common curriculum and assessment instruments at the K-12 level” (Newfoundland and Labrador).

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The first initiative suggests that the government of the Northwest Territories is sensitive to the needs of its aboriginal citizens.

Governance and Operation of the Systems of Education

There is wide participation pertaining to educational administration in Poland and Canada. In Poland, pedagogical supervision is carried out by the Ministry of National Education and Sport. The responsible minister is represented at the voivodeship level by a superintendent (kurator) and at the institution level by a school head-teacher or director (Ministry of National Education, 2000, p. 31). On the other hand, the administration of school affairs is handled by district authorities (senior secondary schools) that are smaller government units than voivodeships and communes (kindergartens, primary and junior secondary institutions) that are even smaller still (Ministry of National Education, 2000, p. 29). All educational expenditures are covered by the state budget (h�p://www.ibe. unesco.org/ international/databanks/dossier/mainfram.htm). Communes may have difficulty carrying out their responsibilities due to a lack of expertise even though the EU has provided assistance for the training of local administrators of education through their Term Plan (OECD, 1996, p. 98; Bogaj, et al. 1999, p. 107). During the Communist Period such responsibilities were undertaken by the Ministry of National Education and Sport. Each Canadian province has a department of education that looks a�er K-12 schooling (Withworth 1995, p. 404). Individual schools headed by principals are under the influence of school boards whose areas are provincially determined. Boards are responsible for the commercial side of education such as: 1) the hiring of teachers and 2) the purchasing of equipment (Withworth 1995, p. 404).

Supplying Personnel for the Systems of Education

K-12 teacher education normally occurs only in Canadian universities (Berg 1995, p. 624) when in fact in Poland various sorts of higher schools like universities, academies and higher pedagogical institutions participate in such training which provides opportunities for different kinds of learning experiences (Bogaj et al. 1999, p. 209). The status of teachers who are employed in the Polish public school system is defined in the Teachers’ Charter which

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has recently been amended (18 February, 2000) by parliament (Ministry of National Education, 2000, p. 34). At the moment, there are four “categories of teaching posts”: trainee teacher, contracted teacher, appointed teacher and chartered teacher. Also, provisions are made in the charter concerning advancement, wages and working conditions. The Charter does not cover terms of employment -communes and district authorities are responsible for such ma�ers (Kuchinska, 11 October, 2001). On the other hand, provincial and territorial governments are responsible for teacher certification in Canada which restricts the movement of teachers from one part of the country to another. However, there are agreements concerning the “transfer of teacher credentials” from one jurisdiction to another (http://www.ibe.unesco.org/ international/databanks/ dossiers/ mainfram.htm). Polish teachers are limited in their capacity to become involved in the educational process because teacher − training in Poland focuses on preparing them to teach only one subject (OECD, 1996, p. 94). This approach is particularly not suitable for aspiring primary school teachers because recent changes in primary school teaching methods (which were mentioned earlier) do not include subject teaching.

Concluding Remarks

In conclusion, civic education is a requirement in Polish and Ontario schools which means that governments in both Poland and Canada are a�empting to foster democratic ideals and values in their citizens (http://www.civnet.org/journa/issue2/ jfmzbug.html ; http://www. edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/curricul/ secondary/oss/oss.html #diploma). The integration of technology in teaching and learning is a challenge confronting educators in Canada and Poland.

Interviews

Kucińska, Teresa, (MA), Deputy Director of the Department of Post-Primary Training and Permanent Education, Ministry of National Education in the Republic of Poland. Interviewed: 23 February 2000 and 11 October 2001 in Cracow.

References

Bogaj, A., Kwiatkowski, S., Szymański, M. (1999). Education in Poland in the process of social change. Institute for Educational Research, Warsaw.

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Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (1998). Report on education, Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. Retrieved February 9, 2004, from h�p://www.cmec.ca/reports/nec98 and h�p:// www.civnet.org/journal/issue2/jfmzbug.html. Retrieved March 30, 2006, from h�p://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/curricul/ secondary/oss/oss.htm#diploma and h�p://www.ibe.unesco.org/ countries/countrydossiers.htm Janowski A. (1992). Polish education: Changes and prospects. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education 2(1), 41-55. Johnson, F. (1968). A brief history of Canadian education. Toronto, Canada: Mc Graw Hill Company. Kupisiewicz, C. (1999). O Reformach Szkolnych, Wydawnictwo Akademickie „Żak”, Warszawa. Ministerstwo Edukacji Narodowej (1999). O reformie programowej gimnazjum, Ministerstwo Edukacji Narodowej, Warszawa. Ministerstwo Edukacji Narodowej (1999). O reformie programowej, kształcenie blokowe, Ministerstwo Edukacji Narodowej, Warszawa. Ministerstwo Edukacji Narodowej (1999). O reformie programowej, kształcenie zintegrowane, Ministerstwo Edukacji Narodowej, Warszawa. Ministerstwo Edukacji Narodowej (2001). O egzaminie maturalnym od 2002, Ministerstwo Edukacji Narodowej, Warszawa. Ministry of National Education (2000). The Polish system of national education in the period of reforms. Ministry of National Education, Warsaw. OECD (1996). Review of national policies for education: Poland, Paris. Republic of Poland education for all: The year 2000 assessment. Retrieved January 2, 2003, from h�p://www.unesco. orh/efa/wef/ countryreports/Poland/contents.html. Szymański, M. (2000). Polish education in the period of changes. In C. Majorek and E.V. Johanningmeir (Ed.) Educational reform in national and international perspectives: Past, present and future. Cracow: Polish Academy of Sciences Publishing House. University of Toronto. The essential U of T. Retrieved January 2, 2003, from h�p://www.igrary.utoronto.ca/admissions/ international.htm Whitworth, F. (1995). Canada: Education. In The Encyclopaedia Americana, vol. 5, Grolier Incorporated. Notes 1. Starting in the late 1940’s, the Russian language was adopted as the primary foreign language to be instructed to all students from the age of 11 and upwards, regardless of the kind of institution (Janowski, 1992, p. 43). A “West European language” was

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offered as a “second foreign language” only to pupils a�ending full secondary school in other words, institutions leading to a school leaving certificate (Janowski, 1992, p. 43). From the 198990 academic year onward the learning of Russian ceased to be compulsory, and, at about the same time, the Polish government began to encourage the widespread teaching of West European languages in schools (Janowski, 1992, p. 50). Fi�y-five new teacher training colleges have been opened throughout Poland in support of the government’s policy (Janowski, 1992, p. 51). From 1991 to 1992 two foreign organizations endorsed this new training initiative by sending volunteers to Poland: 1) Solidarity Eastern Europe, a Canadian company and 2) the American Peace Corps. The author has first-hand knowledge about the activities of these organizations. In 1991 he was recruited by Solidarity Eastern Europe to teach English at The Technical University of Rzeszów, and while he was there he got to know one Peace Corps worker. 2. This point was made by Mgr Jadwiga Tyszownicka who is a senior lecturer in English at the University of Science and Technology in Cracow. 3. The Polish school leaving certificate is a recognized qualification for admission to undergraduate programs at the University of Toronto, a leading Canadian university with an international reputation, suggesting that both Polish and Canadian secondary schooling are of similar standard (University of Toronto).

Abstract

This article compares Polish and Canadian primary and secondary education in terms of systems, curriculum, governance and teacher education. It is motivated by the recent changes in Polish schooling. The theoretical framework for the work is supplied by the general notion of the school as an organization and social institution. Citizenship education and the integration of technology in teaching and learning are of concern to educators in Poland and Canada.

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Danuta Skulicz A. F. M. Krakow University POLAND

TEACHER’S ACTIVITY IN THE DEVELOPING OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

Changes in the national educational system in the last decade as well as expectations from teachers in the context of social and cultural changes in Poland, are broadly discussed both in pedagogic literature and in the mass media creating the teacher’s image. The imageI is supplemented with legal regulations indicating kinds and types of educational tasks required from teachers, as well as standards of social behaviour, resulting from broadly understood culture of our society. All of the abovementioned aspects determine the kinds of a�itudes expected from teachers. So, in the first place I will show the contexts of teachers professional training and their activity in the developing of educational system. A number of questions are asked here: * What objectives do we want to achieve in the future in the area of the development of education? Do we only build a vision or do we also construct “tools” for the achievement of formulated long-term goals? * Why is there such a big discrepancy between democracy of the ruling elites and democracy in schools? * What can be the consequences of transferring (applying) solutions taken from other educational systems to a reformed system of a given country? *What are the possibilities of using mutual experience? What can we do to help one another? *Is it enough to co-operate and understand the participants of a project to carry out planned changes?

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*To what extent do political reasons decide about the future of education and to what extent the expert ones? *Is there any research conducted in the area of using pedagogic theories in educational practice? To what extent does the status of the theory influence undertaking system solutions? *What is the extent of the participation of expert theoreticians in implementing reforms in educational system? *What is the role of teachers in reforming educational systems and what should teachers be like? *Can decentralization lead to segregation, separation and a division into local and regional spheres? * Are university teachers ready to take the role of “teachers of teachers” in the reformed educational systems? Here are the most interesting “views of experts on some of the questions that will be presented below in the form of concise statements. Politics determines almost all aspects of social life to a large extent. Education is not outside its influence, on the contrary, education constitutes a very strong instrument in the area of politics. Politicians reform educational systems making their own idea superior to teacher’s arguments. Not being teachers themselves but civil servants , they formulate own educational goals while treating teachers as opponents . By understanding mutual experiences as well as participating in the implementation of created curricula, we try to achieve balance between political and pedagogic reasoning, although we encounter numerous problems that require solution. One of them is the lack of confidence on the part of practitioners towards theoreticians. The practitioners treat theories as a methodology of education and o�en expect concrete answers to questions concerning solutions where implementing complex pedagogical processes. Theoreticians, in turn, think that everybody understands a hermetic language they use and , a number of pedagogic fields they create. They are surprised that practice still does not match their creative solutions. It seems that one of the ways to solve that problem is to educate teachers who carry out research related to the processes realized by theoretitians and teachers who are considerate and can use acquired theoretical and methodological knowledge in practice.

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Mobility of school resulting from the necessity to adjust it to certain formal requirements limits the possibilities of taking advantage of scientific and educational projects created that are not always compliant with social needs. Three trends in the development of the pedagogic thought have determined educational system organizations for centuries. They are the following: idealism, pragmatism and naturalism. The pragmatic trend has had the greatest influence upon politicians’ decisions We can see it, for instance, in England where retired teachers with dozens years of experience are employed at present. Politicians perceive in such a method a chance for a positive solution when it comes to difficult social problems, in accordance with a model proved good in the past. However, they do not fully realize that looking for certainty in the poorly understood use of the ’tradition’ makes them ridiculous instead of giving a reason to be proud of. Simultaneous commercialization of social and cultural life, omnipresent liberalism and relativism, computerization and mass media ruling people places teachers in a completely new professional situation in which the so far experience seems to be not very useful. Decentralization of educational systems undoubtedly increases the chance for the implementation of personal goals. They may be congruent with global goals, provided the la�er are formulated in the form of the most important values, penetrating the life of school, family, local community and a given region. Developing universal values and not striving for ’some kind of’ future may lead to such form of education that will be beyond ethnic, racial, religious, regional, national or state divisions. Willingness to be separated from others and the interests of ruling elites, temporariness of their political goals, views contradictory to opinions of society, do not contribute to the development of educational systems and are closely connected with considerable delays in the development of various spheres of life concerning societies suffering from short-sightedness of politicians. Decentralization contributes to the use of funds aimed at supporting the development of particular spheres of life of local communities; it also contributes to the creation of a society open to debates and discussions, and to a continuous evaluation of the educational system so that its development in a specified direction would not result, as a consequence, in negative phenomena for the society and individuals living in it. The experience from not so distant Polish history teaches us that it could happen.

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The problems presented here do not cover all problems of the discussion. However, we need to leave something solely to memories and impressions of the participants. At the end of that report I would like to quote a statement that constitutes the answer to the last quoted question concerning the role of a university and university teachers in educating teachers of today and tomorrow: “It is an illusion to educate teachers at a university. University gives students an engine, motivation, belief and conviction. A university teacher is more of a guide than an arbiter. If a teacher wants to play their professional role well, they must learn throughout their whole life. A university teacher should be an authority and a model, and of course a master in managing learning processes. Irrespective of the created image of teachers, we can assume that each type of their behaviour and a�itudes will affect their successes or failures in teaching. Other factors influencing the educational effects also include additional structural changes within the educational system in which arbitrary organizational solutions have been adopted. Additional factors constitute activities of local governments, including financing and supervision of regional institutions. Therefore, teachers are particularly involved in all changes taking currently place in educational system. Furthermore, political and social changes affect their social status and performance of duties. Special significance is a�ributed to the changes in the social system of values, including opinions and ethical preferences. “Social changes directly and indirectly influence social studies concerned with education, and above all, educational practice. In response to such changes, studies concerned with education tend to select new axiological preferences, whereupon the old system of education and upbringing is altered educational practice... Under the influence of social changes, certain values become preferable in education. This happens in such a way that current axiology quickly becomes negated with the rise of the new, more popularly held values influenced by social changes. A good example can be the current legislation preferring such values, as freedom, individualism, and open interpersonal communication” (Poznaniak 1994, p. 305). Educational changes may also occur in the process of rivalry between various social groups and institutions (Polak 1997, pp. 2223). Although this thesis is not popular, such strategy of changes is not unknown in Polish educational system. The consolidated

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method of introducing changes, functioning in the form of a stereotype, undoubtedly affects very concrete activities of the present educational authorities. An example can be arbitrary establishment of a network of schools (types of schools in a given area), which has been the cause of many conflicts between authorities and local communities. Another example can be strengthening the exclusive status of alternative schools, most frequently private and the so-called social ones, in which fee amounts approximately to 50% of average teacher’s salary. Only teacher’s salaries are subsidized from the community budget. In principle, apart from a few exceptions in the whole country, there is no European model of free schools subventioned by the state. According to Margaret Archer, fights and rivalry in respect of changes in the universal educational systems are replaced by negotiations (M. Archer, Social Origins of Educational System, Sage, London 1984). This view has been characterized in the context of presenting selected conditions for the modernization of educational system. The following are the most significant assumptions of the mentioned concept: “Negotiations may assume various forms (we can talk about three sources of educational changes). The first one is the internal initiation. It means that a teacher can initiate a given change. This can be a change on a small scale (i.e. taking place in one school) resulting from spontaneous initiatives, or, on a bigger scale, due to group activities. Another form of negotiations is the external transaction meaning the way in which educational groups... negotiate with the representatives of educational environment the variants of its development... The third form of negotiations is political manipulation. According to M. Archer, all three types of negotiations coexist in decentralized systems. Political manipulation, on the other hand, dominates in centralized systems...Various forms of negotiations influence particular educational changes in different ways. In centralized systems those changes are abrupt and full of sharp educational windings. On the other hand, in decentralized systems changes are characterized by continuity, they follow an incremental model in which small local changes accumulate resulting in a significant scale of changes. In such instances it happens that sufficient autonomy of educational institutions imposes barriers on political intervention and limits its scope” (Ibidem, pp. 22-23). One of the conditions of autonomy of educational institutions, which are particularly sensitive to the needs of society, is the development and activities of subjects of educational processes (i.e. pupils, teachers and school principals). Essential also is the

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awareness of the necessity to implement changes among persons supporting school activities, i.e. parents, local organisations, the church and initiatives of local communities. The way, in which the school itself uses such initiatives depends first of all on teachers and school principals. It is, to a large extent, due to their activities whereby local or regional educational interests can be agreed or negotiated. It is teachers and school principals who are regarded as direct causes and participants of changes and they are required to have special professional competencies, among which the crucial ones are communicational competencies. It is worth mentioning the opinion of pedagogues, who while presenting in their studies the concept of ’schools of thought about education’ referred theories and educational orientations to the practice of teachers’ thinking about education (on the basis of research carried out among teachers and students of teacher training faculties). ’Models of thinking about education’ developed on that basis have been categorized in the following way: 1. Teachers as implementing bodies of the assumptions which have been imposed; “school” of fundamental thinking (a dominant way of thinking among the participants of the survey). 2. Teachers, as ’authentic’ practitioners. It’s ’school’ of theoretical thinking (frequent way of thinking among the participants of the survey). 3. Teachers as bodies implementing the culture; ’school’ of anti-fundamental thinking (a quite frequent way of thinking among the participants of the survey); 4. Teachers as negotiators of all signs and meanings of culture; ’school’ of negotiations between fundamentalism and antifundamentalism (a small number of such opinions among the participants of the survey). Without evaluating or assessing the opinions presented above, it must be emphasized that in the context of changes taking place in the educational system, each style of implementation of professional roles requires activity from teachers, both in relation to themselves (self-education and self-development), and towards the school and local community. Teachers who are ’passive performers’ cannot counterbalance the pressure of changes especially since they take place currently in all basic spheres of our social life. In this context it is more significant for teachers to

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’maintain’ the role of a teacher concerning, inter alias, the ability to retain balance between the educational strategy adopted by him/ her (or obligatory) and his/her own innovative and even creative activities, expressed in the dialogue with social, cultural, civilized and technical environment. Teachers who are at the same time school principals are also in a difficult position. Their current and long-term role has been discussed in the considerations related to school self-development by Roman Schulz, a recognized theoretician concerned with innovations in the area of pedagogical studies (Schulz 1996, pp. 121-123). By presenting the infrastructure of self-regulatory processes in the educational system, he emphasized necessity to satisfy prerequisite conditions by the system. They are as follows: functional autonomy, access and use of information, introduction of innovations, efficient management and suitable financial resources. He particularly stressed the role of management in the area of directing the system development, both in the macro, medium and micro scales. Management should consist in creating a suitable subsystem within the educational system. The management system structure and quality of the decision making processes (i.e. taking appropriate decisions by appropriate people in appropriate ma�ers and in the appropriate time) constitute, according to Roman Schulz, two basic conditions of a selfregulatory capability of the educational system. There is also the issue of appropriate managers: their competencies, personal qualifications and communicational skills. Perturbations in self-regulatory processes at each level of the eveloping system result in permanent ’apparent work’ or ’illusion of work,’ and in broader time perspective, the pathology of the real internal structure of the system. (For details concerning this interesting topic, refer to the publications by C. Nosal 1994, p. 292 and Kwieciński, 1992). In the context of changes taking place in the educational system in relation to school principals and other educational institutions, principles resulting from model solutions are being formulated. At this point, taking into consideration the complexity of the role in question, I will concentrate on the selected and especially emphasized aspect, i.e. on the innovative and creative management. According to D. Katz and R. L. Kahn (Schulz 1996, pp. 141-142), such management corresponds to the use of power for policy making, consisting in specifying new goals and activity programs for organizations (institutions). Usually, it is connected

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with the necessity to introduce structural changes. Such type of management prefers organizational development. In this ’mode’” special emphasis is put on this kind of obligations and behaviour which are connected with planning and implementation of changes. More and more conspicuous decentralizing tendencies within European educational systems are favourable to such kind of management. In the first several-year phase, the strategy of reforming Polish educational system will strengthen the style of management focusing on the achievement of specified objectives, formulating the evaluation criteria and assessment measures, as well as the style of performing administration duties, or practical use of established rules related to current situations. This perspective does not release schools principals from their responsibility for the change and development of the educational system; on the contrary, it expects them to self-educate, learn, introduce innovative development and creative style of school management. According to D. Katz and R. L. Kahn, each type of management requires from people representing various cognitive styles to possess knowledge of various kinds and levels, as well as to possess various affective capabilities. And thus, innovative and creative management is connected with the basic cognitive requirement, i.e. systemic perspective, and the affective management, i.e. charisma. The management of the second type, focusing on the achievement of objectives and evaluation of results, is connected with the intra-systemic orientation. The cognitive requirement is to possess knowledge (including also the technical one) of the structure of the tasks to be implemented and knowledge of interrelations between the elements of subsystems. Affective qualifications include the ability to integrate the elements of a subsystem, as well as to create proper interpersonal relations, i.e. communicational skills, in a given institution. On the third level of the administrative management, a proper technical knowledge concerning tasks whose performance of the object of control is required, together with understanding formal bases of activities of a given institution. Affective qualifications include the ability to use binding rules and regulations governing the managed processes. The model characteristics presented above, concerning the professional and personal qualifications of school principals can be used for the analysis of various levels and mechanisms

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administering educational system. They especially help in the understanding of the specificity of the requirements, which have to be satisfied by a person willing to become a school principal. This role may be also performed through the presentation of innovative and creative initiatives among teachers co-operating with the principal. The present situation of changes within the structure of the educational system seems to be especially favourable to active fulfillment of professional roles, both by teachers and school principals. In the context of the viewpoints presented above, the questions have been posed about how in the present situation those roles are performed, as well as in which areas the activities of teachers and school principals contribute to the development of the educational system and in which they strengthen the models of the old activities.. I will give the answers to the above-formulated questions by presenting the results of a survey carried out among fi�y female teachers teaching early grades who completed studies at teacher training colleges and specialized in early school pedagogy and in 1999 (at the beginning of the reform of Polish Educational System) were the first year students of graduate studies in the Institute of Pedagogy at the Jagiellonian University. The questions posed in the basic version of questionnaire concerned the following subjects: * the participation of teachers in the changes taking place in the educational system, * priorities of their work, * specification of the areas in which the changes are beneficial and those in which changes are inevitable, * indicating directions to follow in order to implement the proposed changes, *the evaluation of the activities of school principals by the teachers, indication of areas in which they perform their roles well and in which areas of their activities changes are indispensable. The teachers participating in the research come from the area of Southern Poland and were employed mainly in rural areas and in small towns: 42 percent of the participants of the survey. The participants have different number of years of experience as teachers; the group of experienced teachers working over six years were numerous and constitutes 36 persons. They began

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studies at the University in order to keep their jobs: it is required by law for teachers to have a diploma of higher education. Before they started higher education, the teachers worked in schools or nursery schools a�er finishing two-year post-secondary teacher training studies. These studies did not have the status of university studies and a�er 1990 they started to be systematically liquidated. Most frequently the graduates of teacher training studies lasting two years were women coming from rural areas and small towns.At present, in the face of competition, they a�ended the paid extramural courses (the number of graduates of early school pedagogy a�er five-year university graduate studies grows and it is easier for them to find a job). Many of them, to further develop their professional skills, additionally did teacher development courses workshops organized mainly by educational centers. One of conditions of active participation in the changes was their acceptance and positive a�itude of the participants of changes towards the undertaken activities. In principle, almost all respondents declared that they participate in the changes willingly, although some of them were active because they like such kind of activities. However, a number of them were willing to perform tasks assigned to them, but would like the principals’ requirements to be formulated clearly. Because of a great number of curricula and textbooks approved for use by the Ministry of Education and the obvious possibilities of selection by teachers, they expected help concerning the selection, frequently even a concrete suggestion. Their comments concerning pedagogical innovations confirm that situation. All the teachers claimed that they appreciate innovations, but only four of them declared that they introduced innovations out of their own initiative. Two persons said that they did not see any need for changes and that they did what they had to. Therefore, we can say that the acceptance of the changes taking place in teaching early grades is universal. In connection with the changes introduced, the teachers regarded greater possibilities of good and effective work with pupils, introduction of changes related to the reform into the curricula, as well as the possibilities of self-development (studies and teacher development courses and workshops), as the most important at their work. Concerning more effective work with pupils, many of them declared the introduction of new and active methods of teaching, as well as the change in the organization of classes (doing away with the division into 45-minute lessons, introduction of breaks any time, variety of forms of work, the

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increase of school trips, etc.). Teachers started to co-operate more closely with parents. All undertaken and declared activities were connected with the introduction of the reform, and therefore, with the implementation of certain required activities. There was not much real initiative on the part of the teachers. Only four of them declared that they introduced their own curricula and two of them transferred someone else’s curricula. Listing the benefits of changes taking place in the educational system right now and specifying own activities in that area, only five of the participants of the survey claimed that they appreciated the possibilities of free work planning, selection of curricula and textbooks, independence and the possibilities of creating and implementing own curricula. It is also interesting to analyze the teachers’ a�itude towards cooperation with parents. Although they declared a larger extent of such cooperation, only six persons could see advantages and certain benefits of such contacts. The teachers also noticed certain drawbacks concerning the changes. The most frequently enumerated ones included the following: bad organization of the whole school and difficult access to different curricula and textbooks, which in consequence causes that the choice was limited to those which were currently available on the market. It was worthwhile to emphasize that the Ministry of Education had approved several dozen curricula, however, only few of them were available. The result of the changes was also imposing additional organizational work on teachers who complained about that and perceived it as the limitation of time that could be used for their self-development and for their families. It must be also emphasized that the increase of the salary did not match the changes in the scope of teachers’ responsibilities and the remuneration was dramatically low. The teachers also mentioned other disadvantages of the reform, especially the insecurity of work. They said that within the last five years change of terms and have affected have been affected by changes of terms and conditions of their jobs (employment contracts or place of work), and the chance for professional stabilization was even smaller. Organization of schools, about which teachers complained so o�en, depends, to a large extent, on the principal. Therefore, we asked the teachers to express their opinions about school principals. Based on a five-level scale, 32 persons evaluated their principal’s work as satisfactory and lower. The highest score received principal’s pedagogical activities consisting of didactic and upbringing activities (way of communication with pupils

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and solving behavioral problems). Next, teachers evaluated quite high the principals’ administrative operations, and a bit lower, their organizational skills. Very low score concerned principal’s communication with the environment and managerial activities. The lowest score they received for the way of communicating with teachers. 28 persons evaluated this aspect as satisfactory or lower, while 15 persons assessed the principal’s work in this respect as really positive. It was worthwhile asking a question, at this point, to what extent teachers, as participants of the process are responsible for this poor communication. We do not have data necessary to answer this question. However, we can claim that this low score is verified by the equally low score in respect of communication with the environment and managerial activities requiring extensive communication skills. The teachers asked about what should be changed in the principal’s work, postulated in the first place to change the way the principal communicates with them and next his organizational activities in the school. In the context of such opinions it is difficult to expect that principals paid special a�ention to supporting innovative and creative activities of the teachers or stimulated them in this area. Perhaps the tension present right now among teachers in many schools is connected with complex introduction of the educational system reform, which both teachers and principals are not well prepared for. Summing up, we can say that despite the signs of extensive activities among teachers and positive a�itude towards the changes taking place, they played their roles in a conservative manner, not showing in principle their innovative and creative activities. They tried to be active performers of tasks assigned to them. By using their experience and knowledge (also the knowledge they were acquiring currently) they tried, as best as they could, to function in the structures of the new system, which they cannot influence at all. Similarly, the principals played their roles in the areas in which the routine activities were consolidated. They did not succeed significantly in those areas in which it was necessary to possess the skill of innovative activities (organization of schoolwork), as well as communicative skills (e.g. co-operation with teachers and local community). It is important for us, i.e. academic teachers, to find a way concerning how to support teachers and principals in developing their innovative and creative professional activities. We have undertaken certain concrete activities. The schedule of courses for

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extramural teacher training studies should include the subjects which will be realized in the form of the following workshops: 1. Construction of educational curricula. 2. Interpersonal and social communication. 3. School management. 4. Negotiations in school society. Those are examples – the list of proposition is open… Let us hope that the teachers and principals really use the competencies they have acquired while introducing improvements to schools. We all are wondering about competencies of school principals and teachers, as well as social conditions contributing to the independent and creative school management. Undoubtedly, such conditions are present in our state, which we organized owing to decentralization consisting in the transfer of direct responsibility for functioning of the whole infrastructure from central authorities to local governments. In such a social arrangement schools or rather their principals take responsibility for the implementation of reforms and financial responsibility. That is why, each school as an independent and autonomous institution should be a learning and improving organization. Therefore, it should also have a capability (autonomy) of measuring the results of its own activities. It results from the above that Management through learning is another crucial step towards making decentralization reality. It is extremely important to support schools in that process through local authorities, inspectors and advisors, based on their co-operation with school principals. The basis for such co-operation should be an assumption adopted by all parties that school is a learning organization and a dialogue and negotiations should constitute basic forms of communication while implementing specified tasks expressed also in the form of values. During the discussion, which academic teachers organized with the school teachers, principals and supervisors, the participants emphasized a considerable importance of the cooperation between school principals. It was stated that it is very important to point out similarities and differences between results of work of particular schools. It results from various conditions of work in school even within one city. The participants agreed that a basic instrument of a co-operation should be the exchange

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of information concerning independent projects within schools’ work, as well as results of evaluation. Areas of schools’ work that should be taken into consideration were enumerated. They are as follows: 1. work procedures and teaching role (structure of activities in classes, teachers’ own learning, structure of leadership). 2. use of resources and support to students with different disabilities. 3. student’s responsibility and influence on their own learning process. 4. students’ achievements and feedback. Schools should also acquire support from competent institutions that are concerned with preparing appropriate requirement standards, allowing for a proper evaluation of final results to be achieved by students at a given stage of their education. It is especially important in Poland, where there are barriers between particular kinds of schools in the form of entrance examinations. Transition in the management of schools work from managing based on regulations to managing through goals and from authoritarian management to participation management was also emphasized as an important effect of the decentralization. The participants focused on the considerable significance of schools’ values and vision as main sources of their activities such as planning and evaluation. Against the background of these considerations, the results of research concerning the role of students, teachers and principals in the school understood in the above manner were presented. With reference to students, the participants stressed their contribution as participants of the educational process, i.e. belief in their own strength, need success, creative activities and ability to co-operate. The values listed together with the spheres of activities were perceived as extremely important while the implementation of the vision of a learning school. Conditions of teachers and school principals as well as their readiness to manage educational processes in autonomous schools were presented in detail in papers. Everybody agreed that both teachers and school principals burdened with numerous and excessive duties lose their enthusiasm and motivation for creative and innovative activities. It sometimes happens that they do not possess suitable competencies and needs for taking independent and autonomous decisions as a result of independent management

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of educational processes. Their independence is o�en apparent since they must subject themselves to a political lobby which is present at each level of administration in the country, and whose interests are not always consistent with the pedagogic vision of a given school.

Reference

Archer M. (1984). Social Origins of Educational System. London. Kwieciński Z. (1992). Socjopatologia edukacji. Warszawa. Nosal C. (1994). Kształcenie umysłu - na progu edukacyjnej rewolucji. In: Edukacja wobec zmiany społecznej. J. Brzeziński, I. Witkowski, (Ed.). Poznań -Toruń. Polak K. (1997). Nauczyciel Twórczość Promocja. Wybrane uwarunkowania modernizacji oświaty. Kraków. Poznaniak W. (1994). Stygmaty i dylematy etyczne w warunkach zmiany społecznej. In: Edukacja wobec zmiany społecznej. J. Brzeziński, I. Witkowski, (Ed.) Poznań -Toruń. Schulz R. (1996). Studia z innowatyki pedagogicznej. Toruń.

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Norman L. Butler, Barry S. Davidson, Ryszard Pachocinski, Kimberly G. Griffith, William A. Kritsonis USA, POLAND*

INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: POLISH POST – SECONDARY VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS AND CANADIAN COMMUNITY COLLEGES: A COMPARISON USING AN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTUAL MODEL

What are Post-Secondary (Grammar) Vocational Schools

Post-secondary vocational institutions, which are part of the Polish secondary school systems of schooling, prepare secondary school graduates for employment as “skilled manual workers or their equivalent” and specializations requiring secondary school qualifications (Ministry of National Education, 1994 10). There are three types of schools: 1) public (state), 2) non-public and 3) nonpublic with state-school status. These post-grammar vocational institution programs which lead to a diploma can be completed within three years, depending on the occupational track (Ministry of National Education, 1994,10). All programs insist upon the completion of secondary school prior to entry.
AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland Troy University, USA Institute for Educational Research, Warsaw, Poland Lamar University, USA Prairie View A&M University, USA

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Norman L. Butler et al.: International Perspectives... What are Post-Secondary (Grammar) Vocational Schools Post-secondary vocational institutions, which are part of the Polish secondary school systems of schooling, prepare secondary school graduates for employment as “skilled manual workers or their equivalent” and specializations requiring secondary school qualifications (Ministry of National Education, 1994 10). There are three types of schools: 1) public (state), 2) non-public and 3) nonpublic with state-school status. These post-grammar vocational institution programs which lead to a diploma can be completed within three years, depending on the occupational track (Ministry of National Education, 1994,10). All programs insist upon the completion of secondary school prior to entry. What are Canadian Community Colleges? The term community college is generic. According to the Association of Canadian Community Colleges, community colleges are characterized by a number of designations including college of applied arts and technology, College d’Enseignement General et Professionnel (CEGEP) institute of technology and university college (Association of Canadian Community Colleges). The main task of the institutions is to respond to the educational concerns of vocationally orientated school graduates and the training needs of both the public and the private sector (Association of Canadian Community Colleges). In the beginning, colleges offered learners only certificates and diplomas, however, at the moment, some of them award university degrees as well, and a number offer university transfer programs (Association of Canadian Community Colleges).

Introduction

Unlike Poland, Canada does not have a national system of education - each province and territory has its own system of schooling. One advantage of having separate school plans in a country as large as Canada is that regional needs are more likely to be dealt with. Conversely, a single system of schooling might strengthen Canadian identity. There are guarantees in both countries for private schools and special education.

Purpose and Motivation for this Investigation
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The aim of this study was to compare Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges. The

Social Context of Education, Ljubljana 2009 rationale for doing so is because on one hand many college courses in Canada are occupationally directed and require at least some secondary school a�endance prior to admission; on the other hand, in Poland, one must complete secondary school prior to starting a post-grammar vocational institution course. Moreover, post-secondary vocational schools in Poland do not award university degrees, nor do most community colleges. Finally, it must be stressed that these two kinds of institutions are comparable, but not equivalent. Our comparison focused upon programs in: information technology (3) because we live in an information age (Kupisiewicz 1999, p. 111). This investigation was undertaken to provide information in Canada and Poland about programs with a common mission and because of: the changes that have been taking place in the Polish primary and secondary school system of education.

Theoretical Framework

Since the 1980s (Byron and Glagiardi) massive changes have occurred in the area of information technology (for example, the development of the Internet and (CD-ROMS) which have resulted in more knowledge being available that has brought about a new form of human relationships in terms of participation, feedback and partnership. That being the case it is reasonable to compare Polish postsecondary vocational schools and Canadian community colleges in terms of the manner in which these two kinds of institutions adopt this new form because “Education is not only a preparation for life; it is a development in life” (King 1979, p. 12). This study focused upon the feedback aspect of the theoretical model.

The Research Methodology
Method of Data Collection A program evaluation form was administered to learners in both Poland and Canada. Furthermore, it consisted of 33 statements, and covered three areas curriculum (8 statements), learning materials (5 statements) and instruction (20 statements). In addition, space was available following each group of statements for comments and recommendations. At the top of the first page provisions were made for students to:

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Norman L. Butler et al.: International Perspectives... 1) write the name of their institution and their program of studies and 2) indicate the year of their studies and sex (male/female). The form and the instructions associated with it were translated from English into Polish. Copies of the form were given to eight Cracow School of Information Technology students in order to confirm that the instructions to it were understood and that 30 minutes was sufficient time for it to be completed. The results of these learners were included in our investigation. The Procedure The program evaluation forms were completed between January 2001 (Cracow School of Information Technology) and the fall of 2002 (Confederation). The Analysis With regard to each student sample: 1. The mean, median mode, standard deviation and of the responses were computed. 2. Response percentages were calculated for statements 1-8 (Curriculum), 9-13 (Learning materials) and 14-33 (Instruction). Following this, the resulting information was put into histogram format. The Respondents A. Cracow School of Information Technology. Thirty-two full-time students took part in our investigation: 1) 17 first year (of which 13 were male and 4 were female) and 2) 15 second year (of which 14 were male and 1 was female). B. Durham College. Fi�een full-time learners filled out our program evaluation instrument (of which 10 were male, 4 were female and 1 was male or female)1. C. Confederation College. Fi�y-seven full-time students participated in our research: 1) Eighteen first year (of which 14 were male and 4 were female). 2) Twenty four second year (of which 21 were male and 3 were female). 3) Fi�een third year (of which 12 were male, 2 were female and 1 was male or female).

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Social Context of Education, Ljubljana 2009 The percentage of learners sampled was greater for the Cracow School of Information Technology population than for the Confederation and Durham ones: 80% (32 out of 40), 64% (15 out of 89) and 60% (15 out of 25) respectively. This means that the participation level in our study was larger for the Polish students than it was for both of their Canadian counterparts.

The Results

Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 below illustrate the value for the measures of central tendency and the standard deviation for each of the information technology program sample distributions.

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Response percentages for assertions 1-8, 9-14 and 15-33 are shown in Figures 5-8 underneath for each group of information technology participants.

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Discussion

The value for both the mode and the median for the Cracow School of Information Technology, Durham College and Confederation College sample distributions is 1 which means that category Agree contains the highest number of answers and is the

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Social Context of Education, Ljubljana 2009 point in each of the distributions where 50% of the sample falls below and 50% falls above (see Figures 1-4). The value for the mean is greater for the Polish sample distribution than for either the Confederation or the Durham one: 1.5 and 1.6 (2nd year students only), 1.3 and 1.2, respectively (see Figures 1-4). This means that the Polish learners were more likely to choose category Disagree than their Canadian counterparts and that the average response for each of the three groups of students lies between designations Agree and Disagree. The value for the standard deviation is smaller for both of the Canadian distributions than for the Polish one: .3 (Confederation), .3 (Durham) and .5 (Cracow School of Information Technology (see Figures 1-4). This signifies that the spread of answers for the Polish distribution is larger around the mean than for either of the Canadian ones. Response percentages for statements 1-8 are higher for category Agree and lower for designation Disagree for both the Confederation and the Durham students (74.6% and 15.1% and 75% and 15.8%, respectively) than for the Cracow School of Information Technology respondents (64.1% and 20.3% and 58.3% and 22.9%) (second year students only) which implies that the Polish information technology curriculum was not as highly valued by learners as the Canadian ones (see Figures 5-8). With regard to statements 9-13, the percentage of answers is higher for designation Agree and lower for category Disagree for both the Confederation and the Durham respondents (74.1% and 23.8% and 77.3% and 14.7%, respectively) than for the Polish sample: 56.3% and 33.1% and 47.8% and 38.9% (second year students only) (see Figures 5, 6, 7 and 8). This indicates that the learning materials that are used in the Cracow School of Information Technology program were not highly regarded by students as those employed in the Canadian ones. Likewise, instruction was not as highly valued by the Polish respondents as it was by their Canadian counterparts given that response percentages for statements 14-33 are higher for category Agree and lower for designation Disagree for both the Durham and the Confederation participants (84.3% and 11.3% and 80.7% and 14.3%, respectively) than for the Cracow School of Information Technology ones (60.3% and 25.8% (second year students only) and 62.5% and 23.9%) (see Figures 5-8).

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Norman L. Butler et al.: International Perspectives... Figures 5-8 illustrate that the percentage of Polish students who decided upon designation Don’t know for assertions pertaining to curriculum, learning materials and instruction is higher in each case than for their Canadian tallies: 13.7%, 10.6% and 13.4% as opposed to 8.8%, 2.1% and 4.5% and 16.7%, 13.3% and 13.9% (second year students only) as opposed to 8.3%, 8% and 4%. This indicates that the Cracow School of Information Technology learners had less information about their program than their Canadian counterparts. The percentage of Cracow School of Information Technology, Durham and Confederation learners that did not choose a category (No answer) for statements 1-33 ranges from 0-2.1 suggesting that the level of interest shown by the information technology program participants in our investigation in both Canada and in Poland was very high (see Figures 5-8).

Concluding Remarks

This study compared Canadian community colleges with post-secondary (grammar) vocational schools in Poland. The comparison concentrated upon programs in information technology that are delivered by one Polish school Cracow School of Information Technology and two Canadian community colleges: Durham and Confederation. Our results indicate that both the Polish and the Canadian students valued their programs given that answer category agree is the most popular one for all of the samples and is the point in each of the distributions where half of the sample falls below and half falls above. However, response percentages for the three program areas and the value for the sample means suggest that Durham and Confederation learners held their programs in higher esteem than their Polish counterpart. This might be due to the fact that colleges in Canada are higher up in the school structure ‘pecking order’ than post-secondary vocational schools in Poland: post-secondary as opposed to secondary. (Academic achievement is valued in terms of school structure, King 1979, p. 55). Learner evaluations of teaching (as well as of curriculum and learning materials) are ‘subjective by nature’, so we ought to keep this in mind when making use of them (Adams).They might be influenced by grades received. Furthermore, the Polish students in our investigation might not have been as objective in their evaluations of instruction as their Canadian counterparts for linguistic reasons. In the English language, teaching and learning

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Social Context of Education, Ljubljana 2009 are considered to be two very different activities2 whereas in Polish there is ‘a faint connotation ‘ that learning occurs as a result of another persons efforts. (Jankowicz 2001, p. 86).3 Are post-secondary vocational school and college students qualified to evaluate instruction? It has been suggested that evaluations are a ‘measure of student satisfaction’, which is an aspect of faculty performance (Adams). Because formal learning is now a lifelong process (due to rapid advances in technology), it is therefore important for learners to be satisfied with their teacher’s performance so that they will have a liking for education. Given that Poland has recently entered the European Union, it would be useful to compare post-grammar vocational schools with their counterparts in EU member states. It is recommended that additional research be carried out, in the future, involving a larger number of institutions.

References

Adams, J. V., Student Evaluations: The Rating Game, Inquiry, Volume 1, Number 2, Fall 1997,10-16, h�p://www.vccaedu.org/inquiry/ inquiry-fall97/i12-adam.html, Retrieved: 10 May.2007 Association of Canadian Community Colleges, h�p://www.accc.ca/ english/colleges/index.cfm. Retrieved: 3 April, 2007 The Role of Information and Communication Technologies in Education, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education, h�p://www.idrc.ca/acadia/studies/ir-unesl.htm#1/introduction. Retrieved: 25 June 2001. Jankowicz, D. (2001), A Comparison of Approaches to Student Assessment in Business and Management Subjects in Poland and the UK, In Jan Steczkowski (Ed.) Dydaktyka XXI wieku, Akademia Ekonomiczna w Krakowie, Kraków King, E. (1979), Other Schools and Ours. Fi�h Edition, London: Holt, Rinehard and Winston. Kupisiewicz, C. (1999). O Reformach Szkolnych, Wydawnictwo Akademickie „Żak”, Warszawa. Ministry of National Education in the Republic of Poland (1994), Development of Education in Poland in 1992-1993, Warsaw. See: www.nationalforum.com

Notes Special Note: Special note of gratitude to Dr. Kimberly Grantham Griffith and Dr. William Allan Kritsonis for their professional assistance in ge�ing this article published in the United States of America. See: www.nationalforum.com

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1. It should be noted that Durham was asked to restrict their sampling to second year students due to the anticipated completion date of our research. 2. The same can be said for French (enseigner-apprendre) and German (lehren-lernen). 3. In Polish uczyć means to teach and uczyć się means to learn.

Abstract

This study compares Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges using an information technology conceptual framework. The research concentrated upon programs in information technology delivered by one Polish school Cracow School of Information Technology and two Canadian community colleges Durham (Oshawa, Ontario) and Confederation (Thunder Bay, Ontario). It is recommended that additional research be carried out, in the future, involving a larger number of institutions.

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María del Carmen Malbrán University of Luján ARGENTINA

DIGITAL SUPPORTS FOR PERSONS WITH MULTIPLE DISABILITY AND COMPLEX COMMUNICATION NEEDS

Introduction

Multiple disability alludes to a condition where the person has significative restrictions in more than one of the following areas: sensory, motor, cognitive and emotional. These limitations affect the quality of life in many ways. One frequent loss affects communication: the person cannot speak being his/her language mimic, gestual and/or gu�ural . Many of them are non – verbal having li�le or no speech reliant on hand movements (point to object), facial expression and body language. Understanding unconventional communication requires an effort for interpreting the meaning of corporal expressions such as pointing, gesturing, moving the body closer, touching the computer screen, eye gazing, looks and vocalizing. Communication through fragmentary signs demands a great need for inference, questioning and guessing by the listener . To facilitate this task alternative and augmentative communication systems have been developed. These systems can be adapted to the computer. Multiple disability may appear at any time of living due to different cause. Usually the situation becomes chronic turning into a lifelong condition.

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Intervention and rehabiltation are focused on three areas : giving supports, enhancing inclusion and encouraging empowerment. Action is aimed at improving communication, building self determination and autonomy and assuring the quality of life. Multiple disability may also be seen as a set of barriers coming both from the individual traits and to the physical and social context. As it was said, persons with multiple disability usually have complex communication needs being subjected to a dual vulnerability: biological and environmental , runnig risks of social deprivation and experience of failure. Appropiate environmental conditions suppose fighting and overcoming these obstacles. An important distinction is determining the cognitive status in order to bring digital assistance according to the characteristics of the involved person and the available supported technology . The aim is always to reduce the limitations at a minimun. The training of human resources must be taken into account. Sophisticated layout and structure may be an obstacle to implement adequate supports for the person , the human mediator and the context. Digital technology is going to change our current views about multiple disability. Moreover, the access to digital culture may be considered as a ma�er of human rights. The criteria based on the remainder abilities are being replaced or complemented by the determination of the kind , extent and length of needed supports. The diagnostic baseline focuses on the selection of tools a�ending the cognitive status in terms of the previous knowledge, the extent of understanding symbols, signs and pictures, the motor capabilites – body , hands, leg and mouth , and facial movements as eye blinks and whispers . These indicators lead to making decisions about the kind , the amount, the lasting and the continuity of digital supports. The exploration is also oriented to inquire the individual dependence on others to meet basic daily needs, the relative absence of verbal skills, the sensory loss and the severity of motor difficulties. Collecting information includes the behavioral state of the person, the social context, the communication partner and the communication indicators. Designing digital aids must pay a�ention to the cultural relevance of symbols, number of exposure, guarantee of its continuous use, association between pictures and icons , part

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– whole perception, directionality and familiarity. The aim is to produce positive behavioral, cognitive and emotional outcomes. To do so professionals, caregivers and support persons have to be trained on: - the potentialities of different digital devices; - the availability of digital resources; - the selection according to particular needs; - the abilities for making adaptations; - the wi�edness for introducing innnovations; - the nonconventional ways of communication. Examples of suitable existing tools for improving communication are: - special alphabet using multimedia; - sensitive to touching screen; - magnetic ring that receives the sounds amplifying them and sending to a wire. Persons who use earphones with phone bobbin can access the magnetic space; - eye mouse where the computer can be operated and controlled by visual movement. The screen verbalizes the text lines, paragraphs, words and le�ers; - bionic prothesis such as arms, legs, hands and eyes ; - Braille computer keyboard; - video console for people who have suffered brain accidents. Areas of application of digital means are mobility, domestic living, communication, and social interaction in formal and informal environments. Person centered digital technology is aimed at: - enhancing communication; - reducing dependence; - diminishing obstacles and barriers; - increasing self - confidence and self - determination; - avoiding isolation; - respecting human rights; - improving the quality of life; - helping empowerment; - expressing preferences and choices in meaningful ways;

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widening inclusion; making decisions; active participation; communicating expectancies, motives, interests, needs, likes and dislikes, moods, satisfaction, sadness, fears, anger; temper outbursts; - expanding the body; - supporting everyday life: - providing alternative and augmentative communication. -

Illustrative cases

The British Stephen Hawking born in 1942 suffers amiotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) called Lou Gehrig Disease. He is a widely known astrophysic, author of the theory of the black holes. He neither speak nor move his hands and legs. He only does slight facial expressions with the muscles around his eyes, eyebrows , cheeks and mouth. He speaks through a computer selecting the words presented on a screen with a sensor placed on a helmet that detects his cheek movements. He obtained a PhD in Cambridge University where he is a professor on Mathematics. He has received many important distinctions and honoris causa doctorates from a lot of universities all over the world. His latest production includes a text “The theory of all” (2008) and a book for children “George`s secret key to the universe” wri�en in colaboration with his daugther. The book tries to explain the main secrets of the cosmos in plain language. In 2007 he had the experience of floating in an environment free from gravity in a flight of the Zero Gravity Corporation. The French Jean Dominique Bauby born in 1952, died on 1997 , suffered the Locked In Syndrome. He was the editor of the Elle magazine. At 44 he was victim of a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) surviving for two years. The only way of communication was the le� eye blink. The language therapist modified the alphabet order pu�ing in the first places the most frequently used French le�ers. She told Jean the le�ers in a loud voice and he indicated yes (one eye blink) or no (two eye blink). Doing so he was able to dictate words and sentences. The strategy allowed him to write a book entitled “Le scaphandre et le papillon” (The diving bell and the bu�erfly) working with an assistant in a three

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hours daily schedule. The book reflects his experience. He called himself an exiled in is own body, a shipwrecked , trapped in a diving bell. The situation would have been different if Jean had had a digital aid giving orders to the computer using the eye blink. He would have been more autonomous avoiding emptiness, boredom and solitude during the lasting time he was alone, by his own means.

Cases from Argentina

Juan. Aged 17. Multiple disabled. Seizure episodes. He cannot walk or speak. Reduced facial expression. Digestive troubles due to the motor restriction. He only eats mashed food. Early diagnosed as profound intellectually disabled, later as an autist. In his infancy he went to special schools changing from one school to another without evident progress. His mother looked from training in the United Kingdom. There she were used to digital means to meet the challenge. An individual digital system was designed. Using a special keyboard connected to a computer he translates words on the screen. He learnt to read and write completing elementary and secondary education. Besides he integrates a group of self - advocates. In 2007 he went to Washington participating in an international meeting, was interviewed in a TV program and wrote a le�er published in the Disability Tribune about the denied rights of multiple disabled people. The case of Juan C. shows: - very collaborative relatives and friends; - suitability of digital resources; - cognitive and emotional progress; - improve of communication; - loss of time for effective action. Jorge. Elected Parliament representative in the October 2007 voting elections. In November 2007 he was assaulted at the door of a pharmacy near his house in a neigbouring district of Buenos Aires. He was severely beatened with a screw. As a consequence he was found unconscious laying on the floor. He was sent to hospital suffering craneal trauma, brain haemorrhage , tetraplejic and breathing difficulties. He lost mobility and language and was confined to a wheelchair. A special communication device was designed by a friend of him. The programme called HadaSo�

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contains modules combining writing and speech production. The keyboard is added to a webcam that allows him to move the cursor with his looks and a synthesizer reproducing the selected words translated into the local language. The webcam is programmed for following the head movements, particularly the eye J.R. is able to clicking with his point finger. A�er 17 months from the a�ack he sworn in as a Parliament deputy. By means of the digital aid he is able to “talk” and to send messages as any other representative.

References

Articles from the press and magazines: The New York Times, Argentine Newspapers ( Clarín, La Nación, Perfil) Brown,U. & Percy,M. Eds. : A Comprehensive Guide to Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.(2007) J.C. : Personal Communication Hawking, S. W. : www.biografica.info/biografia-de-hawking-stephen-william-1119 Malbrán, M. del C. Digital communication supports for PMID. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52, parts eight & nine, 773. (2008) Malbrán, M. del C. IASSID 13th World Congress. Symposium on Communication and interaction with Persons with Profound and Multiple Intellectual Disabilities (PMID). South Africa: Cape Town. (2008) Mitchell, J. & van der Gaag, A. Through the eye of the Cyclpos: evaluating a multi – sensory intervention programme for people with complex disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30,159 – 165 (2002) Mayer, R. E. Ed. : The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. Cambridge University Press, New York (2005) Scherer, M.J. & Craddock. G. . Matching Person & Technology (MPT) assessment process. Technology & Disability, 14, 125 – 131. (2002) Schnabel, J. Film Director: The diving bell and the bu�erfly (2007). Telecapacitados: el Teletrabajo para la inclusión laboral de las personas con discapacidad. www.telecapacitados.tic.org.ar www.hadaso�.com.ar www.literaturas.com. La escafandra y la mariposa. Editorial Planeta. (www references accessed July 2009)

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Abstract

Digital supports are changing the vision about people who suffer multiple disability and complex communication needs, giving them the chance of expressing ideas, needs, expectancies and interests. Oral and wri�en language may be complemented or even replaced by visuo – spatial and auditory codes –pictures, icons, sounds and words mediated by the computer. Lack of motor control is not an unsurmountable obstacle when the response can be given on a digital keyboard. The accessibility to these devices needs training in relatives, institutional staff, web designers, teachers, peers, friends and persons with disabilities, as well as matching between shared computer engagement and human interaction. The development of digital tools grows rapidly demanding a continuous effort for adaptation to particular persons and situations. The illustrative cases presented in the article were taken from the literature, the mass media and the author`s experience. Available information shows the relevance of digital resources for improving communication and questions predictions about the real abilities of persons with multiple disabilities and complex communication needs. Communication is the essence of social human life. Digital supports combined with a person centered approach opens a more promising future for people with multiple disabilites and complex communication needs. Key words digital supports – multiple disabilities – complex communication needs – person centered approach

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Natasha Angeloska-Galevska, Zora Jacova University of Skopje MACEDONIA

ACTION RESEARCH IN THE INCLUSIVE CLASSROOM Introduction

The paper has two aims and according to this it is positioned in two parts. First part is focused on the prospectives and advantages of using qualitative methods for research of inclusive practice. Second part describes the methodology we have used in a longitudinal research where qualitative methods were used for case study of a child with cohlear implant included in the regular classroom. Beside reporting the results, we also reflect on the methodology used in the research, pointing to the appropriateness of qualitative research methods for exploring phenomena in the field of special education.

Usıng qualıtatıve approach for research of inclusıve classroom

Growing popularity of qualitative approach resulted with significant number of research reports where qualitative methodology is used for exploration of the inclusive education. Special educators and teachers, social workers, clinical psychologists and therapists use qualitative methods to describe and share good practice related to the people with special needs. In Macedonia, like in other neighbouring countries, qualitative research was mostly introduced in the last two decades. Qualitative research were introduced also as a content in the curriculum for teachers and special educators on the undergraduate level and as a separate course for postgraduates at the Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation at the Faculty of Philosophy in Skopje, the only institution of a kind in the country. Case study became more popular among the researchers, especially for classroom research. Interpretative paradigm and

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symbolic interactionism were used for investigation of status of children with special needs in regular classes and for researching the cases of student with special needs during their employment. Phenomenological approach and life-history method were used for researching the experience of parents who have children with special needs, describing trauma they went through. Document analysis is also frequently used technique in the research work of special educators. Besides encouraging our students to initiate qualitative research of inclusive practice, we developed our own studies, among which we would like briefly to present one of them. It started in year 2006, when we got opportunity to join an international project named as: Developments towards the Inclusive School: Practices – Research - Capacity Building, financed by the CPWP program of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Seven universities from six countries are included in the project: Belgrade, Ljubljana, Oslo, Sarajevo, Skopje, Tuzla and Zagreb. Each team selected own topic relevant to inclusive education and developed appropriate methodology for research. The objective of the research project was development of new knowledge and improvement of competence about a child with a Cochlear implant through inclusive classroom studies. Macedonian research team (Prof. Dr. Zora Jacova, coordinator, Prof. Dr. Natasa Angeloska-Galevska, main researcher and Alexandra Karovska, young researcher) initiated three-year action research in a regular classroom in which a child with cochlear implant is included.

The research problem is contextual one with the purpose to gain information that describe the situation and the difficulties that the pupils with Cochlear implant interface in a certain context, in Republic of Macedonia. In this rather complex research, methodological triangulation is used with qualitative methods like: participant observation and open interviews combined with scales and tests for assessing of student behaviour, communication, inter action and school achievements of the child. Related to learning and teaching activities, we follow the socio culture and culture-historical approach, where the main idea lies in Vygotsky theory for ‘the proximal zone of development’. We helped teacher in creating environment for development of potential strenghts of included child, paying more a�ention on communication and cooperation with more competent peers as tools for learning. 180

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Further we present only some results gained from the qualitative analyses of the teachers’ responses.

Qualitative Analysis

Themes of the open interviews with teachers who work in the inclusive classroom: 1. The effect of the impairment on the child’s educational activities 2. Social interaction of the child with his peers 3. Professional preparation of teachers 4. Adaptation of the curriculum 5. Special methods and forms of educational work 6. Treatment of the child by his teachers. Theme 1
Concept The impairment is a problem, it has an influence The impairment doesn’t have any significant influence Quotations from the teachers - The impairment certainly obstructs him to understand more complicated grammar forms - The impairment doesn’t have any special influence because I write everything on the board and sometimes if he doesn’t understand me I explain to him individually - In my opinion the impairment has no influence at all for this subject

Most of the teachers (8) think that the impairment certainly affects the child’s educational activities. In the answers of the teachers the overall concept is - The impairment is a problem and it is influencing the educational activities. A smaller number of the teachers (5) believe that the impairment is not so influential. Theme 2
Concept Positive social interaction with peers outside the inclusive classroom Quotations from the teachers - ...I see that in the school yard when I’m monitor, he is always with a group of children, boys or girls, he always has company. /

The impairment has no influence at all (generally)

Negative social interaction with peers outside the inclusive classroom

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Concept Positive social interaction in the inclusive classroom Negative social interaction in the inclusive classroom Quotations from the teachers - His friends constantly help him, even if they work individually. They guide him, they give him instructions. /

The general a�itude of the larger number of teachers (12) is that the child with a cochlear implant is well accepted in the inclusive classroom. They believe that there is neither apparent lack of acceptance by the child’s peers nor any negative social interactions in and outside the classroom. Theme 3
Concept No need for professional support Need for additional assistance by a special teacher / professional support Quotations from the teachers - Concretely for my subject I don’t need any additional assistance. - To be honest, I think that help from a special educator is necessary

Most of the teachers consider professional support necessary (10). They think that their qualifications can not initially respond to the needs of the child with the cochlear implant. Only a few teachers think that their qualifications are adequate because of the nature of the subject. (Ex. art)
Concept No assistance Assistance from the parents Assistance from the other pupils Assistance from the Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation Assistance from the professional service in our school Quotations from the teachers - I don’t get assistance, I do everything myself. - ...and the parents are involved, they help a lot... - Frankly I learned a lot from the pupils - I find the instructions from the department of special education and rehabilitation very useful - I get help from the professional service in the school: the pedagogue, the psychologist.

Regarding the teachers’ professional preparation, most of them (11) think that they need be�er qualifications or professional support like special educators and rehabilitators.

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Theme 4
Concept Use differentiation Quotations from the teachers - When there is need I make some adjustments like simplification of the material. - When there is need I make some adjustments like simplification of the material.

Don’t use differentiation

In the educational work with the child with cochlear implant most of the teachers (8) make an Individual Educational Plan, and the realisation of the teaching contents is done thru differentiation. Theme 5
Concept Use different educational methods and forms of work Quotations from the teachers - Because of the fact that there are no textbooks for this subject, I make concepts which I dictate to the pupils, and for him I make them in wri�en form. - Yes, I use the same methods with all pupils.

Use the same educational methods and forms of work

Most of the teachers (10) use the writing method, as the only different education method in regarding to the other pupils. Those teachers who don’t use different methods consider that there is no need for any adjustments, because of the very good feedback from the child. This is the case with subjects like art, gym, and technical education. Theme 6
Concept Equal treatment as the other peers Quotations from the teachers - It wouldn’t have any reforms. I have the same treatment with all pupils, it’s the same responsibility. /

Different treatment compared to the peers

Our research has shown that all the teachers (13) believe that the child with cochlear implant has an equal treatment by his teachers and his peers.

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Conclusion

Beside interviews, we analysed the recorded observations and together with teachers we discussed situations in classroom, pointing to the good and bad examples of behaviour. We had also provided professional support to the regular teachers in planning, implementing and assessing individual educational plan related to the child and the class that he a�ended. With these in one way we overtook the role of state institutions in upgrading a regular school for an inclusive practice. Educational intervention in this action research also contribute to be�er cooperation between the teachers, and with the parents of the child as well.

References

1. Акционен план за образование (2004). Декада на вклучување на ромите во РМ. Скопје. 2. Education Program (2008). Skopje. 3. Јачова, З. (2004). Инклузивното образование на децата со посебни потреби во Република Македонија. Дефектолошка теорија и практика, 1-2, pp. 35-46 4. На патот кон ЕУ: Придонесот на Граѓанското општество во креирање политиката за социјално вклучување во Р.М. (2008), Скопје. 5. Национална програма за развој на образованието во Република Македонија: 2005-2015, (2005) Скопје: Министерство за образование и наука на Република Македонија. 6. Национална стратегија за изедначување на правата на лицата со хендикеп во Република Македонија (2001), Службен весник, 101. 7. Roma Education Projects Portfolio (2008), Skopje. 8. Стратегија за интеграција на бегалци и странци во Р.М. 20082015, (2008), Скопје.

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INDEX

Academic ability

18, 138 academic skills 76, 125, 128, 139 Adams J. V. 170 adaptative function 12, 49, 175 Andrzejewski J. 28 anthropocentrism 29, 35 Appadurai A. 48 Archer M. 149 assistant teacher 105, 110. 113, 116, 176 association 18, 50, 54, 87, 174 Ayers W.119

Barco V. 16

behaviour 13, 56, 63, 67, 74, 100, 121, 148, 152, 174 Bell A. 28 Bergland Holen J. 122 Best S. 41 Binet A. 100 Bloom B. 82 Bogaj A. 138 Bogoyavlenska D. 8

Cahen L. S.

83 Canevaro A. 112 Capra F. 28 certificate program 39, 162 children 8, 118, 122, 139, 176 Chu G. C. 81 citizens 9, 32, 63, 124, 131, 141 civic education 27, 141 classroom 29, 45, 65, 70, 73, 107, 123, 132, 135 classroom relationships 65, 66, 71, 73, 76 cognitive development 13, 65 Cole A. G. 28 college 120, 143, 162, 164, 170, 172 communication 14, 33, 39, 75, 91, 155, 174, 178 community 39, 47, 51, 55, 83, 92, 97, 128, 147, 156, 162, 170 complex communication needs 174, 179 concept 7, 11, 13, 15, 28, 44, 56, 67, 93, 97, 150 Conner L. 120

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Index
Corman L. 38 creative abilities 15, 16, 18, 158 creative activity 12, 16, 151, 156, 158 criteria of gi�edness 17, 19, 23 critical pedagogy 28, 32, 40, 43 cultural contexts 28, 54 cultural heritage 49, 50, 62, 124 culture 10, 23, 30, 42, 48, 55, 60, 145, 150, 174 curriculum 29, 35, 42, 76, 92, 107, 125, 137, 143, 155, 163, 170 Czarnowski S. 61

Data analyse

81, 95, 126, 134 data collection 85, 119, 123 decentralization of educational systems 147, 157 democracy in school 96, 124, 145 Dennenberg D. 33 development 13, 25, 34, 57, 65, 73, 84, 95, 105, 124, 139, 152 development of gi�edness 19 Dewey J. 133 diagnostics 7, 17, 21, 28, 110, 117, 174 dialogue 32, 38, 43, 151, 157 discipline 45, 71, 94 dynamics of the relationship 64, 69

Ecological sustainability

28, 29 ecology 29, 35, 41 ecopedagogy 29, 32, 37, 40, 45 education 7, 27, 31, 40, 61, 84, 92, 101, 115, 123, 135, 143, 150, 162 educational achievement 82 educational center, educational organization 33, 101, 149, 154 educational integration 101 educational practice 8, 45, 93, 146, 148 educational theory 28, 30, 32 education researchers 42, 44, 92 educators 28, 34, 39, 45, 92, 119, 134, 143 effect 31, 49, 59, 79, 84, 97, 158 effect size 83, 86, 88 Eisler R. 40 elementary social substratum 59 empirical study 80, 84, 97 environmental education 27, 32, 36, 41 Erlenmeyer - Kimling L. 83, 83, 89 evaluation 62, 84, 91, 97, 158, 164, 170 examination 8, 16, 35, 81, 91, 158 expectation 27, 66, 72, 145 experience 8, 16, 27, 50, 60, 74, 99, 108, 133, 146, 156, 177 explanation 76, 79, 87, 101 Eyerman R. 31 Eysenck H. J. 82

Fawce� I. 28

feedback information 66, 71, 74, 95, 158, 163

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Filby N. N. 83 Fisz Z. 56 fluctuation 47, 53 formal inclusive education 101, 105, 116 formative evaluation 95 Fox L. 33 Freire P. 40

Gaard G. 36

Gado�i M. 28 gi�edness 7 Glass V. 83 global goal 147 graduate studies 35, 120, 153, 162 Greene W. 120 Gruenewald D. A. 28 Guilbuh J. Z. 16

Haraway D. 29

Hawking S. 176 Hay C. 28 Herbart J. F.B. 11 higher education, high school 31, 34, 92, 154, 170 Hoagland-Smith L. 121 Holl L. 14 homeland 49, 52, 59, 63 Houston D. 28 humane education 32, 34, 40, 44, human behaviour 56 human development 119

Ilić M. 111

imagination 14, 27, 40 inclusive education 99, 102, 105, 110, 114, 117 information 12, 45, 73, 83, 163, 169, 174, 184 information technology 7, 97, 163, 169 instructional method 92, 128, 132 integration 21, 53, 62, 80, 99, 109, 116, 143 intellectual abilities 17, 19 interview 9, 45, 68, 73, 177 intuition 14, 80

Jamison A. 31

Jarvik L. F. 83, 83–89 Jałowiecki B. 56 Johnson F. 138 Joy M. 30

Kahn R. 28

Kellner D. 27 King E. 170

187

Index
Klimchenko O. 10 knowledge 10, 23, 38, 79, 92, 122, 132, 152, 163, 174 Kucińska T. 141 Kulik C. L. C. 83 Kulik J. A. 83 Kundačina M. 95 Kupisiewicz C. 139 Kwieciński Z. 151

Lasarevsky S. V.

16 learning process 9, 15, 65, 72, 132, 148, 158, 170 lectures 63, 83, 92, 143 legislation 11, 109, 117, 148 lesson 69, 121, 154 life success 18, 34, 76, 93 local communities 47, 48, 59, 99, 147, 156 local milieu 58, 60

Manifestation

17, 21, 66 manipulation 62, 149 Mann T. 57 Matushkin A. 13 McGaw B. 83 McKenzie M. 28 McLaren P. 28 measure 17, 28, 82, 86, 94, 171 Meehl P. E. 81 mental ability 13, 15 meta-analysis 80, 85, 89 methodological model 82 methodology of education 79, 84, 146, 186 methodology of integration 81, 85 Miłosz Cz. 54 Mochnacki M. 61 Modrzewski A. F. 10 Molyako V. 12 motivation 13, 20, 87, 123, 130, 148 multicultural movement 28, 133 multiple disability 173, 179 Mužić V. 94

National system of education

natural environment 52, 58, 62 Nocella A. 28 nonformal education 31, 39 Nosal C. 151

137, 162

O’Sullivan E. 28

Ossowski S. 49 outdoor educators 27, 35, 39

188

Social Context of Education, Ljubljana 2009 Panuc V. I.
16 paradigm 14, 23, 31, 37, 45, 97, 121 parents 9, 16, 59, 76, 100, 106, 125, 131, 155 participation, participants 69, 77, 92, 123, 148, 154, 158, 166 pedagogical practice 94 pedagogical research 80, 84 pedagogical supervision 140 personal construct theory 66 Pestalozzi 11 Polak K. 148 Pope C. 27 Poznaniak W. 148 practice 8, 13, 30, 39, 77, 83, 94, 110, 123, 146 primary analysis 80, 85 production of knowledge 29 profession 13, 148, 155, 171 public school system 101, 123, 140, 162

Quality assessment

93 quantitative analyse 83, 93 quantitative integration 81 questionnaires 67, 112, 153

Rauber P. 27

reflection 54, 83, 134 regular class 101, 105, 107, 116 regular education 99, 102, 107, 115 Rensulli J. S. 13 Rousseau J. J. 11 Royzman B. E. 99 Rozin P. 99 Russell C. 28 Rybicki P. 54

Savičević D. 94

scholastics 10, 84 school education 11, 33, 66, 70, 92, 105 school management 152, 157 school principal 114, 149, 152, 158 Schramm W. 81 scientific methodology 80 secondary analysis 85, 87 secondary school 32, 110, 138, 143, 161, 163 Selby D. 32 self-development 150 self-education 150, 152 self-perception 65 Shepotko V. P. 18 Shor I. 40 Sikora R. 33 Singer P. 31

189

Index
Smith M. L. 28, 83 social behaviour 66, 122, 145 social communication 157 social group 49, 50, 147 social institution 138 social learning 65 social life 47, 59, 102, 105, 116, 146, 150 social movement 37, 39, 40 social progress 14, 48 social structures 48, 51, 60 society 7, 15, 23, 29, 41, 62, 92, 116, 145, 157 Sowa K. Z. 48 Spearmen C. 13 special school 101, 114, 177 standard 7, 20, 31, 40, 60, 72, 95, 108, 125, 143, 164 Stapp W. 27 statistical methods 82, 85, 88 Stepanova O. M. 12 Stern W. 11 subordination 9, 48 summative evaluation 95 supervisor 106, 157 Suzić N. 99 Szymański M. 139

Taylor K. 14

teacher 8, 18, 39, 44, 65, 70, 96, 105, 110, 120, 129, 141, 153, 158 teacher-activist 39, 96, 145 teacher education 120, 132, 137, 143 teacher expectations 71, 76 teacher training 111, 143, 150, 157 Teplov B. 13 textbooks 36, 92, 111, 154 theoretical approach 8, 21 theoretical model 13, 163 Torrans E. 14

Vincenz S. 57

vocational institution 139, 161, 163, 172 vocational school 139, 161, 163, 170 Voloschuk I. S. 18 volunteer tutors 92, 95, 143 Vygotsky L. 15

Watson B. J. 100

Weil Z. 32 wilderness-oriented pedagogies 29 workshop 33, 58, 154, 157

Yosso T. 32 190

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