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Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010

Fuzzy expert system for evaluation of

students and online exams

1

Mohammed E. Abd-Alazeem

Computer science department,

Faculty of computers and information,

Mansoura Egypt,

mmandouh_work@yahoo.com

Abstract- In this paper we will introduce an expert

system for evaluation of online exam. We use fuzzy

system for classifying students based on their usage

data and the final marks obtained in their respective

courses. We have used real data from nine Moodle

courses with Mansoura University Pharmacy students

and apply techniques on two hundred students. This

expert system will be able to facilitate education and

play the role to play the role of virtual intelligent

teacher referring to student capabilities by following

the feedback mechanisms and will evaluate the online

exams and questions to measure the difficulty level of

exams.

The main components of this expert system are

Inference Engine, Knowledge Acquisition Facility and

Knowledge-base that construct back-end of the

system. We realize the model by a fuzzy rule-based

expert system with its inference engine that uses

various inference methods for education.

Keywords: Fuzzy rule base, Knowledge base, Inference

engine

I. INTRODUCTION

Modern information management systems

enable the recording and the management of data

using sophisticated data models and a rich set of

management tools. In the context of educational

systems, the information typically includes details

about learning material, the tasks and the objectives,

the course information, the contact information, the

teacher and the student profiles, and the information

related to student assignments, the tests, the grades,

and other records[1].

In this paper, we seek means to model the

imprecision of information and simplify the access

to information systems, in terms of fuzzy modeling.

The paper is organized as follows. Section 2

presents the knowledge base of expert system for

student grades assessment Section 3 discuss the

components of fuzzy rule based controller. Section 4

2

Sherief I. Barakat,

Information system department,

Faculty of computers and information,

Mansoura ,Egypt,

sherifiib@yahoo.com

describes the results of the assessment students and

online exams. Section 5 shows the feedback of

evaluating students and online exams. Section 6

concludes the work and indicates future research

directions.

II. Knowledgebase expert system

All needed data is acquired from a teacher and

stored in a “Knowledge Based” which should be

able to face student training and their up growing

problem. [2] We use knowledge base expert system

as follow to model knowledge domain “fig.1”

Figure1. Knowledge base expert system

Global Data Base consists of student state variables,

teaching state variables and exam state variables

• Student state variable (xi):

x1-Exercise grade for every student

x2-Exam grade for every student

x3- Interesting course

x4- Student level

• Teaching state variable (yi):

y1- Difficulty level exam

y2-Teaching content

y3-Teaching method

y4-Teaching schedule

y5- Degree of course usages

y6- Degree of creating motivation.

125 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010

.

• Exam state variable (zi)

z1- Exam average grade

z2- Exam level

Fuzzy logic was primarily designed to represent and

reason with some particular form of knowledge.

Fuzzy logic is powerful problem solving

methodology with a myriad of applications in

embedded control and information processing.

Fuzzy systems are mathematically based systems

that enable computers to deal with

imprecise, ambiguous, or uncertain information and

situations.

Fuzzy set theory was proposed in 1965 by

Zadeh to help computers reason with uncertain

and ambiguous information. Zadeh proposed

fuzzy technology as a means to model the

uncertainty of natural language [3]. He

reasoned that many difficult problems can be

expressed much more easily in terms of

linguistic variables. Linguistic variables are

words and attributes which are used to describe

certain aspects of the real world. One

important feature of linguistic variables is the

notion of their utility as an expression of data

compression. Zadeh describes this as

compression granulation. He argues that this is

important because it is more general than use

of discrete values. This point means that an

agent using linguistic variables may be able to

deal with more continuous and robust

descriptions of reality and problem spaces. Our

approach is to design a fuzzy rule base system

to control training process.

III. FUZZY RULE BASED

This system is designed for evaluating and

teaching the students so that the resulting control

system will reliably and safely achieve high

performance operation.

A block diagram of fuzzy system is shown in

“Fig.2” Basically in fuzzy control system, there are

four major stages to accomplish the control process:

[4]

• Fuzzy input and output variables & their

fuzzy value

• Fuzzy rule base

• Fuzzy inference engine

• Fuzzification and defuzzification modules

Figure2. Fuzzy System

A. Fuzzy Inference Process

A fuzzy system works similar to a

conventional system: it accepts an input value,

performs some calculations, and generates an output

value. This process is called the Fuzzy Inference

Process and works in three steps illustrated in

“Fig.3” [5]:

• Fuzzification where a crisp input is translated

into a fuzzy value.

• Rule Evaluation, where the fuzzy output truth

values are computed, and

• Defuzzification where the fuzzy output is

translated to a crisp value.

Figure3. Fuzzy System Process

B. Fuzzification

Fuzzification where a crisp input is translated

into a fuzzy value.

The membership functions defined on the input

variables are applied to their actual values to

determining the degree of truth.

For example for the fuzzification crisp inputs, x1

and y1 and determine the degree to which these

inputs belong to each of the appropriate fuzzy sets

(Figure 3).

At first it gets inputs and then fuzzifies them. After

fuzzification, make decision through fuzzy inference

engine according to fuzzy rule based system.

C. The Fuzzy Inference engine fuzzy rule based:

This is an interface for fuzzifying the user-

requested parameters of the test items. The fuzzified

parameters, along with a set of fuzzy rules, are then

sent to an expert system to perform the inference

process.

Crisp Input

Fuzzy Input

Fuzzy Output

Crisp Output

Fuzzification

Rule Evaluation

Defuzzification

126 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

D. Defuz

Defu

fuzzy va

Defuzzi

a fuzzy s

a crisp s

matrix;

number

A. Eva

We

average

exam y1

level (z2

should b

Figure

Fuzzy ru

follows:

R1: If z1

R2: If z

moderate

R3: If z1

R4: If z1

R5: If z

moderate

R6: If z

difficult

R7: If z1

R8: If z

difficult

zzification

uzzification is a

ariable into a un

ification proces

set into a crisp

set; to convert

or to convert

. [6]

IV. EXPR

luating an onl

consider two f

grade z1 (Fig

1 (Fig4.b). And

2). Membershi

be as follows (0

e4. Membershi

grade (z1) and

ule base for ev

1 is high and y

z1 is high and

e

1 is high and y

1 is medium an

1 is medium a

e

z1 is medium

1 is low and y1

z1 is low and

a process of co

nique number.

ss has the capa

single-valued

t a fuzzy matr

a fuzzy numb

RIMENTS AN

ine exam

fuzzy input va

g4.a) and diff

d the output w

ip function of

0 ≤ µ≤ 1).[7]

Fig 4-a

Fig 4-b

ip function of e

d difficulty lev

valuating exam

1 is high Then

d y1 is mediu

1 is low Then z

nd y1 is high Th

and y1 is med

m and y1 is lo

is high Then z

d y1 is mediu

(IJCSIS)

onverting outpu

ability to reduc

quantity or int

rix into a cris

ber into a cris

ND RESULTS

ariables as exam

ficulty level o

will be the exam

f z1, y1 and z

exam average

vel (y1)

m is designed a

z2 is easy

um Then z2 i

z2 is moderate

hen z2 is easy

dium Then z2 i

ow Then z2 i

z2 is moderate

um Then z2 i

International Jo

ut

ce

to

sp

sp

m

of

m

z2

as

is

is

is

is

R9:

TAB

L

Me

h

For

1-

gr

(S

Ex

2-

Fo

Di

Whe

the

corr

exam

Firs

is tr

By

“Fig

µA(

µB(

By a

if µA

µA(

if µA

µA(

if µB

µA(

if µB

µA(

Seco

truth

Acc

∆z2

ournal of Compu

If z1 is low an

BLE1. Fuzzy R

L

Low Diff

edium Diff

high Mod

Exam "Cyptol

Exam averag

ade) is calculat

um of student

xam average gr

Exam difficu

ollowing form

ifficulty: [8]

ere denote

number of ex

rectly, and

minees. Exam

st we can apply

anslated into a

applying Tria

g 4.a”

(z1) = 60%

z1) = 20%

applying infere

A(x1) = 60% a

(z2) = 20%

A(z1) = 60% a

(z2) = 60%

B(x1) = 40% a

(z2) = 20%

B(z1) = 40% a

(z2) = 40%

ond: Rule Ev

h values are co

cording to fuzzy

= µA(z2) = 20

uter Science and

Vol. 8, N

nd y1 is low Th

Rules for exam

Low Med

fficult Diff

fficult Mod

derate Mod

logy" course:

ge grade for

ted as:

ts grades)/no o

rade = 66%

ulty level

mula for calc

ed the item dif

xaminees that

denoted th

difficulty level

y fuzzification

a fuzzy value,

angle Membe

µA(y1) = 20

µB(y1) = 80

ence mechanism

and µA(y1) = 2

and µB(y1) = 8

and µA(y1) = 2

and µB(y1) = 8

valuation, wher

omputed.

y based rule, w

0% "Easy"

d Information Sec

No. 8, Novembe

hen z2 is difficu

m evaluation

dium H

ficult Mod

derate Ea

derate Ea

all students (

of students

culating the

fficulty, de

answered the

he total numb

l = 62%

n where a crisp

ership Functio

0%

0%

m

20% then

80% then

20% then

0% then

re the fuzzy o

we find

Rule 1

curity,

er 2010

ult

igh

derate

asy

asy

(exam

Exam

enoted

e item

ber of

p input

on for

output

127 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010

.

∆z2 = µB(z2) = 60% "Moderate" Rule 2

Third: We will apply defuzzification where the

fuzzy output is translated to a crisp value[9] shown

in (figure 5).

The center of gravity is calculated as follow:

COG =

] µA(x)xdx

b

c

] µA(x)dx

h

a

=

û.ó-óû+û,2-7û

û.2+û.ó

= 62.5

Figure5. Defuzzification Result for Exam

Evaluation

Then the exam level is "Moderate".

B. Evaluating students

We consider two fuzzy input variables as exam

grade x3 (figure 6.a) and difficulty level of exam y1

(figure 6.b) and the output will be the student level

(x4). Membership function of x3, y1 and x4 should

be as follows (0 ≤ µ≤ 1).

Fig 6-a

Fig 6-b

Figure 6. Membership function of student grade

(x1) and difficulty level (y1)

Fuzzy rule base for evaluating student is designed as

follows:

R1: If x1 is low and y1 is low Then x4 is fail

R2: If x1 is low and y1 is medium Then x4 is fail

R3: If x1 is low and y1 is high Then x4 is pass

R4: If x1 is low and y1 is very high Then x4 is pass

R5: If x1 is medium and y1 is low Then x4 is fail

R6: If x1 is medium and y1 is medium Then x4 is

pass

R7: If x1 is medium and y1 is high Then x4 is good

R8: If x1 is medium and y1 is very high Then x4 is

good

R9: If x1 is high and y1 is low Then x4 is pass

R10: If x1 is high and y1 is medium Then x4 is pass

R11 If x1 is high and y1 is high Then x4 is good

R12: If x1 is high and y1 is very high Then x4 is

excellent

R13: If x1 is very high and y1 is low Then x4 is

pass

R14: If x1 is very high and y1 is medium Then x4 is

good

R15: If x1 is very high and y1 is high Then x4 is

excellent

R16: If x1 is very high and y1 is very high Then x4

is excellent

TABLE 2. Fuzzy Rules for student evaluation

Low Medium High Very High

Low Fail Fail Pass Pass

Mediu

m

Fail Pass Good Good

high Pass Pass Good Excellent

Very

High

Pass Good Excellent Excellent

For student "student ID 1008":

1- Exam grade for this student is :

Student grade = 77%

2-Exam difficulty level

Exam difficulty level = 62%

First we can apply fuzzification where a crisp input

is translated into a fuzzy value,

By applying Triangle Membership Function for Fig

6-a

µA(x1) = 10% µA (y1) = 85%

µB(x1) = 90% µB (y1) = 15%

By applying inference mechanism

if µA(x1) = 10% and µA(y1) = 85% then

µA(x4) = 10%

1

Low Moderate High Very High

20 40 60 80 100 0

1

Low Moderate High Very High

20 40 60 80 100 0

128 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010

.

if µA(x1) = 10% and µB(y1) = 15% then

µA(x4) = 10%

if µB(x1) = 90% and µA(y1) = 85% then

µA(x4) = 85%

if µB(x1) = 90% and µB(y1) = 15% then

µA(z2) = 15%

Second: Rule Evaluation, where the fuzzy output

truth values are computed.

According to fuzzy based rule, we can use

∆x4 = µA(x4) = 10% "Excellent" Rule 16

∆x4 = µB(x4) = 85% "Excellent" Rule 12

Third: We will apply defuzzification where the

fuzzy output is translated to a crisp value.

COG = 78

Then the student level is "Excellent".

V. FEEDBACK FOR EVALUATING

SRUDENTS AND ONLINE EXAM

We can classify exams according to our

expert system in to 3 levels: Easy, Moderate and

Difficult.[10] Then we have exam store for

Pharmacy students for Mansoura University so we

can evaluate this exams and give the feedback to the

instructor to be a good reference for exam

evaluation, so the results is as follow in Table[3] :

TABLE3. Results for exam evaluation

Course Level

Cartilage and Bone Online Exam Difficult

Cytology for Clinical Pharmacy Exam Difficult

Group I Online Exam of Immune

System

Easy

CVS Online Exam Moderate

Urinary, Male, and Female Online

Exam

Moderate

Online Exam of Muscular Tissue Easy

Modifications, Glands & CT Exam Difficult

Med-Term Exam for Clinical

Pharmacy

Moderate

Second Med-Term Exam for CP Difficult

The student assessment is very important because a

good assessment let the instructor to have a correct

decision for student follow up.

We classify student in to 4 levels: fail, pass, good

and excellent. [11] So according to "Cyptology"

Course the students level are as shown in Table

TABLE 4. Results for student evaluation

Student ID Grade Level

1006 63% Good

1007 87% Excellent

1008 77% Excellent

1009 52% Pass

1011 38% Fail

1014 83% Excellent

1052 60% Good

1062 30% Fail

CONCOLUSION

Fuzzy expert system and fuzzy rule based is a great

step forward for the adaptation of the accessible

knowledge for the student according to the feedback

obtain from the evaluating system.

It's also considered a good reference for instructor to

evaluate the exam level and the quality assurance

organization is benefit from this evaluation.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

First of all, I thank Allah for achieving this paper

and giving me the ability to finish it. Second, I

would like to express my appreciation to my

supervisor Dr. Sherief Barakat for his continuous

support and encouragement during the research

study in this thesis. He really influenced my way of

thinking and developing the research ideas adopted

in this thesis. I am very grateful for his effort and

his highly useful advice throughout the development

of this work.

REFRENCES

[1] Henry Nasution, "Design methodology of fuzzy

logic control", Journal Teknos-2k, Universitas Bung

Hatta, Vol.2, No.2, December (2002).

[2] Ishiburchi, H., Nozaki, K., and Tanaka, H.

“Distributed Representation of Fuzzy Rules and Its

Application to Pattern Classification. Fuzzy Sets

and Systems”, Vol. 52,pp. 21-32. 1992.

[3] Zadeh, L. A. “Fuzzy sets. Information and

Control”, Vol. 8, pp. 338-353. 1965.

[4] Takagi,T. and Sugeon, "Fuzzy identification of

System and Its Applications to Modeling and

Control", vol. 15, no. 1, 116-132, 1985.

[5] GAO Xinbo (1) XIE Weixin(2)," Advances in

theory and applications of fuzzy clustering",

Institute of Electronic Engineering, China, 2000.

[6] H.Bevrani, "Defuzzification", University of

Kurdistan Department of Electrical & Computer

Eng, Spring Semester, 2009.

[7] J. Harris ,"Fuzzy Logic Applications in

Engineering Science", vol 29,2003.

[8] S. J. Osterlind, "Constructing Test Items:

Multiple-choice, Constructed-response,

129 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010

.

Performance, and Other Formats", London, United

Kingdom: Springer, 1998.

[9] Sudarshan, Pavankiran, Swetha Krishnan and G

Raghurama, "Fuzzy Logic Approach for

Replacement Policy in Web Caching", Indian,

December 2005, ISBN: 0-9727412-1-6, pp 2308-

2319.

[10] Arriaga, F. de, Alami, M. El., & Arriaga, A,

"Evaluation of Fuzzy Intelligent Learning Systems".

Spain, November 2005.

[11] Nykänen, "Inducing Fuzzy Models for or

Student Classification". Educational Technology &

Society, vol 2, pp 223-234, 2006.

130 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

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In this paper we will introduce an expert system for evaluation of online exam. We use fuzzy system for classifying students based on their usage data and the final marks obtained in their respecti...

In this paper we will introduce an expert system for evaluation of online exam. We use fuzzy system for classifying students based on their usage data and the final marks obtained in their respective courses. We have used real data from nine Moodle courses with Mansoura University Pharmacy students and apply techniques on two hundred students. This expert system will be able to facilitate education and play the role to play the role of virtual intelligent teacher referring to student capabilities by following the feedback mechanisms and will evaluate the online exams and questions to measure the difficulty level of exams. The main components of this expert system are Inference Engine, Knowledge Acquisition Facility and Knowledge-base that construct back-end of the system. We realize the model by a fuzzy rule-based expert system with its inference engine that uses various inference methods for education.

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