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8, November 2010
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF NONLINEAR DISTORTIONS FOR DOWNLINK MCCDMA SYSTEMS
Labib Francis Gergis
Misr Academy for Engineering andTechnology Mansoura, Egypt drlabeeb@yahoo.com
AbstractMulticarrier (MC) scheme became a
promising technique for its spectral efficiency and robustness against frequencyselective fading. Multicarrier code division multiple access (MCCDMA) is a powerful modulation technique that is being considered in many emerging broadband communication systems. MCCDMA combines the advantages of multicarrier modulation with that of codedivision multiple access (CDMA) to offer reliable highdatarate downlink cellular communication services. The MCCDMA signals are a superposition of many narrowband signals and, as a result suffer from strong envelope fluctuations which make them very prone to nonlinear effects introduced by high power amplifier (HPA). HPA introduces conversion in both amplitude and phase. In this paper we have focused on the signals at the output of the nonlinear distorting device. A practical technique for determining the bit error rate (BER) of downlink MCCDMA systems using binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation scheme. The results are applicable to systems employing a coherent demodulation with maximal ratio combining (MRC) and equal gain combining (EGC). Keywords MCCDMA systems, high power amplifiers, nonlinear distortions, maximal ratio combining (MRC), equal gain combining (EGC).
advantages of spectrum efficiency, interference immunity, high data rate, and sensitivity to selective fading channels. Multicarrier Codeddivision multipleaccess (MCCDMA) appears to be a recommended candidate for future radio communication systems. It exploits the advantages of spread spectrum and the advantages of multicarrier systems [1]. MCCDMA signals are considered as superposition of many narrowband signals, and as a result suffer from strong envelope fluctuations which make them very prone to nonlinear effects introduced by high power amplifiers (HPA's) [2]. Power amplifiers (PA's) are vital components in many communication system. The linearity of a PA response constitutes an important factor that ensures signal integrity and reliable performance of the communication system. High power amplifiers in microwave range suffer from the effects of amplitude modulation to amplitude modulation distortion (AM/AM), and amplitude modulation to phase modulation distortion (AM/PM) [3], during conversions caused by the HPA amplifiers. These distortions can cause intermodulation (IM) distortion, which is undesirable to system designs. The effects of AM/AM and AM/PM distortions degrade the bit error rate performance of a communication channel.
1. INTRODUCTION
Future wireless radio networks need to make efficient use of the frequency spectrum by providing high capacity in terms of number of users allowed in the system. Due to the
The amplitude and phase modulation distortions are minimized using linearization method. The linearization method requires modeling the characteristics of the amplitude distortion and phase distortion of the HPA. A Saleh model [4] for traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifiers, has been used to provide the linearization method and applied to measured data from HPA that characterize
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the distortion caused by the HPA. The measured data provides a performance curve indicating nonlinear distortion. The forward Saleh model is a mathematical equation that describes the amplitude and phase modulation distortions of the HPA.
The BER analysis of MCCDMA based on considering different kinds of assumptions, so far, have been dedicated in numerous researches in advance . Performance enhancement of MCCDMA system through, space time trellis code (STTC) site diversity with multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technique was introduced in [5]. A method efficiently suppressing multiple access interferences (MAI) in MCCDMA to improve the system capacity was proposed in [6]. The performance of fully loaded downlink MCCDMA systems in the presence of residual frequency offset (RFO) in multipath Rayleigh fading channels with minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalizers was presented in [7]. The performance analysis of MCCDMA communication systems over Nakagamim fading channels was considered in [8]. A downlink MCCDMA system using binary phaseshift keying (BPSK) modulation scheme and maximal ratio combining (MRC) in frequencyselective Rician fading channels was illustrated in [9]. The aim of this paper is to analyze the influences of the effects of the nonlinear distortions introduced by HPA in downlink MCCDMA over Rayleigh fading channel for mobile satellite communication systems. The structure of this paper is as follows. The basic principles model of transmitter system is presented and described in more details in section 2. Section 3 summarizes the HPA baseband models, which is most commonly used in mobile satellite communication systems. Subsequently in section 4, the channel model is described. The receiver model will be described in section 5. Performance analysis of linearized downlink MCCDMA based signal is carried out for both EGC and MRC.
2. MCCDMA TRANSMITTER MODEL
The input data symbols, am [k], are assumed to be binary antipodal where k denotes the kth bit interval and m denotes the mth user. It is assumed that am [k] takes on values of 1 and +1 with equal probability. As shown in Figure. 1, a single data symbol is replicated into N parallel copies. Each branch of the parallel stream is multiplied by a chip from a spreading code of length N. Each copy is then binary phaseshift keying (BPSK) modulated to a subcarrier spaced apart from its neighboring subcarriers by F/Tb Hz where F is an integer number. An MCCDMA signal consists of the sum of the outputs of these branches. As illustrated in Figure. 1, the transmitted signal for MCCDMA system corresponding to the kth data bit of the mth user is [10]
Sm(t) = ∑ Cm[i] am [k] ·
i=0
N1
cos ( 2π fct + 2πi (F/Tb)t PTb (tkTb)
Cm[i] Є { 1 , 1 }
·
(1)
where Cm[0], Cm[1], ……, Cm[N1] represent the spreading code of the mth user and PTb (t) is an unit amplitude pulse that is nonzero in the interval [0,Tb].
Fig. 1 Transmitter Model of MCCDMA System
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3. NONLINEARITY EFFECTS ON MCCDMA SIGNAL
The response of broadband power amplifiers can have precarious memory effect. The influence of a memoryless nonlinearity U(.) can be decomposed into an amplitude distortion (AM/AM) and a phase distortion (AM/PM), which are both functions of the amplitude of the input signal to HPA. The complex signal So(t) at the output of HPA, can be defined as [11] So(t) = U{Sm(t)} = A (│Sm(t)│)
subsequently results in increasing the bit error rate (BER), and the outofband energy radiation ( spectral spreading ).
.
(2)
exp ( j Φ(│Sm(t)│)) Sm(t)
A[Sm(t)] and Φ[Sm(t)] are the corresponding AM/AM and AM/PM characteristics respectively, both dependent exclusively on Ux, which is the input modulus to HPA, they are defined as Saleh Model for HPA [12]:
Fig. 2. AM/AM and AM/PM characteristics of the Saleh model For TWTA HPA' s
A[Ux] = αa Ux Φ[Ux] = αΦ Ux
/ /
1 + βa U2x 1 + βΦ U2x
(3)
The values of αa, βa , αΦ and βΦ are defined in [3]. The corresponding AM/AM and AM/PM curves so scaled are depicted in Fig. 2. While for solid state power amplifier types (SSPA's) AM/AM and AM/PM can be defined as
The operating point of HPA is defined by input backoff (IBO) parameter which corresponds to the ratio of saturated output power (Po), and the average input power ( Pav) [13] : IBOdB= 10 log10 ( Po / Pav) (6) The measure of effects due to the nonlinear HPA could be decreased by the selection of relatively high values of IBO The output of HPA defined in Fig. 3, is expressed as
A[Ux] = Ux Φ[Ux] = 0
/
[1 + (Ux / Amax )2p]1/2p
(4)
by =
Amax is the maximum output amplitude, and p is a constant controls the smoothness of the transition. Amax = max ( A[Ux] ) = αa As / 2 (5)
A [ Ux ] ej(αx+ Φ[Ux])
(7)
where the inputoutput functional relation of the HPA has been defined as a transfer function. Hence in order to obtain linearization, it may be necessary to estimate a discrete inverse multiplicative function HPA1 [.] such that
where As is the input saturation amplitude equals 1 / √ βa The HPA operation in the region of its nonlinear characteristic causes a nonlinear distortion of a transmitted signal, that
bx = by . HPA1 [Uy]
(8)
An alternative expression for the AM/AM distortion in (7), convenient for the theoretical formulation of the linearizer, is obtained by
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multiplying the saturation input amplitude As in the expression (3). This gives
A[Ux] = (A2s αa Ux)
/ (A2s + A2s βa U2x) A[Ux] = (A2s αa Ux) / (A2s + U2x)
(9)
bandwidth. This is achieved by predistortion of the signal prior to amplification with the inverse characteristics of the distortion that will be imposed by the power amplifier. Thus the output of the HPA is a linear function of the input to the predistorter . PD bx bpout HPA by
The theoretical AM/AM inverse transfer function A1[.]could be determined by solving (9) for Ux = A { A1 [Ux] }
[u] =
( A2s αa / 2U ) 1 
·
2
1 – ( 2U / As αa )
(10)
Fig. 4. Basic System Functional Diagram of Predistortion Linearization
Considering the alternative configurations shown in Fig. 3, where the same inputoutput function is applied as a predistorter [PD] for the linearization of the same HPA. Letting ψ[.] denote the AM/PM characteristic of the PD block. For the case of a Predistortion, we have [12] :
A description of the ideal theoretic AM/AM and AM/PM inverse characteristics, valid for the normalized Saleh's HPA model is shown in Fig. 5
bpout = A1 [ Ux ] e by =
j(αx+ ψ[Ux])
(11)
A A1 [ Ux ]
·
(12)
ej(αx+ ψ[Ux] +Φ[A1[Ux] )
bx
PD ( A1, ψ )
bpout
HPA ( A, Φ )
by
Fig. 3. Predistortion for HPA Linearization The ideal AM/PM correction requires that Fig. 5. AM/AM and AM/PM predistortion for the Saleh model (13)
ψ[Ux] =  Φ { A1[Ux] } bpin = A [ Ux ] e by = A1 {
j(αx+ Φ[Ux])
4. CHANNEL MODEL
(14) A frequencyselective fading channel with 1/Tb << BWc << F/Tb is considered, where BWc is the coherence bandwidth. Each modulated subcarrier with transmission bandwidth of 1/Tb does not experience significant dispersion (Tb >> Td). Doppler shifts are very small, it is also assumed that the amplitude and phase remain constant over the symbol duration, Tb.
A [ Ux ] } ·
(15)
ej(αx+ Φ[Ux] +ψ[A1[Ux] )
Predistortion linearization idea, as depicted in Fig. 4, can be used to linearize over a wide
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For downlink transmissions, a terminal receives interfering signal designated for other users (m = 1, 2, …., M1) through the same channel as the wanted signal (m=0), the transfer function of the continuoustime fading channel for all transmissions from the base station to user m = 0 can be represented as H (fc + i F/Tb) = ρm,i e jθm,i (16)
where ρm,i , and θm,i, are the random amplitude and phase of the channel of the mth user at frequency fc + i (F/Tb ). ρm,,i are assumed to be independent and identically distributed (IID) Rayleigh random variables. The random phases , θm,i are assumed to be IID random variables uniform on the interval of {0 , 2π} for all users and subcarriers.
Fig. 6 Receiver Model
After adding the subcarrier signals together, the combined signal is then integrated and sampled to yield decision, Vo. For the kth bit, the decision variable is Vo = ∑
m=0 M1 N1
5. RECEIVER MODEL
For M active transmitters, the received signal is [10]
∑
ρm,i Cm[i] di am [k]
· ·
i=0
∫ cos (2π fct +
kTb
(k+1)Tb
2πF [i/Tb]t + θm,i )
r(t) = ∑ ∑ ρm,i Cm[i] am [k] ·
m=0 i=0
M1 N1
cos ( 2π fct + 2πF [i/Tb]t + θm,i )dt + η (18) (17) where the corresponding AWGN term, η, is given as η =
cos ( 2π fct + 2πi [F/Tb]t + θm,i ) + n (t) where n(t) is additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The localmean power at the ith subcarrier of the mth user is defined to be ρm,i = Eρ2m,i / 2. Assuming the localmean powers of the subcarriers are equal, the total localmean power of the mth user is equal to pm, = N pm,i . As shown in Figure. 6, the first step in obtaining the decision variable involves demodulating each of subcarriers of the received signal, which includes applying a phase correction, θi , and multiplying the ith subcarrier signal by a gain correction, di.
∑
i=0
N1
(k+1)Tb
∫
n(t) (2/Tb) di
·
(19)
kTb
cos (2π fct + 2πF [i/Tb]t + θm,i )dt
Considering the two standard diversity reception techniques: Equal Gain Combining (EGC) and Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) With EGC, the gain correction factor at the ith subcarrier is given as d0,i = c0 [i] (20)
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This scheme yields the decision variable Vo = ao [k] ao [k]
2 with MRC (21)
∑
i=0
N1
ρ,i0 + βint + η
BER = P 0 Tb 1/2 erfc
2( M 1)
∑
i=0
N1
ρ,i0 represents the desired signal, and
(27) (1π/4)P0Tb+N0 N
the interference term,
βint,
is defined by

βint = ∑ ∑
m=0 i=0
M1 N1
Cm[i] am [k] C0[i] ρm,i cos θ m,i (22)
7. NUMERICAL RESULTS
A fair measure is given by using the normalized minimal signaltonoise ratio SNRo = 10 log (PoTb / No) (dB) (28)
For MRC scheme, the gain correction factor at the ith subcarrier is given as d0,i = ρ0,i c0 [i] (23)
The decision variable for MRC scheme is expressed as Vo = ao [k]
∑
i=0
N1
ρ2,i0 + βint + η
(24)
where, the interference term, this case by
M1 N1 i=0
βint,
which is needed to achieve the wanted BER. Tb is the equivalent duration for one information bit, No is the two sided spectral noise density, and Po is the given reference power of HPA. The SNRo can be minimized by optimization of the HPA backoff. This becomes more clear, when eq. (6) is used in eq. (28) : SNRo = 10 log (PoTb Pav / No Pav ) = 10 log (Eb / No) + OBO (29)
is defined in
βint = ∑ ∑ Cm[i] am [k]C0[i]ρm,i ρo,i cos θ m,i
m=0
(25)
6. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
The downlink BER had been calculated as [10]
1with EGC BER = π
4 2( M 1)
The average downlink bit error rate (BER) versus the number of interferes are examined. For the sake of comparison, the BER for both types of diversity, EGC and MRC are illustrated under interferers numbers, N = 32, 64, and 128 , with SNR = 10 dB in Figures 7, and 8. It can be seen that for a small numbers of users, MRC outperforms EGC. It was also demonstrated the PD effect to mitigate the nonlinearity distortions introduced from HPA in Fig. 9, and Fig. 10.
P 0 Tb (26) (1π/4)P0Tb+N0 N
1/2 erfc
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1.e+0 SNR = 10 dB
1.e+0 1.e1 1.e2 EGC case N = 128 N = 128
1.e1
1.e3 1.e4
1.e2
BER
1.e5
BER
1.e6 1.e7 1.e8 1.e9
1.e3
1.e4
1.e10
N = 128 N = 64 N = 32
1.e11 1.e12 1.e13
with PD (m=0 interferers) with PD ( m = 0) without PD (oBo=5 dB) (m=0 interferers) with PD (m =70 interferers) without PD (oBo = 5 dB) (m = 70 interferers)
1.e5 0 50 100 150 200 250 No of Interferers
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
SNR dB
Fig. 7. BER versus the No. of Interferers for EGC case
Fig. 9. BER versus the SNR using PD for EGC case
1.e+0 SNR = 10 dB 1.e1
1.e+0 1.e1 1.e2 1.e3 1.e4 1.e5 1.e6 1.e7 MRC case N = 128
1.e2
BER
BER
1.e3
1.e8 1.e9 1.e10
1.e4
1.e11 1.e12
with PD (m = 0 interferers) without PD (oBo = 5 dB) (m = 0 interferers) with PD (m = 70 interferers) without PD (oBo = 5 dB) (m = 70 interferers)
1.e5
N = 128 N = 64 N = 32
1.e13 1.e14 1.e15 1.e16 0
1.e6 0 50 100 150 200 250 No of Interferers
5
10
15 SNR
20 dB
25
30
35
Fig. 8. BER versus the No. of Interferers for MRC case
Fig. 10. BER versus the SNR using PD for MRC case
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8. CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, the downlink transmission in MCCDMA systems with nonlinear HPA of transmitter over frequencyselective fading channels was considered. This paper presented results on a novel modulation, diversity, and multiple access technique. For two diversity techniques considered, MRC performed better than EGC. The performance of MCCDMA would be affected by nonlinearities introduced from HPA's in the transmitter. From previous discussions and plotted results, it can be concluded that in order to reduce the sensitivity of a MCCDMA system to the nonlinear amplification, it is recommended to choose a special technique to mitigate these distortions. PD schemes had been selected to do this mission, they attended to achieve a significantly improve overall system performance.
REFERENCES
[1] J. Iong, and Z. Chen, " Theoretical Analysis of an MCCDMA System in Cellular Environments" Journal of Science and Engineering Technology, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 3750, 2010. [2] M. Frikel, S. Safi, B. Targui, and M. Saad," Channel Identification Using Chaos for an Uplink/Downlink Multicarrier Code Division Multiple Access System", JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, Vol. 1, pp. 4854, 2010. [3] M. Chen, and O. Collins, " Multilevel Coding for Nonlinear ISI Channels", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY. VOL. 55, NO. 5, MAY 2009. [4] J. Gazda, P. Drotar, D. Kocur, and P. Galajda," Performance Improvements of MCCDMA Microstatistic MultiUser Detection in Nonlinear Fading Channels Using Spreading Code Selection," TUBITAK. Turk J Elec Engin. VOL. 8, NO. 1, April 2009.
[5] N. Kumaratharan, S. Jayapriya, and P. Dananjayan, " Performance Enhancement of MCCDMA System through STBC based STTC Site Diversity", International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 1, February, 2010. [6] B. Ness, "EQUAL BER POWER CONTROL FOR UPLINK MCCDMA WITH MMSE SUCCESSIVE INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION," Patent No. US 7,620,096 B2, Nov. 2009. [7] P. Reddy, and V. Reddy," BER Degradation of MCCDMA at high SNR with MMSE Equalization and Residual Frequency Offset," EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Volume 2009, Article ID 293264, 2009. [8] J. Iong, and Z. Chen, " PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MCCDMA COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS OVER NAKAGAMIM ENVIRONMENTS", Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 5863, 2006. [9] Z. Hou, and V. dubey, " BER Performance for Downlink MCCDMA Systems over Rician Fading Channels", EURASIP Journal on Applier Signal Processing, pp. 709717, 2005. [10] N. Yee, J. Linnartz, and G. Fettweis," MULTICARRER CDMA IN INDOOR WIRELESS RADIO NETWORKS", The Fourth International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PACIFICO YOKOHAMA, JAPAN, September. 1993. [11] A. Perotti, P. Rrmlein, and S. Benedetto, " Adaptive Coded ContinuousPhase Modulations for FrequencyDivision Multiuser Systems", ADVANCES IN ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 1, NO. 1, APRIL 2010 [12] S. Chang, "An efficient compensation of TWTA's nonlinear distortion in wideband OFDM systems", IEICE Electronics Express, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 111116, 2009. [13] T.Tan," POWER AMPLIFIER MODELING AND POWER AMPLIFIER PREDISTORTION IN OFDM SYSTEM", Journal of Science & Technology Development, Vol 11, No.02  2008
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