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Bio

 Lab  Major  Quiz  3  Study  Guide  +  Additional  stuff  


 
Section  1  –  Immunology  
1. Immune  responses  
a. Primary  response  involves  B  cells  producing  antibodies  
i. After  response  clones  of  B  cells  formed  into  either  memory  or  plasma  cells  
ii. Memory  cells  cause  quicker  response  in  future  presence  of  antigen  
2. Hemagglutination  and  complement-­‐induced  hemolysis  
a. Antigens  that  are  part  of  cells  cross-­‐link  with  antigens  on  other  cells  in  presence  of  antibodies  
b. Agglutination  results  in  complement  system  
i. Complement  cascade  involves  complement  proteins  activating  each  other  to  form  a  membrane  attack  complex,  creating  
a  trans-­‐membrane  channel  lysing  the  cells  
ii. After  cascade  activates,  it  is  fixed  because  it  can’t  be  affected  by  any  more  antigen-­‐antibody  complexes  –  very  sensitive  
system  
3. Blood,  plasma,  serum,  antiserum  
a. Blood:  total  circulatory  fluid  composed  of  all  the  material  
b. Plasma::  the  liquid  part  of  the  blood  without  any  blood  cells  
c. Serum:  remaining  liquid  after  blood  is  allowed  to  clot  
d. Antiserum:  serum  from  an  animal’s  blood  that  was  presented  with  antigens  
i. Immune  system  responds  by  producing  antibodies  specific  to  the  antigen  
 
Section  2  –  Protists  
Memory   Kingdom/  Phylum   Genus   Locomotory   Feeding  Structures   Other  Distinguishing  
Keyword   Structures   Features  

Gloop   Rhizopoda   Amoeba   Pseudopodia   Pseudopodium   Food  vacuoles  in  


endoplasm  
Sea  Urchin   Actinopoda   Actinosphaerium   None   Axopodia   Spiky  exterior,  
axopodia  increases  
buoyancy  
termite   Parabasala   Trichonympha   Flagella   Phagocytosis   Hundreds  of  flagella,  
tear-­‐shaped  
ugly   Euglenozoa   Euglena   Flagella   Chloroplasts/  nutrient   Eyespot,  stripes,  
absorption   green  
Cool  one   Euglenozoa   Peranema   Flagella   Endocytosis,  food   Twists  and  flips,  
vacuole   flagellum  head  
Walnut   Dinoflagellata   Peridinium   Flagella   Chloroplast   Cellulose  plates  
Slipper   Ciliophora   Paramecium   Ciliated   Oral  groove   Trichocysts,  
macro/micro  nuclei  
Vortex  mouth   Ciliophora   Stentor   Cilia,  anchored   Membranelles  at   Fingerprint-­‐like  
peristome  edges   pattern,  green  
Cirri  with   Ciliophora   Euplotes   Cirri  for  swimming/   Membranelles  at   Macro/micro  nuclei  
Mohawk   crawling   peristome  edges  
Flincher   Ciliophora   Vorticella   Contractile  stalk   Peristomal  funnel  w/   Contractile  stalk  
cilia  
Colonies   Chlorophyta   Volvox   Two  flagella   Chloroplasts   Spherical  colonies  of  
different  cells  
Cool  yellow   Mycetozoa   Physarum   Pseudopodia*   Pseudopodia   Cytoplasmic  
thing   streaming  
*Physarum  does  not  in  fact  move  with  pseudopodia  –  plasmodium  grows  out  while  rest  of  organism  stays  in  place.  
 
1. Protozoa:  animal-­‐like  (heterotrophic)  unicellular  protists  
2. Contractile  vacuole:  part  of  the  cell  which  pumps  out  water  from  the  cell  in  freshwater  conditions  to  prevent  lysis  
3. Coenocyte:  a  single  mass  of  cytoplasm  that  contains  many  nuclei  and  is  bounded  by  a  single  plasma  membrane,  i.e.  physarum  
 
Section  3:  Invertebrates  

Phylum   Body   Tissue  Layers   Coelom  Status   Digestion  &   Circulation   Gas   Nervous  &   Skeleton  &  
Symmetry   Excretion   Exchange   Sensory   Locomotion  
Cnidaria   Radial   Epidermis,   Acoelomate   Gastrovascular   None   Diffusion   Nerve  Net   Basal  disk  
gastrodermis,   Cavity  
mesoglea  
Platyhelminthes   Bilateral   Ectoderm,   Acoelomate   GV  cavity,  Flame   None   Diffusion   Brain,  nerve   Muscles  in  
mesoderm,   cells   cords   mesoderm,  
endoderm   eyespot  in  
planaria  
Nematoda   Bilateral   Ectoderm,   Pseudocoelomate   Complete,  Flame   None   Diffusion   Ganglia   Hydrostatic  
pseudocoelom,   cells   skeleton,  
GV  caavity   muscles  
Rotifera   Bilateral   Ectoderm,   Pseudocoelomate   Complete,  Flame   None   Diffusion   Ganglia   Cilia,  foot,  
pseudocoelom,   cells   muscles  for  
GV  cavity   bending  
Mollusca   Bilateral   Ectoderm,   Coelomate   Complete,  kidneys   Open   Gills   Ganglia,   Shell,  
mesoderm,   circulation   eyes   locomotion  
endoderm     varies  
Annelida   Bilateral   Ectoderm,   Coelomate   Complete,   Closed   Diffusion   Ventral   Hydrostatic  
coelom,  digestive   Nephridia   circulation   nerve  cord   skeleton,  
tract   w/   muscles  
segmented  
ganglia  
Arthropoda   Bilateral   Chitinous   Coelomate   Malpigian  tubule   Open   Gills/   Ventral   Legs,  muscles  
exoskeleton,   circulation   trachea   nerve  chord  
musculature,   w/  
coelom,  GV   segmental  
cavity   ganglia,  
antennae  
Echinodermata   Bilateral   Ectoderm,   Ceolomate   Complete   Water   WVS   Nerve  ring  &   Tubular  feet  of  
mesoderm,   vascular   radial  nerve   podium  &  
endoderm   system/   cords   ampulla,  
closed  system   endoskeleton  
 
Difference  between  Protostomes  and  Deuterostomes:  
-­‐ Both  develop  a  pore  during  embryonic  development  
o Protostomes  make  this  pore  the  mouth  
o Duterostomes  make  it  the  anus/  develop  second  pore  for  mouth  
o Both  are  divisions  of  coelomate  phyla  
Reproductive/Excretory  systems  of  Earthworms  and  Cuttlefish  
-­‐ Earthworms  
o Have  both  testis  and  ovary  –  hermaphrodites  
 Sperm  duct  ends  at  segment  15  
 Oviduct  releases  eggs  from  ovary  
 Clitellum  secretes  mucus  to  hold  eggs  
 Sperm  receptacle  holds  received  sperm  to  fertilize  eggs  in  mucus  
o Excretory  system  –  pair  of  nephridia  at  each  segment  
 Leads  to  bladder  
Parts  of  Cuttlefish  

 
 
Nidamental  glands  (two  white  seed-­‐like  things),  accessory  glands,  gills,  ink  sac,  funnel  parts  
 
 
Systemic  and  right  branchial  hearts  visible,  cecum  and  stomach  visible,  pancreas  is  white  dots,  kidney  is  yellow  mash  
 

 
 
Male  Cuttlefish  –  Penis  underneath  ink  sac  
 
Molluscs  
1. Gastropodia  
a. Single,  spiral  shells  
b. Cephalization  
c. Muscular  foot  for  locomotion  
d. E.g.  slugs  and  land  snails  
e. Gas  exchange  along  lining  of  mantle  cavity  
2. Bivalvia  
a. E.g.  oysters,  clams,  mussels  
b. Shell  pair  
c. Gills  forgas  exchange  
d. Crystalline  style  in  stomachto  pull  in  mucus-­‐food  complex/release  enzymes  
3. Cephalopoda  
a. E.g.  squid,  octopus  
b. Highly  developed  invertebrates  
c. Funnel  propels  for  swimming  
d. Sensory  tentacles  
e. Closed  circulatory  system  
C.  elegans  
1. 959  cells  exactly  
2. 2n  (diploid)=  12  chromosomes  
3. DNA  mass  =  fragment  bp  (conc.  DNA)(vol.  DNA)/total  DNA  bp  
4. When  destroying  C.  elegans,  65°  C  step  degrades  the  DNAses  using  enzyme  proteinase  K  
5. Then  95°C  step  deactivates  proteinase  K  
6. Ladder  DNA  uses  known  fragment  sizes  to  estimate  unknown  DNA  fragment  sizes  in  gel  electrophoresis