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. 61, No. 4 (Dec., 1978), pp. 950-952 Published by: American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/340948 Accessed: 22/06/2010 10:30
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In 1977 there were some fifty-five now has tutorial aides and resource teachelementary schools within the county with ers.SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE THE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS Conducted by LEONOR LAREW* A. stressing vocabulary speaking. 87 percent is Spanish child in structured learning situations and in nonstructuredones. N. general learning process to minimize the Leonor A. Geneseo. and to The Head Start Program in Encinitas a lesser degree from Title I and Title II. According to Janice Genevro. whereas in San relates. The program munity. providesa bilingual environment for eighty Within the city AB2284 provided funds three.and four-year-olds of low-income for fifty-two classrooms in fifteen schools. but rather by In Encinitas. Both languages are used in this * Articles for this section may be sent to Prof. New York State University disjunction between home and school. 144 54.very young children acquire linguistic unlingualism. second language for those who desire it.group. A verbal environment is created for the Ysidro.lines of communication between school vide for early acquisition of Spanish as a and home. coTitle VII supported eighteen classes in five ordinator of the program.dren of agriculturalworkers.word and the object or action to which it lation speaks Spanish. Spanish words for temporaland spatial ploys numerous Mexicans in the flower. and language from AB2284 and ten received funds from teaching is done as part of the total daily Title VII. the San Diego community bordering on Mexico. The teaching of English in the Head The programsare set up not only to teach Start Program is based on the theory that English and Spanish but to maintain bi. as percentage of Spanish speakersin the area. families. College.ple. sixty percent of schools. Thus Programsvary depending largely on the English is not taught through Spanish. In July of 1975 the Mi. and from Federal Grant Title VII. The principal funding for these services. Every effort is made to coordinate the 950 . it might be with an adult. Funding for school districts out. program. less than 20 percent of the popu.Y.vide academic assistance as well as support grams. Encinitas. compare and differentiate objects are taught.to prostate or federally supported bilingual pro." em. For examthe "Flower Capital of the World.relationships that will help the child to growing industry. The program operates on a year programs comes from State Law AB2284 round basis. derstanding from basic experience. an agricultural area known as in both English and Spanish.the children are Spanish speaking. University of Californa. in addition to the coordinator. Each side the city limits seemed more equally Head Start classroom has at least one bidivided: eleven districts received funds lingual-bicultural adult. closing only for legal holidays. Larew. San Diego Programs in bilingual and bicultural grant Education Programwas set up there education in San Diego County are being primarily to provide day care for the chiltailored to meet the needs of the com. The teacher's use of Spanish inEducators throughout the county are dicates to the Mexican-American child taking affirmativesteps to provide adequate that the school accepts his language and instructional programs for limited and culture and helps to establish stronger non-English speaking children and to pro. in the northern part of the establishing a connection between the county. MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE COMMUNITY: BILINGUAL EDUCATION IN SAN DIEGO MARY FARMER University Extension.
SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 951 Head Start Program with those of the public schools to make the transfer to kindergarten as beneficial as possible. Many Mexican Americans continue to employ codeswitching long after they have become bilingual. The non-Mexican population is made up largely of minority groups." explains Linda Northcutt. church. age 4. a former bilingual program directorin Encinitas. The concept of coordinate and compound bilingualism form an integral part of theories developed by psycholinguists Joshua Fishman and Leon Jacobvitz. Rosillo." Spanish is spoken at home and in churches and in stores. "A coordinate bilingual can easily switch from one language to the other. Head Start) I have two toys here-son carritos. "A basic goal of all of these programsis to produce coordinate bilingualism. age 4. The social interaction between Spanish and English speakers in the classroom greatly enhances the language learning process. Y mis fire trucks tienen banderas. Parent participation in the classroom is encouraged. (Naomi. A compound bilingual. (Myrna. For most of these children the only place where English is necessaryis at school. "The compound bilingual. (Vanesa. where a combination of both languages is used in a single utterance. Take-home books of cultural relevance are available and the children are encouragedto share them with their families. a phenomenon in which certain items are associatedwith one language and others with the other language. Head Start) Ma's tarde. age 4. bilingual specialist for the district. Thus for many of these children the only . So called "interestcenters" give the Anglo child an opportunity to use the Spanish he has learned in a formal setting in a more casual informal situation. While learning the second language most pass through a period of using codeswitching.and non-English speaking parents to teach developmental skills and to provide each home with books. Head Start) Me gusta su puppy-he's so cute. "It is a huge task. Thus while the child is learning a second language he is acquiring skills and concepts in his native tongue. In border areas it is difficult for the children to identify with American culture. Initially there is separate instruction in Spanish and in English in academic subjects. and medical assistance." says bilingual educator Marge Ruzich of nearby Palomar College. Every child is given a set of readers printed by the district. mother of Head Start child) The frequency and nature of continued contact with Mexico plays an important role in the Spanish speaker'sacquisition of English. shopping. There is a parent education program for limited. "In Encinitas the needs of non-English dominant children are being given special attention. Several examples of codeswitching in children are the following: Todas las veces voy a misa pero cuando estoy sick I don't go. Care is taken to maintain bilingualism once the non-dominant language is put to use for expansion of concepts. translatesin his head and does not-manipulate the change easily. I was sick y luego ya estaba all better." The length of time required for a child to overcome this depends on the extent of exposure to both languages. The basic goal of the bilingual programis academic achievement." says Assistant Superintendent Bob Lee." says Joan McNally. Transferral to the second language is done as the child gains proficiency and becomes familiar with the basic concepts of the academic subjects. Conversational Spanish for Englishdominant children is provided from the offset. after twelve (Sra. Many are in constant contact with Tijuana for such matters as social visits." The psychosocial aspect of language learning has come to the foreground in recent years. Both languages may then be used in all subjects. Television and radio programs are available in Spanish. however. "is often handicapped by diglossia. si. "Here in San Ysidro we try to Americanize them while still honoring their culture.
952 HISPANIA 61 (Dec. "The main issue is. A child needs to feel secure in expressive speech. Bilingual-bicultural education in San Diego County is providing children here with an enriched understanding of the cultural heritage of the community. Though it is an enormous undertaking. HELP HISPANIA'S FINANCIAL BASE Are you willing to spend a half hour and thirty cents to help Hispania and to help further Spanish and Portuguese? Look carefully at the ads in this issue and send a post card of inquiry to each of three advertisers.A. We teach in both languages but our major concern is teaching the child how to think. San Ysidro also has special problems because of the low tax base. Robert Wilson. The monolingual preschooler is likely to absorb the grammar of his native tongue more readily and quickly than is the bilingual preschooler coping with two languages.C. Coordinator of Bilingual Education. For the next four or five years a child is able to learn a second language with native fluency." Most linguists agree that an optimum time for bilingualism to occur is between the ages of five and 11. "Language must be seen within the concept of learning. and Jerome S.not language. The program thus concentrates on learning problems rather than on language problems." states Wilson.L. We know that the ads are one of the most useful and most used services of the Association. Because of the high percentage of Spanish speakersSan Ysidrooften needs to seek waivers for funding laws that require that classroomsbe made up of certain percentages of English speakers. Benjamin Bloom on the taxonomy of mental process. educatorsin this area are indeed laying the foundation for a future bilingual society. not simply to absorb facts. A toddler learning two languages at once may easily become confused and transfer one language incorrectly to the other. It is based on the work of Jean Piaget on child development. The largest single employer is the school district. and there is no major industry. but advertisers won't know this unless you mention Hispania when you write them! Let's convince them that it pays to adevrtise in Hispania--this way everyone wins! . The curriculum design reflects a view of man as a species that is aware he learns."says Wilson. "but rather how it is taught. mentioning that you read their ad in Hispania. faculty member. Bruner on the process of learning for transfer. The schools have developed a new curriculum program under the direction of Dr. whatever the language. 1978) constant example of North American culture is the school faculty. His flexibility for making new sounds and his lack of inhibition enable him to establish correct pronunciation habits in the second language. By age four or five a child is ready and capable of handling a second language. a former U. Though agriculture was strong some years ago it no longer is.
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